Aurelio J Figueredo
- Professor, Psychology
- Ph.D. Comparative Psychology
- University of California, Riverside, Riverside, California, United States
- The statistical measurement, developmental mechanisms, and adaptive ecological functions of conditioned host selection in the parasitoid Jewel wasp
- University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (2002 - Ongoing)
- University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (1993 - 2002)
- University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (1987 - 1993)
- See Attachment
- Feb. 2015 EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD Mankind Quarterly Jan. 2014 ASSOCIATE EDITOREvolutionary Behavioral Sciences Apr. 2011 ASSOCIATE EDITORJournal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology Oct. 2010 COORDINATOR, PROGRAM EVALUATION AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGYDepartment of Psychology, University of Arizona, TucsonAug. 2010 VICE PRESIDENT FOR INFORMATIONInternational Society for the Study of Human EthologyAug. 2010 GEORGE A. MILLER AWARD Outstanding Recent Article on General Psychology, American Psychological AssociationJun. 2010 ASSOCIATE EDITOREvolutionary PsychologyJan. 2010 EDITOR-IN-CHIEFHuman Ethology Bulletin, International Society for the Study of Human EthologyJan. 2009 ASSOCIATE EDITORHuman Ethology Bulletin, International Society for the Study of Human EthologyFeb. 2007 PROFESSOR OF FAMILY STUDIES AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENTNorton School of Family and Consumer Science, University of Arizona, TucsonSept. 1999 FACULTY RESEARCH ASSOCIATE, CENTER FOR BEHAVIORAL HEALTH OUTCOMESDepartment of Health Evaluation Sciences, University of Virginia, CharlottesvilleSept. 1998 VICE-PRESIDENT FOR RESEARCHCarl Gustavson Foundation for Animal Behavior Science, Torrance, California.Feb. 1996 DIRECTOR, ETHOLOGY AND EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY PROGRAMDepartment of Psychology, University of Arizona, TucsonNov. 1995 MEMBER, BOARD OF DIRECTORSPublic Interest Research ServicesMar. 1995 MEMBER, ARIZONA CONSORTIUM FOR THE REDUCTION OF VIOLENCEUniversity of Arizona, TucsonAug. 1994 MEMBER, CENTER FOR INSECT SCIENCEUniversity of Arizona, TucsonFeb. 1994 MEMBER, SCIENTIFIC ADVISORY COMMITTEEJane Goodall Institute ChimpanZoo Program Apr. 1993 CHAIR, BOARD OF DIRECTORSWestern Comparative Psychological AssociationOct. 1992 MEMBER, BOARD OF DIRECTORSEvaluation Group for Analysis of DataApr. 1992 MEMBER, BOARD OF DIRECTORSWestern Comparative Psychological AssociationJuly 1989 PROVOST'S TEACHING IMPROVEMENT AWARDUniversity of Arizona, Tucson1984 1987 NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPUniversity of California, RiversideFeb. 1986 CHANCELLOR'S PATENT FUND AWARDUniversity of California, Riverside1983 1984 GRADUATE OPPORTUNITY FELLOWSHIP University of California, Riverside, Fall 1983
- Book Review Editor
- Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences, Fall 2017
- APS Fellow
- Association for Psychological Science, Spring 2017
- Senior Research Director
- UniMult, Inc., Spring 2017
Evolutionary Psychology, Behavioral Genetics, Animal Behavior, Research Methods, Statistics
My major area of research interest is the evolutionary psychology and behavioral development of life history strategy, cognitive ability, sex, and violence in human and nonhuman animals, and the quantitative ethology and social development of insects, birds, and primates.
Des Mind:Gene,Adapt+BehPSY 415 (Fall 2020)
Des Mind:Gene,Adapt+BehPSY 515 (Fall 2020)
Directed ResearchPSYS 492 (Fall 2020)
Honors ThesisPSY 498H (Fall 2020)
Stat Meth Psyc ResearchPSY 507B (Fall 2020)
Stat Modl for Psyc RsrchPSY 597B (Fall 2020)
Directed ResearchPSYS 492 (Spring 2020)
Independent StudyPSY 399 (Spring 2020)
Independent StudyPSY 599 (Spring 2020)
Stat Meth Psyc ResearchPSY 507A (Spring 2020)
Stat Modl for Psyc RsrchPSY 597A (Spring 2020)
BiopsychologyPSY 596E (Fall 2019)
Directed ResearchPSYS 492 (Fall 2019)
DissertationPSY 920 (Fall 2019)
Independent StudyPSY 299 (Fall 2019)
Independent StudyPSY 399 (Fall 2019)
ResearchPSY 900 (Fall 2019)
Stat Meth Psyc ResearchPSY 507B (Fall 2019)
Stat Modl for Psyc RsrchPSY 597B (Fall 2019)
Directed ResearchPSYS 392 (Spring 2019)
Directed ResearchPSYS 492 (Spring 2019)
DissertationPSY 920 (Spring 2019)
Independent StudyPSY 299 (Spring 2019)
ResearchPSY 900 (Spring 2019)
Stat Meth Psyc ResearchPSY 507A (Spring 2019)
Stat Modl for Psyc RsrchPSY 597A (Spring 2019)
Des Mind:Gene,Adapt+BehPSY 415 (Fall 2018)
Des Mind:Gene,Adapt+BehPSY 515 (Fall 2018)
Directed ResearchPSYS 392 (Fall 2018)
Directed ResearchPSYS 492 (Fall 2018)
DissertationPSY 920 (Fall 2018)
Independent StudyPSY 299 (Fall 2018)
Independent StudyPSY 499 (Fall 2018)
Stat Meth Psyc ResearchPSY 507B (Fall 2018)
Stat Modl for Psyc RsrchPSY 597B (Fall 2018)
Directed ResearchPSYS 492 (Spring 2018)
DissertationPSY 920 (Spring 2018)
Independent StudyPSY 199 (Spring 2018)
ResearchPSY 900 (Spring 2018)
Senior CapstoneNSCS 498 (Spring 2018)
Stat Meth Psyc ResearchPSY 507A (Spring 2018)
Stat Modl for Psyc RsrchPSY 597A (Spring 2018)
BiopsychologyNRSC 596E (Fall 2017)
BiopsychologyPSY 596E (Fall 2017)
DissertationPSY 920 (Fall 2017)
Independent StudyPSY 399 (Fall 2017)
Independent StudyPSY 499 (Fall 2017)
Independent StudyPSY 599 (Fall 2017)
ResearchPSY 900 (Fall 2017)
Senior CapstoneNSCS 498 (Fall 2017)
Directed ResearchNSCS 392 (Spring 2017)
Directed ResearchNSCS 492 (Spring 2017)
DissertationPSY 920 (Spring 2017)
Honors Independent StudyPSY 399H (Spring 2017)
Independent StudyPSIO 399 (Spring 2017)
Independent StudyPSY 399 (Spring 2017)
Independent StudyPSY 499 (Spring 2017)
InternshipPSY 493 (Spring 2017)
ResearchPSY 900 (Spring 2017)
Des Mind:Gene,Adapt+BehPSY 415 (Fall 2016)
Des Mind:Gene,Adapt+BehPSY 515 (Fall 2016)
Directed ResearchNSCS 392 (Fall 2016)
DissertationPSY 920 (Fall 2016)
Independent StudyPSY 399 (Fall 2016)
Independent StudyPSY 499 (Fall 2016)
Independent StudyPSY 699 (Fall 2016)
ResearchPSY 900 (Fall 2016)
Stat Meth Psyc ResearchPSY 507A (Fall 2016)
Stat Modl for Psyc RsrchPSY 597A (Fall 2016)
ResearchPSY 900 (Summer I 2016)
DissertationPSY 920 (Spring 2016)
Honors Independent StudyPSY 499H (Spring 2016)
Independent StudyNSCS 299 (Spring 2016)
Independent StudyPSIO 499 (Spring 2016)
Independent StudyPSY 299 (Spring 2016)
Independent StudyPSY 399 (Spring 2016)
Independent StudyPSY 499 (Spring 2016)
Stat Meth Psyc ResearchPSY 507B (Spring 2016)
Stat Modl for Psyc RsrchPSY 597B (Spring 2016)
- Woodley of Menie, M. A., Figueredo, A. J., Sarraf, M. A., Hertler, S. A., Fernandes, H. B., & Peñaherrera Aguirre, M. (2017). The Rhythm of the West: A biohistory of the modern era, AD 1600 to present. Washington, DC: Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies, JPES Monograph Number 37, Scott-Townsend Publishers.
- Figueredo, A. J., Woodley of Menie, M., & Jacobs, W. J. (2016). The Evolutionary Psychology of The General Factor of Personality: A Hierarchical Life History Model.. Wiley.
- Figueredo, A. J., & Woodley, M. A. (2013). Historical variability in heritable general intelligence: Its evolutionary origins and socio-cultural consequences.. Buckingham, UK: University of Buckingham Press.
- Beck, C. J., Walsh, M. E., Mechanic, M. B., Figueredo, A. J., & Chen, M. K. (2011). Intimate Partner Abuse in Divorce Mediation: Outcomes from a Long-Term Multi-cultural Study (Document No. 236868).. National Institute of Justice website: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/236868.pdf.: National Institute of Justice.
- Cabeza de Baca, T., Sotomayor-Peterson, M., & Figueredo, A. J. (2017). Parental Investment and Parenting. In Encyclopedia of evolutionary psychological science. New York, NY: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_3813-1
- Cabeza de Baca, T., Peñaherrera-Aguirre, M., & Figueredo, A. J. (2016). Paternal vs. Maternal Investment. In Encyclopedia of evolutionary psychological science. New York, NY: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_3685-1
- Figueredo, A. J., Patch, E. A., & Gómez Ceballos, C. E. (2015). A Life History Approach to the Dynamics of Social Selection. In Evolutionary Perspectives on Social Psychology (Chapter 29). New York, NY: Springer.More infoWelling, L., Shackelford, T., & Zeigler-Hill, V. (Eds.)
- Figueredo, A. J., Woodley of Menie, M. A., & Jacobs, W. J. (2015). The Evolutionary Psychology of The General Factor of Personality: A Hierarchical Life History Model. In Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology, Second Edition (in press). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.More infoBuss, D.M., (Ed.)
- Figueredo, A. J. (2014). See Attachment. In See Attachment.
- Figueredo, A. J. (2013). See Attachment. In See Attachment.
- Figueredo, A. J., Olderbak, S. G., Schlomer, G. L., Garcia, R. A., & Wolf, P. S. (2013). Program Evaluation: Principles, Procedures, and Practices. In Oxford Handbook of Quantitative Methods, Volume 1: Foundations(pp 332-360). New York: NY: Oxford University Press.
- Figueredo, A. J., Sefcek, J. A., Black, C. J., Garcia, R. A., & Jacobs, W. J. (2012). Chapter 390: Evolutionary Personality Psychology. In Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, 2nd Edition(pp 111-117). London, UK: Academic Press.
- Figueredo, A. J., Jacobs, W. J., Burger, S. B., Gladden, P. R., & Olderbak, S. G. (2011). The biology of personality. In Information and Living Systems: Philosophical and Scientific Perspectives(pp 371-406).
- Figueredo, A. J., Wolf, P. S., Gladden, P. R., Olderbak, S. G., Andrzejczak, D. J., & Jacobs, W. J. (2010). Ecological approaches to personality. In The Evolution of Personality and Individual Differences(pp 210-239). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- Figueredo, A. J., Gladden, P. R., Vasquez, G., Wolf, P. S., & Jones, D. N. (2009). Evolutionary theories of personality. In Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology: Part IV. Biological Perspectives(pp 265-274). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University.
- Figueredo, A. J., Vasquez, G., & Sefcek, J. A. (2009). Personality theories, evolutionary. In Personal counseling and mental health problems: Vol. 2. Encyclopedia of Counseling(pp 307-310). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Figueredo, A. J., Brumbach, B. H., Jones, D. N., Sefcek, J. A., Vasquez, G., & Jacobs, W. J. (2007). Ecological constraints on mating tactics. In Mating Intelligence: Sex, Relationships and the Mind’s Reproductive System(pp 335-361). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
- Figueredo, A. J., Sefcek, J. A., Vasquez, G., Brumbach, B. H., King, J. E., & Jacobs, W. J. (2005). Evolutionary personality psychology. In Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology(pp 851-877). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
- Figueredo, A. J., Vasquez, G., Brumbach, B. H., Schneider, S. M., Sefcek, J. A., Tal, I. R., Hill, D., Wenner, C. J., & Jacobs, W. J. (2005). Consiliencia y la teoria de historia de vida: De los genes al cerebro y a la estrategia reproductiva. In Niñez, Adolescencia, y Problemas Sociales(pp 29-63). México: CONACYT-UniSon.
- Figueredo, A. J., Jacobs, W. J., Gladden, P. R., Bianchi, J., Patch, E. A., Beck, C. J., Kavanagh, P. S., Sotomayor-Peterson, M., & Jiang, Y. (2017). Intimate partner violence, interpersonal aggression, and life history strategy. Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences, 12(1), 1-31. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ebs0000101
- Black, C. J., Peñaherrera Aguirre, M., Chavarria Minera, C. E., & Figueredo, A. J. (2017). The influence of life history strategies on regional variation in social and sexual equality in Italy, Spain and Mexico. In Figueredo. Mankind Quarterly, 57(3), 338-354.
- Cabeza de Baca, T., & Figueredo, A. J. (2017). Population-level life history in Italy, Spain and Mexico: The impact of regional climate, parasite burden, and population density. Mankind Quarterly, 57(3), 326-337.
- Fernandes, H. B., Figueredo, A. J., Garcia, R. A., & Wolf, P. S. (2017). Regional relations between phenotypic and economic diversity and their ecological predictors in Italy, Spain and Mexico. Mankind Quarterly, 57(3), 355-374.
- Figueredo, A. J., Cabeza de Baca, T., & Peñaherrera Aguirre, M. (2017). Summary of results and conclusions: Regional master cascade of social complexity in Italy, Spain and Mexico. Mankind Quarterly, 57(3), 388-397.
- Figueredo, A. J., Fernandes, H. B., & Cabeza de Baca, T. (2017). The Evolutionary Dynamics of Social Biogeography. Mankind Quarterly, 57(3), Special Issue.
- Figueredo, A. J., Fernandes, H. B., & Woodley of Menie, M. A. (2017). The quantitative theoretical ecology of life history strategies. Mankind Quarterly, 57(3), 305-325.
- Figueredo, A. J., Figueredo, A. J., Jacobs, W. J., Jacobs, W. J., Gladden, P., Gladden, P., Bianchi, J., Bianchi, J., Patch, E. A., Patch, E. A., Kavanaugh, P., Kavanaugh, P., Beck, C. J., Beck, C. J., Sotomayor-Peterson, M., Sotomayor-Peterson, M., Jiang, Y., Jiang, Y., Li, N. P., , Li, N. P., et al. (2017). Intimate partner violence, interpersonal aggression, and life history strategy.. Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences, 12(1), 1-31.
- Figueredo, A. J., Garcia, R. A., Menke, J. M., Jacobs, W. J., Gladden, P. R., Bianchi, J., Patch, E. A., Beck, C. J., Kavanagh, P. S., Sotomayor-Peterson, M., Jiang, Y., & Li, N. P. (2017). The K-SF-42: A new short form of the Arizona Life History Battery. Evolutionary Psychology, 15(1), 1-12. doi:10.1177/1474704916676276
- Figueredo, A. J., Garcia, R. A., Menke, J. M., Jacobs, W. J., Gladden, P. R., Bianchi, J., Patch, E. A., Beck, C. J., Kavanagh, P. S., Sotomayor-Peterson, M., Li, N. P., & Jiang, F. (2016). The K-SF-42: A new short form of the Arizona Life History Battery. Evolutionary Psychology.
- Figueredo, A. J., Garcia, R., Menke, M. J., Jacobs, W. J., Gladden, R. P., Bianchi, J., Patch, E. A., Beck, C. J., Kavanaugh, P. S., Sotomayor-Peterson, M., Jiang, Y., Li, N. P., Figueredo, A. J., Garcia, R., Menke, M. J., Jacobs, W. J., Gladden, R. P., Bianchi, J., Patch, E. A., , Beck, C. J., et al. (2017). The K-SF-42: A new short form of the Arizona Life History Battery. Evolutionary Psychology, 15(1). doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/1474704916676276
- Olderbak, S. G., Malter, F., Wolf, P. S., Jones, D. N., & Figueredo, A. J. (2017). Predicting romantic interest at zero acquaintance: evidence of sex differences in trait perception but not in predictors of interest. European Journal of Personality, 31(1), 42-62.
- Woodley of Menie, M. A., Cabeza de Baca, T., Fernandes, H. B., Madison, G., Figueredo, A. J., & Peñaherrera-Aguirre, M. (2017). Slow and steady wins the race: K positively predicts fertility in the US and Sweden. Evolutionary Psychological Science, 3(2), 109-117. doi:10.1007/s40806-016-0077-1
- Woodley of Menie, M. A., Fernandes, H. B., te Nijenhuis, J., Figueredo, A. J., & Peñaherrera-Aguirre, M. (2017). General intelligence is a source of individual differences between species: Solving an anomaly. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 40, e223. doi:10.1017/S0140525X1600182
- Black, C. J., Figueredo, A. J., & Jacobs, W. J. (2016). Substance, History, and Politics: An Examination of the Conceptual Underpinnings of Alternative Approaches to the Life History Narrative. Evolutionary Psychology, 15, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1474704916670402.
- Cabeza De Baca, T., Wahl, R. A., Figueredo, A. J., Barnett, M. A., & Ellis, B. J. (2016). Adversity, adaptive calibration, and health: An integrative Life History Approach.. Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology., 2(2), 93-115. doi:10.1007/s40750-016-0042-z
- Cabeza de Baca, T., Figueredo, A. J., & Garcia, R. A. (2016). Commentary on Fuerst and Kirkegaard: Some groups have all the luck, some groups have all the pain, some groups get all the breaks. Mankind Quarterly, 56(3), 394-403.
- Cabeza de Baca, T., Wahl, R. A., Barnett, M. A., Figueredo, A. J., & Ellis, B. J. (2016). Adversity, adaptive calibration, and health: The case of disadvantaged families. Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology, 1-23.
- Figueredo, A. J., Cabeza de Baca, T., Fernandes, H. B., Black, C. J., Peñaherrera-Aguirre, M., Hertler, S. C., Meisenberg, G., & Woodley of Menie, M. A. (2016). A sequential canonical cascade model of social biogeography: Plants, parasites, and people. Evolutionary Psychological Science, 1-22. doi:10.1007/s40806-016-0073-5
- Figueredo, A. J., Garcia, R. A., Menke, M., Jacobs, W. J., Gladden, P., Bianchi, J., Patch, E., Beck, C., Kavanagh, P., Sotomayor-Peterson,, M., & Jiang, Y. (2016). The K-SF-42: A New Short Form of the Arizona Life History Battery.. Evolutionary Psychology, 15, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1474704916676276.
- Garcia, R. A., Cabeza de Baca, T., Black, C. J., Sotomayor-Peterson,, M., Smith-Castro, V., & Figueredo, A. J. (2016). Measures of domain-specific resource allocations in life history strategy: Indicators of a latent common factor or ordered developmental sequence?. Journal of Methods and Measurement in the Social Sciences, 7, 23-50.
- MacDonald, K., Patch, E. A., & Figueredo, A. J. (2016). Love, Trust, and Evolution: Nurturance/Love and Trust as two independent attachment systems underlying intimate relationships. Psychology, 7, 238-253.
- Sefcek, J. A., Miller, G. F., & Figueredo, A. J. (2016). Development and validation of an 18-item medium form of the Ravens Advanced Progressive Matrices. Sage Open, 6(2), 1-7. doi:10.1177/2158244016651915
- Cabeza de Baca, T., Figueredo, A. J., & Garcia, R. A. (2016). Considering the role of ecology on individual differentiation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences.
- Chavarria-Minera, C., Figueredo, A. J., & Lunsford, L. G. (2015). Do slower life history strategies reduce sociodemographic sex differences?. Journal of Methods and Measurement in the Social Sciences.
- Figueredo, A. J., Cabeza de Baca, T., Black, C. J., Garcia, R. A., Fernandes, H. B., Wolf, P. S., & Woodley of Menie, M. A. (2015). Methodologically Sound: Evaluating the psychometric approach to the assessment of human life history [Reply to Copping, Campbell, and Muncer, 2014]. Evolutionary Psychology, 13(2), 299-338.
- Figueredo, A. J., Gladden, P. R., Sisco, M. M., Patch, E. A., & Jones, D. N. (2015). The unholy trinity: The Dark Triad, sexual coercion, and Brunswik-Symmetry. Evolutionary Psychology, 13(2), 435-454.
- Figueredo, A. J., Wolf, P. S., Olderbak, S. G., Sefcek, J. A., Frías-Armenta, M., Vargas-Porras, C., & Egan, V. (2015). Positive assortative pairing in social and romantic partners: A cross-cultural observational field study of naturally occurring pairs. Personality and Individual Differences, 84, 30–35. doi:DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2014.12.060
- Woodley of Menie, M. A., Fernandes, H. B., Figueredo, A. J., & Meisenberg, G. (2015). By their words ye shall know them: Selection for lower general intelligence and enrichment effects upon vocabulary usage since the mid 19th century. Frontiers in Psychology, 6(361), 1-9. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00361
- Woodley of Menie, M. A., Figueredo, A. J., Cabeza de Baca, T., Fernandes, H. B., Madison, G., Wolf, P. S., & Black, C. J. (2015). Strategic differentiation and integration of genomic-level heritabilities facilitate individual differences in preparedness and plasticity of human life history. Frontiers in Psychology, 6(422), 1-10. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00422
- Woodley of Menie, M. A., Figueredo, A. J., Madison, G., & Dunkel, C. S. (2015). Estimating the strength of genetic selection against heritable g in a sample of 3520 Americans, sourced from MIDUS II. Personality and Individual Differences, 83, 266-270.
- Cabeza de Baca, T., & Figueredo, A. J. (2014). The cognitive ecology of Mexico: Climatic and socio-cultural effects on life history strategies and cognitive abilities. Intelligence, 47, 63-71.
- Cabeza de Baca, T., Sotomayor-Peterson, M., Smith-Castro, V., & Figueredo, A. J. (2014). Contributions of matrilineal and patrilineal kin alloparental effort to the development of life history strategies and patriarchal values: A cross-cultural life history approach. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45(4), 534-554.
- Figueredo, A. J., Cabeza de Baca, T., & Black, C. J. (2014). No matter where you go, there you are: The genetic foundations of temporal stability. Journal of Methods and Measurement in the Social Sciences, 5(2), 76-106.
- Figueredo, A. J., Wolf, P. S., Olderbak, S. G., Gladden, P. R., Fernandes, H. B., Wenner, C., Hill, D., Andrzejczak, D. J., Sisco, M. M., Jacobs, W. J., Hohman, Z. J., Sefcek, J. A., Kruger, D., Howrigan, D. P., MacDonald, K., & Rushton, J. P. (2014). The psychometric assessment of human life history strategy: A meta-analytic construct validation. Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences, 8(3), 148-185.
- Figueredo, A. J., Woodley, M. A., & Fernandes, H. B. (2014). Life history selection and phenotypic diversification. Psychological Inquiry, 25, 1-5.
- Olderbak, S. G., Gladden, P. R., Wolf, P. S., & Figueredo, A. J. (2014). Comparison of life history strategy measures. Personality and Individual Differences, 58, 82-88.More infoAbstract: Life History Strategy (LHS) describes a cluster of evolved traits whose adaptive function is to facilitate an organism's reproduction. Individuals who allocate more resources towards somatic and parental/nepotistic effort and less towards mating effort are described as slow life history strategists, while those with the opposite resource allocation pattern are described as fast life history strategists. There are many measures purported to measure individual differences in LHS, however these have not yet been systematically compared. In this paper we compare the Arizona Life History Battery (ALHB), Mini-K, High-K Strategy Scale, and two Super-K Factors and test the internal consistency or measurement model structure of each measure, and the convergent validity between the measures. We found all measures show adequate internal consistency and measurement model structure and in general, the ALHB, Mini-K, and one Super-K Factor show the strongest convergence between the measures. Implications are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
- Badger, T. A., Segrin, C., Figueredo, A. J., Harrington, J., Sheppard, K., Passalacqua, S., Pasvogel, A., & Bishop, M. (2013). Who benefits from a psychosocial counselling versus educational intervention to improve psychological quality of life in prostate cancer survivors?. Psychology and Health, 28(3), 336-354.More infoPMID: 23045995;PMCID: PMC3574213;Abstract: Objective: We examined selected survivor characteristics to determine what factors might moderate the response to two psychosocial interventions.Design: Seventy-one prostate cancer survivors (PCSs) were randomly assigned to either a telephone-delivered health education (THE) intervention or a telephone-delivered interpersonal counselling (TIP-C) intervention.Measures: Psychological quality of life (QOL) outcomes included depression, negative and positive affect, and perceived stress.Results: For three of the psychological outcomes (depression, negative affect and stress), there were distinct advantages from participating in THE. For example, more favourable depression outcomes occurred when men were older, had lower prostate specific functioning, were in active chemotherapy, had lower social support from friends and lower cancer knowledge. Participating in the TIP-C provided a more favourable outcome for positive affect when men had higher education, prostate specific functioning, social support from friends and cancer knowledge.Conclusion: Unique survivor characteristics must be considered when recommending interventions that might improve psychological QOL in PCSs. Future research must examine who benefits most and from what components of psychosocial interventions to enable clinicians to recommend appropriate psychosocial care. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
- Beck, C. J., Menke, J. M., & Figueredo, A. J. (2013). Validation of a Measure of Intimate Partner Abuse (Relationship Behavior Rating Scale-Revised) Using Item Response Theory Analysis. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 54(1), 58-77.More infoAbstract: There is a need for a screening instrument to provide insight into intimate partner abuse (IPA) to inform legal decisions in child custody, divorce, child welfare, and criminal cases. This study is the third validation of the Relationship Behavior Rating Scale-Revised (RBRS-R) for concurrent validity with the widely used Conflict Tactics Scales 2 (CTS2). Item response theory results show that the RBRS-R compares favorably to the CTS, but also provides a higher degree of resolution than the CTS2 with respect to additional elements of IPA that can be manifested in different situations or individuals. This additional information might be very important in determining the safest legal process (mediation versus traditional litigation) and appropriate case outcomes to protect victims of violence. © 2013 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
- Beck, C. J., Menke, J. M., & Figueredo, A. J. (2013). Validation of a measure of intimate partner abuse (Relationship Behavior Rating Scale-Revised) using item response theory analysis.. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 54(1), 58-77.
- Figueredo, A. J., Andrzejczak, D. J., Jones, D. N., Smith-Castro, V., & Montero-Rojas, E. (2013). Reproductive strategy and ethnic conflict: Slow life history as a protective factor against negative ethnocentrism in two contemporary societies. Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology, 5(1), 14-31.
- Figueredo, A. J., Black, C. J., & Scott, A. G. (2013). Complementary meta-analytic methods for the quantitative review of research: 1. A theoretical overview. Journal of Methods and Measurement in the Social Sciences, 4(2), 21-45.
- Figueredo, A. J., Black, C. J., & Scott, A. G. (2013). Complementary meta-analytic methods for the quantitative review of research: 2. An extended illustration. Journal of Methods and Measurement in the Social Sciences, 4(2), 46-69.
- Figueredo, A. J., Cabeza de Baca, T., Garcia, R. A., Gable, J. C., & Weise, D. (2013). Revisiting mediation in the social and behavioral sciences. Journal of Methods and Measurement in the Social Sciences, 4(1), 1-19.
- Figueredo, A. J., Cabeza, T., & Woodley, M. A. (2013). The measurement of human life history strategy. Personality and Individual Differences, 55(3), 251-255.More infoAbstract: This retrospective essay appraises J. Philippe Rushton's application of life history to understanding the covariation among human traits in light of subsequent developments in the measurement and latent structure of Human Life History, covitality, and personality. We conclude that Rushton should be recognized for having initiated a theoretically and empirically highly fertile paradigm in human individual differences research. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
- Figueredo, A. J., Woodley, M. A., Brown, S. D., & Ross, K. C. (2013). Multiple successful tests of the strategic differentiation-integration effort (sd-ie) hypothesis. Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology, 7(4), 361-383.More infoAbstract: The Strategic Differentiation-Integration Effort (SD-IE) hypothesis predicts regulation by life history speed (K) of the magnitudes of the correlations among its components, such that individuals with slower life history strategies exhibit life history traits that are less correlated with each other than individuals with faster life history strategies. This conative differentiation among high-K individuals is proposed to arise due to the elevated social competition in stable, predictable environments faced by these individuals and to facilitate mutualistic rather than antagonistic social interaction strategies via social-ecological nichesplitting and domain-specific resource allocation. We tested the predictions of SD-IE regarding relations among life history traits using the Continuous Parameter Estimation Method on data from two college student convenience samples, one all-female sample (N=382) and one mixed-sex sample (N=205), as well as two nationally-representative samples of the US population, the MIDUS (National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States, N=2080) and the NLSY (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, N=5082). The predicted SD-IE effects were statistically significant and in the expected negative direction among most indicators of the lower-order slow life history factors and among all indicators of the single higher-order slow life history Super-K factor. © 2013 Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology.
- Jones, D. N., & Figueredo, A. J. (2013). The Core of Darkness: Uncovering the Heart of the Dark Triad. European Journal of Personality, 27(6), 521-531.More infoAbstract: The Dark Triad consists of three overlapping but distinct personality variables: narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy. To date, however, no research has empirically identified what leads these three variables to overlap or whether other variables share the same core. The present research addresses why and how dark personalities overlap. Drawing from classic work in psychopathy, Hare's Factor 1 or manipulation and callousness were found to be the common antagonistic core. A series of latent variable procedures, including Multisample Structural Equation Models, revealed that for both samples, manipulation and callousness, completely accounted for the associations among the facet scores of the psychopathy, narcissism and Machiavellianism scales. Sample 2 also included Social Dominance Orientation, and results further confirmed that Social Dominance Orientation has the same common core as the Dark Triad. In sum, Hare's Factor 1-manipulation-callousness-emerged as common dark core that accounts for the overlap among antagonistic traits. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Sherman, R. A., Figueredo, A. J., & Funder, D. C. (2013). The behavioral correlates of overall and distinctive life history strategy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 105(5), 873-888.More infoPMID: 23915038;Abstract: Life history (LH) theory provides an evolutionary theoretical framework for understanding individualdifferences in maturation, mating, reproduction, parenting, and social interaction. However, the psychometric assessment of human life history has been largely limited to generalized self-reports. Using template matching, this article examines the relationship between personality differences associated with slow-life history (slow-LH) and social behavior in 3 archival datasets. Two of these datasets include direct observations of behavior in the laboratory, and the 3rd provides self-reports of behavior in real life situations experienced within the preceding 24 hr. The results paint a consistent picture of the slow-LH individual as engaging in numerous adaptive social behaviors. However, when "normativeness" (the tendency for most people to be normal in both the statistical and evaluative sense) is statistically removed from the LH scores, a slightly different picture emerges. Both slow-LH and fast-LH persons display a number of behaviors that may be either adaptive or maladaptive in different contexts. Specifically, slow-LH individuals tended to behave in a manner that was considerate, kind, hard-working, and reliable but also socially awkward, insecure, and overcontrolling. Fast-LH individuals came across as talkative, socially skilled, dominant, and charming but also unpredictable, hostile, manipulative, and impulsive. These results are consistent with the evolutionary interpretation of LH strategies as being adapted to systematically different environments rather than better or worse approaches to reproductive fitness overall. © 2013 American Psychological Association.
- Sotomayor-Peterson, M., Cabeza, T., Figueredo, A. J., & Smith-Castro, V. (2013). Shared Parenting, Parental Effort, and Life History Strategy: A Cross-Cultural Comparison. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44(4), 620-639.More infoAbstract: Previous developmental research has found that children from households with high shared parenting, childrearing agreement, and equitable division of parental labor experience positive developmental and social outcomes; a major limitation of these studies is that shared parenting measures do not assess the amount of total parental effort the child receives, but instead partitioning the amount of effort between parents. Life History (LH) theory predicts that the total amount of parenting the child receives should produce a greater developmental impact on the future LH strategies of children than precisely how that parental effort was apportioned between mothers and fathers. This report presents a cross-cultural study using convenience samples of university students in Mexico, the United States, and Costa Rica, investigating the relationship of total as well as shared parental effort on family emotional climate and the LH strategy of the participants as young adults. The first study was performed exclusively in Mexico; results indicated that higher levels of shared parenting experienced as a child were associated with Family Emotional Climate also during childhood and with participant adult LH. The second study extended these findings; higher total parental effort predicted shared parenting effort, positive emotional climate, and slower offspring adult life history strategy in the three convenience samples of Mexico, the United States, and Costa Rica. © The Author(s) 2012.
- Wenner, C. J., Bianchi, J., Figueredo, A. J., Rushton, J. P., & Jacobs, W. J. (2013). Life History theory and social deviance: The mediating role of Executive Function. Intelligence, 41(2), 102-113.More infoAbstract: The present work examined predicted relations among Life History strategies, Executive Functions, socially antagonistic attitudes, socially antagonistic behaviors, and general intelligence. Life History (LH) theory predicts that Executive Functions and socially antagonistic attitudes and behaviors underpin an interrelated and coherent set of behavioral strategies (LH strategies) designed to enhance reproductive success. Specifically, LH theory predicts a positive relation between Executive Functioning and LH strategies; a negative relation between socially antagonistic attitudes and behaviors and LH strategies; and that Executive Functions mediate relations among LH strategies and socially antagonistic attitudes and behaviors. Results from a Structural Equation Model (SEM), based on self-reported Life History strategies, Executive Functioning, socially antagonistic attitudes and behaviors, and general intelligence support these predictions. The structure of the model suggests that Executive Functions serve a mediating role in the relations between LH strategy and social deviance. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
- Wolf, P. S., Figueredo, A. J., & Jacobs, W. J. (2013). Global positioning system technology (GPS) for psychological research: A test of convergent and nomological validity. Frontiers in Psychology, 4(JUN).
- Woodley of Menie, M. A., & Figueredo, A. J. (2013). The biosocial model of the rise of Western Civilization: A counter-point to Oesterdiekhoff. Mankind Quarterly, 54(3-4), 342-370.
- Woodley, M. A., Figueredo, A. J., Brown, S. D., & Ross, K. C. (2013). Four successful tests of the Cognitive Differentiation-Integration Effort hypothesis. Intelligence.More infoAbstract: The Cognitive Differentiation-Integration Effort (CD-IE) hypothesis predicts that the dimension of life history speed (K) regulates the strength of the correlation among cognitive abilities, such that individuals with higher K exhibit more weakly integrated abilities than those with lower K. It is predicted that this effect takes place independently of the level of g owing to the absence of an individual differences level correlation between K and g. CD-IE was examined using two student samples: (1) an all female sample (N = 121), using the ALHB as a measure of K and the two SILS subtests of g; and (2) a combined male and female sample (N = 346), using a shorter three-indicator ("Trifecta") measure of K, a general creativity measure comprised of two subscales (writing and drawing "creative performance"), and the APM-18 measure of fluid cognition. A third, population-representative sample was obtained from the NLSY (N = 11,907). A K-Factor was constructed from convergent measures of subjective well-being, sociability, interpersonal trust, internal locus of control, and delay of gratification, and a g-factor was constructed from the 10 subscales of the ASVAB. A fourth sample, addressing the question of ethnic differences was collected encompassing eight different ethnic groups with a combined 107 specific ability correlations with g. An aggregate K-Factor was constructed for this sample based on convergent population-level indicators of longevity, total fertility rates and infant mortality. Utilizing the Continuous Parameter Estimation Model, in student sample 1 a significant CD-IE effect was found on the SILS Abstract subtest (β = - .215), but not on the SILS Verbal subtest (β = .069). In student sample 2, CD-IE was observed on the general creativity measure (β = - .127), but not on the fluid cognitive ability measure (β = - .057). Significant effects were also observed on both the written and drawing creative output subscales (β = - .189 and - .183 respectively). In sample 3 (the NLSY), generally statistically significant but small-magnitude CD-IE effects were observed among all 10 ASVAB subtests (mean effect size β = - .032). In sample four, a near-significant CD-IE effect was detected (β = - .167). Controlling for subtest skew reduces the mean effect sizes across individual differences samples (β = - .071 in the student samples, - .027 in the NLSY), but boosted it to significance in the ethnic differences sample (β = - .179). Controlling for the skew of residuals reversed the signs of the CD-IE effects on the ASVAB Words and Comprehension subscales, and also on the SILS Verbal subscale, but amplified the magnitudes of the mean effects in the student and NLSY samples (β = - .036 and - .131), while reducing the effect size slightly in the ethnic-differences sample (β = - .172). In the individual differences samples, these effects were demonstrated to be unconfounded with sex of respondent and also unrelated to the Jensen effect. The apparent independence of the effect from both level of g and subtest g-loading suggests intriguing commonalities with the Lynn-Flynn effect. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- Abed, R., Mehta, S., Figueredo, A. J., Aldridge, S., Balson, H., Meyer, C., & Palmer, R. (2012). Eating disorders and intrasexual competition: Testing an evolutionary hypothesis among young women. The Scientific World Journal, 2012.More infoPMID: 22566764;PMCID: PMC3330742;Abstract: The sexual competition hypothesis (SCH) contends that intense female intrasexual competition (ISC) is the ultimate cause of eating disorders. The SCH explains the phenomenon of the pursuit of thinness as an adaptation to ISC in the modern environment. It argues that eating disorders are pathological phenomena that arise from the mismatch between the modern environment and the inherited female adaptations for ISC. The present study has two aims. The first is to examine the relationship between disordered eating behavior (DEB) and ISC in a sample of female undergraduates. The second is to establish whether there is any relationship between disordered eating behavior and life history (LH) strategy. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires examining eating-related attitudes and behaviors, ISC, and LH strategy. A group of 206 female undergraduates were recruited. A structural equation model was constructed to analyze the data. ISC for mates was significantly associated with DEB, as predicted by the SCH. DEB was found to be predicted by fast LH strategy, which was only partially mediated by the SCH. The results of this study are supportive of the SCH and justify research on a clinical sample. © 2012 Riadh Abed et al.
- Cabeza, T., Figueredo, A. J., & Ellis, B. J. (2012). An Evolutionary Analysis of Variation in Parental Effort: Determinants and Assessment. Parenting, 12(2-3), 94-104.More infoAbstract: Utilizing an evolutionary framework can elucidate the causes of variation in parental effort and guide measurement of relevant parenting constructs. The current article presents an evolutionary analysis of the determinants of parental effort and suggests that evolutionarily informed measures are needed to test evolutionary hypotheses. Towards this end, we employ evolutionary theory to guide development of new Parental Effort Scales, which supplement and extend extant methods for assessing coparenting. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
- Ellis, B. J., Giudice, M. D., Dishion, T. J., Figueredo, A. J., Gray, P., Griskevicius, V., Hawley, P. H., Jacobs, W. J., James, J., Volk, A. A., & Wilson, D. S. (2012). The evolutionary basis of risky adolescent behavior: Implications for science, policy, and practice. Developmental Psychology, 48(3), 598-623.More infoPMID: 22122473;Abstract: This article proposes an evolutionary model of risky behavior in adolescence and contrasts it with the prevailing developmental psychopathology model. The evolutionary model contends that understanding the evolutionary functions of adolescence is critical to explaining why adolescents engage in risky behavior and that successful intervention depends on working with, instead of against, adolescent goals and motivations. The current article articulates 5 key evolutionary insights into risky adolescent behavior: (a) The adolescent transition is an inflection point in development of social status and reproductive trajectories; (b) interventions need to address the adaptive functions of risky and aggressive behaviors like bullying; (c) risky adolescent behavior adaptively calibrates over development to match both harsh and unpredictable environmental conditions; (d) understanding evolved sex differences is critical for understanding the psychology of risky behavior; and (e) mismatches between current and past environments can dysregulate adolescent behavior, as demonstrated by age-segregated social groupings. The evolutionary model has broad implications for designing interventions for high-risk youth and suggests new directions for research that have not been forthcoming from other perspectives. © 2012 American Psychological Association.
- Figueredo, A. J., Cuthbertson, A. M., Kauffman, I. A., Weil, E., & Gladden, P. R. (2012). The interplay of behavioral dispositions and cognitive abilities: Sociosexual orientation, emotional intelligence, executive functions, and life history strategy. Temas em Psicologia, 20(1), 81-100.
- Figueredo, A. J., Gladden, P. R., & Black, C. J. (2012). Parasite stress, ethnocentrism, and life history strategy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 35(2), 87-88.More infoPMID: 22289411;Abstract: Fincher & Thornhill (F&T) present a compelling argument that parasite stress underlies certain cultural practices promoting assortative sociality. However, we suggest that the theoretical framework proposed is limited in several ways, and that life history theory provides a more explanatory and inclusive framework, making more specific predictions about the trade-offs faced by organisms in the allocation of bioenergetic and material resources. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.
- Olderbak, S., & Figueredo, A. J. (2012). Shared life history strategy as a strong predictor of romantic relationship satisfaction. Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology, 6(1), 111-131.More infoAbstract: We test a romantic couple's shared Life History Strategy (LHS) as a primary predictor of romantic relationship satisfaction against competing theories. First, we demonstrated that, when compared against the couples' shared level of supportive communication and the geographical distance separating the partners, the pure shared-partner LHS variance, rather than unique partner-specific variance, is the strongest predictor of relationship satisfaction. Then, we revised the measurement model and demonstrated that, when compared against the couple's disassortative mating on LHS, a couple's mean LHS was the sole predictor of relationship satisfaction, and also a strong predictor of the couple's assortative mating on indicators of LHS. Thus, shared LHS seems to be the most critical predictor of relationship satisfaction when compared to supportive communication, geographical distance separating the partners, and the couple's assortative mating on indicators of LHS. © 2012 Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology.
- Sisco, M., Hill, D., Malter, F., & Figueredo, A. J. (2012). Evaluating theory-based evaluation: information, norms, and adherence. Evaluation and program planning, 35(3).More infoProgrammatic social interventions attempt to produce appropriate social-norm-guided behavior in an open environment. A marriage of applicable psychological theory, appropriate program evaluation theory, and outcome of evaluations of specific social interventions assures the acquisition of cumulative theory and the production of successful social interventions--the marriage permits us to advance knowledge by making use of both success and failures. We briefly review well-established principles within the field of program evaluation, well-established processes involved in changing social norms and social-norm adherence, the outcome of several program evaluations focusing on smoking prevention, pro-environmental behavior, and rape prevention and, using the principle of learning from our failures, examine why these programs often do not perform as expected. Finally, we discuss the promise of learning from our collective experiences to develop a cumulative science of program evaluation and to improve the performance of extant and future interventions.
- Sotomayor-Peterson, M., Figueredo, A. J., Christensen, D. H., & Taylor, A. R. (2012). Couples' Cultural Values, Shared Parenting, and Family Emotional Climate Within Mexican American Families. Family Process, 51(2), 218-233.More infoPMID: 22690862;Abstract: This study tested a model of shared parenting as its centerpiece that incorporates cultural values as predictors and family emotional climate as the outcome variable of interest. We aimed to assess the predictive power of the Mexican cultural values of familismo and simpatia over couples' shared parenting practices. We anticipated that higher levels of shared parenting would predict family emotional climate. The participants were 61 Mexican American, low income couples, with at least one child between 3 and 4 years of age, recruited from a home-based Head Start program. The predictive model demonstrated excellent goodness of fit, supporting the hypothesis that a positive emotional climate within the family is fostered when Mexican American couples practice a sufficient level of shared parenting. Empirical evidence was previously scarce on this proposition. The findings also provide evidence for the role of cultural values, highlighting the importance of family solidarity and avoidance of confrontation as a pathway to shared parenting within Mexican American couples. © FPI, Inc.
- van der Linden, D., Figueredo, A. J., de Leeuw, R. N., Scholte, R. H., & Engels, R. C. (2012). The General Factor of Personality (GFP) and parental support: Testing a prediction from Life History Theory. Evolution and Human Behavior, 33(5), 537-546.More infoAbstract: In the present study, we tested whether the General Factor of Personality (GFP) is related to the level of parental support. The GFP is assumed to occupy the apex of the hierarchy of human personality structure and is believed to reflect a socially and sexually selected aggregate of behavioral characteristics that are generally valued as "desirable" in interpersonal relationships. The relationship between the GFP and parental support tested in this study is predicted by Life History Theory, a midlevel evolutionary account of systematic differences in evolved reproductive strategies. A total of 428 families with mother, father, and two children (range 14-16 years) participated. Parents filled out personality questionnaires (Big Five) and their level of parental support. The children also independently rated the amount of support they perceived from their parents. In the present sample, parents' GFPs were found to explain 33% of the variance in the Big Five. Moreover, the parents' GFPs showed significant relationships with the parents' self-rated parental support, but also with the child-rated parental support. The monoinformant (parents ratings) and multi-informant (parent and child ratings) data support the notion of a substantive GFP that is related to the investment of parents into their offspring. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
- Attig, S., Schwartz, G. E., Figueredo, A. J., Jacobs, W. J., & Bryson, K. C. (2011). Coincidences, intuition, and spirituality. Psychiatric Annals, 41(12), 1-3.
- Badger, T. A., Segrin, C., Figueredo, A. J., Harrington, J., Sheppard, K., Passalacqua, S., Pasvogel, A., & Bishop, M. (2011). Psychosocial interventions to improve quality of life in prostate cancer survivors and their intimate or family partners. Quality of Life Research, 20(6), 833-844.More infoPMID: 21170682;PMCID: PMC3117079;Abstract: Purpose: The primary purpose was to test the effectiveness of two telephone-delivered psychosocial interventions for maintaining and improving quality of life (QOL) (psychological, physical, social, and spiritual well-being) among 71 prostate cancer survivors and the 70 intimate or family partners who were supporting them in their recovery. Methods: This study used a three-wave repeated measures experimental design. Both the interpersonal counseling intervention (TIP-C) and health education attention condition (HEAC) were delivered using the telephone. Results: Improvements in depression, negative affect, stress, fatigue, and spiritual well-being were significantly higher for survivors in the HEAC than for those in the TIP-C condition. Partners in the HEAC condition showed significantly greater improvements in depression, fatigue, social support from family members, social well-being, and spiritual well-being compared to partners in the TIP-C condition. The results revealed superior outcomes for those assigned to the HEAC intervention. Conclusions: The psychosocial interventions in this study were effective in maintaining or improving the QOL for prostate cancer survivors and their partners. Both the survivor and their intimate partner or family member benefitted from the interventions. Future research is needed to determine the optimal timing and client characteristics for each intervention. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
- Chen, Y., Jacobs, W. J., Quan, S. F., Figueredo, A. J., & Davis, A. H. (2011). Psychophysiological determinants of repeated ventilator weaning failure: An explanatory model. American Journal of Critical Care, 20(4), 292-302.More infoPMID: 21724633;Abstract: Background: The adverse effects of a failed ventilator weaning trial on the subsequent weaning attempts are not well understood. Objectives: To examine physiological and psychological factors that may be predictive of risk for repeated weaning failures and prolonged mechanical ventilation. Methods: A prospective predictive study of 102 subjects, age 34 to 91 years, whose first ventilator weaning trial was unsuccessful but who were physiologically ready for another weaning attempt. Subjects were recruited from intensive care units and a respiratory care center of a tertiary medical center. Validated self-report scales and a Bicore monitoring system were used to measure ventilator patients' psychophysio log ical performance during the second weaning trial. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data and test the model. Results: Significant causal pathways were found between fear and anxiety (r = 0.77;P < .001), anxiety and respiratory function (r = 0.24;P < .05), and respiratory function and weaning outcomes (r = 0.42;P< .001). The overall model predicted that both physiological and psychological factors were important in determining repeated failure of ventilator weaning, and the data were in support of the model (χ2 = 29.49, P > .05). Conclusions: Patients whose first ventilator weaning trial is unsuccessful may be markedly fearful. Left unaddressed, these fears cause high anxiety levels that significantly compromise respiratory function and contribute to subsequent weaning failures. Thus begins a vicious cycle of repeated failure of ventilator weaning and prolonged mechanical ventilation. © 2011 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.
- Figueredo, A. J., Andrzejczak, D. J., Jones, D. N., Smith-Castro, V., & Montero, E. (2011). Reproductive strategy and ethnic conflict: Slow life history as a protective factor against negative ethnocentrism in two contemporary societies. Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology, 5(1), 14-31.More infoAbstract: Much previous theory and evidence in both social and evolutionary psychology has been equivocal and inconsistent regarding whether in-group altruism should predict out-group hostility, and whether this effect should be positive or negative in direction. A "slow" Life History (LH) strategy emphasizes both kin-selected altruism and reciprocal altruism as means of investing heavily in offspring, blood relatives, and mutualistic social relationships with both kith and kin. We therefore investigated whether a slow LH strategy, as a measurable individual-difference variable favoring in-group altruism (positive ethnocentrism), should predict out-group hostility (negative ethnocentrism), and what the direction of the hypothesized effect would be. We found that a multivariate latent variable representing slow LH strategy served as a protective factor against a latent variable representing Negative Ethnocentrism. These results were replicated in the United States of America and in the Republic of Costa Rica using Multisample Structural Equation Model with cross-sample equality constraints. © 2011 Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology.
- Frías-Armenta, M., Valdez-Ramírez, P., Nava-Cruz, G., Figueredo, A. J., & Corral-Verdugo, V. (2011). Executive functions, attention and juvenile delinquency. Bio-Psycho-Social Perspectives on Interpersonal Violence, 29-49.More infoAbstract: This chapter is aimed at elucidating whether juvenile delinquents have poorer executive functioning in inhibition, flexibility, and attention, than control adolescents. Seventy-five Mexican teenagers participated in a study. The total sample was divided into three groups, one consisting of minors institutionalized by a juvenile court for serious offenses (N=24), another reported for antisocial behavior (n=24) and a control group from the general population (N=27) that was matched by sex, age and schooling to the juvenile court group. Demographic variables were considered and executive functions were assessed by means of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and the Shifting Criteria Stroop Test- a modified version of the Stroop test- and the Continuous Performance test. T-tests were conducted to compare group means between the delinquent and control groups, and between juveniles having committed serious offences and those with statutory offenses. An ANOVA (GLM procedure) was also conducted to compare the three groups: the control group, the juveniles with serious offenses, and the juveniles with statutory offenses. Results showed means differences in some tasks of the Wisconsin test between the institutionalized adolescents and the control group. There were no significant differences in the STROOP test between the control group and the delinquent group. However, significant differences in inhibitory tasks were found between juveniles with serious and statutory offenses. Differences were also found in some indicators of selective and sustained attention, and tonic and phasic alertness, between the control group and the delinquent minors. Results are discussed in regard to minors' inability to respond adequately to the social environment, which results from neuropsychological impairment. © 2010 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.
- Segrin, C. G., Badger, T. A., & Figueredo, A. J. (2011). Stage of disease progression moderates the association between social support and depression in prostate cancer survivors. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 29, 552-560. doi:10.1037/a0023975
- Segrin, C., Badger, T. A., Figueredo, A., & Figueredo, A. J. (2011). Stage of disease progression moderates the association between social support and depression in prostate cancer survivors. Journal of psychosocial oncology, 29(5).More infoThis study was designed to test the association between social support and depression at different stages of disease progression in men with prostate cancer.Seventy-one men with prostate cancer completed measures of social support and depression three times: T1 (at baseline), T2 (T1 + 2 months), and at T3 (T1 + 4 months). Stage of disease progression was significantly associated with increasing symptoms of depression. Stage of disease progression also moderated the association between social support and depression. Social support was associated with a subsequent worsening of depression for men with early-stage disease. For men with more advanced prostate cancer, social support was associated with improvements in subsequent depression. Social support has different prognostic value for psychological distress among men with prostate cancer depending upon the stage of their disease.
- Wolf, P. S., & Figueredo, A. J. (2011). Fecundity, Offspring Longevity, and assortative Mating: Parametric tradeoffs in sexual and life history strategy. Biodemography and Social Biology, 57(2), 171-183.More infoPMID: 22329086;Abstract: Genetic diversification of offspring represents a bet-hedging strategy that evolved as an adaptation to unpredictable environments. The benefits of sexual reproduction come with severe costs. For example, each offspring only carries half of each parent's genetic makeup through direct descent. The lower the reproductive rate, the more substantial the cost when considering the proportion of genes represented in subsequent generations. Positive assortative mating represents a conservative bet-hedging strategy that offsets some of these costs and preserves coadapted genomes in stable and predictable environments, whereas negative assortative mating serves the inverse function of genetic diversification in unstable and unpredictable environments. Copyright © 2011 Society for the Study of Social Biology.
- Figueredo, A. J. (2010). Book Review of The Evolution of God (Wright, 2010). Human Ethology Bulletin, 25(3), 6-12.
- Figueredo, A. J., & Jacobs, W. J. (2010). Aggression, risk-taking, and alternative life history strategies: The behavioral ecology of social deviance. Bio-Psycho-Social Perspectives on Interpersonal Violence, 3-27.More infoAbstract: We consider the major characteristics of what has been called social deviance, particularly in relation to aggressive behavior that may occasion harm to other members of society, and how social deviance and aggression relate to critical individual differences in reproductive life history strategy. We conclude that social deviance is not as pathological as traditionally supposed and propose a strategic, rather than hydraulic, model of aggressive motivation. We start by considering the role of intraspecific aggression within an overall adaptive strategy of survival and reproduction that may have an attendant effect of producing collateral harm to others, and then proceed to a theoretical analysis of risk-taking behavior as potentially producing harm to the self in certain environments. We then develop an integrative theory by which life history evolution will connect these two conceptualizations of social deviance into a unified framework involving the behavioral ecology of risk-taking behavior and the strategic implications of synchronies and asynchronies of the costs and benefits of risk-taking in relation to life history strategy. Central to this framework is the evidently enhanced executive functioning of slow life history strategists, and more specifically, a superior capacity for rule governance - the control of behavior through verbal statements rather than through the direct experience of specific environmental contingencies. Executive functions include abilities to plan, inhibit or delay responding, initiate behavior, and shift between activities flexibly. These abilities all involve rule governance, which permits individuals to respond adaptively in a variety of different contexts without requiring previous experience with every possible set of circumstances. The fundamental role of rule governance in social deviance, as mediated by executive functions, is discussed. Finally, we consider the implications of this unified framework for the evolution and development of convergent interests (mutualistic) and divergent interests (antagonistic) social strategies, which constitute the fundamental cognitive schemata underlying social deviance. © 2010 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.
- Figueredo, A. J., Olderbak, S. G., & Moreno, V. A. (2010). A social relations model for the colonial behavior of the Zebra finch. Methods and Measurement in the Social Sciences, 1, 21-32.
- Gladden, P. R., Figueredo, A. J., & Snyder, B. (2010). Life History strategy and Evaluative Self-Assessment. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(6), 731-735.More infoAbstract: Life History (LH) theory describes the existence of individual differences in the optimal allocation of inherently limited bioenergetic and material resources towards different types of reproductive-enhancing activities. LH theory predicts that slow LH ("High-K") individuals are biased toward allocating resources toward enhancing the phenotypic quality (e.g., physical and mental health) of oneself and one's offspring. Sociometer theory suggests that self-esteem tracks an individual's level of social acceptance and inclusion. We examined the hypothesis that slow LH strategy positively predicts a more positive Evaluative Self-Assessment due to enhanced phenotypic quality. Participants completed questionnaires measuring their Life History (LH) strategies and a variety of measures of Self-Assessment (perceived mate value, perceived mating success, social economic exchange, positive and negative adjectives, global self-esteem, and collective self-esteem). An Exploratory Factor Analysis indicated that the measures of Evaluative Self-Assessment were best represented as a single latent factor. Slow LH strategy correlated moderately and positively with this Evaluative Self-Assessment factor. This relationship was not accounted for by socially desirable responding (self-deceptive enhancement or impression-management), sex, or age of participants. Consistent with Sociometer theory, we suggest that slow LH strategists exhibit high perceived self-worth due to increased social prestige and, relatedly, enhanced phenotypic quality. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Hill, D., Figueredo, A. J., & Jacobs, W. J. (2010). Contextual influences on sustainable behavior. Psychological Approaches to Sustainability: Current Trends in Theory, Research and Applications, 267-294.More infoAbstract: Studies of Proenvironmental behavior (PEB) commonly take a person-centered approach, assuming that the primary determinants of behavior are a person's attributes. Hence, PEB studies typically measure attitudes, values, intentions, knowledge, altruism, environmentalism, etc. - all of which reside in the individual and all of which are posited to cause pro/anti-environmental behavior. Although the empirical base is substantial, person-factors often do not predict behavior well and the posited close relationship between intention and behavior is rarely demonstrated. One reason for this is that part of the "causal" story is missing - the causal role played by context (setting/situation). Hence, the present chapter focuses on various contexts that present to-be-solved adaptive problems and that display affordances, cues, and stimuli that guide adaptive behavior. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) represented the "person-factor" approach; however, we suspected the TPB in isolation would not sufficiently explain behavioral choices. In our study, instead of measuring behavioral intention in a contextual vacuum, we presented each behavioral choice within the context of written multidimensional vignettes. Each context consisted of physical settings as well as theoretically driven dimensions of social situations. We systematically varied the social dimensions to "cue" specific adaptive problems, on the assumption that person-by-context relationships provide more stable and externally valid predictions of PEB than intentionality alone. Settings accounted for a significant proportion of variance in both pro- and anti-environmental behavior. Traditional theory, such as TPB, did not predict context-specific behavior; however, components of the theory did predict behavior in the aggregate. We conclude that attending to the context in which environmental behavior occurs provides a better basis for predicting, understanding, and affecting changes in PEB. © 2010 Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.
- Hunter, J. A., Figueredo, A. J., & Malamuth, N. M. (2010). Developmental pathways into social and sexual deviance. Journal of Family Violence, 25(2), 141-148.More infoAbstract: Path analysis was used to assess the contribution of four exogenous developmental variables (sexual abuse, physical abuse, exposure to violence, exposure to pornography-each occurring prior to age 13) and four personality constructs ("psychopathic and antagonistic attitudes," "psychosocial deficits," "pedophilia," "hostile masculinity") to the prediction of non-sexual delinquency and number of male child victims in a sample of 256 adolescent males with a history of "hands-on" sexual offending. "Psychosocial deficits" was found to partially mediate the effects of the exogenous variables on both outcomes. Exposure to violence both directly, and indirectly through "psychopathic and antagonistic attitudes," contributed to the prediction of non-sexual delinquency. Sexual abuse by a male directly, and indirectly through "hostile masculinity" and "pedophila", contributed to prediction of number of male child victims. Clinical implications of the findings are discussed. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
- Olderbak, S. G., & Figueredo, A. J. (2010). Life history strategy as a longitudinal predictor of relationship satisfaction and dissolution. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(3), 234-239.More infoAbstract: The present study tested whether a couple's shared life history strategy predicts relationship satisfaction longitudinally and relationship dissolution. Through an integration of structural equation modeling and multilevel modeling, we found that a couple's shared life history strategy: (1) directly predicted their average relationship satisfaction, (2) indirectly predicted the linear change in their relationship satisfaction, (3) indirectly predicted the variability about their average relationship satisfaction, and (4) directly, yet weakly, predicted their likelihood of experiencing relationship dissolution over a one-year period. Couples in a relationship with a slower average life history strategy were more likely to: (1) report higher average levels of relationship satisfaction, (2) have a positive trajectory of relationship satisfaction, (3) have less variability in relationship satisfaction, and (4) were less likely to experience relationship dissolution. This suggests that the influence of life history strategy decreases over the course of the relationship. © 2010.
- Sefcek, J. A., & Figueredo, A. J. (2010). A life-history model of human fitness indicators. Biodemography and Social Biology, 56(1), 42-66.More infoPMID: 20589987;Abstract: Recent adaptationist accounts of human mental and physical health have reinvigorated the debate over the evolution of human intelligence. In the tradition of strong inference the current study was developed to determine whether either Miller's (1998, 2000a) Fitness Indicator Theory or Rushton's (1985, 2000) Differential-K Theory better accounts for general intelligence ("g") in an undergraduate university population (N = 192). Owing to the lengthy administration time of the test materials, a newly developed 18-item short form of the Ravens Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM-18; Sefcek, Miller, and Figueredo 2007) was used. A significant, positive relationship between K and F (r =.31, p < .001) emerged. Contrary to predictions, no significant relationships were found between "g" and either K or F (r = -.09, p ≥ .05 and r =.11, p ≥ .05, respectively). Though generally contrary to both hypotheses, these results may be explained in relation to antagonistic pleiotropy and a potential failure to derive correct predictions for within-species comparisons directly from the results of between-species comparisons. Copyright © Society for the Study of Social Biology.
- Tanha, M., Beck, C. J., Figueredo, A. J., & Raghavan, C. (2010). Sex differences in intimate partner violence and the use of coercive control as a motivational factor for intimate partner violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25(10), 1836-1854.More infoPMID: 20018921;Abstract: Research argues that coercive control (CC) is a special case of intimate partner violence (IPV). The present study hypothesized that instead CC is the motivator for other types of IPV, with control of the victim as the goal. When CC fails, physical types of IPV are used. This hypothesized relationship was tested using a large matched sample of 762 divorcing couples participating in divorce mediation. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data with CC predicting two latent common factors of the overall level of victimization separately for men and women. Significant causal relationships between CC and the latent construct of victimization for both members of the couples were found. In addition, CC, psychological abuse, sexual assault/intimidation/coercion, threats of and severe physical violence were disproportionately reported as perpetrated by men against women whereas reports of physical abuse (e.g., pushing, shoving, scratching) were not. © The Author(s) 2010.
- Beck, C. J., Menke, J. M., Brewster, K. O., & Figueredo, A. J. (2009). Validation of a measure of intimate partner abuse with couples participating in divorce mediation. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 50(5), 295-308.More infoAbstract: Critics of court mandated divorce mediation have raised awareness of the need for screening measures to assess intimate partner abuse. This study validates a new instrument that is a revised version of the Partner Abuse Scales developed by Walter Hudson in the 1990s. The Relationship Behavior Rating Scale (RBRS) correlates highly with the original scales and subscales developed from the original and RBRS items have equally high reliability. The new scale is a reliable mea-sure for intimate partner abuse in divorce mediation. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
- Brumbach, B. H., Figueredo, A. J., & Ellis, B. J. (2009). Effects of harsh and unpredictable environments in adolescence on development of life history strategies: A Longitudinal Test of an Evolutionary Model. Human Nature, 20(1), 25-51.More infoAbstract: The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data were used to test predictions from life history theory. We hypothesized that (1) in young adulthood an emerging life history strategy would exist as a common factor underlying many life history traits (e.g., health, relationship stability, economic success), (2) both environmental harshness and unpredictability would account for unique variance in expression of adolescent and young adult life history strategies, and (3) adolescent life history traits would predict young adult life history strategy. These predictions were supported. The current findings suggest that the environmental parameters of harshness and unpredictability have concurrent effects on life history development in adolescence, as well as longitudinal effects into young adulthood. In addition, life history traits appear to be stable across developmental time from adolescence into young adulthood. © Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009.
- Buunk, A. P., Pollet, T. V., Klavina, L., Figueredo, A. J., & Dijkstra, P. (2009). Height among women is curvilinearly related to life history strategy. Evolutionary Psychology, 7(4), 545-559.More infoAbstract: It was hypothesized that women of medium height would show a more secure, long-term mating pattern characterized by less jealousy, less intrasexual competition and a "slower" life history strategy. In three samples of female undergraduate students clear support was found for these hypotheses. In Study 1, among 120 participants, height was curvilinearly related to well-established measures of possessive and reactive jealousy, with women of medium height being less jealous than tall as well as short women. In Study 2, among 40 participants, height was curvilinearly related to intrasexual competition, with women of medium height being less competitive towards other women than tall as well as short women. In Study 3, among 299 participants, height was curvilinearly related to the Mini-K, a well-validated measure of " slower" life history strategy, with women of medium height having a slower life history strategy than tall as well as short women. The results suggest that women of medium height tend to follow a different mating strategy than either tall or short women. Various explanations and implications of these results are discussed.
- Ellis, B. J., Figueredo, A. J., Brumbach, B. H., & Schlomer, G. L. (2009). Fundamental dimensions of environmental risk: The impact of harsh versus unpredictable environments on the evolution and development of life history strategies. Human Nature, 20(2), 204-268.More infoAbstract: The current paper synthesizes theory and data from the field of life history (LH) evolution to advance a new developmental theory of variation in human LH strategies. The theory posits that clusters of correlated LH traits (e.g., timing of puberty, age at sexual debut and first birth, parental investment strategies) lie on a slow-to-fast continuum; that harshness (externally caused levels of morbidity-mortality) and unpredictability (spatial-temporal variation in harshness) are the most fundamental environmental influences on the evolution and development of LH strategies; and that these influences depend on population densities and related levels of intraspecific competition and resource scarcity, on age schedules of mortality, on the sensitivity of morbidity-mortality to the organism's resource-allocation decisions, and on the extent to which environmental fluctuations affect individuals versus populations over short versus long timescales. These interrelated factors operate at evolutionary and developmental levels and should be distinguished because they exert distinctive effects on LH traits and are hierarchically operative in terms of primacy of influence. Although converging lines of evidence support core assumptions of the theory, many questions remain unanswered. This review demonstrates the value of applying a multilevel evolutionary-developmental approach to the analysis of a central feature of human phenotypic variation: LH strategy. © Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009.
- Figueredo, A. J. (2009). ). Separation and its discontents: Toward an evolutionary theory of anti-Semitism (Kevin B. MacDonald). Book review.. Politics and the Life Sciences, 18(1), 136-137.
- Figueredo, A. J. (2009). Human capital, economic development, and evolution: A review and critical comparison of Lynn & Vanhanen (2006) and Clark (2007). Human Ethology Bulletin, 24(2), 5-8.
- Figueredo, A. J., & Rushton, J. P. (2009). Evidence for shared genetic dominance between the general factor of personality, mental and physical health, and life history traits. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 12(6), 555-563.More infoPMID: 19943718;Abstract: We reanalyze previously published data on 309 MZ and 333 DZ twin pairs aged 25 to 74 years from the MIDUS survey, a nationally representative archived sample, to examine how much of the genetic covariance between a general factor of personality (GFP), a lower-order life history factor, and a general physical and mental health factor, is of the nonadditive variety. We found nonadditive genetic effects (D) could not be ruled out as a contributor to the shared variance of these three latent factors to a Super- K Life History factor. We suggest these genetic correlations support the view that a slow ( K-selected) life history strategy, good health, and the GFP coevolved and are mutually coadapted through directional selection.
- Figueredo, A. J., & Wolf, P. S. (2009). Assortative pairing and life history strategy. Human Nature, 20(3), 317-330.More infoAbstract: A secondary analysis was performed on preliminary data from an ongoing cross-cultural study on assortative pairing. Independently sampled pairs of opposite-sex romantic partners and of same-sex friends rated themselves and each other on Life History (LH) strategy and mate value. Data were collected in local bars, clubs, coffeehouses, and other public places from three different cultures: Tucson, Arizona; Hermosillo, Sonora; and San José, Costa Rica. The present analysis found that slow LH individuals assortatively pair with both sexual and social partners more strongly than fast LH individuals. We interpret this phenomenon as representing (1) an adaptation for preserving coadapted genomes in slow LH strategists to maintain high copying fidelity genetic replication while producing a lower number of offspring in stable, predictable, and controllable environments and (2) a bet-hedging adaptation in fast LH strategists, favoring the genetic diversification of a higher number of offspring in unstable, unpredictable, and uncontrollable environments. © Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009.
- Figueredo, A. J., & Wolf, P. S. (2009). The Ten Thousand Year Explosion: How Civilization Accelerated Human Evolution. Human Ethology Bulletin,, 24(4), 4-7.
- Figueredo, A. J., Gladden, P. R., & Brumbach, B. H. (2009). Sex, aggression, and life history strategy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32(3-4), 278-.More infoAbstract: We agree that sexual selection is a more comprehensive explanation for sex differences in direct aggression than social role theory, which is an unparsimonious and vestigial remnant of human exceptionalism. Nevertheless, Archer misses several opportunities to put the theoretical predictions made by himself and by others into direct competition in a way that would further the interests of strong inference. © 2009 Cambridge University Press.
- Figueredo, A. J., Montero-Rojas, E., Frías-Armenta, M., & Corral-Verdugo, V. (2009). Individual differences and social contexts: The absence of family deterrence of spousal abuse in San José, Costa Rica. Journal of Social, Evolutionary, & Cultural Psychology, 3(1), 29-48.
- Figueredo, A. J., Sefcek, J. A., & Olderbak, S. G. (2009). Attachment and life history strategy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32(1), 26-27.More infoAbstract: Del Giudice addresses a complex and pertinent theoretical issue: the evolutionary adaptiveness of sex differences in attachment styles in relation to life history strategy. Although we applaud Del Giudice for calling attention to the problem, we regret that he does not sufficiently specify how attachment styles serve as an integral part of a coordinate life history strategy for either sex. © 2009 Cambridge University Press.
- Gladden, P. R., Figueredo, A. J., & Jacobs, W. J. (2009). Life History strategy, Psychopathic Attitudes, personality, and general intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(3), 270-275.More infoAbstract: This study attempted to replicate recent findings that Life History (LH) strategy predicts neither Psychopathic Attitudes (psychopathy, risk-taking, and mating effort) nor general intelligence (g). Further, we examined relations among LH strategy, Psychopathic Attitudes, and the Big Five to compare and contrast the personality correlates of these latent factors. Participants completed a measure of general intelligence (APM-18) and completed questionnaires measuring life history strategy, psychopathy, Risk-Taking Attitudes, mating effort, and Big-Five personality traits. An exploratory factor analysis detected two uncorrelated latent factors: The K-Factor and Psychopathic Attitudes. Neither the K-Factor nor Psychopathic Attitudes predicted general intelligence. In contrast, the K-Factor correlated positively with Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and negatively with Neuroticism. Psychopathic Attitudes correlated positively with Extraversion and negatively with Agreeableness. We discuss the implications of these data for LH theory and its relation to intelligence and antisocial traits. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Gladden, P., Welch, J., Figueredo, A., & Jacobs, W. (2009). Moral intuitions and religiosity as spuriously correlated life history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Psychology, 7(2), 167-184.More infoAbstract: Religions promote moral rules of behavior and religiosity is associated with some types of moral intuitions, but there is no ultimate-level explanation for this association. Religiosity has recently been used as an indicator of a multivariate measure of slow Life History (LH) strategy. In this study, we predicted that LH strategy relates to increased strength of moral intuitions as measured by morally dumbfounding intuitions, reactions to violations of the ethics of autonomy, community, and divinity, and disgust sensitivity. Results of an exploratory factor analysis revealed that a 3-factor solution was optimal: (1) Religiosity (2) Moral Intuitions, (3) LH strategy. Comparisons of three path-analytic structural models indicated that only one model had an acceptable fit. In that model, slow LH strategy directly influenced religiosity and moral intuitions, which were, as a result, spuriously correlated. We discuss implications for LH theory and for the relation between religion and moral intuitions.
- Kirsner, B. R., Figueredo, A. J., & Jacobs, W. J. (2009). Structural relations among negative affect, mate value, and mating effort. Evolutionary Psychology, 7(3), 374-397.More infoAbstract: We compared the ability of models based on evolutionary economic theory and Life History (LH) Theory to explain relations among self-reported negative affect, mate value, and mating effort. Method: Two hundred thirty-eight undergraduates provided multiple measures of these latent constructs, permitting us to test a priori predictions based on Kirsner, Figueredo, and Jacobs (2003). We compared the fit of the initial model to the fit of five alternative theory-driven models using nested model comparisons of Structural Equations Models. Rejecting less parsimonious and explanatory models eliminated the original model. Two equally parsimonious models explained the data pattern well. The first, based on evolutionary economic theory, specified that Negative Affect increases both Personal Mate Value and Mating Effort via the direct effects specified in the original model. The second, based on LH Theory, specified that Negative Affect, Personal Mate Value, and Mating Effort relate spuriously through a common latent construct, the LH Factor. The primary limitation of the present study is generalizability. We used self-reports taken from a young, university-based sample that included a spectrum of affective states. We cannot know how well these models generalize to an older population or to actual behavior. Both models predict the presence of a rich pattern of mate acquisition and retention behaviors, including an alarming set of behavioral tactics often not considered or targeted during treatment. Moreover, each model suggests a unique set of problems may arise after an effective intervention. We describe several ways to distinguish these models empirically.
- Olderbak, S., & Figueredo, A. J. (2009). Predicting romantic relationship satisfaction from life history strategy. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(5-6), 604-610.More infoAbstract: Attachment style and communication style have been shown in previous research to predict relationship satisfaction. We hypothesized that the ultimate cause underlying the relationship among attachment style, communication style, and relationship satisfaction is Life History Strategy (LHS). Furthermore, we hypothesized that LHS would not only predict relationship satisfaction indirectly through a couple's attachment style and communication style, but would also predict relationship satisfaction directly. Two structural equation models were constructed to model and test each of these hypotheses. The first showed that the indirect causal pathways from LHS to attachment style, attachment style to communication style, and communication style to relationship satisfaction predicted 16% of the variance in relationship satisfaction. The second added a causal pathway directly from LHS to relationship satisfaction which reduced the estimate for the influence of communication style on relationship satisfaction and increased the total variance predicted in relationship satisfaction to 60%. These results challenge the notion that it is primarily the communication between two romantic partners which influences their relationship outcome by proposing that their LHS may be influential: (1) indirectly through their attachment style and communication style; and (2) directly upon relationship satisfaction.
- Salmon, C., Figueredo, A. J., & Woodburn, L. (2009). Life history strategy and disordered eating behavior. Evolutionary Psychology, 7(4), 585-600.More infoAbstract: A sample of female undergraduates completed a packet of questionnaires consisting of the Arizona Life History Battery, a modified version of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Behavioral Regulation scales from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, and two measures of Female Intrasexual Competitiveness that distinguished between competition for mates and competition for status. As predicted, Executive Functions completely mediated the relation between Slow Life History Strategy and Disordered Eating Behavior. Surprisingly, however, the relation between Female Intrasexual Competitiveness (competition for mates and competition for status) and Disordered Eating Behavior was completely spurious, with executive functions serving as a common cause underlying the inhibition of both Disordered Eating Behavior and Female Intrasexual Competitiveness. The protective function of Slow Life History Strategy with respect to Disordered Eating Behavior apparently resides in a higher degree of Behavioral Regulation, a type of Executive Function. The enhanced Behavioral Regulation or self-control, of individuals with a Slow Life History Strategy is also protective against hazardously escalated levels of Female Intrasexual Competitiveness.
- Choi, M., Phillips, L. R., Figueredo, A. J., Insel, K., & Min, S. (2008). Construct validity of the Korean women's abuse intolerance scale. Nursing Research, 57(1), 40-50.More infoPMID: 18091291;Abstract: BACKGROUND: Domestic violence against married women has persisted throughout Korean history. However, very little empirical research has been conducted in Korea about domestic violence, its causes, or women's responses. OBJECTIVE: To develop and test psychometrically the Korean Women's Abuse Intolerance Scale (KWAIS) to measure women's propensity or desire to leave abusive husbands in Korea. METHODS: The first phase of the investigation involved qualitative research to explore the themes of women's responses to domestic violence and the development of the instrument. The second phase was a preliminary study conducted to examine women's responses to domestic violence. In the third phase, construct validity of the scale was established, using a sample of 184 married women living in Korea. RESULTS: The KWAIS adequately supported the underlying theory of women's responses to domestic violence, demonstrating strong content validity, high internal consistency (Cronbach's α of .98), and criterion-related validity evidenced by significant correlations that supported hypotheses among abuse intolerance and abuse (r = .69), traditional family ideology (r = -.78), marital satisfaction (r = -.85), attitude toward power ascription (r = .63), and collectivism (r = -.88). Factor analysis yielded a four-factor structure, explaining 78.4% of the common variance. Factor loadings ranged from .65 to .93. DISCUSSION: The findings for the psychometric properties of the KWAIS established its potential as a research instrument in measuring Korean women's propensity or desire to leave abusive husbands. Future studies need to focus on determining the predictive validity of the KWAIS and evaluating cross-cultural differences in women's propensity or desire to leave abusive husbands. © 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
- Figueredo, A. J., & Olderbak, S. (2008). Commentary for special issue of journal of memory and language: Generalizability theory analysis for psycholinguistic applications. Journal of Memory and Language, 59(4), 426-433.More infoAbstract: We propose that the continuing controversies over the use of quasi-F-ratios in psycholinguistic research might be circumvented, if not resolved, by the judicious application of Generalizability Theory (GT) analyses. We argue that GT is a logical extension of the basic rationale behind repeated measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the variance components model upon which GT is ultimately based and upon which the entire logic of the F-ratio (quasi or otherwise) rests. GT is especially useful in psycholinguistics research because it affords one the opportunity to assess generalizability across multiple dimensions within the same model, such as individual subjects as well as varying conditions of prime and target words. We will provide an illustrative example of GT based on Forster's (2007) replication of Davis and Lupker's (2006) study in which they tested the effects of frequency discrepancies in target and prime words across individual subjects under varying combinations of frequency and prime. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- Gladden, P. R., Sisco, M., & Figueredo, A. J. (2008). Sexual coercion and life-history strategy. Evolution and Human Behavior, 29(5), 319-326.More infoAbstract: The present study evaluates three ultimate theories accounting for individual differences in sexually coercive tendencies: (1) Life History (LH) theory, (2) Competitively Disadvantaged Male theory, and (3) Sexual Coercion as a By-product theory. Three-hundred twenty-four college students completed questionnaires measuring LH strategy, perceived mate value, mating effort, short-term and long-term mating orientation, aggressive tendencies, psychopathy, and sexually coercive behavior. Eight tactical subscales extracted from the Sexual Acts and Perceptions Inventory converged upon one latent Sexual Coercion factor. The predictor variables clustered into a second Protective LH latent factor, which buffered Sexual Coercion. The Protective LH factor fully mediated the relation between sex and Sexual Coercion. Thus, the three evolutionary accounts of sexual coercion describe unique facets of a single LH trait rather than three dissociable alternatives. We discuss the conclusion that reproductive LH strategy partially underlies the variation in predisposition toward sexual coercion.
- Sisco, M. M., & Figueredo, A. J. (2008). Male and female similarities in non-traditional aggressive sexuality: Prevalence, novel approaches to assessment, and treatment applications. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 14(3), 253-266.
- Baldwin, C. M., Figueredo, A. J., Wright, L. S., Wong, S. S., & Witten, M. L. (2007). Repeated aerosol-vapor JP-8 jet fuel exposure affects neurobehavior and neurotransmitter levels in a rat model. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues, 70(14), 1203-1213.More infoPMID: 17573634;Abstract: Four groups of Fischer Brown Norway hybrid rats were exposed for 5, 10, 15, or 20 d to aerosolized-vapor jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) compared to freely moving (5 and 10-d exposures) or sham-confined controls (15 and 20-d exposures). Behavioral testing utilized the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Functional Observational Battery. Exploratory ethological factor analysis identified three salient factors (central nervous system [CNS] excitability, autonomic 1, and autonomic 2) for use in profiling JP-8 exposure in future studies. The factors were used as dependent variables in general linear modeling. Exposed animals were found to engage in more rearing and hyperaroused behavior compared to controls, replicating prior JP-8 exposure findings. Exposed animals also showed increasing but rapidly decelerating stool output (autonomic 1), and a significant increasing linear trend for urine output (autonomic 2). No significant trends were noted for either of the control groups for the autonomic factors. Rats from each of the groups for each of the time frames were randomly selected for tissue assay from seven brain regions for neurotransmitter levels. Hippocampal DOPAC was significantly elevated after 4-wk JP-8 exposure compared to both control groups, suggesting increased dopamine release and metabolism. Findings indicate that behavioral changes do not appear to manifest until wk 3 and 4 of exposure, suggesting the need for longitudinal studies to determine if these behaviors occur due to cumulative exposure, or due to behavioral sensitization related to repeated exposure to aerosolized-vapor JP-8. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
- Brumbach, B. H., Walsh, M., & Figueredo, A. J. (2007). Sexual restrictedness in adolescence: A life history perspective. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 39(3), 481-488.
- Davis, A. H., Figueredo, A. J., Fahy, B. F., & Rawiworrakul, T. (2007). Reliability and validity of the Exercise Self-Regulatory Efficacy Scale**To request a copy of the Ex-SRES instrument, a one-page summary of its psychometrics and scoring syntax, please send a self-addressed envelope with return postage to the corresponding author. for individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Heart and Lung: Journal of Acute and Critical Care, 36(3), 205-216.More infoPMID: 17509427;Abstract: Background: Exercise has important benefits for individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, to sustain long-term benefits of exercise, adherence is needed. Adherence requires self-regulation. No scale is available to measure exercise self-regulation in individuals with COPD. Objectives: We developed and tested the reliability and validity of an "Exercise Self-Regulatory Efficacy Scale (Ex-SRES)" for individuals with COPD. Methods: A convenience sample of 109 subjects with COPD was recruited. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the internal consistency reliability of the Ex-SRES. Subjects' exercise behaviors and health status were used to assess the validity of the Ex-SRES. Results: The Ex-SRES demonstrated evidence of reliability (Cronbach's alpha .917) and validity (correlation with minutes of exercise per week [r = .41; P < .0001] and health status [r = .37; P < .0001]). Conclusion: The Ex-SRES is a short (16-items) and easy to use questionnaire that may be valuable for assessing patients in clinical settings, as well as for future research studies in behaviors related to exercise. © 2007 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
- Davis, M. F., Guggenheim, C., Figueredo, A. J., Wright, A., & Locke, C. (2007). Differential parental investment in Tucson babies. Journal of the Arizona Nevada Academy of Science, 39(2), 65-72.
- Figueredo, A. J. (2007). Sociobiology: The old synthesis. Human Ethology Bulletin, 22(4), 3-5.
- Figueredo, A. J. (2007). Un estudio transcultural sobre apareamiento selectivo según Intereses sensacionalistas, valor como pareja, historia de vida y delincuencia. Revista Mexicana de Psicología, Numero Especial, 6.
- Figueredo, A. J., & Gladden, P. (2007). Genetic variance and strategic pluralism. European Journal of Personality, 21(5), 597-599.More infoAbstract: Penke et al. (this issue) have written a provocative paper on the evolutionary genetics of personality, ascribing the maintenance of genetic variation in personality to balancing selection and in cognitive abilities to a balance between mutation pressure and directional selection. Some of the theory and evidence presented appear supportive, but both the theoretical predictions and the supporting empirical evidence remain tentative. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Figueredo, A. J., & Gorsuch, R. (2007). Assortative mating in the Jewel wasp: 2. Sequential canonical analysis as an exploratory form of path analysis. Journal of the Arizona Nevada Academy of Science, 39(2), 59-64.
- Figueredo, A. J., & Sage, R. S. (2007). Assortative mating in the Jewel wasp: 1. Female matching of eye-color genotype, not host-feeding phenotype. Journal of the Arizona Nevada Academy of Science, 39(2), 51-57.
- Figueredo, A. J., Vásquez, G., Brumbach, B. H., & M., S. (2007). The K-factor, Covitality, and personality. Human Nature, 18(1), 47-73.More infoAbstract: We present a psychometric test of life history theory as applied to human individual differences using MIDUS survey data (Brim et al. 2000). Twenty scales measuring cognitive and behavioral dimensions theoretically related to life history strategy were constructed using items from the MIDUS survey. These scales were used to construct a single common factor, the K-factor, which accounted for 70% of the reliable variance. The scales used included measures of personal, familial, and social function. A second common factor, Covitality, was constructed from scales for physical and mental health. Finally, a single general factor, Personality, was constructed from scales for the "Big Five" factors of personality. The K-factor, covitality factor, and general personality factor correlated significantly with each other, supporting the prediction that high K predicts high somatic effort and also manifests in behavioral display. Thus, a single higher-order common factor, the Super-K factor, was constructed that consisted of the K-factor, covitality factor, and personality factor.
- Guggenheim, C. B., Davis, M. F., & Figueredo, A. J. (2007). Sons or daughters: A cross-cultural study of sex-ratio biasing and differential parental investment. Journal of the Arizona Nevada Academy of Science, 39(2), 73-90.
- Hunter, J. A., Figueredo, A. J., Becker, J. V., & Malamuth, N. (2007). Non-sexual delinquency in juvenile sexual offenders: The mediating and moderating influences of emotional empathy. Journal of Family Violence, 22(1), 43-54.More infoAbstract: The theoretical linkage of empathy to sexually aggressive and antisocial behavior is reviewed, and assessment conducted on the role of emotional empathy in the non-sexual delinquent behavior of juvenile sexual offenders. In examination of developmental antecedents of empathy, self-reported parental attachment and positive fathering experiences were found to be positively associated with emotional empathy, while reported exposure to violence against females was inversely related. As hypothesized, emotional empathy was found to have both mediating and moderating influences on risk of engagement in non-sexual delinquency. Emotional empathy was found to be negatively associated with non-sexual delinquency and to partially mediate the positive influences of exposure to violence against females and hostile masculinity. Emotional empathy was also found to function as a moderator of hostile masculinity, with high empathy levels associated with an attenuated positive effect of hostile masculinity on non-sexual delinquency, and low levels with an accentuated effect. Possible mechanisms for this moderating influence are discussed, along with clinical implications of the findings and directions for future research. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.
- Jones, D. N., & Figueredo, A. J. (2007). Mating effort as a predictor of smoking in a college sample. Current Research in Social Psychology, 12(13), 186-195.More infoAbstract: The present study examined how the amount of effort an individual puts into gaining and retaining access to sexual partners may impact smoking behavior. Using a college sample, results supported the prediction that individuals who are high in mating effort would be more likely to try cigarettes and smoke in social situations. Interpretations, implications, and directions for future research are discussed.
- Jones, D. N., Figueredo, A. J., Dickey, E. D., & Jacobs, W. J. (2007). Relations among individual differences in reproductive strategies, sexual attractiveness, affective and punitive intentions. Evolutionary Psychology, 5(2), 367-390.
- Caspi, O., Mcknight, P., Kruse, L., Cunningham, V., Figueredo, A. J., & Sechrest, L. (2006). Evidence-based medicine: Discrepancy between perceived competence and actual performance among graduating medical students. Medical Teacher, 28(4), 318-325.More infoPMID: 16807169;Abstract: Since at the time of graduation from medical school physicians are expected to demonstrate adequate professional competence including mastery of critical appraisal skills, we conducted a preliminary, cross-sectional, web-based study to examine the extent to which fourth year medical students in the US are competent in core areas of evidence-based medicine (EBM). Using self-assessment instruments, subjects (n = 150) were asked to demonstrate their ability to understand the practical meaning of key methodological and data analysis constructs as they relate to patient care, to rate their perceived competence in core areas of EBM and to disclose their attitudes toward critical appraisal of the literature and EBM. The mean score in our cohort was 55% suggesting that students may have knowledge gaps that interfere with their ability to critically appraise the medical literature. There was an apparent chasm between subjects' perceived competence and their actual performance on the assessment instrument. These findings, if corroborated in larger studies, (1) suggest that better education in EBM is needed so as to avoid the possibility that patient care may inadvertently be jeopardized; and (2) cast doubt on the use of self-assessed knowledge as a proxy for actual skills with respect to EBM and medical decision-making. © 2006 Taylor & Francis.
- Figueredo, A. J., Hammond, K. R., & McKiernan, E. C. (2006). A Brunswikian evolutionary developmental theory of preparedness and plasticity. Intelligence, 34(2), 211-227.More infoAbstract: The domain-independent and domain-dependent approach to the evolution of cognition have been taken by separate groups of researchers who have focused exclusively on either the formal properties or the distinct cognitive demands of tasks. We express the view that synthesizing the two approaches could lead to a more complete understanding, and propose such a comprehensive model of cognitive evolution and development. First, we discuss how Egon Brunswik demonstrated the importance of the relationship between the organism and the environment, and how his research and that of others has led to the domain-independent and domain-dependent views. Second, we use Brunswikian concepts to propose a two-parameter evolutionary model of cognitive development that specifies how particular behaviors come to be characterized by independent levels of biological preparedness and developmental plasticity. Our theory incorporates both a domain-independent organizing principle and the importance of domain-dependent processes. Third, we briefly discuss one unique prediction arising from the Brunswikian Evolutionary Developmental theory and describe preliminary supporting evidence. © 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- Figueredo, A. J., Sefcek, J. A., & Jones, D. N. (2006). The ideal romantic partner personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 41(3), 431-441.More infoAbstract: Most contemporary social psychological studies on inter-personal attraction have independently explored the competing concepts of similarity and complementarity. Incorporating evolutionary principles associated with assortative mating, two studies were conducted that examined individual difference preferences using the five-factor model (FFM) of human personality as assessed by the NEO-FFI. The first study (N = 104) examined the degree to which individuals showed an absolute or relative preference in an "ideal romantic partner" when compared to self-rated personality. The second study (N = 161) extended this by incorporating personality ratings for self, "ideal" romantic partner, and "actual" romantic partner, and perceptions of mate value for each. Overall, findings supported both evolutionary and social psychological theories of inter-personal attraction and support both relative and absolute preferences in romantic partners. Individuals sought mates that were matches of themselves to some degree (a concept that we termed aspirational positive assortative mating) but also sought mates that were somewhat higher in Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Mate Value, but lower in Neuroticism than themselves. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Figueredo, A. J., Vásquez, G., Brumbach, B. H., Schneider, S. M., Sefcek, J. A., Tal, I. R., Hill, D., Wenner, C. J., & Jacobs, W. J. (2006). Consilience and Life History Theory: From genes to brain to reproductive strategy. Developmental Review, 26(2), 243-275.More infoAbstract: We describe an integrated theory of individual differences that traces the behavioral development of life history from genes to brain to reproductive strategy. We provide evidence that a single common factor, the K-Factor, underpins a variety of life-history parameters, including an assortment of sexual, reproductive, parental, familial, and social behaviors. We explore the psychometrics and behavioral genetics of the K-Factor and offer a speculative account of the proximate mediation of this adaptive patterning of behavior as instantiated in well-established functions of specific areas of the human brain, including the frontal lobes, amygdala, and hippocampus. We then apply Life History Theory to predict patterns of development within the brain that are paedomorphic (i.e., development begins later, proceeds at a slower rate, and has an earlier cessation) and peramorphic (i.e., development begins early, proceeds at a faster rate, and has a later cessation). © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- Figueredo, A., Insel, K., Morrow, D., Brewer, B., & Figueredo, A. J. (2006). Executive function, working memory, and medication adherence among older adults. The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, 61(2).More infoThe purpose of this study was to investigate the association between cognitive processes and medication adherence among community-dwelling older adults. Ninety-five participants (M = 78 years) completed a battery of cognitive assessments including measures of executive function, working memory, cued recall, and recognition memory. Medication adherence was examined over 8 weeks for one prescribed medicine by use of an electronic medication-monitoring cap. In a simultaneous regression, the composite of executive function and working memory tasks was the only significant predictor (beta =.44, p
- Tal, I. R., Hill, D., Figueredo, A. J., Frías-Armenta, M., & Corral-Verdugo, V. (2006). An evolutionary approach to explaining water conservation. Medio Ambiente y Comportamiento Humano, 7(1), 7-27.
- Bell, I. R., Brooks, A. J., Baldwin, C. M., Fernandez, M., Figueredo, A. J., & Witten, M. L. (2005). JP-8 jet fuel exposure and divided attention test performance in 1991 Gulf War veterans. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, 76(12), 1136-1144.More infoPMID: 16385767;Abstract: Introduction: Previous research indicates that a large cohort of veterans from the 1991 Gulf War report polysymptomatic conditions. These syndromes often involve neurocognitive complaints, fatigue, and musculoskeletal symptoms, thus overlapping with civilian illnesses from low levels of environmental chemicals, chronic fatigue syndrome, and fibromyalgia. Methods: To test for time-dependent changes over repeated intermittent exposures, we evaluated objective performance on a computerized visual divided attention test in chronically unhealthy Gulf War veterans (n = 22 ill with low-level chemical intolerance (CI); n = 24 ill without CI), healthy Gulf War veterans (n = 23), and healthy Gulf War era veterans (n = 20). Testing was done before and after each of three weekly, double blind, low-level JP-8 jet fuel or clean air sham exposure laboratory sessions, including acoustic startle stimuli. Results: Unhealthy veterans receiving jet fuel had faster mean peripheral reaction times over sessions compared with unhealthy veterans receiving sham clean air exposures. Unhealthy Gulf veterans with CI exhibited faster post- vs. pre-session mean central reaction times compared with unhealthy Gulf veterans without CI. Findings were controlled for psychological distress variables. Discussion: These data on unhealthy Gulf veterans show an acceleration of divided attention task performance over the course of repeated low-level JP-8 exposures. The present faster reaction times are consistent with rat neurobehavioral studies on environmental toxicant cross-sensitization and nonlinear dose-response patterns with stimulant drugs, as well as some previous civilian studies using other exposure agents. Together with previous research findings, the data suggest involvement of central nervous system dopaminergic pathways in affected Gulf veterans. Copyright © by Aerospace Medical Association.
- Egan, V., Figueredo, A. J., Wolf, P. S., McBride, K., Sefcek, J. A., Vasquez, G., & Charles, K. (2005). Sensational interests, mating effort, and personality: Evidence for cross-cultural validity. Journal of Individual Differences, 26(1), 11-19.
- Figueredo, A. J., Vásquez, G., Brumbach, B. H., Sefcek, J. A., Kirsner, B. R., & Jacobs, W. J. (2005). The K-factor: Individual differences in life history strategy. Personality and Individual Differences, 39(8), 1349-1360.More infoAbstract: Until recently, variations in life history strategy were studied exclusively at the species level. Although this domain of study has been extended to examine systematic differences in life history strategy among various human ethnic groupings, more recent evolutionary theories of human development and related behavioral genetic work imply substantial within-group individual variation in life history strategy. We constructed a latent variable model identifying a single common factor, denoted as K, which underlies a variety of otherwise disparate life history parameters. This "K-Factor" loaded 0.36 on childhood attachment to the biological father, -0.36 on childhood attachment to any non-biological father figure, 0.38 on adult romantic partner attachment, -0.51 on mating effort, -0.58 on Machiavellianism, and -0.41 on risk propensity. The bivariate correlations of the K-factor with higher-order personality factors were statistically significant, -0.24 with "Big Neuroticism" and -0.67 with "Big Psychoticism", and approached significance, correlating 0.12, with "Big Extraversion". The K-factor appears to be an underappreciated individual difference variable of major importance to human development. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Figueredo, A., Faer, L. M., Hendriks, A., Abed, R. T., & Figueredo, A. J. (2005). The evolutionary psychology of eating disorders: female competition for mates or for status?. Psychology and psychotherapy, 78(Pt 3).More infoThe relationship between eating disorders and female intrasexual competition (ISC) was studied. More specifically, it was predicted that Female ISC for mates would be the strongest predictor of bulimia, and that, in contrast, Female ISC for status would be the strongest predictor of anorexia nervosa. A group of 202 undergraduate women, attending the University of Arizona, Tucson, USA, participated in this study. These respondents completed surveys that contained the following measures: the Female competition for mates scale, the Female competition for status scale, the General Competitiveness Scale, the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI), and an additional measure specific to Anorexia. The internal consistencies of the measures were computed using Cronbach's alpha, and the measures were found to have adequate measurement reliability. Correlations were computed and a structural equation model was constructed for all the subscales within the measures. The resulting model demonstrated that ISC for mates was ultimately the driving factor that contributed to Female competition for status, General competitiveness, Perfectionism, Body dissatisfaction, Drive for thinness, and both Bulimia and Anorexia. Contrary to initial expectations, the results supported a mostly spurious causal relationship between Female competition for status and anorexia, with the only indirect causal effect being through the influence of perfectionism, which was uniquely on anorexia and not on bulimia. The role of perceived personal and Ideal partner mate value was also explored. Although they were strongly positively related to each other, these were shown to have nearly equal and opposite effects on body dissatisfaction.
- Burks, K. D., Mellen, J. D., Miller, G. W., Lehnhardt, J., Weiss, A., Figueredo, A. J., & Maple, T. L. (2004). Comparison of two introduction methods for African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Zoo Biology, 23(2), 109-126.More infoAbstract: Managers must consider an animal's potential for aggression when they decide to change or form a captive social group formation. In this study we compared two introduction methods (termed "sequential" and "nonsequential" introductions) in African elephants to assess their effectiveness in managing aggression and minimizing stress. Both introduction methods included four phases: baseline, visual contact, limited tactile contact, and physical introduction. In the sequential introduction, these steps were followed sequentially, and empirical data were considered during decision-making. In the nonsequential introduction, these steps were not followed sequentially, and decision-making was based primarily on intuitive assessments by animal managers. Behavioral data and fecal corticoid concentrations were measured throughout both types of introduction. The behavior categories measured included active aggression, passive aggression, submissive behavior, undesirable/stress-related behavior, and affiliative behavior. While the role of affiliative behavior was surprising, general behavior patterns were characterized by increases in behavior as animals progressed to the next phase of introduction regardless of introduction type. These increases then attenuated over time during each phase. Overall, less behavior was observed during the sequential introduction, as predicted. The data suggest that the sequential introduction managed aggression more effectively. Similar patterns were predicted for undesirable/stress-related behavior and fecal corticoid concentration. Undesirable/stress-related behavior was a poor predictor of observed behavior patterns. Although the patterns differed from those predicted, higher concentrations of fecal corticoids were measured during the nonsequential introduction and correlated significantly only with submissive behavior. While more investigation is warranted, the data indicate that the nonsequential introduction brought about an increased physiological response. Overall, the sequential introduction method appeared to manage aggression and stress better than the nonsequential technique. Every introduction is subject to factors that can influence success, such as staff experience, the design of the facility, and the animals' social histories. It is hoped that the rigorous sequential protocol will be a useful tool in the animal manager's "toolbox" for planning and implementing introductions. Applications of this introduction method are also discussed. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
- Figueredo, A. J., Landau, M. J., & Sefcek, J. A. (2004). Apes and angels: Adaptationism versus Panglossianism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 27(3), 334-335.More infoAbstract: The "straw man" prior expectation of the dominant social psychology paradigm is that humans should behave with perfect rationality and high ethical standards. The more modest claim of evolutionary psychologists is that humans have evolved specific adaptations for adaptive problems that were reliably present in the ancestral environment. Outside that restricted range of problems, one should not expect optimal behavior.
- Figueredo, A. J., Tal, I. R., McNeil, P., & Guillén, A. (2004). Farmers, herders, and fishers. The ecology of revenge. Evolution and Human Behavior, 25(5), 336-353.More infoAbstract: Culture of honor (COH) theory [Nisbett, R. E., & Cohen, D. (1996). Culture of honor: The psychology of violence in the south. Boulder, CO: Westview Press] predicts that the importance of upholding one's reputation is cross-culturally variable: Revenge should be more prevalent in herding societies than in farming societies, and should be entirely absent in foraging societies. This study was designed to replicate the effects that they found among herding and farming societies and to either support or refute the claim regarding foraging societies. Using a 32-item questionnaire measuring the constructs of Reciprocity and Revenge, this study cross-culturally validates Nisbett and Cohen's COH theory and extends it to fishers, a special kind of forager. Researchers sampled two herding communities (Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, and Liberia, Guanacaste, Costa Rica), two farming communities (Mexico City, Mexico, and San Jose, Costa Rica), and two fishing communities (La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico, and Puntarenas, Costa Rica.) The differences between the herding and farming samples replicated previous findings in that herders were higher on the Revenge scale than farmers. The fisher samples approximate the herder samples on the Revenge scale more than the farmer samples, but were significantly different from each other. Discrepancies between the fisher samples called for the investigation of alternative theories. © 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- Figueredo, A. J., Vásquez, G., Brumbach, B. H., & M, S. (2004). The heritability of life history strategy: the K-factor, covitality, and personality.. Social biology, 51(3-4), 121-143.More infoPMID: 17019827;Abstract: Archival data from the MIDUS survey (Brim et al., 2000), a nationally representative sample, on 309 MZ and 333 DZ twin pairs aged 25-74 years were used to test the psychometrics and behavioral genetics of life history strategy. We organized 253 of the originally administered 2,000 questions into 30 scales measuring life history traits (e.g., quality of family relationships and altruism towards kin), medical symptoms (e.g., thyroid problems), personality traits (e.g., neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness), and social background (e.g., financial security). A single higher-order factor, indicating a general life history strategy, composed of three lower-order factors, was replicated. Factor analyses were then performed on the genetic variance-covariance matrices. We found that (a) a single higher-order factor explained the preponderance of the genetic correlations among the scales and (b) this higher-order factor was itself 68 percent heritable and accounted for 82 percent of the genetic variance among the three component lower-order factors.
- Figueredo, A., Figueredo, A. J., & Koss, M. P. (2004). Change in cognitive mediators of rape's impact on psychosocial health across 2 years of recovery. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 72(6).More infoA previously published cross-sectional model of cognitive mediation of rape's impact on health (M. P. Koss, A. J. Figueredo, & R. J. Prince, 2002) was replicated longitudinally. Rape survivors (n = 59) were assessed 4 times at 3-24 months postrape. Growth curve analysis demonstrated significant change in all mediators and outcomes. Previously reported effects of Characterological Self-Blame, Behavioral Self- Blame, and Maladaptive Beliefs on Psychosocial Distress were partially cross-validated in intercept and slope data. The results suggest that Characterological Self-Blame sets the initial level of Psychosocial Distress and that reduction in Behavioral Self-Blame drives recovery. These effects on distress were wholly mediated through self-blame's association with alterations in beliefs about self and others.
- Hunter, J. A., Figueredo, A. J., Malamuth, N. M., & Becker, J. V. (2004). Developmental pathways in youth sexual aggression and delinquency: Risk factors and mediators. Journal of Family Violence, 19(4), 233-242.
- Koss, M. P., & Figueredo, A. J. (2004). Change in cognitive mediators of rape's impact on psychosocial health across 2 years of recovery. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(6), 1063-1072.More infoPMID: 15612852;Abstract: A previously published cross-sectional model of cognitive mediation of rape's impact on health (M. P. Koss, A. J. Figueredo, & R. J. Prince, 2002) was replicated longitudinally. Rape survivors (n = 59) were assessed 4 times at 3-24 months postrape. Growth curve analysis demonstrated significant change in all mediators and outcomes. Previously reported effects of Characterological Self-Blame, Behavioral Self-Blame, and Maladaptive Beliefs on Psychosocial Distress were partially cross-validated in intercept and slope data. The results suggest that Characterological Self-Blame sets the initial level of Psychosocial Distress and that reduction in Behavioral Self-Blame drives recovery. These effects on distress were wholly mediated through self-blame's association with alterations in beliefs about self and others.
- Koss, M. P., & Figueredo, A. J. (2004). Cognitive mediation of rape's mental health impact: Constructive replication of a cross-sectional model in longitudinal data. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28(4), 273-286.More infoAbstract: The constructive replication of a prespecified, cognitively mediated model of rape's impact on psychosocial health is reported using longitudinal data (see Koss, Figueredo, & Prince, 2002, for a summary of model development). Rape survivors (n = 59) were assessed four times, 3 to 24 months postrape. Structural equations modeling of baseline data (intercepts) and rate of change over time (slopes) revealed that all large effects replicated, smaller effects did not. The model's central features were confirmed and showed that Psychological Problem History exacerbated Characterological Self-Blame, leading to more Maladaptive Beliefs, which determined initial Psychosocial Distress and its rate of decline. The major contributions of the study include: (a) placement in a research program designed to balance the strengths/limitations of cross-sectional and longitudinal data; (b) analysis of prerape characteristics, cognitive mediators, and multiple psychosocial distress variables in a system; and (c) a strategy for structural equations modeling in small samples.
- Weiss, A., Egan, V., & Figueredo, A. J. (2004). Sensational interests as a form of intrasexual competition. Personality and Individual Differences, 36(3), 563-573.More infoAbstract: Sensational interests, i.e. a curiosity for the violent and macabre, are reputedly common in mentally disordered offenders. However, ostensibly well-adjusted individuals are also interested in these topics. We tested the hypothesis that individual differences in sensational interests may partially reflect intrasexual competition for status and have an underlying evolutionary function. Several predictions derive from this hypothesis. First, age and sex should be directly related to individual differences in mating effort (the degree that an individual devotes resources to finding and guarding sexual partners). Second, mating effort should directly influence sensational interests. Third, there should also be direct effects of age and sex on sensational interests. To test these predictions we collected data on 969 university undergraduates using the Revised Version of the Sensational Interests Questionnaire (SIQ-R) and the Mating effort Scale (MES). A structural equations model revealed that a single factor accounted for the majority of the variance of the three SIQ-R subscales, Paranormal, Militarism, and Criminal Identity. This model also included direct effects of age and sex on the MES and two SIQ-R subscales and direct effects of the MES on the SIQ-R. Model fit statistics indicated that this model was a good fit to the data. We conclude that, even in a non-clinical sample, an affinity for sensational interests might serve a form of intrasexual competition. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Hunter, J. A., Figueredo, A. J., Malamuth, N. M., & Becker, J. V. (2003). Juvenile sex offenders: Toward the development of a typology. Sexual Abuse: Journal of Research and Treatment, 15(1), 27-48.More infoPMID: 12616927;Abstract: Adolescent males who sexually offended against prepubescent children were contrasted with those who targeted pubescent and postpubescent females. As hypothesized, path analyses revealed that the former group had greater deficits in psychosocial functioning, used less aggression in their sexual offending, and were more likely to offend against relatives. Theorized relationships between devel-opmental risk factors, personality mediators, and sexual and nonsexual offense characteristics were assessed in both groups of juvenile sex offenders. Deficits in psychosocialfunctioning were found to mediate the influence of childhood exposure to violence against females on adolescent perpetration of sexual and nonsexual offenses. Additional univariate analyses were conducted to further explore some associations among early risk factors, personality mediators, and outcomes. Childhood physical abuse by a father or stepfather and exposure to violence against females were found to be associated with higher levels of comorbid anxiety and depression. Noncoercive childhood sexual victimization by a male nonrelative was found to be associated with sexual offending against a male child. Clinical and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.
- Kirsner, B. R., Figueredo, A. J., & Jacobs, W. J. (2003). Self, friends, and lovers: Structural relations among Beck Depression Inventory scores and perceived mate values. Journal of Affective Disorders, 75(2), 131-148.More infoPMID: 12798253;Abstract: Background: We used an economic model based on evolutionary theory to guide an examination of relations among self-reported depressive symptoms and ratings of mate values of self, social, and sexual partners. This model treats assortative mating as a form of social exchange between partners of socially and sexually desirable traits. Methods: Two studies used variants of the Mate Value Inventory (MVI), a multivariate assessment of attributes desired in social or sexual partners. For study 1, 115 male and 124 female undergraduates provided self reports on four forms of the MVI-11 and on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); for study 2, 208 male and 277 female undergraduates provided self reports on seven forms of the MVI-7 and on the BDI-II. Results: Both multisample structural equations models indicated that the parameters were statistically equivalent between female and male subsamples and provided an adequate fit to the data. The models revealed significant relations between the mate values ascribed to the self and those ascribed to short- and long-term partners as well as best friends. Furthermore, greater BDI scores significantly predicted lesser ratings of mate value for the self, and hence indirectly predicted lesser ratings of mate value for all types of partners evaluated. Limitations: Although the data obtained from the MVI demonstrated good psychometric validity, external validity has not yet been established. Conclusions: The results are consistent with models predicting: (1) assortative mating by mate value, (2) differential exchange rates of mate value for different types of partners, (3) a negative relation between depressive symptoms and assessment of one's own mate value, and (4) a possibly consequential mismatch of mate values when one partner exhibits or recovers from significant depressive symptoms. The results are inconsistent with models predicting (5) a generalized negativity bias due to depression. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
- Shapiro, S. L., Bootzin, R., Figueredo, A. J., Lopez, A. M., & Schwartz, G. E. (2003). The efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction in the treatment of sleep disturbance in women with breast cancer: An exploratory study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 54, 85-91.
- Figueredo, A. J., & Berry, S. C. (2002). "Just not so stories" Exaptations, spandrels, and constraints. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 25(4), 517-518.More infoAbstract: It is anthropomorphic to speak of Nature designing adaptations for a specific function, as if with conscious intent. Any effect constitutes an adaptive function if it contributes to survival and to reproduction. Natural selection is blind to what might have been the original function. Mutations arise by purest accident and are selected based on whatever fortuitous effects they might produce.
- Figueredo, A. J., Kirsner, B. R., & Tal, I. R. (2002). Amigos y amantes: los valores relativos de trueque de diferentes tipos de compañeros en el intercambio social. Actualidades en Psicología, 18(105), 49-61.
- Koss, M. P., Figueredo, A. J., & Prince, R. J. (2002). Cognitive mediation of rape's mental, physical, and social health impact: Tests of four models in cross-sectional data. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(4), 926-941.More infoPMID: 12182276;Abstract: Four nested, theoretically specified, increasingly complex models were tested representing cognitive mediation of rape's effects on mental, physical, and social health. Data were cross-sectional (N = 253 rape survivors). Outcomes were standardized assessments of social maladjustment, physical, and psychological symptoms, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The best-fitting model was not fully cognitively mediated. Personological and rape characteristics influenced the level of self-blame experienced and the intensity of maladaptive beliefs about self and others. Self-blame and maladaptive beliefs predicted psychological distress, which strongly influenced all health outcomes. Self-ratings of rape memory characteristics contributed little to predicting postrape distress. The model accounted for 56% of the variance in general distress, including 91% of psychological symptom severity; 54% of PTSD symptoms; 65% of social maladjustment; and 17% of physical symptoms. Longitudinal replication is planned.
- Shapiro, S. L., Figueredo, A. J., Caspi, O., Schwartz, G. E., Bootzin, R., Lopez, A. M., & Lake, D. (2002). Going quasi: The premature disclosure effect in a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 25(6), 605-621.
- Boeschen, L. E., Koss, M. P., Figueredo, A. J., & Coan, J. A. (2001). Experiental avoidance and post-traumatic stress disorder: A cognitive mediation model of rape recovery. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma, 4(2), 211-245.More infoAbstract: Does experiential avoidance predict PTSD severity among rape survivors? We tested a hypothesized model where causal attributions, cognitive schemas, and memory characteristics mediated the relationship between experiential avoidance and PTSD. Experiential avoidance was measured as a cognitive coping strategy; women scoring high on this measure did not try to integrate or make meaning of their rape experiences, but rather attempted to block out memories of their rapes or minimize or rationalize their rape experiences in some way. Data were cross-sectional. Participants were rape survivors (N = 139; 23% with current PTSD). Results included a measurement model of social cognitive factors and PTSD and the structural model. Two sets of pathways were delineated, both exacerbated PTSD. Overall, 60% of the variance in PTSD was explained. The results suggested that the effects of experiential avoidance on psychological outcomes were detrimental, but small. Re-experiencing was the only memory characteristic to mediate the rape-PTSD relationship. Causal attributions and maladaptive belief changes were far more powerful than any other predictors in explaining prolonged distress. Neither was strongly affected by levels of avoidance. © 2001 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.
- Figueredo, A. J. (2001). Blame, retribution and deterrence among both perpetrators and survivors of male violence against women. Virginia Journal of Social Policy & the Law, 8(1), 219-251.
- Figueredo, A. J., & Sechrest, L. (2001). Approaches used in conducting health outcomes and effectiveness research. Evaluation and Program Planning, 24(1), 41-59.More infoAbstract: Over the past several decades, a number of approaches (e.g., decision analysis, meta-analyses, clinical trials, analysis of claims data, longitudinal observational studies including those done through patient outcomes research teams, etc.) have been used to conduct outcomes, effectiveness, and appropriateness research. Each of these approaches has varying degrees of comparative advantage and disadvantage with respect to the other. As knowledge of outcomes and effectiveness increases, and as new issues emerge as subjects of research, these approaches may or may not be adequate to generate the necessary information and level of confidence in findings that are desired. What are the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, and what gaps exist in our methodological armamentarium? How do existing methods need to be strengthened? What is the most appropriate application of specific research methods to particular problems? What is the appropriate balance of use of the different available approaches? What types of new methodologies need to be developed to further the field of outcomes and effectiveness research? © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Figueredo, A. J., Corral-Verdugo, V., Frías-Armenta, M., Bachar, K. J., White, J., McNeill, P. L., Kirsner, B. R., & Pilarcastell-Ruiz, I. D. (2001). Blood, solidarity, status, and honor: The sexual balance of power and spousal abuse in Sonora, Mexico. Evolution and Human Behavior, 22(5), 295-328.More infoAbstract: Independent samples of 128 women and 106 men were interviewed in a study site in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Respondents were screened for involvement in a committed sexual relationship during the past year, but not with each other. Questions pertained to family structure, support, and conflict; females reported on victimization by spousal aggression and males on perpetration. Previously documented effects of their partner's mate quality ("sex") and socioeconomic status ("money") were cross-culturally replicated. The following family structure parameters were also measured: (1) the local density of female kin, (2) the local density of male kin, (3) the social support provided by local kin, (4) the socioeconomic status of close kin, and (5) the "culture of honor" revenge ideology of the respondents. The same interactions of local density of male kin that protected women from spousal abuse also empowered men to perpetrate it. The risk of spousal abuse was mitigated by the "sexual balance of power" between the family structures of potential victims and potential perpetrators. Evidence was also found partially supporting several alternative hypotheses tested regarding local cultural and ideological mechanisms (culture of honor and patriarchal beliefs), major dimensions of psychopathology (anxiety and depression) and substance abuse (alcohol), and indicators of general criminality (permissive and risk-taking attitudes). © 2001 Elsevier Science Inc.
- Shapiro, S. L., Lopez, A. M., Schwartz, G. E., Bootzin, R., Figueredo, A. J., Braden, C. J., & Kurker, S. F. (2001). Quality of life and breast cancer: Relationship to psychosocial variables. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(4), 501-519.
- Daly, K. C., & Figueredo, A. J. (2000). Habituation of sexual response in male Heliothis moths. Physiological Entomology, 25(2), 180-190.More infoAbstract: It has been generally hypothesized that habituation mediates the effects of pheromone-based disruption strategies used in the management of moth pests. The current study demonstrates that pheromone-mediated sexual response in the tobacco budworm moth, Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), can in fact be modulated by conditions consistent with the production of habituation. An ethogram was used to measure response strength in a wind tunnel experiment where male moths were allowed to respond freely to one of two different blends of female pheromone in 16 trials over 4 days. Post-test measures were collected to investigate stimulus specificity and long-term effects. In conditions appropriate to the formation of habituation, habituation will develop and disrupt male sexual response to female sex pheromone. Males repeatedly exposed to plumes of synthetic pheromone blends display a habituated response lasting up to 96 h. Habituation rate and spontaneous recovery of response strength are greater with less intense stimuli. Additionally, males habituated to one blend express no habituation of sexual response when exposed to a different blend. This indicates a high degree of stimulus specificity, which could facilitate outbreeding, and that moths attend to the configuration of the pheromone blend, not simply to its elements. © 2000 Blackwell Science Ltd.
- Figueredo, A. J., & Jacobs, W. J. (2000). Sexual strategic pluralism through a Brunswikian lens. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23(4), 603-604.More infoAbstract: Genes controlling the choice of sexual strategy must be sensitive to critical environmental contingencies, including the presence of other strategically relevant genetic traits. To determine which strategy works best for each individual, one must assess both its environment and itself within that environment. Psychosexual development involves an assessment of sociosexual affordances, strategically calibrating optimal utilization of physical and psychosocial assets.
- Figueredo, A. J., Brooks, A. J., Leff, H. S., & Sechrest, L. (2000). A meta-analytic approach to growth curve analysis. Psychological Reports, 87(2), 441-465.More infoPMID: 11086589;Abstract: A meta-analytic approach to growth curve analysis is described and illustrated by applying it to the evaluation of the Arizona Pilot Project, an experimental project for financing the treatment of the severely mentally ill. In this approach to longitudinal data analysis, each individual subject for which repeated measures are obtained is initially treated as a separate case study for analysis. This approach has at least two distinct advantages. First, it does not assume a balanced design (equal numbers of repeated observations) across all subjects; to accommodate a variable number of observations for each subject, individual growth curve parameters are differentially weighted by the number of repeated measures on which they are based. Second, it does not assume homogeneity of treatment effects (equal slopes) across all subjects. Individual differences in growth curve parameters representing potentially unequal developmental rates through time are explicitly modeled. A meta-analytic approach to growth curve analysis may be the optimal analytical strategy for longitudinal studies where either (1) a balanced design is not feasible or (2) an assumption of homogeneity of treatment effects across all individuals is theoretically indefensible. In our evaluation of the Arizona Pilot Project, individual growth curve parameters were obtained for each of the 13 rationally derived subscales of the New York Functional Assessment Survey, over time, by linear regression analysis. The slopes, intercepts, and residuals obtained for each individual were then subjected to meta-analytic causal modeling. Using factor analytic models and then general linear models for the latent constructs, the growth curve parameters of all individuals were systematically related to each other via common factors and predicted based on hypothesized exogenous causal factors. The same two highly correlated common factors were found for all three growth curve parameters analyzed, a general psychological factor and a general functional factor. The factor patterns were found to be nearly identical across the separate analyses of individual intercepts, slopes, and residuals. Direct effects on the unique factors of each subscale of the New York Functional Assessment Survey were tested for each growth curve parameter by including the common factors as hierarchically prior predictors in the structural model for each of the indicator variables, thus statistically controlling for any indirect effect produced on the indicator through the common factors. The exogenous predictors modeled were theoretically specified orthogonal contrasts for Method of Payment (comparing Arizona Pilot Project treatment or "capitation" to traditional or "fee-for-service" care as a control), Treatment Administration Site (comparing various locations within treatment or control groups), Pretreatment Assessment (comparing general functional level at intake as assigned by an Outside Assessment Team), and various interactions among these main effects. The intercepts, representing the initial status of individual subjects on both the two common factors and the 13 unique factors of the subscales of the New York Functional Assessment Survey, were found to vary significantly across many of the various different treatment conditions, treatment administration sites, and pretreatment functional levels. This indicated a severe threat to the validity of the originally intended design of the Arizona Pilot Project as a randomized experiment. When the systematic variations were statistically controlled by including intercepts as hierarchically prior predictors in the structural models for slopes, recasting the experiment as a nonequivalent groups design, the effects of the intercepts on the slopes were found to be both statistically significant and substantial in magnitude. Furthermore, the contrasts for Pretreatment Assessment scores also predicted statistically significant proportions of variance in both the two common factors and the 13 unique factors of the subscales of the New York Functional Assessment Survey for all three growth curve parameters, confirming an influence of the initial status of individual subjects on treatment effect. This empirical example illustrates both the mechanics and the many practical benefits of a meta-analytic approach to growth curve analysis in program evaluation.
- Figueredo, A. J., McKnight, P. E., McKnight, K. M., & Sidani, S. (2000). Multivariate modeling of missing data within and across assessment waves. Addiction, 95(SUPPL. 3), S361-S380.More infoPMID: 11132363;Abstract: Missing data constitute a common but widely underappreciated problem in both cross-sectional and longitudinal research. Furthermore, both the gravity of the problems associated with missing data and the availability of the applicable solutions are greatly increased by the use of multivariate analysis. The most common approaches to dealing with missing data are reviewed, such as data deletion and data imputation, and their relative merits and limitations are discussed. One particular form of data imputation based on latent variable modeling, which we call Multivariate Imputation, is highlighted as holding great promise for dealing with missing data in the context of multivariate analysis. The recent theoretical extension of latent variable modeling to growth curve analysis also permitted us to extend the same kind of solution to the problem of missing data in longitudinal studies. Data simulations are used to compare the results of multivariate imputation to other common approaches to missing data.
- Figueredo, A. J., Sales, B. D., Russell, K. P., Becker, J. V., & Kaplan, M. (2000). A Brunswikian Evolutionary-Developmental theory of adolescent sex offending. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 18(2-3), 309-329.More infoPMID: 10874291;Abstract: A Brunswikian Evolutionary-Developmental model was developed to relate the sex offending behavior of adolescents to other forms of social deviance, tracing a history of repeated frustration and failure in various competitive sexual strategies and escalation to more extreme means of obtaining sexual gratification. Four hypothetical constructs were proposed as stages in the development of sexual criminality: (1) Psycho-Social Deficiency (PSD); (2) Non-Criminal Sexuality (NCS); (3) Non-Sexual Criminality (NSC); and (4) Sexual Criminality (SC). Significant direct and indirect pathways led from PSD to SC through both NCS and NSC, each time facilitated by an interaction with PSD. Although the causal orders between stages remain equivocal, the current results are consistent with our theory and establish the heuristic value of our theoretical approach, providing empirical support for otherwise counterintuitive predictions. This interpretation also offers hope for focusing preventative intervention at one major root cause of this unfortunate cascade of consequences, Psycho-Social Deficiency. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
- Higa, K., R., O., Shin, B., & Figueredo, A. J. (2000). Understanding relationships among teleworkers' e-mail usage, e-mail richness perceptions, and e-mail productivity perceptions under a software engineering environment. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 47(2), 163-173.More infoAbstract: This study was undertaken to investigate the use of e-mail and its implications under a telework environment for distributed software engineering. For this, the relative strength between a social influence and individual attributes in affecting tele-workers' e-mail use was studied. Management support was used as the representative social influence, and age, status, and ease of use represented individual attributes. An examination was also made on how e-mail use, individual attributes, and management support affected the perceptions of e-mail's information richness and e-mail productivity. Two different types of surveys, log sheets and perception-based self-reports, as well as interviews and e-mail correspondences composed the data sources. Three hierarchical regression models were defined and tested for the hypothesis validation. Data analysis indicated that management support was a much more powerful indicator for teleworkers' media use than individual characteristics. Furthermore, although labeled as a relatively lean medium from the media richness theory perspective, e-mail could become an effective and richer communication tool through an active social construction process of management support. Finally, the management support and perception of e-mail as a rich medium were both highly influential in creating teleworkers' positive perception on e-mail productivity. This study rendered a strong indication that effective adoption of e-mail by teleworkers as an information-rich medium could benefit distributed work and distributed organizations through enhanced work productivity.
- Hunter Jr., J. A., & Figueredo, A. J. (2000). The influence of personality and history of sexual victimization in the prediction of juvenile perpetrated child molestation. Behavior Modification, 24(2), 241-263.More infoPMID: 10804682;Abstract: Structural equation modeling was used to delineate the relationship between sexual victimization and personality variables in the prediction of patterns of child molestation in adolescent males. Two hundred thirty-five adolescents, representing subsamples of sexually victimized and nonvictimized, perpetrating and nonperpetrating, and emotionally maladjusted and nonmaladjusted youths, participated in the study. Juvenile child molesters were found to have more pessimistic explanatory styles and deficits in self-sufficiency relative to nonoffending youths. A younger age at time of victimization, a greater number of incidents, a longer period of waiting to report the abuse, and a lower level of perceived family support postrevelation of the abuse were found to be predictive of subsequent sexual perpetration. Implications for treatment are discussed.
- Krauss, D. A., Sales, B. D., Becker, J. V., & Figueredo, A. J. (2000). Beyond prediction to explanation in risk assessment research: A comparison of two explanatory theories of criminality and recidivism. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 23(2), 91-112.More infoPMID: 10813111;
- Weiss, A., King, J. E., & Figueredo, A. J. (2000). The heritability of personality factors in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Behavior Genetics, 30(3), 213-221.More infoPMID: 11105395;Abstract: Human personality and behavior genetic studies have resulted in a growing consensus that five heritable factors account for most variance in human personality. Prior research showed that chimpanzee personality is composed of a dominance-related factor and five human-like factors - Surgency, Dependability, Emotional Stability, Agreeableness, and Openness. Genetic, shared zoo, and nonshared environmental variance components of the six factors were estimated by regressing squared phehotypic differences of all possible pairs of chimpanzees onto 1 - R(ij), where R(ij) equals the degree of relationship and a variable indicating whether the pair was housed in the same zoo. Dominance showed significant narrow-sense heritability. Shared zoo effects accounted for only a negligible proportion of the variance for all factors.
- White, J. W., Smith, P. H., Koss, M. P., & Figueredo, A. J. (2000). Intimate partner aggression - What have we learned? Comment on Archer (2000). Psychological Bulletin, 126(5), 690-696.More infoPMID: 10989618;Abstract: This commentary on J. Archer (2000) identifies limitations at the level of the primary data, the formal meta-analysis. and the interpretations of the results. Highlighted are concerns with the conceptual dichotomy that is the foundation of the analysis, how aggression was conceptualized and defined, and the methodological problems in the studies included in the database that were not neutralized by the meta-analysis. These include inadequate measurement of contextual factors and injury outcomes, scaling issues, and sampling concerns. The authors question the degree to which the field is advanced by this meta-analysis when the results are placed in the context of these limitations. Following American Association for the Advancement of Science directives (I. Lerch, 1999), the authors believe that inadequate attention was paid to the policy implications of the conclusions raising the potential to undermine societal efforts to eradicate violence against women.
- Corral-Verdugo, V., & Figueredo, A. J. (1999). Convergent and divergent validity of three measures of conservation behavior. The multitrait-multimethod approach. Environment and Behavior, 31(6), 805-820.More infoAbstract: Observations of the amount of reuse of glass, clothing, and metal were conducted at households of 130 individuals, and those direct observations were contrasted with the self-report of reuse of the same products. Two kinds of self-report were obtained: frequency of reuse self-reports and quantity of reuse self-reports. Thus, patterns of reuse of each particular type of material were assessed using the three methods of measurement. A multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) matrix of correlations between the reuse of these three materials, using these three methods of measurement, was analyzed. This matrix revealed the convergent and discriminant validities for the assessments of reuse. Higher correlations between direct observations and quantity self-reports were obtained than between observations and frequency reports. A confirmatory factor analysis of the MTMM matrix confirmed those results, adding significance testing to the validity assessment and to the partitioning of trait and method variance, modeled as latent factors.
- Hunter Jr., J. A., & Figueredo, A. J. (1999). Factors associated with treatment compliance in a population of juvenile sexual offenders. Sexual Abuse: Journal of Research and Treatment, 11(1), 49-67.More infoPMID: 10214393;Abstract: Structural equation modeling was utilized to assess predictors of outcomes in a sample of 204 juvenile male sexual offenders participating in community-based treatment programming. Lower levels of client denial at intake predicted successful program compliance. Higher levels of denial were found in nonadjudicated youths. Although program attrition was high (50% in the first year), relatively few youths were expelled for sexual (4.9%) or nonsexual delinquency (6.6%) over a 12- to 24-month period. Program failure during years 1 and 2 was attributable largely to expulsion for failure to comply with attendance requirements and/or therapeutic directives. Youths failing to comply were found to have higher overall levels of measured sexual maladjustment and may be at greater long-term risk for sexual recidivism. Implications of the findings for clinical risk assessment, and directions for future research, are discussed. © 1999 Plenum Publishing Corporation.
- Shin, B., R., O., Higa, K., & Figueredo, A. J. (1998). Study of teleworkers' media use. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 4, 178-187.More infoAbstract: An empirical study was performed to examine the role of individual-, contextual-, and social-level factors on the media choice of geographically distributed teleworkers. Relevant data were gathered from teleworkers of a company, who were distributed throughout several satellite offices. Data analysis indicated that teleworkers' choice of a medium resulted from the dynamics of individual-, contextual, and social-level variables. Management support as a social influence showed the strongest impact on teleworkers' media use. The study confirmed that, though regarded as a lean medium, email could become an effective and rich communication tool through an active social structuration process.
- King, J. E., & Figueredo, A. J. (1997). The Five-Factor Model plus Dominance in Chimpanzee Personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 31(2), 257-271.More infoAbstract: Forty-three trait-descriptive adjectives with representative items from the human Big-Five model were used to assess the factor structure of personality in 100 zoo chimpanzees. Interrater reliabilities were acceptably high, with an overall η of .75 and those of individual adjectives ranging from .55 to .81. Analysis of variance showed no significant interaction between zoos and individual trait descriptors or between zoos and factors based on those adjectives. There were therefore no between-zoo differences in patterns of intercorrelation among trait descriptors or among factors. Factor analysis showed that the chimpanzee ratings were accurately described by six factors, five of which resembled the human Big Five. The sixth factor was dominance related and was consistent with the central role of dominance in chimpanzee personality. Convergent and discriminant validity of the factor structure was excellent. These results are the first quantitative evidence of profound similarities in the personality structure of humans and chimpanzees. © 1997 Academic Press.
- Rowe, D. C., Vazsonyi, A. T., & Figueredo, A. J. (1997). Mating-effort in adolescence: A conditional or alternative strategy. Personality and Individual Differences, 23(1), 105-115.More infoAbstract: Mating-effort was defined as the psychological effort put forth to obtain and guard short-term mates. Hypotheses were derived that contrasted two views of high mating-effort. In the conditional strategy view, social failure would occur first and lead directly to individuals' adopting high mating-effort tactics. In the alternative strategy view, heritable dispositions would lead individuals to adopt high or low mating-effort tactics. The findings were that (i) social failure could not account for the co-variation of mating-effort and delinquency; (ii) perceived mate value was related to mating-effort only weakly; (iii) high mating-effort individuals were more, not less, sexually active; and (iv) mating-effort was familial. Although not definitive, on the whole these findings favored an alternative strategy over a conditional strategy interpretation of the choice of mating tactics among middle-class adolescents. © 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.
- Hannah, M. T., Domino, G., Figueredo, A. J., & Hendrickson, R. (1996). The prediction of ego integrity in older persons. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 56(6), 930-950.More infoAbstract: This study examined the extent to which the resolution of the Eriksonian final stage-related crisis of ego integrity versus despair is predicted by the resolution of earlier stage-related crises and by non-Eriksonian personality constructs. Subjects were administered an Eriksonian life stage measure called the Inventory of Psychosocial Balance, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Purpose-in-Life Scale, and the Self-Realization Scale. A series of alternative and hierarchically nested regression models was run to assess the direct effects of all preceding Eriksonian life stages and the non-Eriksonian personality measures on the final stage of ego integrity. The results were consistent with Eriksonian theory, which states that personality development is a continuous process in which psychosocial growth during earlier phases of life is a prerequisite for the resolution of later developmental conflicts.
- Koss, M. P., Figueredo, A. J., Bell, I., Tharan, M., & Tromp, S. (1996). Traumatic memory characteristics: A cross-validated mediational model of response to rape among employed women. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105(3), 421-432.More infoPMID: 8772012;Abstract: In a cross-validated mediational model, the authors examined characteristics of memories formed in response to rape and other intense unpleasant and pleasant experiences. Data were responses to a mailed survey of women medical center and university employees. Measurement models of memory and symptom factors and a structural model with pathways among cognitive appraisal, emotional valence, memory characteristics, and health outcomes were developed in Sample 1 (N = 1,307) and confirmed in Sample 2(N = 2,142). Rape had substantial direct effects on 2 memory factors (Clarity and Affect) and indirect effects through the construal of victimization. Rape was associated with memories described as more emotionally intense but less clear and coherent and less often thought of or talked about. Most effects on physical symptoms were nonsignificant. Implications of findings for neurohormonal and multiple representation models of emotional memory and to cognitive avoidance are discussed.
- Erickson, J. R., Stevens, S., McKnight, P., & Figueredo, A. J. (1995). Willingness for treatment as a predictor of retention and outcomes. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 14(4), 135-150.More infoPMID: 8929937;Abstract: Retention in drug treatment is important to successful outcomes. The purpose of this study was to test assumptions made in the development and implementation of the ASSET project. The three assumptions were that living conditions of the homeless adult drug user influence willingness for treatment; willingness relates to treatment tenure; and, conditions, willingness and time in treatment influence treatment outcomes. Data on alcohol use, drug use, employment and housing as well as motivation, readiness and suitability of treatment were collected from 494 homeless adults at baseline and at follow-up. Data were subjected to multivariate causal analysis using factor analytic structural equations modeling. Practical fit indices were acceptable. The measurement model confirmed a higher order construct labelled willingness encompassing motivation, readiness and suitability. The structural model demonstrated that willingness positively related to treatment tenure; willingness positively influenced change in drug use and housing; and, tenure related positively to change in housing.
- Figueredo, A. J. (1995). A stochastic optimality theory of preparedness and plasticity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 18(2), 300-301.More infoAbstract: Many now consider 'instinct' and 'learning' opposite poles of a unidimensional continuum. An alternative model with two independently varying parameters predicts different selective pressures. Behavioral adaptation matches the organism's utilizations of stimuli and responses to their ecological validities: the mean validity over evolutionary time specifies the optimal initial potency of the prepared association; the variance specifies the optimal prepared plasticity.
- Figueredo, A. J. (1995). The epigenesis of sociopathy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 18(3), 556-557.More infoAbstract: Mealey distinguishes two types of sociopathy: (1) 'primary,' or obligate, and (2) 'secondary,' or facultative. Either sociopathy evolved twice, or one form is derived from the other, e.g., through: (1) genetic assimilation generating polymorphism in the relative strength of biases favoring the development of otherwise facultative strategies, or (2) independently heritable but strategically relevant characteristics biasing the optimal selection of facultative strategies.
- Figueredo, A. J., Cox, R. L., & Rhine, R. J. (1995). A generalizability analysis of subjective personality assessments in the Stumptail macaque and the Zebra finch. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 30(2), 67-197.
- Kobayashi, J., Sales, B. D., Becker, J. V., Figueredo, A. J., & Kaplan, M. S. (1995). Perceived parental deviance, parent-child bonding, child abuse, and child sexual aggression. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 7(1), 25-44.More infoAbstract: Structural equation modeling was used to test a theoretical model of the etiology of deviant sexual aggression by adolescents. The subjects were 117 juvenile male sexual offenders who had been referred from either criminal justice or social service agencies to a clinic that treated offenders. The tested theoretical model included several family factors: perceived parental deviance, child physical and sexual abuse history, and children's bonding to their parents. The model as a whole fit the data well. Results indicated that physical abuse by the father and sexual abuse by males increased sexual aggression by adolescents. Also, children's bonding to their mother was found to decrease their sexual aggression. These results are explainable from a social learning perspective and from a parent-child attachment, or social control, perspective, but the alternative perspectives of evolutionary psychology are also considered. Directions for future research are suggested. © 1995 Plenum Publishing Corporation.
- McCloskey, L. A., Figueredo, A. J., & Koss, M. P. (1995). The effects of systemic family violence on children's mental health.. Child development, 66(5), 1239-1261.More infoPMID: 7555214;Abstract: This study examines the link between different forms of family aggression and children's symptoms of psychopathology. The goal of the study was to understand what forms children's problems might take in violent homes and whether close ties within the family (to the mother or a sibling) buffered children. Interviews with 365 mothers and 1 of their children between the ages of 6 and 12 about abuse in the home, support and closeness within the nuclear family, and mother's and children's mental health formed the basis of this study. Families were recruited from battered women's shelters and the community. We found that different forms of abuse in the home were highly interrelated and that children of battered women were at risk for child abuse. Domestic violence predicted children's general psychopathology, but we uncovered little evidence for the presence of specific sorts of disorders as a result of family dysfunction. Although mothers experiencing conjugal violence were more likely to have mental health problems, their mental health did not mediate the children's response to family conflict. Finally, there was less sibling and parental warmth in families marked by aggression, although when it was present, family social support failed to buffer children. Although the general pattern of results was consistent across respondents (mother and child), there was low agreement on symptoms of child psychopathology.
- Sell, E. J., Figueredo, A. J., & Wilcox, T. G. (1995). Assessment of Preterm Infants' Behavior (APIB): Confirmatory factor analysis of behavioral constructs. Infant Behavior and Development, 18(4), 447-457.More infoAbstract: Confirmatory analysis was used to specify behavioral domains from results of the Assessment for Preterm Infants' Behavior (APIB). The APIB measures both task performance and quality of performance, which theoretically improves the possibility of discriminating infant functional capacity beyond that obtained by measuring task performance exclusively. We hypothesized that the APIB measures six behavioral domains, including overall modulation of behavior, availability for examination, motor competency, sociability, habituation, and reactivity. The subjects were a medically heterogeneous group of 145 infants who required neonatal intensive care. Data from 157 behavioral and 41 reflex items, out of a possible 280 items, were used. The model was highly acceptable by several practical indices of fit (Bentler-Bonett Normed Fit Index = .994; Bentler-Bonett Nonnormed Fit Index = .999; Comparative Fit Index = .999). The six behavioral constructs are clinically understandable and parsimonious with respect to the behavioral measures included. The results suggest that prerequisites for social interaction of infants requiring neonatal intensive care include both overall modulation and availability, which are unique and distinct from each other and from motor competency and habituation. © 1995.
- Tromp, S., Koss, M. P., Figueredo, A. J., & Tharan, M. (1995). Are rape memories different? A comparison of rape, other unpleasant, and pleasant memories among employed women. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8(4), 607-627.
- Henneman, M. L., Papaj, D. R., Figueredo, A. J., & Vet, L. E. (1994). Egg-laying experience and acceptance of parasitized hosts by the parasitoid, Leptopilina heterotoma (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae). Journal of Insect Behavior, 8(3), 331-342.More infoAbstract: The influence of egg-laying experience on the response of females of the eucoilid parasitoid, Leptopilina heterotoma, to parasitized and unparasitized Drosophila melanogaster host larvae was examined under more controlled conditions than those used in past studies. In laboratory assays, we precisely manipulated both the number of eggs laid by females and the kind of larvae (parasitized versus unparasitized) in which the eggs were laid. We found that the tendency to avoid laying eggs in parasitized hosts depended markedly on whether or not eggs had been laid previously, but depended little on whether those eggs had been laid in parasitized or unparasitized hosts. The observed effect of general egg-laying experience on avoidance of parasitized hosts may reflect responses to either changes in the wasp's internal state (perhaps, changes in egg load) or changes in the wasp's neural representation of the external environment (such as those presumed to occur during learning). In light of these results, we offer a tentative reinterpretation of several earlier studies. © 1995 Plenum Publishing Corporation.
- Figueredo, A. J. (1993). Critical multiplism, meta-analysis, and generalization: An integrative commentary. Program evaluation: A pluralistic enterprise, 60, 3-12.
- Figueredo, A. J., & McCloskey, L. A. (1993). Sex, money, and paternity: The evolutionary psychology of domestic violence. Ethology and Sociobiology, 14(6), 353-379.More infoAbstract: Three hundred sixty-five women, with children between six and 12 years of age, were interviewed and tested on various issues theoretically related to domestic violence. The sample was stratified into three subsamples of volunteer women recruited from: (1) a temporary shelter for battered women, (2) the local community and screened specifically for the reported presence of domestic violence, (3) the same community sources and screened only for the reported presence of children of the specified age group. Factor analytic structural equation models were constructed for the predictors of violence by the woman's main sexual partner toward the woman and towards the woman's child. Common factors were constructed for the four major dimensions of domestic violence- verbal, physical, escalated, and sexual-and for the three major predictors of domestic violence-sex, money, and paternity. The sex factor indexed the general quality of the sexual relationship dynamics, the money factor indexed the couple's socioeconomic relations, and the paternity factor indexed the genetic stakes held in the family by the woman's main sexual partner. These three factors jointly accounted for 60% of the variance in violence toward the woman. Violence towards the woman-the only significant direct effect-accounted for 26% of the variance in violence toward the child. These findings suggest that the principal perpetrators of domestic violence may be competitively disadvantaged males, pursuing coercive sexual and parental strategies without regard to the deleterious indirect effects upon their own genetic offspring. © 1993.
- Sechrest, L., & Figueredo, A. J. (1993). Program evaluation. Annual Review of Psychology, 44(1), 645-674.
- Figueredo, A. J., & Baker, T. C. (1992). Reduction of the response to sex pheromone in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) following successive pheromonal exposures. Journal of Insect Behavior, 5(3), 347-363.More infoAbstract: The effects of prior pheromonal experience upon the pheromone- mediated upwind flight response was examined in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Adult male G. molesta were subjected to a parallel series of staggered and repeated pheromonal exposures in a sustained-flight wind tunnel. Levels of response to pheromone in male G. molesta significantly decreased in a (a) rectilinear function with increased ages of individuals, (b) logarithmic function of successive trials, and (c) steeper logarithmic function of successive trials with increased dosage of sex pheromone. The baseline levels of responding were not affected by either the (a) dosage of sex pheromone, (b) posteclosion ages of individuals for their initial exposures once the main effect of age itself was estimated, (c) elapsed time in hours between trials, or (d) discrete days of testing as integral intervals, disregarding hours within days. © 1992 Plenum Publishing Corporation.
- Figueredo, A. J., Hetherington, J., & Sechrest, L. B. (1992). Water under the bridge: A response to Bingham, Heywood, and White. Evaluation Review, 17, 40-62.
- Figueredo, A. J., Petrinovich, L., & Ross, D. M. (1992). The quantitative ethology of the Zebra finch: A study in comparative psychometrics. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 27(3), 413-436.
- Ferketich, S. L., Figueredo, A. J., & Knapp, T. R. (1991). The multitrait-multimethod approach to construct validity.. Research in nursing & health, 14(4), 315-320.More infoPMID: 1891617;Abstract: The multitrait-multimethod matrix approach as proposed by Campbell and Fiske (1959) was an important contribution to our understanding of the nature of validation procedures. There are, however, problems encountered when using the Campbell and Fiske (1959) approach. The purpose of this article is to discuss the method and selected problems, and to propose an alternate approach to address those problems.
- Figueredo, A. J., Ferketich, S. L., & Knapp, T. R. (1991). More on MTMM: the role of confirmatory factor analysis.. Research in nursing & health, 14(5), 387-391.More infoPMID: 1891624;Abstract: This article is the second of two on the use of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) as a method to assess construct validity. The construct validation criteria required by the conventional MTMM approach are satisfied only by certain ideal data sets, such as those in which the method variance of measures is very low. The CFA approach to multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) data is more general, in that violations of those stringent criteria can be managed. Another limitation of the conventional MTMM approach is that only a relatively small number of indicators can be examined by bivariate analysis. The economy of the CFA approach permits the analysis of a much larger number of indicators. In this article, a data set is analyzed using the CFA approach. Results are presented that illustrate the application of this statistical method.
- Figueredo, A. J. (1989). Host-cue information processing by foraging jewel wasps: Response-bias tracking of expected host encounter rates, not modified profitabilities. Psychobiology, 17(4), 435-444.