- Professor, Educational Policy Studies and Practice
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Ldrshp For Educ+Org ChgEDL 627 (Spring 2021)
Prob In Educ LeadershipEDL 598 (Spring 2021)
Disciplined Inquiry EducEDL 504 (Fall 2020)
DissertationEDL 920 (Fall 2020)
Independent StudyEDL 699 (Fall 2020)
Rsrch+Data-Based Dec MknEDL 622 (Fall 2020)
DissertationEDL 920 (Summer I 2020)
DissertationEDL 920 (Spring 2020)
Independent StudyEDL 699 (Spring 2020)
Prob In Educ LeadershipEDL 598 (Spring 2020)
DissertationEDL 920 (Fall 2019)
Leadership For Educ ChngEDL 604 (Fall 2019)
Rsrch+Data-Based Dec MknEDL 622 (Fall 2019)
DissertationEDL 920 (Spring 2019)
Independent StudyEDL 699 (Spring 2019)
Prob In Educ LeadershipEDL 598 (Spring 2019)
Adv Found Educ LeadershpEDL 620 (Fall 2018)
DissertationEDL 920 (Fall 2018)
Leadership For Educ ChngEDL 604 (Fall 2018)
DissertationEDL 920 (Spring 2018)
Rsrch+Data-Based Dec MknEDL 622 (Spring 2018)
Disciplined Inquiry EducEDL 504 (Fall 2017)
DissertationEDL 920 (Fall 2017)
Independent StudyEDL 699 (Fall 2017)
Leadership For Educ ChngEDL 604 (Fall 2017)
DissertationEDL 920 (Spring 2017)
Topic in Educ LeadershipEDL 696A (Spring 2017)
DissertationEDL 920 (Fall 2016)
Rsrch+Data-Based Dec MknEDL 622 (Fall 2016)
DissertationEDL 920 (Spring 2016)
- Eklund, K. R., Bosworth, L. K., & Bauman, S. A. (2015). Promoting safe schools for all students. In Prevention science in school settings: Complex relationships and processes.. New York: Springer.
- Bosworth, K., Ford, L., & Hernandaz, D. (2011). School Climate Factors Contributing to Student and Faculty Perceptions of Safety in Select Arizona Schools. Journal of School Health, 81(4), 194-201.More infoPMID: 21392011;Abstract: Background: To ensure that schools are safe places where students can learn, researchers and educators must understand student and faculty safety concerns. This study examines student and teacher perceptions of school safety. Methods: Twenty-two focus groups with students and faculty were conducted in 11 secondary schools. Schools were selected from a stratified sample to vary in location, proximity to Indian reservations, size, and type. The data analysis was based on grounded theory. Results: In 9 of 11 schools, neither faculty nor students voiced overwhelming concerns about safety. When asked what makes school safe, students tended to report physical security features. School climate and staff actions also increased feelings of safety. Faculty reported that relationships and climate are key factors in making schools safe. High student performance on standardized tests does not buffer students from unsafe behavior, nor does living in a dangerous neighborhood necessarily lead to more drug use or violence within school walls. School climate seemed to explain the difference between schools in which students and faculty reported higher versus lower levels of violence and alcohol and other drug use. Conclusions: The findings raise provocative questions about school safety and provide insight into elements that lead to perceptions of safety. Some schools have transcended issues of location and neighborhood to provide an environment perceived as safe. Further study of those schools could provide insights for policy makers, program planners, and educational leaders. © 2011, American School Health Association.
- Hernandez, D., Floden, L., & Bosworth, K. (2010). How safe is a school? An exploratory study comparing measures and perceptions of safety. Journal of School Violence, 9(4), 357-374.More infoAbstract: This exploratory study investigates the relation between incident reports to local law enforcement, and students' and teachers' perceptions of school safety. Using a combination of grounded theory and statistics, we compared quantitative data collected from law enforcement agencies with qualitative data provided by students and teachers during focus groups. Findings show that incidents of serious violence and attacks, minor violence, and other school-related crime, in that order, constituted the most frequently reported incidents. Infrequently reported events included intimidation and bullying, and weapon and alcohol possession. In some cases, even though both students and teachers had similar perceptions of safety, their perceptions did not necessarily match the frequency of official incident reports. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
- Arenas, A., Bosworth, K., & Kwandayi, H. (2006). Civic service through schools: An international perspective. Compare, 36(1), 23-40.More infoAbstract: Civic service, which refers to activities that seek to improve the local, national or international community either through community service or service learning, is widespread in secondary schools around the world. Despite this pervasive presence, there are few studies that approach the subject from a crosscomparison perspective. This article addresses this gap by providing a comprehensive review of the international literature on civic service in terms of history, theory, research and practice. In terms of history and theory, the article brings together the work of several key proponents of civic service who, despite working in different countries and continents, placed civic service high in their educational agenda. In terms of research, it presents the most uptodate research on the potential benefits and pitfalls of civic service. In terms of practice, it lists various limitations related to its implementation and presents possibilities for overcoming these. This section stresses the importance of establishing a respectful and honest relationship with intended beneficiaries to avoid fostering unhealthy social patterns, a key problem of many civic service programs. The article ends with areas for future research.
- Bosworth, K., & Earthman, E. (2002). From theory to practice: School leaders' perspectives on resiliency. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(3), 299-306.More infoPMID: 11836711;Abstract: Resiliency describes the ability of children to overcome adversity and become successful adults. School-based programs, strategies, or policies designed to enhance resiliency are relatively new. School administrators (n = 1O) who had attended an informational meeting about a community-wide resiliency initiative were interviewed about their understanding of resiliency and their present and future plans to implement resiliency initiatives in their schools. Interviewees provided various definitions of resiliency, ranging from a relatively narrow focus on individual characteristics to a broad focus on various environmental factors. Only those administrators who uniformly held the belief that resiliency was an environmental phenomenon that could be promoted in a school setting decided to participate in the community-wide initiative. However, the concept of resiliency has captured the imagination of these school administrators and is seen as a relevant organizing point for designing school programs and school environments. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Ferreira, M. M., Smith, G. R., & Bosworth, K. (2002). Critical dimensions of the caring culture of an urban middle school. International Electronic Journal for Leadership in Learning, 6, 1-19.More infoAbstract: The purpose of this study was to examine several operational arenas that functioned as organizational vehicles for the expression of a school's caring culture. Data from interviews with nineteen teachers, four administrators, and eight professional staff members, and participant observations indicated that the principal was a vital force in creating and sustaining a caring culture at this school. In addition to the administration, three other areas of school functioning helped sustain the caring culture at this middle school: mission and goals, curriculum and instruction, and structures. However, although the school's stakeholders had made strides in developing a culture of caring at their school, future efforts needed to focus, especially, on including students and their parents as important contributors to such an endeavor.
- Espelage, D. L., Bosworth, K., & Simon, T. R. (2001). Short-term stability and prospective correlates of bullying in middle-school students: An examination of potential demographic, psychosocial, and environmental influences. Violence and Victims, 16(4), 411-426.More infoPMID: 11506450;Abstract: Stability and change of bullying over a four-month interval was examined in 516 middle school students (grades 6-8). The stability coefficient was .65 for the entire sample. There was a significant increase in bullying behavior from Time 1 to Time 2 for 6th grade students; no significant change in bullying was found among 7th or 8th graders. For 6th graders, a greater confidence in using non-violent strategies was associated with less bullying at Time 2, while beliefs supportive of violence and misconduct, less positive adult influences, and more negative peer influences were associated with greater likelihood of bullying at Time 2. Higher levels of impulsivity, anger, and depression were also associated with greater levels of bullying over time. Several explanations for the increase in bullying behaviors among 6th graders are discussed and linked to intervention efforts.
- Bosworth, K., Espelage, D., DuBay, T., Daytner, G., & Karageorge, K. (2000). Preliminary evaluation of a multimedia violence prevention program for adolescents. American Journal of Health Behavior, 24(4), 268-280.More infoAbstract: Objective: To evaluate the impact of a computer-based intervention (SMART Talk) containing a number of theoretically driven anger-management and conflict-resolution modules. Methods: Middle school students (N=558) were randomly assigned by academic teams to either intervention or control group and completed assessments before and after implementation. MANCOVA was used to assess differences between the 2 groups on self-awareness, attitudes toward violence, self-efficacy, intentions to use nonviolent strategies, and aggressive behavior. Results: The intervention was successful in diminishing students' beliefs supportive of violence and increasing their intentions to use nonviolent strategies. No outcome differences were found for gender, race, or eligibility for free or reduced lunch (a measure of socioeconomic status). Conclusions: Multimedia might be useful in changing some of the mediating factors associated with violence and might have the potential for changing violent behavior.
- Espelage, D. L., Bosworth, K., & Simon, T. R. (2000). Examining the social context of bullying behaviors in early adolescence. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78(3), 326-333.More infoAbstract: Familial and adult influences, peer relations, and distal contextual factors were tested as correlates of a continuous measure of bullying behavior within a sample of 558 middle school students. Only 19.5% of the sample reported exhibiting no bullying behavior in the past 30 days. Parental physical discipline, time spent without adult supervision, negative peer influences, and neighborhood safety concerns were each positively associated with bullying behavior. In contrast, positive adult role models were associated with less bullying behavior. Results suggest that counselors should focus prevention and intervention efforts on the risk factors within the larger social context of an adolescent's life.
- Bosworth, K., Espelage, D. L., & Simon, T. R. (1999). Factors associated with bullying behavior in middle school students. Journal of Early Adolescence, 19(3), 341-362.More infoAbstract: In this study, bullying was examined as a continuum of mild-to-extreme behaviors, and the potential correlates of bullying others were delineated. To improve identification and targeting of those youth at risk for bullying, demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial correlates were tested on a continuous measure of bullying behavior rated according to the number and frequency of behaviors. Among 558 middle school students surveyed in 1995, only 20% reported no bullying behavior. In multiple regression analysis, misconduct, anger, beliefs supportive of violence, confidence in using nonviolent strategies, and intentions to use nonviolent strategies were associated with levels of bullying behavior. Although boys reported more bullying behavior than did girls, gender was not a significant predictor in the multiple regression analysis. These study results were inconsistent with the perspective that early adolescents were either bullies or nonbullies and indicated the need for a comprehensive approach to preventing bullying behavior.
- Bosworth, K., Gingiss, P. M., Potthoff, S., & Roberts-Gray, C. (1999). A Bayesian model to predict the success of the implementation of health and education innovations in school-centered programs. Evaluation and Program Planning, 22(1), 1-11.More infoAbstract: Health and education practitioners, evaluators, and researchers have little guidance to help them translate implementation research into meaningful implementation strategies. This article describes the development and testing of a model to help schools assess their likelihood of successfully implementing health education innovations. The model was developed using an integrative group process technique that captures experts' qualitative and quantitative judgments as a subjective Bayesian probability model. The experts developed a measurable definition of successful implementation, identified eight factors containing 40 questions relevant for predicting successful implementation, and specified the diagnostic value of each of the factors. Internal validation showed a correlation of 0.92 between the model scores and the experts' direct ratings of 100 hypothetical school profiles. Preliminary external and content validation have been conducted. Application of the model to planning, management, and evaluation of school-based innovations is discussed.
- Bosworth, K. (1998). Assessment of drug abuse prevention curricula developed at the local level. Journal of Drug Education, 28(4), 307-325.More infoPMID: 10097482;Abstract: Public schools are a critical site for drug abuse prevention and education. Although in recent years prevention curriculum developers have been able to identify successful strategies, it is not clear how well these findings have been transferred to local schools. This article reports on a study of schools that have developed their own drug abuse prevention curriculum. The process that these schools used is compared to a model of curriculum development. In general, the process that local schools use is characterized by high levels of involvement by a variety of personnel, low levels of training, little use of resources outside the school corporation, poor training of teachers who will be implementing the curriculum, and little evaluation. Availability of external funds for development from federal or state sources were powerful motivators for curriculum development. Recommendations for changes in professional development and curriculum materials availability are made.
- Bosworth, K., Espelage, D., & DuBay, T. (1998). A computer-based violence prevention intervention for young adolescents: Pilot study. Adolescence, 33(132), 785-795.More infoPMID: 9886006;Abstract: Technology must be explored as a means of teaching adolescents ways to resolve conflict without violence. This paper reports on the development and pilot testing of a multimedia tool (SMART Talk) that teaches anger management, perspective taking, and mediation skills using games, interactive assessment interviews, cartoons, and animation. Results indicate that SMART Talk is popular with both males and females, and its use increases knowledge and practice of prosocial behaviors.
- Dusenbury, L., Falco, M., Lake, A., Brannigan, R., & Bosworth, K. (1997). Nine Critical Elements of Promising Violence Prevention Programs. Journal of School Health, 67(10), 409-414.More infoPMID: 9503346;Abstract: To identify approaches to school-based violence prevention that are most promising and those that may not be effective, a review of the literature was conducted. In addition, telephone interviews were conducted with 15 experts on topics related to school-based violence prevention. Nine critical ingredients of promising approaches to violence prevention were identified. Specifically, the approaches are comprehensive and multifaceted; begin in the primary grades and are reinforced across grade level; are developmentally tailored; and cover appropriate content area. Appropriate content areas include information; anger management; social perspective taking; decision making and social problem solving; peer negotiation and conflict management; social resistance skills; active listening and effective communication; and material on prejudice, sexism, racism and male-female relationship. In addition, promising programs use interactive teaching techniques, are culturally sensitive, and provide teacher training. They promote a positive school climate and foster norms against violence. Six violence prevention activities that appear not to be effective are also discussed. The authors conclude with a discussion of the need for more rigorous evaluation of violence prevention programs.
- Bosworth, K., Espelage, D., DuBay, T., Dahlberg, L. L., & Daytner, G. (1996). Using multimedia to teach conflict-resolution skills to young adolescents. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 12(5 SUPPL.), 65-74.More infoPMID: 8909626;Abstract: SMART Talk is a multimedia, computer-based violence-prevention intervention that employs games, simulations, graphics, cartoons, and interactive interviews to engage young adolescents in learning new skills to resolve conflicts without violence. Eight modules cover anger management, dispute resolution, and perspective taking. SMART Talk was pilot-tested in a small-city middle school during a three-week period. After the pilot testing, SMART Talk was implemented in a middle school (sixth, seventh, and eighth grades) with a diverse socioeconomic population, located within 10 miles of a major Midwestern metropolis. The 16-week intervention began in January. Students had access to SMART Talk during the school day and could use the computer alone or with a partner. Subjects for whom parental permission (n = 558) was granted were given a preintervention and postintervention survey. The survey measured demographic, psychosocial, and environmental factors as well as aggressive and other violence-related behaviors. After the pretest, two teams from each grade were randomly assigned to the intervention group and one team to the control group. Only students in the intervention group had access to SMART Talk during the 16-week intervention period. After the posttest, control subjects had access to SMART Talk. Additional data for the evaluation were collected through archival records of grades and school disciplinary actions. All variables indicated comparability between intervention and control groups. As a population, 84% of the students were Caucasian and 9% were African American. Psychosocial variables indicated 30- day frequently angry (64%), 30-day depression (15%), and impulsivity (28%). Environmental variables indicated that 68% reported they could get a gun easily, 59% feel unsafe in their neighborhood, and 24% were personally affected by violence. Violence-related variables indicated 30-day threatened to hit (45%), 30-day hit someone (56%), bullying behavior (29%), and fighting (38%). Overall, a significant percentage of the sixth-, seventh-, and eighth- graders in this study have engaged in aggressive or risky behaviors such as fighting and bullying other students. Because many of these students frequently are angry, feel unsafe in their neighborhood, and have been personally affected by violence, violence- prevention programs are warranted in this school. SMART Talk gave the students an avenue to explore anger- management strategies and conflict-resolution and perspective-taking skills. Medical Subject Headings (MESH): violence, adolescents, multimedia, computer graphics, prevention, intervention studies, conflict.
- Bosworth, K., & Cueto, S. (1994). Drug abuse prevention curricula in public and private schools in Indiana.. Journal of Drug Education, 24(1), 21-31.More infoPMID: 8046548;Abstract: Recent research on drug education has focused on public schools. This study compares public school drug education programs with such efforts in private schools in one midwestern state. All schools in the state were asked to respond to a survey on curricula and training. This study reports on the types of prevention curricula used and at what grades, as well as the number of schools with trained staff. For almost every grade a higher percentage of public schools was found to be implementing drug education programs than private schools. This was manifested in public schools developing their own programs and/or purchasing commercially available drug curricula. Although an equal number of private and public schools have trained staff, less than half of all schools report a trained staff at each grade level. Directions for future research based on these results are suggested.
- Bosworth, K., Gustafson, D. H., & Hawkins, R. P. (1994). The BARN system: Use and impact of adolescent health promotion via computer. Computers in Human Behavior, 10(4), 467-482.More infoAbstract: This paper reports the results of a study of the acceptance and impact of BARN (Body Awareness Resource Network), a computer-based health promotion/behavior change system for use by adolescents. BARN provided students, grades 6-12, with information and skill-building activities on the following topics: AIDS, alcohol, and other drugs, body management, human sexuality, smoking, and stress management. During the 2 years that BARN use was studied, it was used heavily by both middle school and high school students, and particularly attracted adolescents who had already experimented with risk-taking behaviors. Those teens at higher risk for escalating problems selected the relevant BARN topics. Overall, users of BARN were more likely to remain free of risk-taking behaviors than nonusers of BARN. BARN use was also associated with improvements in risk-relevant behaviors such as contraceptive use, stress reduction, cessation of smoking by light smokers, reduction of alcohol use, and reduction of problems associated with alcohol use. No relationship was found between BARN use and initiation of sexual activity, stress prevention, or onset of either alcohol use or smoking. Results suggest that a computer-based system may be a powerful tool for the reduction of risk-taking behavior in adolescents. © 1994.
- Gustafson, D. H., Bosworth, K., Treece, C., Wu, Y. -., Palmer, C. G., Moberg, D. P., & Hawkins, R. P. (1994). Predicting adolescent problem use of marijuana: Development and testing of a Bayesian model. International Journal of the Addictions, 29(7), 861-886.More infoPMID: 8050832;Abstract: This paper reports on the development and testing of a risk assessment index for problem marijuana use designed to guide teenagers through an extensive computer-based support system intended to help them improve marijuana-related behaviors. Bayesian decision theory, used as the basis of the index development process, offers the advantage of building the index on subjective judgments of experts and does not require a large empirical data base. The index was found to predict an independent panel's ratings of teenager risk, and predict the marijuana use of 10th graders using self- reports of their profiles in the 7th grade. Implications for future risk assessment developments are discussed.
- Bosworth, K., & Sailes, J. (1993). Content and teaching strategies in 10 selected drug abuse prevention curricula.. The Journal of school health, 63(6), 247-253.More infoPMID: 8412035;Abstract: This paper reports on content and teaching strategies in 10 drug abuse prevention curricula available to public and private schools. While similarities existed among the curricula, they employed a range of content as well as strategies. Interactive teaching strategies needed to implement the curricula include full class discussion, small group activities, brainstorm, and role play. Due to the complexity of the strategies, the curricula may not provide sufficient background information or training for teacher implementation in the classroom.
- Gustafson, D., Wise, M., McTavish, F., Taylor, J. O., Wolberg, W., Stewart, J., Smalley, R. V., & Bosworth, K. (1993). Development and pilot evaluation of a computer-based support system for women with breast cancer. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 11(4), 69-93.More infoAbstract: A computer-based support system was developed to help women cope with the crisis of breast cancer. The system, called Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (CHESS) contains integrated information, referral, decision, and social support programs. It was developed with intensive input from potential users through needs-assessment surveys and field testing. This article reports on the results of two pilot studies involving 30 women with breast cancer. The preliminary versions of CHESS were used extensively by older and younger women and by college and high school graduates. Participants in the pilot studies suggested several content enhancements and user-friendly aids for the developing system. User surveys indicated that CHESS was easy to use and would be valuable to other women with breast cancer, their partners, and their adult children. The women reported that they experienced more positive emotions and fewer negative emotions as a result of using the system.
- Gustafson, D. H., Bosworth, K., Hawkins, R. P., Boberg, E. W., & Bricker, E. (1992). CHESS: a computer-based system for providing information, referrals, decision support and social support to people facing medical and other health-related crises.. Proceedings / the . Annual Symposium on Computer Application [sic] in Medical Care. Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care, 161-165.More infoPMID: 1482860;PMCID: PMC2248029;Abstract: CHESS (the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System) is an interactive, computer-based system to support people facing health-related crises or concerns. CHESS provides information, referral to service providers, support in making tough decisions and networking to experts and others facing the same concerns. CHESS will improve access to health and human services for people who would otherwise face psychological, social, economic or geographic barriers to receiving services. CHESS has developed programs in five specific topic areas: Academic Crisis, Adult Children of Alcoholics, AIDS/HIV Infection, Breast Cancer and Sexual Assault. The lessons learned, and the structures developed, will serve as a model for future implementation of CHESS programs in a broad range of other topic areas. CHESS is designed around three major desired outcomes: 1) improving the emotional health status of users; 2) increasing the cost-effective use of health and human services; and 3) reducing the incidence of risk-taking behaviors that can lead to injury or illness. Pilot-testing and initial analysis of controlled evaluation data has shown that CHESS is extensively used, is useful and easy-to-use, and produces positive emotional outcomes. Further evaluation in continuing.
- Bosworth, K., & Yoast, R. (1991). DIADS: computer-based system for development of school drug prevention programs.. Journal of Drug Education, 21(3), 231-245.More infoPMID: 1919961;Abstract: The Drug Information, Assessment and Decisions for Schools (DIADS) is a computer-based information and decisions support system for the development of school drug abuse prevention programs. DIADS provides access to a cost-effective planning resource that has information to programs about alcohol, other drugs, and prevention. Also, DIADS helps the school assess the effectiveness of its current prevention efforts using an expert-generated school assessment model containing fourteen factors. Feedback from the assessment provides suggestions for improvements in current prevention programs. DIADS guides the selection of future activities and helps in program planning. Pilot test of DIADS at several sites indicates school personnel find the information on DIADS helpful, timely and easy to access.
- Gustafson, D. H., Tillotson, T., & Bosworth, K. (1990). Local survey of HIV+ individuals. American Journal of Public Health, 80(8), 1000-.More infoPMID: 2368841;PMCID: PMC1404787;
- Sainfort, F. C., Gustafson, D. H., Bosworth, K., & Hawkins, R. P. (1990). Decision support systems effectiveness: Conceptual framework and empirical evaluation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 45(2), 232-252.More infoAbstract: Decision Support Systems (DSS) are designed to help human beings in solving problems more efficiently or making better decisions. While an increasing number of DSS have been and are developed, the effectiveness of such systems has not yet been demonstrated. This study proposes a conceptual framework for measuring the effectiveness of DSS and reports the results of a before-and-after study designed to compare two experimental groups of problem solvers assisted by one of two technologies for conflict resolution with a control group without any technology. The two technologies that are examined in this paper consist of a computerized DSS for conflict resolution, Resolve(!), and a videotape on conflict resolution, Video. Various measures of the problem solving episode were recorded, including both process and outcome measures. Overall, the groups with access to the technologies perceived a significantly better resolution of the problem they addressed than their control group counterpart. The two technologies differed essentially on two out of 11 variabales: subjects assigned to the computerized DSS technology generated more alternative solutions to the problem they tried to solve and reported a higher perceived progress in the resolution of the problem, than did subjects who were assigned to the videotape technology. © 1990.
- Gustafson, D. H., Bosworth, K., Chewning, B., & Hawkins, R. P. (1987). Computer-based health promotion: combining technological advances with problem-solving techniques to effect successful health behavior changes.. Annual Review of Public Health, 8, 387-415.More infoPMID: 3555528;
- Bosworth, K., Gustafson, D. H., Hawkins, R. P., Chewning, B., & Day, T. (1983). Adolescents, health education, and computers: the Body Awareness Resource Network (BARN).. Health education, 14(6), 58-60.More infoPMID: 6443961;