- Associate Professor, Immunobiology
- Associate Professor, Surgery
- Associate Professor, BIO5 Institute
- Associate Professor, Genetics - GIDP
Deepta Bhattacharya received his PhD from the University of California, Berkeley, studying the role of the NF-kB transcription factor in survival and B cell class switching. For his postdoctoral fellowship, he trained at Stanford University, studying the cell biology of hematopoietic stem cells and their differentiated progeny. In 2008, he began his own lab at Washington University in St. Louis, first as an Assistant Professor and then as a tenured Associate Professor. Dr. Bhattacharya returned in 2017 to his birthplace of Tucson to join the Department of Immunobiology, where his lab continues to study both stem cells and antibody responses to infections and vaccines.
- Ph.D. Molecular and Cell Biology
- University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States
- Regulation of immunoglobulin isotype switching and apoptosis by NF-kB
- B.S. Biochemistry
- Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, United States
- Catalytic reduction of cyclohexanecarbonyl chloride by electropolymerized nickel(I) salen
- Washington University School of Medicine (2008 - 2017)
- Stanford University, Stanford, California (2003 - 2008)
- University Outstanding Graduate Student Instructor
- University of California, Berkeley, Spring 1999
- Phi Beta Kappa
- Phi Beta Kappa, Spring 1996
- Indiana University Undergraduate Research Scholarship
- Indiana University, Summer 1995
- Indiana University Honors Division Scholarship
- Indiana University, Fall 1992
- American Cancer Society Research Scholar Award
- American Cancer Society, Fall 2013
- New York Stem Cell Foundation-Robertson Investigator Award
- The New York Stem Cell Foundation, Fall 2012
- National Institutes of Health K01 Career Development Award
- National Institutes of Health, Fall 2007
- National Institutes of Health T32 Postdoctoral Fellowship
- National Institutes of Health, Spring 2007
- National Institutes of Health, Spring 2003
- Cancer Research Institute Postdoctoral Fellowship
- Cancer Research Institute, Spring 2004
B cells, antibodies, stem cells, flaviviruses
DissertationIMB 920 (Spring 2021)
Honors Independent StudyMCB 399H (Spring 2021)
ResearchIMB 900 (Spring 2021)
Trainee SeminarIMB 696B (Spring 2021)
Basic and Advanced ImmunologyIMB 548 (Fall 2020)
DissertationIMB 920 (Fall 2020)
Honors Independent StudyMCB 399H (Fall 2020)
Student SeminarIMB 696B (Fall 2020)
Directed ResearchMCB 792 (Spring 2020)
DissertationIMB 920 (Spring 2020)
Student SeminarIMB 696B (Spring 2020)
Basic and Advanced ImmunologyIMB 548 (Fall 2019)
ResearchIMB 900 (Fall 2019)
Student SeminarIMB 696B (Fall 2019)
Introduction to ResearchMCB 795A (Spring 2019)
ResearchIMB 900 (Spring 2019)
Student SeminarCMM 696B (Spring 2019)
Basic and Advanced ImmunologyIMB 548 (Fall 2018)
Introduction to ResearchMCB 795A (Fall 2018)
ResearchIMB 900 (Fall 2018)
Student SeminarCMM 696B (Fall 2018)
Introduction to ResearchMCB 795A (Spring 2018)
Basic and Advanced ImmunologyIMB 548 (Fall 2017)
Introduction to ResearchMCB 795A (Fall 2017)
- Zbesko, J. C., Frye, J. B., Becktel, D. A., Gerardo, D. K., Stokes, J., Calderon, K., Nguyen, T. V., Bhattacharya, D., & Doyle, K. P. (2021). IgA natural antibodies are produced following T-cell independent B-cell activation following stroke. Brain, behavior, and immunity, 91, 578-586.More infoUp to 30% of stroke patients experience cognitive decline within one year of their stroke. There are currently no FDA-approved drugs that can prevent post-stroke cognitive decline, in part due to a poor understanding of the mechanisms involved. We have previously demonstrated that a B-lymphocyte response to stroke, marked by IgA + cells, can cause delayed cognitive dysfunction in mice and that a similar adaptive immune response occurs in the brains of some human stroke patients that suffer from vascular dementia. The stimuli which trigger B-lymphocyte activation following stroke, and their target antigens, are still unknown. Therefore, to learn more about the mechanisms by which B-lymphocytes become activated following stroke we first characterized the temporal kinetics of the B-lymphocyte, T-lymphocyte, and plasma cell (PC) response to stroke in the brain by immunohistochemistry (IHC). We discovered that B-lymphocyte, T-lymphocyte, and plasma cell infiltration within the infarct progressively increases between 2 and 7 weeks after stroke. We then compared the B-lymphocyte response to stroke in WT, MHCII, CD4, and MyD88 mice to determine if B-lymphocytes mature into IgA + PCs through a T-lymphocyte and MyD88 dependent mechanism. Our data from a combination of IHC and flow cytometry indicate that following stroke, a population of IgA + PCs develops independently of CD4 + helper T-lymphocytes and MyD88 signaling. Subsequent sequencing of immunoglobulin genes of individual IgA + PCs present within the infarct identified a novel population of natural antibodies with few somatic mutations in complementarity-determining regions. These findings indicate that a population of IgA + PCs develops in the infarct following stroke by B-lymphocytes interacting with one or more thymus independent type 2 (TI-2) antigens, and that they produce IgA natural antibodies.
- Baumgarth, N., Nikolich-Žugich, J., Lee, F. E., & Bhattacharya, D. (2020). Antibody Responses to SARS-CoV-2: Let's Stick to Known Knowns. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 205(9), 2342-2350.More infoThe scale of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has thrust immunology into the public spotlight in unprecedented ways. In this article, which is part opinion piece and part review, we argue that the normal cadence by which we discuss science with our colleagues failed to properly convey likelihoods of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 to the public and the media. As a result, biologically implausible outcomes were given equal weight as the principles set by decades of viral immunology. Unsurprisingly, questionable results and alarmist news media articles have filled the void. We suggest an emphasis on setting expectations based on prior findings while avoiding the overused approach of assuming nothing. After reviewing Ab-mediated immunity after coronavirus and other acute viral infections, we posit that, with few exceptions, the development of protective humoral immunity of more than a year is the norm. Immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is likely to follow the same pattern.
- Jamwal, D. R., Laubitz, D., Harrison, C. A., Figliuolo da Paz, V., Cox, C. M., Wong, R., Midura-Kiela, M., Gurney, M. A., Besselsen, D. G., Setty, P., Lybarger, L., Bhattacharya, D., Wilson, J. M., Ghishan, F. K., & Kiela, P. R. (2020). Intestinal Epithelial Expression of MHCII Determines Severity of Chemical, T-Cell-Induced, and Infectious Colitis in Mice. Gastroenterology, 159(4), 1342-1356.e6.More infoIntestinal epithelial cells (IECs) provide a barrier that separates the mucosal immune system from the luminal microbiota. IECs constitutively express low levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II proteins, which are upregulated upon exposure to interferon gamma. We investigated the effects of deleting MHCII proteins specifically in mice with infectious, dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-, and T-cell-induced colitis.
- Nikolich-Zugich, J., Knox, K. S., Rios, C. T., Natt, B., Bhattacharya, D., & Fain, M. J. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 in older adults: what we may expect regarding pathogenesis, immune responses, and outcomes. GeroScience, 42(2), 505-514.More infoSARS-CoV-2 virus, the causative agent of the coronavirus infectious disease-19 (COVID-19), is taking the globe by storm, approaching 500,000 confirmed cases and over 21,000 deaths as of March 25, 2020. While under control in some affected Asian countries (Taiwan, Singapore, Vietnam), the virus demonstrated an exponential phase of infectivity in several large countries (China in late January and February and many European countries and the USA in March), with cases exploding by 30-50,000/day in the third and fourth weeks of March, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 has proven to be particularly deadly to older adults and those with certain underlying medical conditions, many of whom are of advanced age. Here, we briefly review the virus, its structure and evolution, epidemiology and pathogenesis, immunogenicity and immune, and clinical response in older adults, using available knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 and its highly pathogenic relatives MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-1. We conclude by discussing clinical and basic science approaches to protect older adults against this disease.
- Ripperger, T. J., Uhrlaub, J. L., Watanabe, M., Wong, R., Castaneda, Y., Pizzato, H. A., Thompson, M. R., Bradshaw, C., Weinkauf, C. C., Bime, C., Erickson, H. L., Knox, K., Bixby, B., Parthasarathy, S., Chaudhary, S., Natt, B., Cristan, E., El Aini, T., Rischard, F., , Campion, J., et al. (2020). Orthogonal SARS-CoV-2 Serological Assays Enable Surveillance of Low-Prevalence Communities and Reveal Durable Humoral Immunity. Immunity, 53(5), 925-933.e4.More infoWe conducted a serological study to define correlates of immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Compared to those with mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, individuals with severe disease exhibited elevated virus-neutralizing titers and antibodies against the nucleocapsid (N) and the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein. Age and sex played lesser roles. All cases, including asymptomatic individuals, seroconverted by 2 weeks after PCR confirmation. Spike RBD and S2 and neutralizing antibodies remained detectable through 5-7 months after onset, whereas α-N titers diminished. Testing 5,882 members of the local community revealed only 1 sample with seroreactivity to both RBD and S2 that lacked neutralizing antibodies. This fidelity could not be achieved with either RBD or S2 alone. Thus, inclusion of multiple independent assays improved the accuracy of antibody tests in low-seroprevalence communities and revealed differences in antibody kinetics depending on the antigen. We conclude that neutralizing antibodies are stably produced for at least 5-7 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection.
- Wong, R., & Bhattacharya, D. (2020). ZBTB38 is dispensable for antibody responses. PloS one, 15(9), e0235183.More infoMembers of the broad complex, tram track, bric-a-brac and zinc finger (BTB-ZF) family of transcription factors, such as BCL-6, ZBTB20, and ZBTB32, regulate antigen-specific B cell differentiation, plasma cell longevity, and the duration of antibody production. We found that ZBTB38, a different member of the BTB-ZF family that binds methylated DNA at CpG motifs, is highly expressed by germinal center B cells and plasma cells. To define the functional role of ZBTB38 in B cell responses, we generated mice conditionally deficient in this transcription factor. Germinal center B cells lacking ZBTB38 dysregulated very few genes relative to wild-type and heterozygous littermate controls. Accordingly, mice with hematopoietic-specific deletion of Zbtb38 showed normal germinal center B cell numbers and antibody responses following immunization with hapten-protein conjugates. Memory B cells from these animals functioned normally in secondary recall responses. Despite expression of ZBTB38 in hematopoietic stem cells, progenitors and mature myeloid and lymphoid lineages were also present in normal numbers in mutant mice. These data demonstrate that ZBTB38 is dispensable for hematopoiesis and antibody responses. These conditional knockout mice may instead be useful in defining the functional importance of ZBTB38 in other cell types and contexts.
- Wong, R., Belk, J. A., Govero, J., Uhrlaub, J. L., Reinartz, D., Zhao, H., Errico, J. M., D'Souza, L., Ripperger, T. J., Nikolich-Zugich, J., Shlomchik, M. J., Satpathy, A. T., Fremont, D. H., Diamond, M. S., & Bhattacharya, D. (2020). Affinity-Restricted Memory B Cells Dominate Recall Responses to Heterologous Flaviviruses. Immunity, 53(5), 1078-1094.e7.More infoMemory B cells (MBCs) can respond to heterologous antigens either by molding new specificities through secondary germinal centers (GCs) or by selecting preexisting clones without further affinity maturation. To distinguish these mechanisms in flavivirus infections and immunizations, we studied recall responses to envelope protein domain III (DIII). Conditional deletion of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) between heterologous challenges of West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, Zika, and dengue viruses did not affect recall responses. DIII-specific MBCs were contained mostly within the plasma-cell-biased CD80 subset, and few GCs arose following heterologous boosters, demonstrating that recall responses are confined by preexisting clonal diversity. Measurement of monoclonal antibody (mAb) binding affinity to DIII proteins, timed AID deletion, single-cell RNA sequencing, and lineage tracing experiments point to selection of relatively low-affinity MBCs as a mechanism to promote diversity. Engineering immunogens to avoid this MBC diversity may facilitate flavivirus-type-specific vaccines with minimized potential for infection enhancement.
- D'Souza, L., & Bhattacharya, D. (2019). Plasma cells: You are what you eat. Immunological reviews, 288(1), 161-177.More infoPlasma cells are terminally differentiated B lymphocytes that constitutively secrete antibodies. These antibodies can provide protection against pathogens, and their quantity and quality are the best clinical correlates of vaccine efficacy. As such, plasma cell lifespan is the primary determinant of the duration of humoral immunity. Yet dysregulation of plasma cell function can cause autoimmunity or multiple myeloma. The longevity of plasma cells is primarily dictated by nutrient uptake and non-transcriptionally regulated metabolic pathways. We have previously shown a positive effect of glucose uptake and catabolism on plasma cell longevity and function. In this review, we discuss these findings with an emphasis on nutrient uptake and its effects on respiratory capacity, lifespan, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and antibody secretion in plasma cells. We further discuss how some of these pathways may be dysregulated in multiple myeloma, potentially providing new therapeutic targets. Finally, we speculate on the connection between plasma cell intrinsic metabolism and systemic changes in nutrient availability and metabolic diseases.
- Jash, A., Zhou, Y. W., Gerardo, D. K., Ripperger, T. J., Parikh, B. A., Piersma, S., Jamwal, D. R., Kiela, P. R., Boon, A. C., Yokoyama, W. M., Hsieh, C. S., & Bhattacharya, D. (2019). ZBTB32 restrains antibody responses to murine cytomegalovirus infections, but not other repetitive challenges. Scientific reports, 9(1), 15257.More infoZBTB32 is a transcription factor that is highly expressed by a subset of memory B cells and restrains the magnitude and duration of recall responses against hapten-protein conjugates. To define physiological contexts in which ZBTB32 acts, we assessed responses by Zbtb32 mice or bone marrow chimeras against a panel of chronic and acute challenges. Mixed bone marrow chimeras were established in which all B cells were derived from either Zbtb32 mice or control littermates. Chronic infection of Zbtb32 chimeras with murine cytomegalovirus led to nearly 20-fold higher antigen-specific IgG2b levels relative to controls by week 9 post-infection, despite similar viral loads. In contrast, IgA responses and specificities in the intestine, where memory B cells are repeatedly stimulated by commensal bacteria, were similar between Zbtb32 mice and control littermates. Finally, an infection and heterologous booster vaccination model revealed no role for ZBTB32 in restraining primary or recall antibody responses against influenza viruses. Thus, ZBTB32 does not limit recall responses to a number of physiological acute challenges, but does restrict antibody levels during chronic viral infections that periodically engage memory B cells. This restriction might selectively prevent recall responses against chronic infections from progressively overwhelming other antibody specificities.
- Krummel, M., Blish, C., Kuhns, M., Cadwell, K., Oberst, A., Goldrath, A., Ansel, K. M., Chi, H., O'Connell, R., Wherry, E. J., Pepper, M., & , F. I. (2019). Universal Principled Review: A Community-Driven Method to Improve Peer Review. Cell, 179(7), 1441-1445.More infoDespite being a staple of our science, the process of pre-publication peer review has few agreed-upon standards defining its goals or ideal execution. As a community of reviewers and authors, we assembled an evaluation format and associated specific standards for the process as we think it should be practiced. We propose that we apply, debate, and ultimately extend these to improve the transparency of our criticism and the speed with which quality data and ideas become public.
- Adamo, L., Staloch, L. J., Rocha-Resende, C., Matkovich, S. J., Jiang, W., Bajpai, G., Weinheimer, C. J., Kovacs, A., Schilling, J. D., Barger, P. M., Bhattacharya, D., & Mann, D. L. (2018). Modulation of subsets of cardiac B lymphocytes improves cardiac function after acute injury. JCI insight, 3(11).More infoDespite the long-standing recognition that the immune response to acute myocardial injury contributes to adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling, it has not been possible to effectively target this clinically. Using 2 different in vivo models of acute myocardial injury, we show that pirfenidone confers beneficial effects in the murine heart through an unexpected mechanism that depends on cardiac B lymphocytes. Naive hearts contained a large population of CD19+CD11b-CD23-CD21-IgD+IgMlo lymphocytes, and 2 smaller populations of CD19+CD11b+ B1a and B1b cells. In response to tissue injury, there was an increase in neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, as well as an increase in CD19+ CD11b- B lymphocytes. Treatment with pirfenidone had no effect on the number of neutrophils, monocytes, or macrophages, but decreased CD19+CD11b- lymphocytes. B cell depletion abrogated the beneficial effects of pirfenidone. In vitro studies demonstrated that stimulation with lipopolysaccharide and extracts from necrotic cells activated CD19+ lymphocytes through a TIRAP-dependent pathway. Treatment with pirfenidone attenuated this activation of B cells. These findings reveal a previously unappreciated complexity of myocardial B lymphocytes within the inflammatory infiltrate triggered by cardiac injury and suggest that pirfenidone exerts beneficial effects in the heart through a unique mechanism that involves modulation of cardiac B lymphocytes.
- Egawa, T., & Bhattacharya, D. (2018). Regulation of metabolic supply and demand during B cell activation and subsequent differentiation. Current opinion in immunology, 57, 8-14.More infoB cell activation and differentiation are associated with marked changes in proliferative and effector functions. Each stage of B cell differentiation thus has unique metabolic demands. New studies have provided insight on how nutrient uptake and usage by B cells are regulated by B cell receptor signals, autophagy, mammalian target of rapamycin, and transcriptional control of transporters and rate-limiting enzymes. A recurring theme is that these pathways play distinct roles ranging from survival to antibody production, depending on the B cell fate. We review recently published data that define how these pathways control metabolic flux in B cells, with a particular emphasis on genetic and in vivo evidence. We further discuss how lessons from T cells can guide future directions.
- Lam, W. Y., & Bhattacharya, D. (2018). Metabolic Links between Plasma Cell Survival, Secretion, and Stress. Trends in immunology, 39(1), 19-27.More infoHumoral immunity is generated and maintained by antigen-specific antibodies that counter infectious pathogens. Plasma cells are the major producers of antibodies during and after infections, and each plasma cell produces some thousands of antibody molecules per second. This magnitude of secretion requires enormous quantities of amino acids and glycosylation sugars to properly build and fold antibodies, biosynthetic substrates to fuel endoplasmic reticulum (ER) biogenesis, and additional carbon sources to generate energy. Many of these processes are likely to be linked, thereby affording possibilities to improve vaccine design and to develop new therapies for autoimmunity. We review here aspects of plasma cell biology with an emphasis on recent studies and the relationships between intermediary metabolism, antibody production, and lifespan.
- Lam, W. Y., Jash, A., Yao, C. H., D'Souza, L., Wong, R., Nunley, R. M., Meares, G. P., Patti, G. J., & Bhattacharya, D. (2018). Metabolic and Transcriptional Modules Independently Diversify Plasma Cell Lifespan and Function. Cell reports, 24(9), 2479-2492.e6.More infoPlasma cell survival and the consequent duration of immunity vary widely with infection or vaccination. Using fluorescent glucose analog uptake, we defined multiple developmentally independent mouse plasma cell populations with varying lifespans. Long-lived plasma cells imported more fluorescent glucose analog, expressed higher surface levels of the amino acid transporter CD98, and had more autophagosome mass than did short-lived cells. Low amino acid concentrations triggered reductions in both antibody secretion and mitochondrial respiration, especially by short-lived plasma cells. To explain these observations, we found that glutamine was used for both mitochondrial respiration and anaplerotic reactions, yielding glutamate and aspartate for antibody synthesis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses, which link metabolism to transcriptional outcomes, were similar between long- and short-lived subsets. Accordingly, population and single-cell transcriptional comparisons across mouse and human plasma cell subsets revealed few consistent and conserved differences. Thus, plasma cell antibody secretion and lifespan are primarily defined by non-transcriptional metabolic traits.
- Pizzato, H. A., & Bhattacharya, D. (2018). Sending Cancer into the Fetal Position. Cell stem cell, 22(4), 479-480.More infoMalignant cells gain the ability to self-renew and reacquire expression of proteins associated with embryonic development. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Kooreman et al. (2018) demonstrate that vaccination of mice with syngeneic inactivated iPSCs generates T cell immunity against embryonic antigens and provides resistance to several different types of cancers.
- Wong, R., & Bhattacharya, D. (2018). Basics of memory B-cell responses: lessons from and for the real world. Immunology.More infoThe production of pathogen-specific B cells and antibodies underlies protective immunity elicited by most vaccines and many infections. Humoral immunity follows a regulated process by which high-affinity antibody-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells are generated. Yet for certain pathogens, protective immunity is inefficiently generated and/or maintained. For example, Dengue virus infections lead to lasting immunity against re-infection by the same serotype. However, if infected with a different Dengue serotype, the individual is predisposed to more severe disease than if he/she was completely naive. As another example, both natural infections with or vaccination against malaria do not necessarily lead to lasting immunity, as the same individual can be re-infected many times over the course of a lifetime. In this review, we discuss how these real-world problems can both instruct and be informed by recent basic studies using model organisms and antigens. An emphasis is placed on protective epitopes and functional distinctions between memory B-cell subsets in both mice and humans. Using flavivirus and Plasmodium infections as examples, we also speculate on the differences between ineffective B-cell responses that actually occur in the real world, and perfect-world responses that would generate lasting immunity.
- Bhattacharya, D., & Wong, R. (2016). The Chosen Few: Only a Subset of Memory B Cells Responds to Secondary Dengue Virus Infections. EBioMedicine, 12, 12-13.
- Chou, C., Verbaro, D. J., Tonc, E., Holmgren, M., Cella, M., Colonna, M., Bhattacharya, D., & Egawa, T. (2016). The Transcription Factor AP4 Mediates Resolution of Chronic Viral Infection through Amplification of Germinal Center B Cell Responses. Immunity, 45(3), 570-582.More infoB cells diversify and affinity mature their antigen receptor repertoire in germinal centers (GCs). GC B cells receive help signals during transient interaction with T cells, yet it remains unknown how these transient T-B interactions in the light zone sustain the subsequent proliferative program of selected B cells that occurs in the anatomically distant dark zone. Here, we show that the transcription factor AP4 was required for sustained GC B cell proliferation and subsequent establishment of a diverse and protective antibody repertoire. AP4 was induced by c-MYC during the T-B interactions, was maintained by T-cell-derived interleukin-21 (IL-21), and promoted repeated rounds of divisions of selected GC B cells. B-cell-specific deletion of AP4 resulted in reduced GC sizes and reduced somatic hypermutation coupled with a failure to control chronic viral infection. These results indicate that AP4 integrates T-cell-mediated selection and sustained expansion of GC B cells for humoral immunity.
- He, Z., O'Neal, J., Wilson, W. C., Mahajan, N., Luo, J., Wang, Y., Su, M. Y., Lu, L., Skeath, J. B., Bhattacharya, D., & Tomasson, M. H. (2016). Deletion of Rb1 induces both hyperproliferation and cell death in murine germinal center B cells. Experimental hematology, 44(3), 161-5.e4.More infoThe retinoblastoma gene (RB1) has been implicated as a tumor suppressor in multiple myeloma (MM), yet its role remains unclear because in the majority of cases with 13q14 deletions, un-mutated RB1 remains expressed from the retained allele. To explore the role of Rb1 in MM, we examined the functional consequences of single- and double-copy Rb1 loss in germinal center B cells, the cells of origin of MM. We generated mice without Rb1 function in germinal center B cells by crossing Rb1(Flox/Flox) with C-γ-1-Cre (Cγ1) mice expressing the Cre recombinase in class-switched B cells in a p107(-/-) background to prevent p107 from compensating for Rb1 loss (Cγ1-Rb1(F/F)-p107(-/-)). All mice developed normally, but B cells with two copies of Rb1 deleted (Cγ1-Rb1(F/F)-p107(-/-)) exhibited increased proliferation and cell death compared with Cγ1-Rb1(+/+)-p107(-/-) controls ex vivo. In vivo, Cγ1-Rb1(F/F)-p107(-/-) mice had a lower percentage of splenic B220+ cells and reduced numbers of bone marrow antigen-specific secreting cells compared with control mice. Our data indicate that Rb1 loss induces both cell proliferation and death in germinal center B cells. Because no B-cell malignancies developed after 1 year of observation, our data also suggest that Rb1 loss is not sufficient to transform post-germinal center B cells and that additional, specific mutations are likely required to cooperate with Rb1 loss to induce malignant transformation.
- Jash, A., Wang, Y., Weisel, F. J., Scharer, C. D., Boss, J. M., Shlomchik, M. J., & Bhattacharya, D. (2016). ZBTB32 Restricts the Duration of Memory B Cell Recall Responses. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 197(4), 1159-68.More infoMemory B cell responses are more rapid and of greater magnitude than are primary Ab responses. The mechanisms by which these secondary responses are eventually attenuated remain unknown. We demonstrate that the transcription factor ZBTB32 limits the rapidity and duration of Ab recall responses. ZBTB32 is highly expressed by mouse and human memory B cells but not by their naive counterparts. Zbtb32(-/-) mice mount normal primary Ab responses to T-dependent Ags. However, Zbtb32(-/-) memory B cell-mediated recall responses occur more rapidly and persist longer than do control responses. Microarray analyses demonstrate that Zbtb32(-/-) secondary bone marrow plasma cells display elevated expression of genes that promote cell cycle progression and mitochondrial function relative to wild-type controls. BrdU labeling and adoptive transfer experiments confirm more rapid production and a cell-intrinsic survival advantage of Zbtb32(-/-) secondary plasma cells relative to wild-type counterparts. ZBTB32 is therefore a novel negative regulator of Ab recall responses.
- Lam, W. Y., Becker, A. M., Kennerly, K. M., Wong, R., Curtis, J. D., Llufrio, E. M., McCommis, K. S., Fahrmann, J., Pizzato, H. A., Nunley, R. M., Lee, J., Wolfgang, M. J., Patti, G. J., Finck, B. N., Pearce, E. L., & Bhattacharya, D. (2016). Mitochondrial Pyruvate Import Promotes Long-Term Survival of Antibody-Secreting Plasma Cells. Immunity, 45(1), 60-73.More infoDurable antibody production after vaccination or infection is mediated by long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs). Pathways that specifically allow LLPCs to persist remain unknown. Through bioenergetic profiling, we found that human and mouse LLPCs could robustly engage pyruvate-dependent respiration, whereas their short-lived counterparts could not. LLPCs took up more glucose than did short-lived plasma cells (SLPCs) in vivo, and this glucose was essential for the generation of pyruvate. Glucose was primarily used to glycosylate antibodies, but glycolysis could be promoted by stimuli such as low ATP levels and the resultant pyruvate used for respiration by LLPCs. Deletion of Mpc2, which encodes an essential component of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier, led to a progressive loss of LLPCs and of vaccine-specific antibodies in vivo. Thus, glucose uptake and mitochondrial pyruvate import prevent bioenergetic crises and allow LLPCs to persist. Immunizations that maximize these plasma cell metabolic properties might thus provide enduring antibody-mediated immunity.
- Becker, A. M., Callahan, D. J., Richner, J. M., Choi, J., DiPersio, J. F., Diamond, M. S., & Bhattacharya, D. (2015). GPR18 Controls Reconstitution of Mouse Small Intestine Intraepithelial Lymphocytes following Bone Marrow Transplantation. PloS one, 10(7), e0133854.More infoSpecific G protein coupled receptors (GPRs) regulate the proper positioning, function, and development of immune lineage subsets. Here, we demonstrate that GPR18 regulates the reconstitution of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) of the small intestine following bone marrow transplantation. Through analysis of transcriptional microarray data, we find that GPR18 is highly expressed in IELs, lymphoid progenitors, and mature follicular B cells. To establish the physiological role of this largely uncharacterized GPR, we generated Gpr18-/- mice. Despite high levels of GPR18 expression in specific hematopoietic progenitors, Gpr18-/- mice have no defects in lymphopoiesis or myelopoiesis. Moreover, antibody responses following immunization with hapten-protein conjugates or infection with West Nile virus are normal in Gpr18-/- mice. Steady-state numbers of IELs are also normal in Gpr18-/- mice. However, competitive bone marrow reconstitution experiments demonstrate that GPR18 is cell-intrinsically required for the optimal restoration of small intestine TCRγδ+ and TCRαβ+ CD8αα+ IELs. In contrast, GPR18 is dispensable for the reconstitution of large intestine IELs. Moreover, Gpr18-/- bone marrow reconstitutes small intestine IELs similarly to controls in athymic recipients. Gpr18-/- chimeras show no changes in susceptibility to intestinal insults such as Citrobacter rodentium infections or graft versus host disease. These data reveal highly specific requirements for GPR18 in the development and reconstitution of thymus-derived intestinal IEL subsets in the steady-state and after bone marrow transplantation.
- Becker, A. M., Walcheck, B., & Bhattacharya, D. (2015). ADAM17 limits the expression of CSF1R on murine hematopoietic progenitors. Experimental hematology, 43(1), 44-52.e1-3.More infoAll-lymphoid progenitors (ALPs) yield few myeloid cells in vivo, but readily generate such cells in vitro. The basis for this difference remains unknown. We hypothesized that ALPs limit responsiveness to in vivo concentrations of myeloid-promoting cytokines by reducing expression of the corresponding receptors, potentially through posttranscriptional mechanisms. Consistent with such a mechanism, ALPs express higher levels of CSF1R transcripts than their upstream precursors, yet show limited cell-surface protein expression of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R). All-lymphoid progenitors and other hematopoietic progenitors deficient in A disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 17 (ADAM17), display elevated cell surface CSF1R expression. ADAM17(-/-) ALPs, however, fail to yield myeloid cells upon transplantation into irradiated recipients. Moreover, ADAM17(-/-) ALPs yield fewer macrophages in vitro than control ALPs at high concentrations of macrophage colony stimulating factor. Mice with hematopoietic-specific deletion of ADAM17 have normal numbers of myeloid and lymphoid progenitors and mature cells in vivo. These data demonstrate that ADAM17 limits CSF1R protein expression on hematopoietic progenitors, but that compensatory mechanisms prevent elevated CSF1R levels from altering lymphoid progenitor potential.
- Bhattacharya, D. (2015). Basophils take a slice of IRF8 pie. Blood, 125(2), 214-5.More infoIn this issue of Blood, Sasaki and colleagues demonstrate a strict requirement for the transcription factor interferon regulator factor 8 (IRF8) in the development of mouse basophils.
- Day, R. B., Bhattacharya, D., Nagasawa, T., & Link, D. C. (2015). Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor reprograms bone marrow stromal cells to actively suppress B lymphopoiesis in mice. Blood, 125(20), 3114-7.More infoThe mechanisms that mediate the shift from lymphopoiesis to myelopoiesis in response to infectious stress are largely unknown. We show that treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), which is often induced during infection, results in marked suppression of B lymphopoiesis at multiple stages of B-cell development. Mesenchymal-lineage stromal cells in the bone marrow, including CXCL12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells and osteoblasts, constitutively support B lymphopoiesis through the production of multiple B trophic factors. G-CSF acting through a monocytic cell intermediate reprograms these stromal cells, altering their capacity to support B lymphopoiesis. G-CSF treatment is associated with an expansion of CAR cells and a shift toward osteogenic lineage commitment. It markedly suppresses the production of multiple B-cell trophic factors by CAR cells and osteoblasts, including CXCL12, kit ligand, interleukin-6, interleukin-7, and insulin-like growth factor-1. Targeting bone marrow stromal cells is one mechanism by which inflammatory cytokines such as G-CSF actively suppress lymphopoiesis.
- Satpathy, A. T., Briseño, C. G., Cai, X., Michael, D. G., Chou, C., Hsiung, S., Bhattacharya, D., Speck, N. A., & Egawa, T. (2014). Runx1 and Cbfβ regulate the development of Flt3+ dendritic cell progenitors and restrict myeloproliferative disorder. Blood, 123(19), 2968-77.More infoRunx1 and Cbfβ are critical for the establishment of definitive hematopoiesis and are implicated in leukemic transformation. Despite the absolute requirements for these factors in the development of hematopoietic stem cells and lymphocytes, their roles in the development of bone marrow progenitor subsets have not been defined. Here, we demonstrate that Cbfβ is essential for the development of Flt3(+) macrophage-dendritic cell (DC) progenitors in the bone marrow and all DC subsets in the periphery. Besides the loss of DC progenitors, pan-hematopoietic Cbfb-deficient mice also lack CD105(+) erythroid progenitors, leading to severe anemia at 3 to 4 months of age. Instead, Cbfb deficiency results in aberrant progenitor differentiation toward granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs), resulting in a myeloproliferative phenotype with accumulation of GMPs in the periphery and cellular infiltration of the liver. Expression of the transcription factor Irf8 is severely reduced in Cbfb-deficient progenitors, and overexpression of Irf8 restors DC differentiation. These results demonstrate that Runx proteins and Cbfβ restrict granulocyte lineage commitment to facilitate multilineage hematopoietic differentiation and thus identify their novel tumor suppressor function in myeloid leukemia.
- Wang, Y., & Bhattacharya, D. (2014). Adjuvant-specific regulation of long-term antibody responses by ZBTB20. The Journal of experimental medicine, 211(5), 841-56.More infoThe duration of antibody production by long-lived plasma cells varies with the type of immunization, but the basis for these differences is unknown. We demonstrate that plasma cells formed in response to the same immunogen engage distinct survival programs depending on the adjuvant. After alum-adjuvanted immunization, antigen-specific bone marrow plasma cells deficient in the transcription factor ZBTB20 failed to accumulate over time, leading to a progressive loss of antibody production relative to wild-type controls. Fetal liver reconstitution experiments demonstrated that the requirement for ZBTB20 was B cell intrinsic. No defects were observed in germinal center numbers, affinity maturation, or plasma cell formation or proliferation in ZBTB20-deficient chimeras. However, ZBTB20-deficient plasma cells expressed reduced levels of MCL1 relative to wild-type controls, and transgenic expression of BCL2 increased serum antibody titers. These data indicate a role for ZBTB20 in promoting survival in plasma cells. Strikingly, adjuvants that activate TLR2 and TLR4 restored long-term antibody production in ZBTB20-deficient chimeras through the induction of compensatory survival programs in plasma cells. Thus, distinct lifespans are imprinted in plasma cells as they are formed, depending on the primary activation conditions. The durability of vaccines may accordingly be improved through the selection of appropriate adjuvants.
- Sandoval, G. J., Graham, D. B., Bhattacharya, D., Sleckman, B. P., Xavier, R. J., & Swat, W. (2013). Cutting edge: cell-autonomous control of IL-7 response revealed in a novel stage of precursor B cells. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 190(6), 2485-9.More infoDuring early stages of B-lineage differentiation in bone marrow, signals emanating from IL-7R and pre-BCR are thought to synergistically induce proliferative expansion of progenitor cells. Paradoxically, loss of pre-BCR-signaling components is associated with leukemia in both mice and humans. Exactly how progenitor B cells perform the task of balancing proliferative burst dependent on IL-7 with the termination of IL-7 signals and the initiation of L chain gene rearrangement remains to be elucidated. In this article, we provide genetic and functional evidence that the cessation of the IL-7 response of pre-B cells is controlled via a cell-autonomous mechanism that operates at a discrete developmental transition inside Fraction C' (large pre-BII) marked by transient expression of c-Myc. Our data indicate that pre-BCR cooperates with IL-7R in expanding the pre-B cell pool, but it is also critical to control the differentiation program shutting off the c-Myc gene in large pre-B cells.
- Sandoval, G. J., Graham, D. B., Gmyrek, G. B., Akilesh, H. M., Fujikawa, K., Sammut, B., Bhattacharya, D., Srivatsan, S., Kim, A., Shaw, A. S., Yang-Iott, K., Bassing, C. H., Duncavage, E., Xavier, R. J., & Swat, W. (2013). Novel mechanism of tumor suppression by polarity gene discs large 1 (DLG1) revealed in a murine model of pediatric B-ALL. Cancer immunology research, 1(6), 426-37.More infoDrosophila melanogaster discs large (dlg) is an essential tumor suppressor gene (TSG) controlling epithelial cell growth and polarity of the fly imaginal discs in pupal development. A mammalian ortholog, Dlg1, is involved in embryonic urogenital morphogenesis, postsynaptic densities in neurons, and immune synapses in lymphocytes. However, a potential role for Dlg1 as a mammalian TSG is unknown. Here, we present evidence that loss of Dlg1 confers strong predisposition to the development of malignancies in a murine model of pediatric B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Using mice with conditionally deleted Dlg1 alleles, we identify a novel "pre-leukemic" stage of developmentally arrested early B-lineage cells marked by preeminent c-Myc expression. Mechanistically, we show that in B-lineage progenitors Dlg1 interacts with and stabilizes the PTEN protein, regulating its half-life and steady-state abundance. The loss of Dlg1 does not affect the level of PTEN mRNAs but results in a dramatic decrease in PTEN protein, leading to excessive phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling and proliferation. Our data suggest a novel model of tumor suppression by a PDZ domain-containing polarity gene in hematopoietic cancers.
- Becker, A. M., Michael, D. G., Satpathy, A. T., Sciammas, R., Singh, H., & Bhattacharya, D. (2012). IRF-8 extinguishes neutrophil production and promotes dendritic cell lineage commitment in both myeloid and lymphoid mouse progenitors. Blood, 119(9), 2003-12.More infoWhile most blood lineages are assumed to mature through a single cellular and developmental route downstream of HSCs, dendritic cells (DCs) can be derived from both myeloid and lymphoid progenitors in vivo. To determine how distinct progenitors can generate similar downstream lineages, we examined the transcriptional changes that accompany loss of in vivo myeloid potential as common myeloid progenitors differentiate into common DC progenitors (CDPs), and as lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitors (LMPPs) differentiate into all lymphoid progenitors (ALPs). Microarray studies revealed that IFN regulatory factor 8 (IRF-8) expression increased during each of these transitions. Competitive reconstitutions using Irf8(-/-) BM demonstrated cell-intrinsic defects in the formation of CDPs and all splenic DC subsets. Irf8(-/-) common myeloid progenitors and, unexpectedly, Irf8(-/-) ALPs produced more neutrophils in vivo than their wild-type counterparts at the expense of DCs. Retroviral expression of IRF-8 in multiple progenitors led to reduced neutrophil production and increased numbers of DCs, even in the granulocyte-macrophage progenitor (GMP), which does not normally possess conventional DC potential. These data suggest that IRF-8 represses a neutrophil module of development and promotes convergent DC development from multiple lymphoid and myeloid progenitors autonomously of cellular context.
- Bednarski, J. J., Nickless, A., Bhattacharya, D., Amin, R. H., Schlissel, M. S., & Sleckman, B. P. (2012). RAG-induced DNA double-strand breaks signal through Pim2 to promote pre-B cell survival and limit proliferation. The Journal of experimental medicine, 209(1), 11-7.More infoInterleukin 7 (IL-7) promotes pre-B cell survival and proliferation by activating the Pim1 and Akt kinases. These signals must be attenuated to induce G1 cell cycle arrest and expression of the RAG endonuclease, which are both required for IgL chain gene rearrangement. As lost IL-7 signals would limit pre-B cell survival, how cells survive during IgL chain gene rearrangement remains unclear. We show that RAG-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated during IgL chain gene assembly paradoxically promote pre-B cell survival. This occurs through the ATM-dependent induction of Pim2 kinase expression. Similar to Pim1, Pim2 phosphorylates BAD, which antagonizes the pro-apoptotic function of BAX. However, unlike IL-7 induction of Pim1, RAG DSB-mediated induction of Pim2 does not drive proliferation. Rather, Pim2 has antiproliferative functions that prevent the transit of pre-B cells harboring RAG DSBs from G1 into S phase, where these DNA breaks could be aberrantly repaired. Thus, signals from IL-7 and RAG DSBs activate distinct Pim kinase family members that have context-dependent activities in regulating pre-B cell proliferation and survival.
- Purtha, W. E., Swiecki, M., Colonna, M., Diamond, M. S., & Bhattacharya, D. (2012). Spontaneous mutation of the Dock2 gene in Irf5-/- mice complicates interpretation of type I interferon production and antibody responses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(15), E898-904.More infoGenome-wide studies have identified associations between polymorphisms in the IFN regulatory factor-5 (Irf5) gene and a variety of human autoimmune diseases. Its functional role in disease pathogenesis, however, remains unclear, as studies in Irf5(-/-) mice have reached disparate conclusions regarding the importance of this transcription factor in type I IFN production and antibody responses. We identified a spontaneous genomic duplication and frameshift mutation in the guanine exchange factor dedicator of cytokinesis 2 (Dock2) that has arisen in at least a subset of circulating Irf5(-/-) mice and inadvertently been bred to homozygosity. Retroviral expression of DOCK2, but not IRF-5, rescued defects in plasmacytoid dendritic cell and B-cell development, and Irf5(-/-) mice lacking the mutation in Dock2 exhibited normal plasmacytoid dendritic cell and B-cell development, largely intact type I IFN responses, and relatively normal antibody responses to viral infection. Thus, confirmation of the normal Dock2 genotype in circulating Irf5(-/-) mice is warranted, and our data may partly explain conflicting results in this field.
- Satpathy, A. T., KC, W., Albring, J. C., Edelson, B. T., Kretzer, N. M., Bhattacharya, D., Murphy, T. L., & Murphy, K. M. (2012). Zbtb46 expression distinguishes classical dendritic cells and their committed progenitors from other immune lineages. The Journal of experimental medicine, 209(6), 1135-52.More infoDistinguishing dendritic cells (DCs) from other cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system is complicated by the shared expression of cell surface markers such as CD11c. In this study, we identified Zbtb46 (BTBD4) as a transcription factor selectively expressed by classical DCs (cDCs) and their committed progenitors but not by plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), monocytes, macrophages, or other lymphoid or myeloid lineages. Using homologous recombination, we replaced the first coding exon of Zbtb46 with GFP to inactivate the locus while allowing detection of Zbtb46 expression. GFP expression in Zbtb46(gfp/+) mice recapitulated the cDC-specific expression of the native locus, being restricted to cDC precursors (pre-cDCs) and lymphoid organ- and tissue-resident cDCs. GFP(+) pre-cDCs had restricted developmental potential, generating cDCs but not pDCs, monocytes, or macrophages. Outside the immune system, Zbtb46 was expressed in committed erythroid progenitors and endothelial cell populations. Zbtb46 overexpression in bone marrow progenitor cells inhibited granulocyte potential and promoted cDC development, and although cDCs developed in Zbtb46(gfp/gfp) (Zbtb46 deficient) mice, they maintained expression of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and leukemia inhibitory factor receptors, which are normally down-regulated in cDCs. Thus, Zbtb46 may help enforce cDC identity by restricting responsiveness to non-DC growth factors and may serve as a useful marker to identify rare cDC progenitors and distinguish between cDCs and other mononuclear phagocyte lineages.
- Seita, J., Sahoo, D., Rossi, D. J., Bhattacharya, D., Serwold, T., Inlay, M. A., Ehrlich, L. I., Fathman, J. W., Dill, D. L., & Weissman, I. L. (2012). Gene Expression Commons: an open platform for absolute gene expression profiling. PloS one, 7(7), e40321.More infoGene expression profiling using microarrays has been limited to comparisons of gene expression between small numbers of samples within individual experiments. However, the unknown and variable sensitivities of each probeset have rendered the absolute expression of any given gene nearly impossible to estimate. We have overcome this limitation by using a very large number (>10,000) of varied microarray data as a common reference, so that statistical attributes of each probeset, such as the dynamic range and threshold between low and high expression, can be reliably discovered through meta-analysis. This strategy is implemented in a web-based platform named "Gene Expression Commons" (https://gexc.stanford.edu/) which contains data of 39 distinct highly purified mouse hematopoietic stem/progenitor/differentiated cell populations covering almost the entire hematopoietic system. Since the Gene Expression Commons is designed as an open platform, investigators can explore the expression level of any gene, search by expression patterns of interest, submit their own microarray data, and design their own working models representing biological relationship among samples.
- Fathman, J. W., Bhattacharya, D., Inlay, M. A., Seita, J., Karsunky, H., & Weissman, I. L. (2011). Identification of the earliest natural killer cell-committed progenitor in murine bone marrow. Blood, 118(20), 5439-47.More infoNatural killer (NK) cells develop in the bone marrow and are known to gradually acquire the ability to eliminate infected and malignant cells, yet the cellular stages of NK lineage commitment and maturation are incompletely understood. Using 12-color flow cytometry, we identified a novel NK-committed progenitor (pre-NKP) that is a developmental intermediate between the upstream common lymphoid progenitor and the downstream NKP, previously assumed to represent the first stage of NK lineage commitment. Our analysis also refined the purity of NKPs (rNKP) by 6-fold such that 50% of both pre-NKP and rNKP cells gave rise to NKp46+ NK cells at the single-cell level. On transplantation into unconditioned Rag2-/-Il2rγc-/- recipients, both pre-NKPs and rNKPs generated mature NK cells expressing a repertoire of Ly49 family members that degranulated on stimulation ex vivo. Intrathymic injection of these progenitors, however, yielded no NK cells, suggesting a separate origin of thymic NK cells. Unlike the rNKP, the pre-NKP does not express IL-2Rβ (CD122), yet it is lineage committed toward the NK cell fate, adding support to the theory that IL-15 signaling is not required for NK commitment. Taken together, our data provide a high-resolution in vivo analysis of the earliest steps of NK cell commitment and maturation.
- McKitrick, T. R., Muscat, C. C., Pierce, J. D., Bhattacharya, D., & De Tomaso, A. W. (2011). Allorecognition in a basal chordate consists of independent activating and inhibitory pathways. Immunity, 34(4), 616-26.More infoHistocompatibility in the basal chordate Botryllus schlosseri is controlled by the polymorphisms of a single gene: the fuhc. A polymorphic candidate receptor (fester) appeared to play roles in both initiating the reaction and discriminating between fuhc alleles. Here we report the characterization of a related protein, uncle fester. uncle fester is not polymorphic, and although coexpressed with fester, has different functional properties. Loss-of-function studies demonstrate that uncle fester was required for incompatible reactions but has no role in interactions between compatible individuals. Furthermore, stimulation with monoclonal antibodies could initiate a rejection phenotype on a single colony, and in both assays the severity of the rejection could be manipulated. These findings suggest that allorecognition in Botryllus consists of independent pathways that control compatible and incompatible outcomes that are integrated within the interacting cells, and may provide insight into basal processes conserved in allorecognition responses throughout the metazoa.
- Purtha, W. E., Tedder, T. F., Johnson, S., Bhattacharya, D., & Diamond, M. S. (2011). Memory B cells, but not long-lived plasma cells, possess antigen specificities for viral escape mutants. The Journal of experimental medicine, 208(13), 2599-606.More infoMemory B cells (MBCs) and long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs) persist after clearance of infection, yet the specific and nonredundant role MBCs play in subsequent protection is unclear. After resolution of West Nile virus infection in mice, we demonstrate that LLPCs were specific for a single dominant neutralizing epitope, such that immune serum poorly inhibited a variant virus that encoded a mutation at this critical epitope. In contrast, a large fraction of MBC produced antibody that recognized both wild-type (WT) and mutant viral epitopes. Accordingly, antibody produced by the polyclonal pool of MBC neutralized WT and variant viruses equivalently. Remarkably, we also identified MBC clones that recognized the mutant epitope better than the WT protein, despite never having been exposed to the variant virus. The ability of MBCs to respond to variant viruses in vivo was confirmed by experiments in which MBCs were adoptively transferred or depleted before secondary challenge. Our data demonstrate that class-switched MBC can respond to variants of the original pathogen that escape neutralization of antibody produced by LLPC without a requirement for accumulating additional somatic mutations.
- Beerman, I., Bhattacharya, D., Zandi, S., Sigvardsson, M., Weissman, I. L., Bryder, D., & Rossi, D. J. (2010). Functionally distinct hematopoietic stem cells modulate hematopoietic lineage potential during aging by a mechanism of clonal expansion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(12), 5465-70.More infoAging of the hematopoietic stem cell compartment is believed to contribute to the onset of a variety of age-dependent blood cell pathophysiologies. Mechanistic drivers of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) aging include DNA damage accumulation and induction of tumor suppressor pathways that combine to reduce the regenerative capacity of aged HSCs. Such mechanisms do not however account for the change in lymphoid and myeloid lineage potential characteristic of HSC aging, which is believed to be central to the decline of immune competence and predisposition to myelogenous diseases in the elderly. Here we have prospectively isolated functionally distinct HSC clonal subtypes, based on cell surface phenotype, bearing intrinsically different capacities to differentiate toward lymphoid and myeloid effector cells mediated by quantitative differences in lineage priming. Finally, we present data supporting a model in which clonal expansion of a class of intrinsically myeloid-biased HSCs with robust self-renewal potential is a central component of hematopoietic aging.
- Edelson, B. T., KC, W., Juang, R., Kohyama, M., Benoit, L. A., Klekotka, P. A., Moon, C., Albring, J. C., Ise, W., Michael, D. G., Bhattacharya, D., Stappenbeck, T. S., Holtzman, M. J., Sung, S. S., Murphy, T. L., Hildner, K., & Murphy, K. M. (2010). Peripheral CD103+ dendritic cells form a unified subset developmentally related to CD8alpha+ conventional dendritic cells. The Journal of experimental medicine, 207(4), 823-36.More infoAlthough CD103-expressing dendritic cells (DCs) are widely present in nonlymphoid tissues, the transcription factors controlling their development and their relationship to other DC subsets remain unclear. Mice lacking the transcription factor Batf3 have a defect in the development of CD8alpha+ conventional DCs (cDCs) within lymphoid tissues. We demonstrate that Batf3(-/-) mice also lack CD103+CD11b- DCs in the lung, intestine, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), dermis, and skin-draining lymph nodes. Notably, Batf3(-/-) mice displayed reduced priming of CD8 T cells after pulmonary Sendai virus infection, with increased pulmonary inflammation. In the MLNs and intestine, Batf3 deficiency resulted in the specific lack of CD103+CD11b- DCs, with the population of CD103+CD11b+ DCs remaining intact. Batf3(-/-) mice showed no evidence of spontaneous gastrointestinal inflammation and had a normal contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response, despite previous suggestions that CD103+ DCs were required for immune homeostasis in the gut and CHS. The relationship between CD8alpha+ cDCs and nonlymphoid CD103+ DCs implied by their shared dependence on Batf3 was further supported by similar patterns of gene expression and their shared developmental dependence on the transcription factor Irf8. These data provide evidence for a developmental relationship between lymphoid organ-resident CD8alpha+ cDCs and nonlymphoid CD103+ DCs.
- Sahoo, D., Seita, J., Bhattacharya, D., Inlay, M. A., Weissman, I. L., Plevritis, S. K., & Dill, D. L. (2010). MiDReG: a method of mining developmentally regulated genes using Boolean implications. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(13), 5732-7.More infoWe present a method termed mining developmentally regulated genes (MiDReG) to predict genes whose expression is either activated or repressed as precursor cells differentiate. MiDReG does not require gene expression data from intermediate stages of development. MiDReG is based on the gene expression patterns between the initial and terminal stages of the differentiation pathway, coupled with "if-then" rules (Boolean implications) mined from large-scale microarray databases. MiDReG uses two gene expression-based seed conditions that mark the initial and the terminal stages of a given differentiation pathway and combines the statistically inferred Boolean implications from these seed conditions to identify the relevant genes. The method was validated by applying it to B-cell development. The algorithm predicted 62 genes that are expressed after the KIT+ progenitor cell stage and remain expressed through CD19+ and AICDA+ germinal center B cells. qRT-PCR of 14 of these genes on sorted B-cell progenitors confirmed that the expression of 10 genes is indeed stably established during B-cell differentiation. Review of the published literature of knockout mice revealed that of the predicted genes, 63.4% have defects in B-cell differentiation and function and 22% have a role in the B cell according to other experiments, and the remaining 14.6% are not characterized. Therefore, our method identified novel gene candidates for future examination of their role in B-cell development. These data demonstrate the power of MiDReG in predicting functionally important intermediate genes in a given developmental pathway that is defined by a mutually exclusive gene expression pattern.
- Bhattacharya, D., Czechowicz, A., Ooi, A. G., Rossi, D. J., Bryder, D., & Weissman, I. L. (2009). Niche recycling through division-independent egress of hematopoietic stem cells. The Journal of experimental medicine, 206(12), 2837-50.More infoHematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are thought to reside in discrete niches through stable adhesion, yet previous studies have suggested that host HSCs can be replaced by transplanted donor HSCs, even in the absence of cytoreductive conditioning. To explain this apparent paradox, we calculated, through cell surface phenotyping and transplantation of unfractionated blood, that approximately 1-5% of the total pool of HSCs enters into the circulation each day. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) feeding experiments demonstrated that HSCs in the peripheral blood incorporate BrdU at the same rate as do HSCs in the bone marrow, suggesting that egress from the bone marrow to the blood can occur without cell division and can leave behind vacant HSC niches. Consistent with this, repetitive daily transplantations of small numbers of HSCs administered as new niches became available over the course of 7 d led to significantly higher levels of engraftment than did large, single-bolus transplantations of the same total number of HSCs. These data provide insight as to how HSC replacement can occur despite the residence of endogenous HSCs in niches, and suggest therapeutic interventions that capitalize upon physiological HSC egress.
- Bhattacharya, D., Ehrlich, L. I., & Weissman, I. L. (2008). Space-time considerations for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. European journal of immunology, 38(8), 2060-7.More infoThe mammalian blood system contains a multitude of distinct mature cell lineages adapted to serving diverse functional roles. Mutations that abrogate the development or function of one or more of these lineages can lead to profound adverse consequences, such as immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, or anemia. Replacement of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that carry such mutations with HSC from a healthy donor can reverse such disorders, but because the risks associated with the procedure are often more serious than the blood disorders themselves, bone marrow transplantation is generally not used to treat a number of relatively common inherited blood diseases. Aside from a number of other problems, risks associated with cytoreductive treatments that create "space" for donor HSC, and the slow kinetics with which immune competence is restored following transplantation hamper progress. This review will focus on how recent studies using experimental model systems may direct future efforts to implement routine use of HSC transplantation to cure inherited blood disorders.
- Karsunky, H., Inlay, M. A., Serwold, T., Bhattacharya, D., & Weissman, I. L. (2008). Flk2+ common lymphoid progenitors possess equivalent differentiation potential for the B and T lineages. Blood, 111(12), 5562-70.More infoMature blood cells develop from multipotent hematopoietic stem cells through a series of sequential intermediates in which the developmental potential for particular blood lineages is progressively extinguished. We previously reported the identification of one of these developmental intermediates, the common lymphoid progenitor (CLP), which can give rise to T cells, B cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and natural killer cells (NKs), but lacks myeloid and erythroid potential. Recently, several studies have suggested that the T-cell and DC potential of CLP is limited or absent, and/or that CLP contains significant myeloid potential. Here, we show that the originally identified CLP population can be divided into functionally distinct subsets based on the expression of the tyrosine kinase receptor, Flk2. The Flk2(+) subset contains robust in vivo and in vitro T-cell, B-cell, DC, and NK potential, but lacks myeloid potential and, therefore, represents an oligopotent, lymphoid-restricted progenitor. This population of cells does not appear to be B cell-biased and robustly reconstitutes both B and T lineages in vivo, consistent with its being a physiologic progenitor of both of these subsets. Thus, Flk2 expression defines a homogeneous, readily obtainable subset of bone marrow CLP that is completely lymphoid-committed and can differentiate equivalently well into both B and T lineages.
- Bhattacharya, D., Cheah, M. T., Franco, C. B., Hosen, N., Pin, C. L., Sha, W. C., & Weissman, I. L. (2007). Transcriptional profiling of antigen-dependent murine B cell differentiation and memory formation. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 179(10), 6808-19.More infoHumoral immunity is characterized by the generation of Ab-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells that can more rapidly generate specific Abs upon Ag exposure than their naive counterparts. To determine the intrinsic differences that distinguish naive and memory B cells and to identify pathways that allow germinal center B cells to differentiate into memory B cells, we compared the transcriptional profiles of highly purified populations of these three cell types along with plasma cells isolated from mice immunized with a T-dependent Ag. The transcriptional profile of memory B cells is similar to that of naive B cells, yet displays several important differences, including increased expression of activation-induced deaminase and several antiapoptotic genes, chemotactic receptors, and costimulatory molecules. Retroviral expression of either Klf2 or Ski, two transcriptional regulators specifically enriched in memory B cells relative to their germinal center precursors, imparted a competitive advantage to Ag receptor and CD40-engaged B cells in vitro. These data suggest that humoral recall responses are more rapid than primary responses due to the expression of a unique transcriptional program by memory B cells that allows them to both be maintained at high frequencies and to detect and rapidly respond to antigenic re-exposure.
- Czechowicz, A., Kraft, D., Weissman, I. L., & Bhattacharya, D. (2007). Efficient transplantation via antibody-based clearance of hematopoietic stem cell niches. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5854), 1296-9.More infoUpon intravenous transplantation, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can home to specialized niches, yet most HSCs fail to engraft unless recipients are subjected to toxic preconditioning. We provide evidence that, aside from immune barriers, donor HSC engraftment is restricted by occupancy of appropriate niches by host HSCs. Administration of ACK2, an antibody that blocks c-kit function, led to the transient removal of >98% of endogenous HSCs in immunodeficient mice. Subsequent transplantation of these mice with donor HSCs led to chimerism levels of up to 90%. Extrapolation of these methods to humans may enable mild but effective conditioning regimens for transplantation.
- Rossi, D. J., Seita, J., Czechowicz, A., Bhattacharya, D., Bryder, D., & Weissman, I. L. (2007). Hematopoietic stem cell quiescence attenuates DNA damage response and permits DNA damage accumulation during aging. Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.), 6(19), 2371-6.More infoThe aging of tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells is believed to be central to the pathophysiological conditions arising in aged individuals. While the mechanisms driving stem cell aging are poorly understood, mounting evidence points to age-dependent DNA damage accrual as an important contributing factor. While it has been postulated that DNA damage may deplete stem cell numbers with age, recent studies indicate that murine hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) reserves are in fact maintained despite the accrual of genomic damage with age. Evidence suggests this to be a result of the quiescent (G0) cell cycle status of HSC, which results in an attenuation of checkpoint control and DNA damage responses for repair or apoptosis. When aged stem cells that have acquired damage are called into cycle under conditions of stress or tissue regeneration however, their functional capacity was shown to be severely impaired. These data suggest that age-dependent DNA damage accumulation may underlie the diminished capacity of aged stem cells to mediate a return to homeostasis after acute stress or injury. Moreover, the cytoprotection afforded by stem cell quiescence in stress-free, steady-state conditions suggests a mechanism through which potentially dangerous lesions can accumulate in the stem cell pool with age.
- Bhattacharya, D., Bryder, D., Rossi, D. J., & Weissman, I. L. (2006). Rapid lymphocyte reconstitution of unconditioned immunodeficient mice with non-self-renewing multipotent hematopoietic progenitors. Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.), 5(11), 1135-9.More infoThe replacement of abnormal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with normal transplanted HSCs can correct a wide range of hematologic disorders. Here, we provide evidence that transplantation of more differentiated progenitor cells can be used to more rapidly correct lymphoid deficiencies in unconditioned immunocompromised mice. Transplantation of flk2+ multipotent progenitors led to robust B and T cell reconstitution that was maintained for at least 16 weeks. Antigenic challenge at 16 weeks post-transplantation revealed that reconstituted lymphocytes maintained a functional repertoire. In contrast to the persistent lymphocytic engraftment, myeloid chimerism was lost by 12 weeks post-transplantation consistent with the fact that flk2+ progenitors are non-self-renewing. Thus, while more differentiated progenitors are capable of rescuing lymphoid deficiencies, transplantation of HSCs must be used for the correction of non-lymphoid disorders, and, we propose, very long-term immune reconstitution. Based on recent evidence, we discuss novel strategies to achieve the replacement of abnormal HSCs without the use of cytotoxic conditioning regimens.
- Bhattacharya, D., Rossi, D. J., Bryder, D., & Weissman, I. L. (2006). Purified hematopoietic stem cell engraftment of rare niches corrects severe lymphoid deficiencies without host conditioning. The Journal of experimental medicine, 203(1), 73-85.More infoIn the absence of irradiation or other cytoreductive conditioning, endogenous hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are thought to fill the unique niches within the bone marrow that allow maintenance of full hematopoietic potential and thus prevent productive engraftment of transplanted donor HSCs. By transplantation of purified exogenous HSCs into unconditioned congenic histocompatible strains of mice, we show that approximately 0.1-1.0% of these HSC niches are available for engraftment at any given point and find no evidence that endogenous HSCs can be displaced from the niches they occupy. We demonstrate that productive engraftment of HSCs within these empty niches is inhibited by host CD4+ T cells that recognize very subtle minor histocompatibility differences. Strikingly, transplantation of purified HSCs into a panel of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice leads to a rapid and complete rescue of lymphoid deficiencies through engraftment of these very rare niches and expansion of donor lymphoid progenitors. We further demonstrate that transient antibody-mediated depletion of CD4+ T cells allows short-term HSC engraftment and regeneration of B cells in a mouse model of B(-) non-SCID. These experiments provide a general mechanism by which transplanted HSCs can correct hematopoietic deficiencies without any host conditioning or with only highly specific and transient lymphoablation.
- Forsberg, E. C., Bhattacharya, D., & Weissman, I. L. (2006). Hematopoietic stem cells: expression profiling and beyond. Stem cell reviews, 2(1), 23-30.More infoThis review focuses on the genomics of mouse hematopoiesis, but also draws parallels to other systems and discusses issues common to the analysis of rare populations such as stem cells. As examples from the mouse blood forming system are used to illustrate several points, the authors first give a brief introduction to mouse hematopoiesis as a model system. We review the multiple microarray analyses that have been performed on various mouse hematopoietic subpopulations and comment on both technical and biological aspects of such experiments. The concept of stemness is discussed, and the importance of biological function of gene products, protein-protein interactions and molecular pathways highlighted. Finally, the authors discuss some major unresolved issues in hematopoiesis and discuss the potential uses of future microarray analysis as well as other genomic and functional approaches that might prove useful to further our understanding of hematopoiesis and other stem cell systems.
- Luckey, C. J., Bhattacharya, D., Goldrath, A. W., Weissman, I. L., Benoist, C., & Mathis, D. (2006). Memory T and memory B cells share a transcriptional program of self-renewal with long-term hematopoietic stem cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(9), 3304-9.More infoThe only cells of the hematopoietic system that undergo self-renewal for the lifetime of the organism are long-term hematopoietic stem cells and memory T and B cells. To determine whether there is a shared transcriptional program among these self-renewing populations, we first compared the gene-expression profiles of naïve, effector and memory CD8(+) T cells with those of long-term hematopoietic stem cells, short-term hematopoietic stem cells, and lineage-committed progenitors. Transcripts augmented in memory CD8(+) T cells relative to naïve and effector T cells were selectively enriched in long-term hematopoietic stem cells and were progressively lost in their short-term and lineage-committed counterparts. Furthermore, transcripts selectively decreased in memory CD8(+) T cells were selectively down-regulated in long-term hematopoietic stem cells and progressively increased with differentiation. To confirm that this pattern was a general property of immunologic memory, we turned to independently generated gene expression profiles of memory, naïve, germinal center, and plasma B cells. Once again, memory-enriched and -depleted transcripts were also appropriately augmented and diminished in long-term hematopoietic stem cells, and their expression correlated with progressive loss of self-renewal function. Thus, there appears to be a common signature of both up- and down-regulated transcripts shared between memory T cells, memory B cells, and long-term hematopoietic stem cells. This signature was not consistently enriched in neural or embryonic stem cell populations and, therefore, appears to be restricted to the hematopoeitic system. These observations provide evidence that the shared phenotype of self-renewal in the hematopoietic system is linked at the molecular level.
- Bhattacharya, D., Lee, D. U., & Sha, W. C. (2002). Regulation of Ig class switch recombination by NF-kappaB: retroviral expression of RelB in activated B cells inhibits switching to IgG1, but not to IgE. International immunology, 14(9), 983-91.More infoMutant NF-kappaB-deficient B cells from knockout mice lacking RelA, p105/p50 or the transactivation domain of c-Rel exhibit distinct and selective cell-intrinsic defects in their ability to undergo class switch recombination (CSR) to specific Ig isotypes. This isotype-specific requirement for particular NF-kappaB transcription factors in B cells activated to undergo CSR is intriguing because the NF-kappaB composition in B cells is also highly regulated and can vary significantly depending upon how B cells are activated. These studies prompted us to test by retroviral transduction of normal B cells whether changes in the NF-kappaB composition in activated B cells could modulate cytokine-driven CSR. RelB, RelA, c-Rel, p50 and p52 were first expressed in lipopolysaccharide-activated primary B cells and then induced by cytokine addition to undergo CSR to IgG1, IgE, IgG2a, IgG2b or IgA. Surprisingly, only retroviral expression of RelB altered CSR, resulting in a 3-fold decrease in CSR to IgG1 induced by IL-4. This effect was isotype specific as RelB expression did not affect CSR to IgE within the same culture or to other isotypes tested. The transactivation domain of RelB was required for inhibition of CSR to IgG1. Expression of p50-RelB or p52-RelB dimers joined covalently by a flexible peptide linker also specifically inhibited IgG1 CSR. RelB-mediated inhibition of IgG1 CSR was associated with a decrease in germline gamma1 transcription, but not with changes in proliferation as assayed by CFSE labeling. Thus, RelB complexes can specifically inhibit CSR to IgG1, but not IgE, in activated, primary B cells.
- Bhattacharya, D., Logue, E. C., Bakkour, S., DeGregori, J., & Sha, W. C. (2002). Identification of gene function by cyclical packaging rescue of retroviral cDNA libraries. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(13), 8838-43.More infoGenes regulating responses in mammalian cells are often difficult to identify by functional cloning strategies limited to a single round of selection. Here we describe a strategy, cyclical packaging rescue (CPR), which allows rapid recovery and retransmission of retroviral cDNA libraries. CPR can be used not only with immortalized cell lines such as fibroblasts and Jurkat T cells, but also with primary B lymphocytes, which can be maintained only in short-term cultures. CPR allows for multiple rounds of selection and enrichment to identify cDNAs regulating responses in mammalian cells. Using CPR, five cDNAs were functionally cloned, which conferred protection against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)-induced apoptosis in RelA(-/-) fibroblasts. Three of the genes, RelA, cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), and a dominant-negative mutant of TNF receptor 1 arising through CPR afforded strong protection against apoptosis. Two of the genes identified, Dbs and Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD), previously identified as a proapoptotic molecule, afforded partial protection against TNFalpha-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that CPR is a versatile method that permits functional identification of both wild-type and dominant-negative gene products that regulate cellular responses.
- Ranganath, S., Ouyang, W., Bhattarcharya, D., Sha, W. C., Grupe, A., Peltz, G., & Murphy, K. M. (1998). GATA-3-dependent enhancer activity in IL-4 gene regulation. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 161(8), 3822-6.More infoPreviously, we analyzed the proximal IL-4 promoter in directing Th2-specific activity. An 800-base pair proximal promoter conferred some Th2-selective expression in transgenic mice. However, this region directed extremely low reporter mRNA levels relative to endogenous IL-4 mRNA, suggesting that full gene activity requires additional enhancer elements. Here, we analyzed large genomic IL-4 regions for enhancer activity and interaction with transcription factors. The proximal IL-4 promoter is only moderately augmented by GATA-3, but certain genomic regions significantly enhanced GATA-3 promoter transactivation. Some enhancing regions contained consensus, GATA sites that bound Th2-specific complexes. However, retroviral transduction of GATA-3 into developing T cells induced IL-5 to full Th2 levels, but only partially restored IL-4 production. Thus, we propose that GATA-3 is permissive, but not sufficient, for full IL-4 enhancement and may act through GATA elements surrounding the IL-13/IL-4 gene locus.
- Bhattacharya, D. (2020, Fall). Antibody responses to viral infections and vaccines.. Invited seminar, University of Texas Health Sciences, San Antonio. San Antonio, TX: University of Texas Health Sciences, San Antonio.
- Bhattacharya, D. (2020, January 2020). Metabolic explanations for plasma cell lifespan and the duration of immunity.. invited speaker, Cell Symposium, Frontiers in the field of B cell immunology. Shanghai, China: Cell Press/ Pasteur Institut.
- Bhattacharya, D. (2020, July 2020). B cell memory. invited lecturer, AAI advanced course in immunology. Boston, MA: American Association of Immunologists.
- Bhattacharya, D. (2020, March 2020). B cell memory. invited seminar, Pfizer Inc.. Groton, CT: Pfizer, Inc..
- Bhattacharya, D. (2020, March 2020). Engineering pluripotent stem cells to evade and promote immunity.. invited seminar, Harvard University, Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology.
- Bhattacharya, D. (2020, November, 2020). Antibody responses to viral infections and vaccines.. invited seminar, Georgia Medical College, Department of Biochemistry. Augusta, GA: Georgia Medical College, Department of Biochemistry.
- Bhattacharya, D. (2020, September/2020). Durability of antibody responses to viral infections and vaccines. University of Arizona Immunobiology seminar. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Department of Immunobiology.
- Bhattacharya, D. (2019, August 2019). B cell memory. invited lecturer, AAI Advanced course in immunology. Boston, MA: American Association of Immunologists.
- Bhattacharya, D. (2019, February). Stem Cell-based Approaches for Vaccine Design. invited speaker, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Seattle, WA: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
- Bhattacharya, D. (2019, January). B Cell Recall Responses to Flaviviruses. invited speaker, Midwinter Conference of Immunology. Pacific Grove, CA: Midwinter Conference of Immunology.
- Bhattacharya, D. (2019, June 2019). A Metabolic Explanation for Plasma Cell Lifespan and the Duration of Humoral Immunity.. invited speaker, European Hematology Association annual meeting. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: European Hematology Association.
- Bhattacharya, D. (2019, March). Metabolic Adaptation in Hematopoietic Homeostasis. invited speaker, The New York Stem Cell Foundation Alumni Conference. New York, NY: The New York Stem Cell Foundation Alumni Conference.
- Bhattacharya, D. (2019, May). Metabolic plasticity during hematopoietic development and B cell responses.. invited speaker, American Association of Immunologists annual conference major symposium. San Diego, CA: American Association of Immunologists.More infoMajor symposia, invited speaker
- Bhattacharya, D. (2019, November). Durable antibody responses: lessons from flaviviruses and metabolism. Invited seminar, University of California, Berkeley, Deparment of Molecular and Cell Biology. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Berkeley, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology.More infoSeminar for Division of Immunology, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley
- Bhattacharya, D. (2019, October 2019). Recall responses to flaviviruses. Invited speaker, TRR 130 Symposium 2019, "B cell responses in immunity and autoimmunity". Freiburg, Germany: TRR 130.
- Bhattacharya, D. (2018, December). Durable Humoral Immunity: Lessons from Flaviviruses and Metabolism. University of Massachusetts, Worcester. Worcester, MA: University of Massachusetts, Worcester, Department of Pathology.
- Bhattacharya, D. (2018, January). A Metabolic Explanation for the Duration of Immunity. Arizona State University, Biodesign Institute. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University, Biodesign Institute.
- Bhattacharya, D. (2018, October). Durable Humoral Immunity: Lessons from Flaviviruses and Metabolism. West Virginia University. Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University.
- Bhattacharya, D. (2018, September 2018). A Metabolic Explanation for Durable Immunity.. invited seminar, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Arizona. Tucson, AZ: Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Arizona.
- Bhattacharya, D. (2017, April). A Metabolic Explanation for Plasma Cell Lifespan and the Duration of Immunity. National Institutes of Health Vaccine Research Center. Bethesda, MS: National Institutes of Health Vaccine Research Center.
- Bhattacharya, D. (2017, September). A Metabolic Explanation for Plasma Cell Lifespan and the Duration of Immunity. University of California, Davis. Davis, CA: University of California, Davis.
- Bhattacharya, D. (2015, December). Intrinsic and extrinsic control of myeloid commitment.Intrinsic and extrinsic control of myeloid commitment.. American Society of Hematology annual meeting. Orlando, FL: American Society of Hematology.
- Bhattacharya, D. (2015, February). Molecular Regulation of Plasma Cell Survival and the Duration of Humoral Immunity. Institute for Immunology, University of California, Irvine. Irvine, CA: University of California, Irvine.
- Bhattacharya, D. (2015, May). Molecular control of plasma cell lifespan and the duration of immunity.. University of Toronto Department of ImmunologyUniversity of Toronto.
- Bhattacharya, D. (2015, November). Molecular Regulation of Plasma Cell Survival and the Duration of Humoral Immunity. University of California, San Diego. La Jolla, CA: University of California, San Diego.
- Bhattacharya, D. (2015, November). Stem Cell-Based Approaches for Vaccine Design. Fate Therapeutics. La Jolla, CA: Fate Therapeutics.
- Bhattacharya, D. (2017, April). Metabolic Control of Plasma Cell Lifespan and Antibody Secretion. Keystone Symposia. Whistler, BC, Canada: Keystone Symposia.