Robert A Williams
- Regents Professor
- Chair, E Thomas Sullivan - Law / American Indian Studies
- Professor, Social / Cultural / Critical Theory - GIDP
Robert A. Williams, Jr. is the E. Thomas Sullivan Professor of Law and Faculty Chair of the University of Arizona Indigenous Peoples Law and Policy Program. Professor Williams received his B.A. from Loyola College (1977) and his J.D. from Harvard Law School (1980). He was named the first Oneida Indian Nation Visiting Professor of Law at Harvard Law School (2003-2004), having previously served there as Bennet Boskey Distinguished Visiting Lecturer of Law. He is the author of The American Indian in Western Legal Thought: The Discourses of Conquest (1990), which received the Gustavus Meyers Human Rights Center Award as one of the outstanding books published in 1990 on the subject of prejudice in the United States. He has also written Linking Arms Together: American Indian Treaty Visions of Law and Peace, 1600-1800 (1997) and Like a Loaded Weapon: The Rehnquist Court, Indian Rights and the Legal History of Racism in America (2005). He is co-author of Federal Indian Law: Cases and Materials (6th ed., with David Getches, Charles Wilkinson, and Matthew Fletcher, 2011). His latest book is Savage Anxieties: The Invention of Western Civilization (Palgrave Macmillan 2012). The 2006 recipient of the University of Arizona Koffler Prizefor Outstanding Accomplishments in Public Service, Professor Williams has received major grants and awards from the Soros Senior Justice Fellowship Program of the Open Society Institute, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Ford Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the American Council of Learned Societies, the U.S. Department of Education, the U.S. Department of Justice, and the National Institute of Justice. He has represented tribal groups and members before the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, the United Nations Working Group on Indigenous Peoples, the United States Supreme Court, and the Supreme Court of Canada. Professor Williams has served as Chief Justice for the Court of Appeals, Pascua Yaqui Indian Reservation, and as Justice for the Court of Appeals and trial judge pro tem for the Tohono O’odham Nation. He was named one of 2011’s “Heroes on the Hill” by Indian Country Today for his human rights advocacy work as Lead Counsel for the Hul’qumi’num Treaty Group of Canada before the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights.
- J.D. Law
- Harvard Law School, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America
- B.A. English Literature/Journalism
- Loyola College, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
- Oneida Indian Nation Visiting Professor of Law, Harvard Law School (2004 - 2005)
- Visiting Professor of Law, Harvard Law School (2002 - 2003)
- Visiting Professor of Law and Bennet Boskey Visiting Lecturer of Law, Harvard Law School (2000 - 2001)
- Visiting Professor of Law, Harvard Law School (2000 - 2001)
- Cross Distinguished Visiting Professor of Law, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (1992 - 1993)
- E. Thomas Sullivan Professor of Law Faculty Co-Chair, Indigenous Peoples Law and Policy (IPLP) Program, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (1987 - Ongoing)
- Regents' Professor
- The University of Arizona, Spring 2018
- Lawrence R. Baca Lifetime Achievement Award for Excellence in Federal Indian Law
- Federal Bar Association Indian Law Section, Fall 2017
Licensure & Certification
- Member, Massachusetts Bar Association (1980)
Federal Indian Law; Critical Race Theory and Practice; International Law and Indigenous Peoples Rights; International Human Rights; Comparative Indigenous Rights; Tribal Courts and Customary Law; Property Law; Critical Race Theory and Practice International Human Rights Advocacy Workshop (2011-Present);Indigenous Peoples Law and Policy Clinic
Federal Indian Law; Critical Race Theory and Practice; Indigenous Peoples' Human Rights; Legal History of Colonialism.
American Common Law System IILAW 402B (Spring 2019)
American Common Law System IILAW 502B (Spring 2019)
Clinical PracticeLAW 696C (Spring 2019)
DissertationLAW 920 (Spring 2019)
Independent StudyLAW 699 (Spring 2019)
Pre-Bar Professional SkillsLAW 698A (Spring 2019)
Comp Lgl Sys & Nation BuildingLAW 631M (Winter 2018)
American Common Law System ILAW 402A (Fall 2018)
American Common Law System ILAW 502A (Fall 2018)
DissertationLAW 920 (Fall 2018)
Independent StudyLAW 699 (Fall 2018)
Preparing to PracticeLAW 679B (Fall 2018)
Independent StudyLAW 699 (Summer I 2018)
American Common Law System IILAW 402B (Spring 2018)
American Common Law System IILAW 502B (Spring 2018)
Comp Lgl Sys & Nation BuildingLAW 631M (Spring 2018)
Critical Race PracticeLAW 631H (Spring 2018)
DissertationLAW 920 (Spring 2018)
Honors ThesisLAW 498H (Spring 2018)
Independent StudyLAW 699 (Spring 2018)
NALSA Moot CourtLAW 661C (Spring 2018)
Pre-Bar Professional SkillsLAW 698A (Spring 2018)
Substantial Paper SmnrLAW 696N (Spring 2018)
American Common Law System ILAW 402A (Fall 2017)
American Common Law System ILAW 502A (Fall 2017)
DissertationLAW 920 (Fall 2017)
Honors ThesisLAW 498H (Fall 2017)
Independent StudyLAW 699 (Fall 2017)
Independent StudyLAW 699 (Summer I 2017)
Legal InternshipLAW 493A (Summer I 2017)
American Common Law System IILAW 402B (Spring 2017)
American Common Law System IILAW 502B (Spring 2017)
Comp Lgl Sys & Nation BuildingLAW 631M (Spring 2017)
Critical Race PracticeLAW 631H (Spring 2017)
DissertationLAW 920 (Spring 2017)
Honors ThesisLAW 498H (Spring 2017)
Pre-Bar Professional SkillsLAW 698A (Spring 2017)
ThesisLAW 910 (Spring 2017)
American Common Law System ILAW 402A (Fall 2016)
American Common Law System ILAW 502A (Fall 2016)
DissertationLAW 920 (Fall 2016)
Independent StudyLAW 699 (Fall 2016)
DissertationLAW 920 (Summer I 2016)
Independent StudyLAW 699 (Summer I 2016)
- Williams, R. A., Wilkinson, C., Fletcher, M., & Carpenter, K. (2017). Federal Indian Law: Cases and Materials 7th ed. West Academic.
- Williams, R., Smith, C. M., Stone, A. L., Parkhill, R. L., Stewart, R. L., Simpkins, M. W., Kachurin, A. M., Warren, W. L., & Williams, R. A. (0). Three-dimensional bioassembly tool for generating viable tissue-engineered constructs. Tissue engineering, 10(9-10).More infoThe primary emphasis of tissue engineering is the design and fabrication of constructs for the replacement of nonfunctional tissue. Because tissue represents a highly organized interplay of cells and extracellular matrix, the fabrication of replacement tissue should mimic this spatial organization. This report details studies evaluating the use of a three-dimensional, direct-write cell deposition system to construct spatially organized viable structures. A direct-write bioassembly system was designed and fabricated to permit layer-by-layer placement of cells and extracellular matrix on a variety of material substrates. Human fibroblasts suspended in polyoxyethylene/polyoxypropylene were coextruded through a positive displacement pen delivery onto a polystyrene slide. After deposition, approximately 60% of the fibroblasts remained viable. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) suspended in soluble collagen type I were coextruded via microdispense pen delivery onto the hydrophilic side of flat sheets of polyethylene terephthalate. After deposition with a 25-gauge tip, approximately 86% of the BAECs were viable. When maintained in culture for up to 35 days, the constructs remained viable and maintained their original spatial organization. These results indicate the potential for utilizing a direct-write, three-dimensional bioassembly tool to create viable, patterned tissue-engineered constructs.
- Williams, R., Williams, R. A., Noecker, R. J., Earl, M. L., Mundorf, T., Peace, J., & Williams, R. A. (0). Bimatoprost 0.03% versus travoprost 0.004% in black Americans with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Advances in therapy, 20(2).More infoThis randomized, investigator-masked, multicenter, parallel-design trial compared the IOP-lowering efficacy of bimatoprost 0.03% and travoprost 0.004% in African Americans with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. After a washout of all ocular hypotensive agents, patients were assigned to bimatoprost once daily (n=16) or travoprost once daily (n=15) for 3 months. Study visits were at baseline and at months 1, 2, and 3. Primary outcome measures were the percentage of patients who achieved selected target pressures and the mean reduction in IOP from baseline at month 3. Both drugs comparably lowered IOP, but bimatoprost was more likely than travoprost to allow achievement of every target pressure from 12 to 19 mm Hg at month 3. After 3 months, the mean IOP reduction from baseline was 8.4 mm Hg (34%) in the bimatoprost group and 7.9 mm Hg (30%) in the travoprost group. These results are being evaluated further in a larger clinical trial.
- Williams, R., Gruionu, G., Stone, A. L., Schwartz, M. A., Hoying, J. B., & Williams, R. A. (2010). Encapsulation of ePTFE in prevascularized collagen leads to peri-implant vascularization with reduced inflammation. Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A, 95(3).More infoDuring the typical healing response to an implanted biomaterial, vascular-rich granulation tissue forms around the implant and later resolves into a relatively avascular, fibrous capsule. We have previously shown that a microvascular construct (MVC) consisting of isolated microvessel fragments suspended in a collagen I gel forms a persistent microcirculation in lieu of avascular scar when implanted. The current study evaluated the potential for microvascular constructs to maintain a vascularized tissue environment around an implanted biomaterial. An analysis of the peri-implant tissue around bare expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE), ePTFE embedded within a microvascular construct, or ePTFE embedded within collagen alone revealed that the presence of the MVC, but not collagen alone, promoted vascular densities comparable to that of the granulation tissue formed around bare ePTFE. The vessels within the microvascular construct surrounding the ePTFE were perfusion competent, as determined by India ink perfusion casting, and extended into the interstices of the polymer. In contrast to bare ePTFE, the presence of the MVC or collagen alone significantly reduced the number of activated macrophages in association with ePTFE. Similar results were observed for ePTFE modified to increase cellularity and prevent the formation of an avascular scar. The microvascular construct may prove effective in forming vascularized tissue environments and limiting the number of activated macrophages around implanted polymers thereby leading to effective implant incorporation.
- Williams, R., Cardinal, K. O., & Williams, R. A. (2009). Assessment of the intimal response to a protein-modified stent in a tissue-engineered blood vessel mimic. Tissue engineering. Part A, 15(12).More infoProtein-coated intravascular stents have emerged as potential pro-healing modifications for or alternatives to anti-proliferative drug-eluting stents. To support the development of these devices, preclinical testing is required to evaluate the intimal response to new coatings and modifications. The purpose of this work was to implement a tissue-engineered blood vessel as an in vitro testing system to evaluate extracellular matrix-modified stents with regard to endothelialization of the stent surface. Stents were modified by submersion in a protein-enriched medium and were subsequently deployed within tissue-engineered blood vessels and cultivated in vitro under flow to assess the intimal response. Scanning electron microscopy, fluorescent nuclear staining with en face imaging, and histological assessments were performed 7 or 14 days postdeployment. Results illustrated accelerated cellular regeneration over protein-modified stent strut surfaces, with increased coverage and increased tissue thickness atop protein-modified stent struts. In addition, the intimal response to modified stents differed significantly from bare metal stents. Conclusions from this work support the use of a tissue-engineered blood vessel mimic system for evaluation of modified stent surfaces. These findings are important to stent researchers as well as laboratories developing tissue-engineered constructs.
- Williams, R., Hiscox, A. M., Stone, A. L., Limesand, S., Hoying, J. B., & Williams, R. A. (2008). An islet-stabilizing implant constructed using a preformed vasculature. Tissue engineering. Part A, 14(3).More infoIslet transplantation for the purpose of treating insulin-sensitive diabetes is currently limited by several factors, including islet survival posttransplantation. In the current study, a tissue-engineered prevascularized pancreatic encapsulating device (PPED) was developed. Isolated islets were placed in collagen gels, and they exhibited fourfold more insulin release than islets not in collagen. The insulin released by beta-cells in islets encapsulated in collagen exhibited unobstructed diffusion within the collagen gels. Subsequent studies evaluated the ability to create a sandwich comprised of two layers of prevascularized collagen gels around a central collagen gel containing islets. In vitro characterization of the islets showed that islets are functional and responded to glucose stimulation. The PPEDs were implanted subcutaneously into severe combined immunodeficient mice. Islet survival was assessed after 7, 14, and 28 days. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on the implants to detect insulin and the presence of intraislet endothelial cells. At all time points, insulin was localized in association with intact and partially dissociated islets. Moreover, cells that exhibited insulin staining were colocalized with intraislet endothelial cells. These data indicate that the PPED enhances islet survival by supporting islet viability and maintaining intraislet endothelial cell structures.
- Williams, R., Smith, C. M., Christian, J. J., Warren, W. L., & Williams, R. A. (2007). Characterizing environmental factors that impact the viability of tissue-engineered constructs fabricated by a direct-write bioassembly tool. Tissue engineering, 13(2).More infoTissue engineering combines the fields of medicine and engineering to build replacement tissue capable of restoring, maintaining, or improving damaged tissue. Researchers have recently developed techniques to fabricate tissue in which both the cells and matrix have a carefully defined architecture. This report details studies evaluating the use of a direct-write, 3-dimensional (3D) bioassembly tool (BAT) capable of extruding cells and matrix into spatially organized, 3D constructs. This system has been characterized by its ability to fabricate viable 2-dimensional and 3D constructs containing up to 2 separate cellular solutions suspended in type I collagen. The effects of various environmental factors, such as extrusion pressure, humidity, and stage heating, were examined with respect to the viability of the extruded cells. The data indicate that the system parameters required to extrude cells suspended in collagen do not adversely affect the viability of those cells. Maintaining a high humidity, especially when stage heat was applied, is critical in maintaining the viability of the printed cells. These results demonstrate that the BAT is capable of spatially organizing separate cellular solutions into a defined architecture; however, when cells were extruded in a supporting matrix of 3.0 mg/mL type I collagen, it was not possible to consistently generate adjacent, touching, but nonoverlapping lines of separate solutions. Thus, when a fabrication system such as BAT is used to generate complex, 3D viable constructs, the supporting matrix for the cells should be carefully chosen on the basis of such characteristics as its rate of polymerization and stiffness.
- Williams Jr., R. A. (2006). "The savage as the wolf": The idea of the Indian on the frontier borders of the American racial imagination. Western Humanities Review, 60(2), 9-26.
- Williams, R., Cardinal, K. O., Bonnema, G. T., Hofer, H., Barton, J. K., & Williams, R. A. (2006). Tissue-engineered vascular grafts as in vitro blood vessel mimics for the evaluation of endothelialization of intravascular devices. Tissue engineering, 12(12).More infoThe accelerating use of minimally invasive procedures for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, and the commensurate development of intravascular devices such as stents, has lead to a high demand for preclinical assessment techniques. A 3-dimensional in vitro blood vessel mimic (BVM) would be ideal for device testing before animal or clinical studies. This is possible based on current capabilities for the creation of tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs). Using an established method of pressure-sodding human endothelial cells onto a polymer scaffold, a BVM was created in an in vitro bioreactor system under flow. Scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry verified a cellular lining and revealed a luminal monolayer of endothelial cells. After BVM development, bare metal stents were deployed. Stented and unstented BVMs were evaluated using fluorescent nuclear staining and optical coherence tomography (OCT). En face and cross-sectional evaluation of bisbenzimide-stained nuclei revealed cellular coverage of the stent surfaces. Cross-sectional evaluation using OCT also illustrated a cellular layer developing over the stent struts. These data support the use of TEVGs as in vitro BVMs for pre-clinical evaluation of the endothelial cell response to stents and endovascular devices.
- Williams, R., Schwartz, M. A., Stone, A. L., Greer, K. A., Hoying, J. B., & Williams, R. A. (2005). Gene expression in tissue associated with extracellular matrix modified ePTFE. Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A, 73(1).More infoPrevious studies have established that surface modification of ePTFE with extracellular matrix molecules promotes vascularization within and around the implanted material. To understand the molecular basis of this tissue response to modified ePTFE, we analyzed large-scale gene expression in nonmodified and extracellular matrix-modified ePTFE-associated healing. Using a microarray containing 15,000 unique mouse cDNAs and an ANOVA-based analysis, we identified 789 genes related to cell signaling, inflammation, matrix remodeling, and proliferation that were differentially expressed across time, between modifications, or both. Genes were clustered based upon similarity in gene expression, producing 7 unique temporal super-patterns of expression. The clustered data revealed 3 general expression patterns unique to tissue surrounding the nonmodified ePTFE, while 6 unique expression patterns were associated with extracellular matrix-modified ePTFE. The more diverse expression patterns associated with extracellular matrix-modified ePTFE suggests that the tissue surrounding the extracellular matrix-modified ePTFE is more dynamic in terms of transcriptional activity. Taken together, these clusters serve as a "genetic fingerprint" for tissue healing in response to a specific material or material modification. Use of these genetic profiles will aid in the pursuit of improved device biocompatibility and enhanced material function.
- Williams, R., Kidd, K. R., & Williams, R. A. (2004). Laminin-5-enriched extracellular matrix accelerates angiogenesis and neovascularization in association with ePTFE. Journal of biomedical materials research. Part A, 69(2).More infoThe performance of biomedical implant devices is often limited by inappropriate tissue responses associated with synthetic materials used in device construction. Adverse healing responses, in particular the lack of an extensive vascular supply in the peri-implant tissue, are believed to lead to the ultimate failure of many of these medical devices. Accelerated formation of new blood vessels in the peri-implant tissue and within porous polymeric implants is hypothesized to improve the performance of such biomedical implant devices. The current study evaluated the use of cell-mediated, extracellular matrix modification of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) to increase vessel growth in peri-implant tissue and within the pores of the implants. Discs of ePTFE were modified through cell-mediated matrix deposition using epithelial and endothelial cell lines with variable deposition of collagen types, fibronectin, and laminin types. Cell matrix-modified discs, Matrigel-coated discs, and nonmodified discs were implanted in both the adipose and subcutaneous tissues of the rat. Following a 5-week implant period, samples were removed and evaluated histologically and morphometrically for the presence of blood vessels in the peri-implant tissue and within the pores of the polymer as well as for the presence of activated macrophages and monocytes. A significantly increased presence of activated macrophages and monocytes was associated only with the samples modified with the matrix from a human microvessel endothelial cell line. Increased vessel density was identified in association with those ePTFE samples modified with either the 804-G, HaCaT, or II-4 cell matrices, all of which have extracellular matrices enriched in the protein laminin-5.
- Williams, R., Kidd, K. R., Patula, V. B., & Williams, R. A. (2003). Accelerated endothelialization of interpositional 1-mm vascular grafts. The Journal of surgical research, 113(2).More infoThere is an increased need for alternative, synthetic, small-diameter vascular grafts due to a growing segment of the population who suffer from ischemic heart disease and lack suitable autologous vein grafts for use in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We hypothesized that a cell-mediated extracellular matrix (ECM) modification of ePTFE would stimulate increased vascularization within the graft and thus promote lumenal endothelialization in a 1-mm rat abdomenal aortic implant model.
- Williams, R., Dal Ponte, D. B., Berman, S. S., Patula, V., Kleinert, L., & Williams, R. A. (2002). Abdominal aortic healing associated with a thin-walled Dacron-covered endovascular graft in a canine model. Journal of endovascular therapy : an official journal of the International Society of Endovascular Specialists, 9(3).More infoTo characterize the healing response associated with an experimental endovascular graft (EVG) by examining the lumen of the prosthesis and the native vessel wall responses after implantation in a canine model.
- Williams, R., Kellar, R. S., Kleinert, L. B., & Williams, R. A. (2002). Characterization of angiogenesis and inflammation surrounding ePTFE implanted on the epicardium. Journal of biomedical materials research, 61(2).More infoThe response of epicardial tissue to the implantation of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) was evaluated and compared with identical material implanted within subcutaneous and adipose tissues. These two tissue environments were selected for comparison with epicardial implants because they represent tissue often involved in device implantation. Discs of ePTFE (6 mm) were implanted into three different tissue sites in Sprague-Dawley rats. At 5 weeks, polymers and surrounding tissues were harvested and processed for light microscopy. General histology and histochemistry data indicated all polymers to be well incorporated with new tissue. Subcutaneous implants were covered by a dense fibrous capsule (55-70 microm). Epicardial and adipose implants had no fibrous capsule and a significantly greater number of microvessels (arterioles, capillaries, and venules) within the surrounding tissues compared with subcutaneous implants. An increased level of inflammation was also observed around epicardial implants compared with the other implants. Additionally, the new vasculature surrounding epicardially implanted ePTFE revealed an altered microvessel density and vessel type distribution compared with normal (control) epicardium. These results suggest that epicardial tissue responds to implanted ePTFE with a robust inflammatory response that may support the formation of a new microvasculature that is uniquely different from the native epicardial microvasculature.
- Williams, R., Kidd, K. R., Dal Ponte, D. B., Kellar, R. S., & Williams, R. A. (2002). A comparative evaluation of the tissue responses associated with polymeric implants in the rat and mouse. Journal of biomedical materials research, 59(4).More infoEnd product application is an important consideration when evaluating a material in an in vivo setting (Didisheim, Cardiovasc Pathol 1993;2:1S-2S). Small animal models allow high through-put evaluation of biocompatability. Previous preclinical evaluations have often used a rat subcutaneous model for the characterization of material-tissue interaction. Recent advances in genetic manipulation have provided mouse models with selective expression of a wide range of critical proteins. The rat model does not have many of the resources (i.e., knockouts, SCID, nude) that are present in mouse strains. The availability of these mice provides a resource to delineate the mechanisms regulating the healing associated with implants. However, before the mouse models can be used, they must be validated with respect to their ability to accurately assess tissue responses to materials. In this study the tissue responses after the implantation of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) were compared between rat and mouse. Discs of ePTFE (30-microm internodal distance) were implanted in subcutaneous and epididymal fat tissue of rats (Sprague-Dawley) and mice (129-SVJ). After 5 weeks the samples were removed and evaluated for vascular density, inflammation, and fibrous encapsulation. No difference in the vessel density was observed within the peri-implant subcutaneous and adipose tissue or within the porous material. However, a significant difference was found in the number of activated macrophages and giant cells between these two species. Implants in the rat exhibited greater numbers of activated inflammatory cells in the peri-implant tissue. The data indicate that the mouse and rat provide a comparable model for evaluating angiogenesis and neovascularization associated with synthetic porous implants.
- Williams, R., Kidd, K. R., Nagle, R. B., & Williams, R. A. (2002). Angiogenesis and neovascularization associated with extracellular matrix-modified porous implants. Journal of biomedical materials research, 59(2).More infoTherapies directed toward stimulation of angiogenesis seek to accelerate the development of new blood vessels in tissues rendered dysfunctional because of an insufficient microvascular supply. The goal of the current study was the stimulation of an angiogenic response around and within porous biomedical implants, such as vascular grafts, constructed from a base polymer composed of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE). Similar to many biomaterials, ePTFE does not elicit a significant angiogenic response and the porous interstices of this material remain avascular after implantation. Studies were performed to evaluate the ability of a tumorigenic cell line, the 804-G rat kidney cell to secrete an angiogenic extracellular matrix on and within the porous structures of ePTFE. A rat model was used to evaluate and compare implant-associated healing responses between nonmodified materials and extracellular matrix-modified ePTFE. Results demonstrated that, in contrast to untreated ePTFE, the matrix-modified ePTFE stimulated both angiogenesis in implant-associated tissue and neovascularization of the pores within the ePTFE interstices. Deposition of an insoluble matrix stimulates an angiogenic response and has a potential application for the improvement of medical device function.
- Williams, R. A. (2017. Challenges for Native American Law Students. Native America Calling.More info5/3/17, Interview with “Native America Calling,” nationally syndicated weekly radio show, on the topic of “Challenges for Native American Law Students.”
- Williams, R. A. (2016. Native American Mexico Border Crossing Threatened. fronterasdesk.org. http://www.fronterasdesk.org/content/10265/native-american-mexico-border-crossing-threatened
- Williams, R. A. (2016. Why A Conservative Legal Organization Is Desperately Trying To Kill The Indian Child Welfare Act. thinkprogress.org. https://thinkprogress.org/why-a-conservative-legal-organization-is-desperately-trying-to-kill-the-indian-child-welfare-act-762ba8e62d5b#.f0hl1nxyv
- Williams, R. A. (2015. 53 Historians Weigh In on Barack Obama’s Legacy. NYMag.com. http://nymag.com/daily/intelligencer/2015/01/53-historians-on-obamas-legacy.html?mid=nymag_pressMore infoQuoted or Interviewed
- Williams, R. A. (2015. Federal raids cool tribal excitement over potential marijuana profits. Milwaukee, WI Journal Sentinel (JSOnline.com). http://archive.jsonline.com/news/wisconsin/federal-raids-cool-tribal-excitement-over-potential-marijuana-profits-b99632595z1-361687291.html
- Williams, R. A. (2015. InFocus: Grand Chief sues for defamation of the Aboriginal race. APTN InFocus with Cheryl McKenzie. http://aptn.ca/news/2015/02/05/infocus-grand-chief-sues-defamation-aboriginal-race/More infointerviewed or quoted
- Williams, R. A. (2015. Interior resumes centuries-old fight over who is an Indian today. E&E News (eenews.net). http://www.eenews.net/stories/1060029121
- Williams, R. A. (2015. Resistance Radio – Robert A. Williams Jr. – 08.09.15. Progressive Radio Network (PRN.FM). http://prn.fm/resistance-radio-robert-a-williams-jr-08-09-15/More infointerviewed
- Williams, R. A. (2015. Tribal Enrollment And Blood Quantum. NATIVE AMERICA CALLING. http://www.nativeamericacalling.com/wednesday-may-6-2015-tribal-enrollment-and-blood-quantum/More infointerviewed
- Williams, R. A. (2015. Warm Springs tribes vote on growing, selling marijuana. OregonLive.com. http://www.oregonlive.com/marijuana/index.ssf/2015/12/warm_springs_tribes_vote_on_st.html#incart_river_home
- Williams, R. A. (2015. Why American Indian Tribes Are Getting Into the Marijuana Business. Time.com. http://time.com/4019219/american-indian-tribes-marijuana/More infoQuoted in magazine article
- Williams, R. A. (2018, January). January in Tucson. Native Nations Institute (Udall Center) and the James E. Rogers College of Law.More infoEach year, including in 2018, IPLP partners with the Native Nations Institute, part of the Udall Center, to conduct “January in Tucson” (JIT). For three weeks each year, the JIT intensive education session brings together distinguished faculty in the field of Indigenous governance and Indigenous rights to teach a specially designed set of courses and hold discussions with Indigenous leaders, practitioners, and community members, as well as other individuals interested in Indigenous affairs. I teach in the program along with other IPLP Faculty and guest faculty, and has increased enrollments every year, up to over 90 students enrolled in JIT 2018 courses.