# Pierre Meystre

- Adjunct Professor

Contact

- (520) 621-6820
- PHY-ATMOS SCI, Rm. 254
- TUCSON, AZ 85721-0081
- pierre.meystre@optics.arizona.edu

### Bio

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### Interests

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### Courses

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### Scholarly Contributions

#### Chapters

- Meystre, P. (2012). Vladilen Letokhov – A fearless thinker. In Physicist V. S. Letokhov – Life in Science(p. 173). Moscow, Russia: Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of Spectroscopy.More infoEditors: Balykin, VI | Karu, TI | Ryabov, EA

#### Journals/Publications

- Bariani, F., Otterbach, J., Tan, H., & Meystre, P. (2014). Single-atom quantum control of macroscopic mechanical oscillators. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 89(1).More infoAbstract: We investigate a hybrid electromechanical system consisting of a pair of charged macroscopic mechanical oscillators coupled to a small ensemble of Rydberg atoms. The resonant dipole-dipole coupling between an internal atomic Rydberg transition and the mechanics allows cooling to its motional ground state with a single atom despite the considerable mass imbalance between the two subsystems. We show that the rich electronic spectrum of Rydberg atoms, combined with their high degree of optical control, paves the way towards implementing various quantum-control protocols for the mechanical oscillators. © 2014 American Physical Society.
- Meystre, P. (2014). A quantum optomechanical heat engine. Physical Review Letter, 112, 150602.More infoKeye Zhang, F. Bariani and P. Meystre, ``A quantum optomechanical heat engine,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 150602 (2014)
- Meystre, P. (2014). Dynamic stabilization of an optomechanical oscillator. Phys. Rev. A, 90, 043840.More infoH. Seok, E. M. Wright, and P. Meystre, ``Dynamic stabilization of an optomechanical oscillator,'' Phys. Rev. A 90, 043840 (2014)
- Meystre, P. (2014). Editorial: Thank a DAE!. Physical Review Letters, 112(1).
- Meystre, P. (2014). Hybrid optomechanical cooling by atomic systems. Phys. Rev. A, 90, 033838.More infoF. Bariani, S. Singh, L.F. Buchmann, M. Vengalattore, and P. Meystre, “Hybrid optomechanical cooling by atomic systems,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 033838 (2014)
- Meystre, P. (2014). Theory of an optomechanical quantum heat engine. Phys. Rev. A, 023819, 90.More infoKeye Zhang, F. Bariani, and P. Meystre, ``Theory of an optomechanical quantum heat engine,'' Phys. Rev. A 90, 023819 (2014)
- Meystre, P., & Meystre, P. (2014). Mechanically detecting and avoiding the quantum fluctuations of a microwave field. Science, 344, 1262.More infoJ. Suh, A. J. Weinstein, C. U. Lei, E. E. Wollman, S. K. Steinke, P. Meystre, A. A. Clerk, and K. C. Schwab, “Mechanically detecting and avoiding the quantum fluctuations of a microwave field" Science 344, 1262 (2014)
- Meystre, P., & Meystre, P. (2014). Single-atom quantum control of macroscopic mechanical oscillators. Physical Review A, 89, 011801.More infoF. Bariani, J. Otterbach, Huatang Tan, and P. Meystre, ``Single-atom quantum control of macroscopic mechanical oscillators,'' Phys. Rev. A 89, 011801 (2014)
- Suh, J., Weinstein, A., Lei, C., Wollman, E., Steinke, S., Meystre, P., Clerk, A., & Schwab, K. (2014). Mechanically detecting and avoiding the quantum fluctuations of a microwave field. Science.More infoDOI:10.1126/science.1253258
- Buchmann, L. F., Jing, H., Raman, C., & Meystre, P. (2013). Optical control of a quantum rotor. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 87(3).More infoAbstract: The possibility to coherently control a quantum rotor is investigated theoretically. The rotor is realized by an antiferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate, trapped in the optical field of a Fabry-Pérot resonator. By tuning the pumping field of the resonator, coherent control over the rotor is achieved. The technique is illustrated by the numerical simulation of a protocol that transforms the rotor's ground state into a squeezed state. The detection of the squeezed state via measurement of intensity correlations of the cavity field is proposed. © 2013 American Physical Society.
- Buchmann, L. F., Wright, E. M., & Meystre, P. (2013). Phase conjugation in quantum optomechanics. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 88(4).More infoAbstract: We analyze the phase-conjugate coupling of a pair of optomechanical oscillator modes driven by the time-dependent beat note of a two-color optical field. The dynamics of the direct and phase-conjugate modes exhibit familiar time-reversed qualities, leading to opposite sign temperatures for the modes in the classical regime of operation. These features are limited by quantum effects due to the noncommutative nature of quantum-mechanical operators. The effects are measurable by readout of the oscillator via a qubit. As a potential application of this system in sensing, we discuss a protocol applying phase-conjugate swaps to cancel or reduce external forces on the system. © 2013 American Physical Society.
- Meystre, P. (2013). A short walk through quantum optomechanics. Annalen der Physik, 525(3), 215-233.More infoAbstract: This paper gives a brief review of the basic physics of quantum optomechanics and provides an overview of some of its recent developments and current areas of focus. It first outlines the basic theory of cavity optomechanical cooling and gives a brief status report of the experimental state-of-the-art. It then turns to the deep quantum regime of operation of optomechanical oscillators and covers selected aspects of quantum state preparation, control and characterization, including mechanical squeezing and pulsed optomechanics. This is followed by a discussion of the "bottom-up" approach that exploits ultracold atomic samples instead of nanoscale systems. It concludes with an outlook that concentrates largely on the functionalization of quantum optomechanical systems and their promise in metrology applications. © 2012 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
- Meystre, P. (2013). Editorial: Meystre presents plans to maintain and strengthen PRL as the premier physics journal. Physical Review Letters, 111(10).
- Meystre, P. (2013). Editorial: Review changes. Physical Review Letters, 111(18).
- Seok, H., Buchmann, L. F., Wright, E. M., & Meystre, P. (2013). Multimode strong-coupling quantum optomechanics. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 88(6).More infoAbstract: We study theoretically the dynamics of multiple mechanical oscillators coupled to a single cavity field mode via linear or quadratic optomechanical interactions. We focus specifically on the strong-coupling regime where the cavity decays much faster than the mechanical modes, and the optomechanical coupling is comparable to or larger than the mechanical frequency, so that both the optical and mechanical systems operate in the deep quantum regime. Using the examples of one and two mechanical oscillators, we show that the system can classically exhibit bistability and bifurcations, and we explore how these manifest themselves in interference, entanglement, and correlation in the quantum theory, while revealing the impact of decoherence of the mechanical system due to cavity fluctuations and coherent driving. © 2013 American Physical Society.
- Steinke, S. K., Schwab, K. C., & Meystre, P. (2013). Optomechanical backaction-evading measurement without parametric instability. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 88(2).More infoAbstract: We review a scheme for performing a backaction-evading measurement of one mechanical quadrature in an optomechanical setup. The experimental application of this scheme has been limited by parametric instabilities caused in general by a slight dependence of the mechanical frequency on the electromagnetic energy in the cavity. We find that a simple modification to the optical drive can effectively eliminate the parametric instability even at high intracavity power, allowing realistic devices to achieve sub-zero-point uncertainties in the measured quadrature. © 2013 American Physical Society.
- Steinke, S. K., Singh, S., Meystre, P., Schwab, K. C., & Vengalattore, M. (2013). Quantum backaction in spinor-condensate magnetometry. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 88(6).More infoAbstract: We provide a theoretical treatment of the quantum backaction of Larmor frequency measurements on a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate by an off-resonant light field. Two main results are presented; the first is a "quantum jump" operator description that reflects the abrupt change in the spin state of the atoms when a single photon is counted at a photodiode. The second is the derivation of a conditional stochastic master equation relating the evolution of the condensate density matrix to the measurement record. We provide a few examples of the application of this formalism and comment on its application to metrology. © 2013 American Physical Society.
- Tan, H., Bariani, F., Gaoxiang, L. i., & Meystre, P. (2013). Generation of macroscopic quantum superpositions of optomechanical oscillators by dissipation. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 88(2).More infoAbstract: We propose a scheme that exploits the combined effects of nonlinear dynamics and dissipation to generate macroscopic quantum superpositions in massive optomechanical oscillators. The effective degenerate three-wave mixing interaction between the mechanical and optical cavity modes that results from quadratic optomechanical coupling, together with the cavity dissipation, can result in the existence of dark macroscopic superpositions. We show analytically and confirm numerically that various quantum superpositions can be achieved deterministically, depending on the initial state of the mechanics. The effects of mechanical damping are also studied in detail and quantified by the negativity of the Wigner function. The present scheme can be realized in various optomechanical systems with current technology. © 2013 American Physical Society.
- Tan, H., Bariani, F., Li, G., & Meystre, P. (2013). Deterministic macroscopic quantum superpositions of motion via quadratic optomechanical coupling. Phys. Rev A, 88.More info023817
- Tan, H., Gaoxiang, L. i., & Meystre, P. (2013). Dissipation-driven two-mode mechanical squeezed states in optomechanical systems. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 87(3).More infoAbstract: In this paper, we propose two quantum optomechanical arrangements that permit the dissipation-enabled generation of steady two-mode mechanical squeezed states. In the first setup, the mechanical oscillators are placed in a two-mode optical resonator while in the second setup the mechanical oscillators are located in two coupled single-mode cavities. We show analytically that for an appropriate choice of the pump parameters, the two mechanical oscillators can be driven by cavity dissipation into a stationary two-mode squeezed vacuum, provided that mechanical damping is negligible. The effect of thermal fluctuations is also investigated in detail and shows that ground-state precooling of the oscillators is not necessary for the two-mode squeezing. These proposals can be realized in a number of optomechanical systems with current state-of-the-art experimental techniques. © 2013 American Physical Society.
- Zhang, K., Meystre, P., & Zhang, W. (2013). Back-action-free quantum optomechanics with negative-mass Bose-Einstein condensates. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 88(4).More infoAbstract: We propose that the dispersion management of coherent atomic matter waves can be exploited to overcome quantum back-action in condensate-based optomechanical sensors. The effective mass of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate modulated by an optical lattice can become negative, resulting in a negative-frequency optomechanical oscillator, a negative environment temperature, and optomechanical properties opposite to those of a positive-mass system. This enables a quantum-mechanics-free subsystem insulated from quantum back-action. © 2013 American Physical Society.
- Zhang, K., Meystre, P., & Zhang, W. (2013). Quantum-mechanics-free subsystem in a condensate-based optomechanical setup. Phys. Rev A, 88.More info043632
- Aspelmeyer, M., Meystre, P., & Schwab, K. (2012). Quantum optomechanics. Physics Today, 65(7), 29-35.
- Buchmann, L. F., Zhang, L., Chiruvelli, A., & Meystre, P. (2012). Macroscopic tunneling of a membrane in an optomechanical double-well potential. Physical Review Letters, 108(21).More infoAbstract: The macroscopic tunneling of an optomechanical membrane is considered. A cavity mode which couples quadratically to the membranes position can create highly tunable adiabatic double-well potentials, which together with the high Q factors of such membranes render the observation of macroscopic tunneling possible. A suitable, pulsed measurement scheme using a linearly coupled mode of the cavity for the verification of the effect is studied. © 2012 American Physical Society.
- Seok, H., Buchmann, L. F., Singh, S., & Meystre, P. (2012). Optically mediated nonlinear quantum optomechanics. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 86(6).More infoAbstract: We consider theoretically the optomechanical interaction of several mechanical modes with a single quantized cavity-field mode for linear and quadratic coupling. We focus specifically on situations where the optical dissipation is the dominant source of damping, in which case the optical field can be adiabatically eliminated, resulting in effective multimode interactions between the mechanical modes. In the case of linear coupling, the coherent contribution to the interaction can be exploited (e.g., in quantum state swapping protocols), while the incoherent part leads to significant modifications of cold damping or amplification from the single-mode situation. Quadratic coupling can result in a wealth of possible effective interactions including the analogs of second-harmonic generation and four-wave mixing in nonlinear optics, with specific forms depending sensitively on the sign of the coupling. The cavity-mediated mechanical interaction of two modes is investigated in two limiting cases: the resolved sideband and the Doppler regime. As an illustrative application of the formal analysis we discuss in some detail a two-mode system where a Bose-Einstein condensate is optomechanically linearly coupled to the moving end mirror of a Fabry-Pérot cavity. © 2012 American Physical Society.
- Seok, H., Buchmann, L. F., Singh, S., Steinke, S. K., & Meystre, P. (2012). Generation of mechanical squeezing via magnetic dipoles on cantilevers. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 85(3).More infoAbstract: A scheme to squeeze the center-of-mass motional quadratures of a quantum mechanical oscillator below its standard quantum limit is proposed and analyzed theoretically. It relies on the dipole-dipole coupling between a magnetic dipole mounted on the tip of a cantilever to equally oriented dipoles located on a mesoscopic tuning fork. We also investigate the influence of several sources of noise on the achievable squeezing, including classical noise in the driving fork and the clamping noise in the oscillator. A detection of the state of the cantilever based on state transfer to a light field is considered. We investigate possible limitations of that scheme. © 2012 American Physical Society.
- Singh, S., Jing, H., Wright, E. M., & Meystre, P. (2012). Quantum-state transfer between a Bose-Einstein condensate and an optomechanical mirror. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 86(2).More infoAbstract: We describe a scheme that allows for the transfer of a quantum state between a trapped atomic Bose condensate and an optomechanical end mirror mediated by a cavity field. Coupling between the mirror and the cold gas arises from the fact that the cavity field can produce density oscillations in the gas which in turn acts as an internal Bragg mirror for the field. After adiabatic elimination of the cavity field we find that the coherent dynamics of the atomic condensate-mirror hybrid system is described by an effective state transfer beam-splitter Hamiltonian. The state transfer fidelity is limited principally by the quantum noise associated with the intracavity field. © 2012 American Physical Society.
- Wright, E. M., Mazilu, M., Singh, S., Dholakia, K., & Meystre, P. (2012). Theory and simulation of an optical spring mirror. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 8458.More infoAbstract: In this paper we present theory and simulations of an optical spring mirror with emphasis on the incident laser beam configuration and the associated optical trapping forces. We elucidate the physical mechanisms underlying the optical trapping using the example of an incident Gaussian beam and demonstrate that guided-wave trapping shows particular promise for stable trapping in both the translational and rotational degrees of freedom. © 2012 SPIE.
- Zhang, K., Meystre, P., & Zhang, W. (2012). Role reversal in a bose-condensed optomechanical system. Physical Review Letters, 108(24).More infoAbstract: We analyze the optomechanicslike properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped inside an optical resonator and driven by both a classical and a quantized light field. We find that this system exhibits the nature of role reversal between the matter-wave field and the quantized light field. As a result, the matter-wave field now plays the role of the quantized light field, and the quantized light field behaves like a movable mirror, in contrast to the familiar situation in BEC-based cavity optomechanics [Brennecke et al., Science 322, 235 (2008)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1163218; Murch et al., Nature Phys.NPAHAX1745-2473 4, 561 (2008)10.1038/nphys965]. We demonstrate that this system can lead to the creation of a variety of nonclassical matter-wave fields, in particular, cat states, and discuss several possible protocols to measure their Wigner function. © 2012 American Physical Society.
- Jing, H., Deng, Y., & Meystre, P. (2011). Slow-light probe of Fermi pairing through an atom-molecule dark state. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 83(6).More infoAbstract: We consider the two-color photoassociation of a quantum degenerate atomic gas into ground-state diatomic molecules via a molecular dark state. This process can be described in terms of a Λ level scheme that is formally analogous to the situation in electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic systems and therefore can result in slow-light propagation. We show that the group velocity of the light field depends explicitly on whether the atoms are bosons or fermions, as well as on the existence or absence of a pairing gap in the case of fermions, so that the measurement of the group velocity realizes a nondestructive diagnosis of the atomic state and the pairing gap. © 2011 American Physical Society.
- Jing, H., Deng, Y., & Meystre, P. (2011). Spinor atom-molecule conversion via laser-induced three-body recombination. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 83(4).More infoAbstract: We study the theory of several aspects of the dynamics of coherent atom-molecule conversion in spin-one Bose-Einstein condensates. Specifically, we discuss how, for a suitable dark-state condition, the interplay of spin-exchange collisions and photo association leads to the stable creation of an atom-molecule pair from three initial spin-zero atoms. This process involves two two-body interactions and can be intuitively viewed as an effective three-body recombination. We investigate the relative roles of photo association and of the initial magnetization in the "resonant" case, where the dark-state condition is perfectly satisfied. We also consider the "nonresonant" case, where that condition is satisfied either only approximately-the so-called adiabatic case-or not at all. In the adiabatic case, we derive an effective nonrigid pendulum model that allows one to conveniently discuss the onset of an antiferromagnetic instability in an "atom-molecule pendulum," as well as large-amplitude pair oscillations and atom-molecule entanglement. © 2011 American Physical Society.
- Jing, H., Goldbaum, D. S., Buchmann, L., & Meystre, P. (2011). Quantum optomechanics of a bose-einstein antiferromagnet. Physical Review Letters, 106(22).More infoPMID: 21702598;Abstract: We investigate the cavity optomechanical properties of an antiferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate, where the role of the mechanical element is played by spin-wave excitations. We show how this system can be described by a single rotor that can be prepared deep in the quantum regime under realizable experimental conditions. This system provides a bottom-up realization of dispersive rotational optomechanics, and opens the door to the direct observation of quantum spin fluctuations. © 2011 American Physical Society.
- Meystre, P. (2011). Cavity optomechanics - A tutorial introduction. 2011 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics: Laser Science to Photonic Applications, CLEO 2011.
- Meystre, P. (2011). Cavity optomechanics - a tutorial introduction. Optics InfoBase Conference Papers.
- Meystre, P. (2011). Cool vibrations. Science, 333(6044), 832-833.More infoPMID: 21836005;Abstract: The ability to cool mechanical systems to ultralow temperatures will enable a new generation of sensitive detectors.
- Meystre, P., & Meystre, P. -. (2011). Physics. Cool vibrations. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6044).
- Phelps, G. A., & Meystre, P. (2011). Laser phase noise effects on the dynamics of optomechanical resonators. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 83(6).More infoAbstract: We investigate theoretically the influence of laser phase noise on the cooling and heating of a generic cavity optomechanical system. We derive the back-action damping and heating rates and the mechanical frequency shift of the radiation-pressure-driven oscillating mirror, and derive the minimum phonon occupation number for small laser linewidths. We find that, in practice, laser phase noise does not pose serious limitations to ground-state cooling. Additionally, we explore the regime of parametric amplification where coherent oscillations of the mirror are realizable. It is found that heating from laser phase noise is of significance and can cause the onset of instabilities. We then consider the effects of laser phase noise in a parametric cavity driving scheme that minimizes the back-action heating of one of the quadratures of the mechanical oscillator motion. Laser linewidths, narrow compared to the decay rate of the cavity field, do not pose any significant problems in an experimental setting, but broader linewidths limit the practicality of this back-action evasion method. © 2011 American Physical Society.
- Pompea, S. M., Fine, L. W., & Meystre, P. (2011). Photonics education for a green future: Connecting the dots of the Arizona STEM education experiment. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 8065.More infoAbstract: The National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Science Foundation Arizona, and the University of Arizona are teamed on a long-term multi-pronged approach to photonics education in Arizona that is congruent with a "green" future. This approach involves education around the content areas of renewable energy sources, laser-based communication and laser-assisted manufacturing, photovoltaics, solid-state lighting and displays, nanotechnology, and other recent technology developments. Equally important is the process by which we are working to transform the Arizona K-12 schools and universities through programs that emphasize problem-solving, system thinking, and collaborative approaches. We also emphasize the role of the informal education system (such as museums) and the value of "freechoice" learning to science education. A key to our success is the work of traditionally research-oriented organizations and industry associations in supporting science and technology education. © 2011 Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
- Steinke, S. K., & Meystre, P. (2011). Role of quantum fluctuations in the optomechanical properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a ring cavity. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 84(2).More infoAbstract: We analyze a detailed model of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped in a ring optical resonator and contrast its classical and quantum properties to those of a Fabry-Pérot geometry. The inclusion of two counterpropagating light fields and three matter field modes leads to important differences between the two situations. Specifically, we identify an experimentally realizable region where the system's behavior differs strongly from that of a BEC in a Fabry-Pérot cavity, and also where quantum corrections become significant. The classical dynamics are rich, and near bifurcation points in the mean-field classical system, the quantum fluctuations have a major impact on the system's dynamics. © 2011 American Physical Society.
- Steinke, S. K., Singh, S., Tasgin, M. E., Meystre, P., Schwab, K. C., & Vengalattore, M. (2011). Quantum-measurement backaction from a Bose-Einstein condensate coupled to a mechanical oscillator. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 84(2).More infoAbstract: We study theoretically the dynamics of a hybrid optomechanical system consisting of a macroscopic mechanical membrane magnetically coupled to a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate via a nanomagnet attached at the membrane center. We demonstrate that this coupling permits us to monitor indirectly the center-of-mass position of the membrane via measurements of the spin of the condensed atoms. These measurements normally induce a significant backaction on the membrane motion, which we quantify for the cases of thermal and coherent initial states of the membrane. We discuss the possibility of measuring this quantum backaction via repeated measurements. We also investigate the potential to generate nonclassical states of the membrane, in particular Schrödinger-cat states, via such repeated measurements. © 2011 American Physical Society.
- TaşgIn, M., & Meystre, P. (2011). Spin squeezing with coherent light via entanglement swapping. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 83(5).More infoAbstract: We analyze theoretically a scheme that produces spin squeezing via the continuous swapping of atom-photon entanglement into atom-atom entanglement, and propose an explicit experimental system where the necessary atom-field coupling can be realized. This scheme is found to be robust against perturbations due to other atom-field coupling channels. © 2011 American Physical Society.
- Bhattacharya, M., Singh, S., Giscard, P. -., & Meystre, P. (2010). Optomechanical control of atoms and molecules. Laser Physics, 20(1), 57-67.More infoAbstract: We briefly review some of our recent and ongoing work on nanoscale optomechanics, an emerging area at the confluence of atomic, condensed matter and gravitational wave physics. A central tenet of optomechanics is the laser cooling of a moving mirror, typically an end mirror of a Fabry-Perot resonator, to a point near its quantum-mechanical ground state of vibration. Following a general introduction we discuss how the motion of such a macroscopic quantum oscillator can be squeezed, and then show how the placement of a ferroelectric tip on the oscillator allows the coherent manipulation and control of the center-of-mass motion of ultracold polar molecules. © 2010 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
- Chen, W., Goldbaum, D. S., Bhattacharya, M., & Meystre, P. (2010). Classical dynamics of the optomechanical modes of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a ring cavity. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 81(5).More infoAbstract: We consider a cavity optomechanical system consisting of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) interacting with two counterpropagating traveling-wave modes in an optical ring cavity. In contrast to the more familiar case where the condensate is driven by the standing-wave field of a high-Q Fabry-Pérot cavity we find that both symmetric and antisymmetric collective density side modes of the BEC are mechanically excited by the light field. In the semiclassical, mean-field limit where the light field and the zero-momentum mode of the condensate are treated classically the system is found to exhibit a rich multistable behavior, including the appearance of isolated branches of solutions (isolas). We also present examples of the dynamics of the system as input parameters such as the frequency of the driving lasers are varied. © 2010 The American Physical Society.
- Jing, H., Jiang, Y., Zhang, W., & Meystre, P. (2010). Laser-catalyzed spin-exchange process in a Bose-Einstein condensate. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 81(3).More infoAbstract: We show theoretically that it is possible to optically control collective spin-exchange processes in spinor Bose condensates through virtual photoassociation. The interplay between optically induced spin exchange and spin-dependent collisions provides a flexible tool for the control of atomic spin dynamics, including enhanced or inhibited quantum spin oscillations, the optically induced ferromagnetic-to-antiferromagnetic transition, and coherent matter-wave spin conversion. © 2010 The American Physical Society.
- Kanamoto, R., & Meystre, P. (2010). Optomechanics of a quantum-degenerate fermi gas. Physical Review Letters, 104(6).More infoAbstract: We explore theoretically the optomechanical interaction between a light field and a mechanical mode of ultracold fermionic atoms inside a Fabry-Pérot cavity. The low-lying phonon mode of the fermionic ensemble is a collective density oscillation associated with particle-hole excitations, and is mathematically analogous to the momentum side-mode excitations of a bosonic condensate. The mechanical motion of the fermionic particle-hole system behaves hence as a "moving mirror." We derive an effective system Hamiltonian that has the form of generic optomechanical systems. We also discuss the experimental consequences the optomechanical coupling in optical bistability and in the noise spectrum of the system. © 2010 The American Physical Society.
- Kanamoto, R., & Meystre, P. (2010). Optomechanics of ultracold atomic gases. Physica Scripta, 82(3).More infoAbstract: We give a brief overview of the basic aspects of the optomechanical interaction between a light field and a mechanical mode of ultracold bosonic and fermionic atomic gases inside a Fabry-Pérot cavity, showing that these systems provide a 'bottom up' approach to cavity optomechanics. In contrast to the case of a Bose condensate, where the effective 'moving mirror' is a side mode whose occupation results simply from photon recoil, for fermionic atoms this 'mirror' is a collective density oscillation associated with particle-hole excitations. We also discuss the experimental consequences of the optomechanical coupling in optical bistability. © 2010 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
- Singh, S., & Meystre, P. (2010). Atomic probe wigner tomography of a nanomechanical system. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 81(4).More infoAbstract: We propose a scheme to measure the quantum state of a nanomechanical oscillator cooled near its ground state of vibrational motion. This is an extension of the nonlinear atomic homodyning technique scheme first developed to measure the intracavity field in a micromaser. It involves the use of a detector atom that is simultaneously coupled to the resonator via a magnetic interaction and to (classical) optical fields via a Raman transition. We show that the probability for the atom to be found in the ground state is a direct measure of the Wigner characteristic function of the nanomechanical oscillator. We also investigate the back-action effect of this destructive measurement on the state of the resonator. © 2010 The American Physical Society.
- Singh, S., Phelps, G. A., Goldbaum, D. S., Wright, E. M., & Meystre, P. (2010). All-optical optomechanics: An optical spring mirror. Physical Review Letters, 105(21).More infoAbstract: The dominant hurdle to the operation of optomechanical systems in the quantum regime is the coupling of the vibrating element to a thermal reservoir via mechanical supports. Here we propose a scheme that uses an optical spring to replace the mechanical support. We show that the resolved-sideband regime of cooling can be reached in a configuration using a high-reflectivity disk mirror held by an optical tweezer as one of the end mirrors of a Fabry-Perot cavity. We find a final phonon occupation number of the trapped mirror n̄=0.56 for reasonable parameters, the limit being set by our approximations, and not any fundamental physics. This demonstrates the promise of dielectric disks attached to optical springs for the observation of quantum effects in macroscopic objects. © 2010 The American Physical Society.
- Zhang, K., Chen, W., & Meystre, P. (2010). Dynamics of a bistable Mott insulator to superfluid phase transition in cavity optomechanics. Optics Communications, 283(5), 665-670.More infoAbstract: We study the dynamics of the many-body state of ultracold bosons trapped in a bistable optical lattice in an optomechanical resonator controlled by a time-dependent input field. We focus on the dynamics of the many-body system following discontinuous jumps of the intracavity field. We identify experimentally realizable parameters for the bistable quantum phase transition between Mott insulator and superfluid. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.
- Zhang, K., Chen, W., Bhattacharya, M., & Meystre, P. (2010). Hamiltonian chaos in a coupled BEC-optomechanical-cavity system. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 81(1).More infoAbstract: We present a theoretical study of a hybrid optomechanical system consisting of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped inside a single-mode optical cavity with a moving end mirror. The intracavity light field has a dual role: it excites a momentum side mode of the condensate, and acts as a nonlinear spring that couples the vibrating mirror to that collective density excitation. We present the dynamics in a regime where the intracavity optical field, the mirror, and the side-mode excitation all display bistable behavior. In this regime we find that the dynamics of the system exhibits Hamiltonian chaos for appropriate initial conditions. © 2010 The American Physical Society.
- Chen, W., & Meystre, P. (2009). Cavity QED characterization of many-body atomic states in double-well potentials: Role of dissipation. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 79(4).More infoAbstract: When an incident light beam is scattered off a sample of ultracold atoms trapped in a double-well potential, the statistical properties of the retroreflected field contain information about the quantum state of the atoms, and permit, for example, to distinguish between atoms in a superfluid state and a product of Fock states for each well (Mott-insulator-like state). This paper extends our previous analysis of this problem to include the effects of cavity damping. We use a Monte Carlo wave-function method to determine the two-time correlation function and time-dependent physical spectrum of the retroreflected field. We also analyze quantitatively the entanglement between the atoms and the light field for atoms in these two states. © 2009 The American Physical Society.
- Chen, W., Zhang, K., Goldbaum, D. S., Bhattacharya, M., & Meystre, P. (2009). Bistable Mott-insulator-to-superfluid phase transition in cavity optomechanics. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 80(1).More infoAbstract: We study the many-body state of ultracold bosons in a bistable optical lattice potential in an optomechanical resonator in the weak-coupling limit. Interesting physics arises as a result of bistability and discontinuous jumps in the cavity field. Of particular interest is the situation where the optical cavity is engineered so that a single input beam can result in two radically different stable ground states for the intracavity gas: superfluid and Mott insulator. Furthermore, the system we describe can be used as an adjustable template for investigating the coupling between cavity fields, nanomechanical systems operating in the quantum regime, and ultracold atomic gases. © 2009 The American Physical Society.
- Jing, H., Cheng, J., & Meystre, P. (2009). Coherent bimolecular reactions with quantum-degenerate matter waves. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 79(2).More infoAbstract: We demonstrate theoretically that the abstraction reaction A+ B2 →AB+B can be driven coherently and efficiently with quantum-degenerate bosonic or fermionic matter waves. We show that the initial stages of the reaction are dominated by quantum fluctuations, resulting in the appearance of macroscopic nonclassical correlations in the final atomic and molecular fields. The dynamics associated with the creation of bosonic and of fermionic dimer-atom pairs is also compared. This study opens up a promising regime of quantum-degenerate matter-wave chemistry. © 2009 The American Physical Society.
- Jing, H., Jiang, Y., & Meystre, P. (2009). Magneto-optical control of atomic spin mixing in dipolar spinor Bose-Einstein condensates. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 80(6).More infoAbstract: We study the role in an external photoassociation light field in the spin mixing dynamics of a spin-one Bose condensate with long-range magnetic dipole-dipole interaction. The mean-field energy functional of the system is found to be formally identical to that of two coupled nonrigid pendulums, manifesting either constructive or destructive interferences. The interplay between photoassociation and the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction provides a novel route to the magneto-optical quantum control of atomic spin mixing in dipolar spinor condensates. © 2009 The American Physical Society.
- Meystre, P. (2009). Control and sensing of ultracold atoms and molecules by nanomechanical cantilevers. Optics InfoBase Conference Papers.More infoAbstract: We illustrate the potential of cavity optomechanics (COM) for control and sensing in two examples: a bistable configuration that controls the manybody state of ultracold atoms; and the quantum limit of COMbased inertial mass sensors. © 2009 OSA.
- Bhattacharya, M., & Meystre, P. (2008). Multiple membrane cavity optomechanics. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 78(4).More infoAbstract: We investigate theoretically the extension of cavity optomechanics to multiple membrane systems. We describe the simplest case of two membranes in a cavity, in terms of the coupling of the light fields to the breathing and center-of-mass modes of the membrane array. We show that these normal modes can be optically addressed individually and also be cooled, trapped, and characterized, e.g., via quantum nondemolition measurements. The extension to a larger number of membranes is briefly discussed. © 2008 The American Physical Society.
- Bhattacharya, M., Giscard, P. -., & Meystre, P. (2008). Entanglement of a Laguerre-Gaussian cavity mode with a rotating mirror. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 77(1).More infoAbstract: It has previously been shown theoretically that the exchange of linear momentum between the light field in an optical cavity and a vibrating end mirror can entangle the electromagnetic field with the vibrational motion of that mirror. In this paper we consider the rotational analog of this situation and show that radiation torque can similarly entangle a Laguerre-Gaussian cavity mode with a rotating end mirror. We examine the mirror-field entanglement as a function of ambient temperature, radiation detuning, and orbital angular momentum carried by the cavity mode. © 2008 The American Physical Society.
- Bhattacharya, M., Giscard, P. -., & Meystre, P. (2008). Entangling the rovibrational modes of a macroscopic mirror using radiation pressure. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 77(3).More infoAbstract: We consider the dynamics of a vibrating and rotating end mirror of an optical Fabry-Pérot cavity that can sustain Laguerre-Gaussian modes. We demonstrate theoretically that since the intracavity field carries linear as well as angular momentum, radiation pressure can create bipartite entanglement between a vibrational and a rotational mode of the mirror. Further we show that the ratio of vibrational and rotational couplings with the radiation field can easily be adjusted experimentally, which makes the generation and detection of entanglement robust to uncertainties in the cavity manufacture. This is a proposal to demonstrate entanglement between two qualitatively different degrees of freedom of the same macroscopic object. © 2008 The American Physical Society.
- Bhattacharya, M., Uys, H., & Meystre, P. (2008). Optomechanical trapping and cooling of partially reflective mirrors. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 77(3).More infoAbstract: We consider the radiative trapping and cooling of a partially reflecting mirror suspended inside an optical cavity, generalizing the case of a perfectly reflecting mirror previously considered. This configuration was recently used in an experiment to cool a nanometers-thick dielectric membrane. The self-consistent cavity field modes of this system depend strongly on the position of the middle mirror, leading to important qualitative differences in the radiation pressure effects: in one case, the situation is similar to that of a perfectly reflecting middle mirror, with only minor quantitative modifications. In addition, we also identify a range of mirror positions for which the radiation-mirror-coupling becomes purely dispersive and the back-action effects that usually lead to cooling are absent, although the mirror can still be optically trapped. The existence of these two regimes leads us to propose a bichromatic scheme that optimizes the cooling and trapping of partially reflective mirrors. © 2008 The American Physical Society.
- Dutta, O., Kanamoto, R., & Meystre, P. (2008). Stability of the density-wave state of a dipolar condensate in a pancake-shaped trap. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 78(4).More infoAbstract: We study a dipolar boson-fermion mixture in a pancake-shaped geometry at absolute zero temperature, generalizing our previous work on the stability of polar condensates and the formation of a density-wave state in cylindrical traps. After examining the dependence of the polar condensate stability on the strength of the fermion-induced interaction, we determine the transition point from a ground-state Gaussian to a hexagonal density-wave state. We use a variational principle to analyze the stability properties of those density-wave state. © 2008 The American Physical Society.
- Jing, H., Cheng, J., & Meystre, P. (2008). Coherent generation of triatomic molecules from ultracold atoms. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 77(4).More infoAbstract: We show that the use of a generalized atom-molecule dark state permits the enhanced coherent creation of triatomic molecules in a repulsive atomic Bose-Einstein condensate, with further enhancement being possible in the case of heteronuclear trimers via the constructive interference between two chemical reaction channels. The creation of fermionic trimers is also briefly discussed. © 2008 The American Physical Society.
- Jing, H., Cheng, J., & Meystre, P. (2008). Quantum noise in the collective abstraction reaction A+B2→AB+B. Physical Review Letters, 101(7).More infoAbstract: We demonstrate theoretically that the collective abstraction reaction A+B2→AB+B can be realized efficiently with degenerate bosonic or fermionic matter waves. We show that this is dominated by quantum fluctuations, which are critical in triggering its initial stages with the appearance of macroscopic nonclassical correlations of the atomic and molecular fields as a result. This study opens up a promising new regime of quantum-degenerate matter-wave chemistry. © 2008 The American Physical Society.
- Jing, H., Jiang, Y., Zhang, W., & Meystre, P. (2008). Creation of three-species
^{87}Rb-^{40}K-^{6}Li molecules: Interfering for the best. New Journal of Physics, 10.More infoAbstract: An ultracold three-species Bose-Fermi-Fermi degenerate atomic mixture 87Rb-40K-6Li was realized very recently (Tagliber M et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 010401). Here, we study the creation of heteronuclear triatomic molecules in this mixture, and show that a constructive triple-path interference can lead to an almost ideal conversion rate, in comparison with the single- or double-path cases. The important effect of the initial population imbalance on the atom-molecule dark state is also investigated. © IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschan. - Singh, S., Bhattacharya, M., Dutta, O., & Meystre, P. (2008). Coupling nanomechanical cantilevers to dipolar molecules. Physical Review Letters, 101(26).More infoAbstract: We investigate the coupling of a nanomechanical oscillator in the quantum regime with molecular (electric) dipoles. We find theoretically that the cantilever can produce single-mode squeezing of the center-of-mass motion of an isolated trapped molecule and two-mode squeezing of the phonons of an array of molecules. This work opens up the possibility of manipulating dipolar crystals, which have been recently proposed as quantum memory, and more generally, is indicative of the promise of nanoscale cantilevers for the quantum detection and control of atomic and molecular systems. © 2008 The American Physical Society.
- Uys, H., & Meystre, P. (2008). Cooperative scattering of light and atoms in ultracold atomic gases. Laser Physics Letters, 5(7), 487-502.More infoAbstract: Superradiance and coherent atomic recoil lasing are two closely related phenomena, both resulting from the cooperative scattering of light by atoms. In ultracold atomic gases below the critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation these processes take place with the simultaneous amplification of the atomic matter waves. We explore these phenomena by surveying some of the experimental and theoretical developments that have emerged in this field of study since the first observation of superradiant scattering from a Bose-Einstein condensate in 1999 [1]. A graph is presented. A ID simulation of the dynamic, periodic spatial bunching of atoms into a density grating leading to the cooperative scattering of light into a mode backward propagating with respect to a pump laser field off-resonantly driving a two-level atomic transition. (a) A characteristic pulse of backscattered light is observed simultaneously with (b) the spatial bunching of atoms, as evident from the periodic convergence of the semiclassical trajectories of 500 atoms initially randomly distributed over an interval -10 < z < 10 in units of wavelength of the light © 2008 by Astro Ltd. Published exclusively by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
- Uys, H., & Meystre, P. (2008). Superradiant Raman scattering in an ultracold Bose gas at finite temperature. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 77(6).More infoAbstract: We study superradiant Raman scattering from an ultracold, but finite, temperature Bose gas in a harmonic trap. Numerical simulations indicate the existence of distinct time scales associated with the decoherence of the condensed versus thermal fractions, and the concomitant preferred scattering from atoms in low-lying trap states in the regime where superradiance takes place on a time scale comparable to an inverse trap frequency. As a consequence the scattered atoms experience a modest reduction in temperature as compared to the unscattered atoms. © 2008 The American Physical Society.
- Bhattacharya, M., & Meystre, P. (2007). Trapping and cooling a mirror to its quantum mechanical ground state. Physical Review Letters, 99(7).More infoAbstract: We propose a technique aimed at cooling a harmonically oscillating mirror to its quantum mechanical ground state starting from room temperature. Our method, which involves the two-sided irradiation of the vibrating mirror inside an optical cavity, combines several advantages over the two-mirror arrangements being used currently. For comparable parameters the three-mirror configuration provides a stiffer trap for the oscillating mirror. Furthermore, it prevents bistability from limiting the use of higher laser powers for mirror trapping, and also partially does so for mirror cooling. Lastly, it improves the isolation of the mirror from classical noise so that the quantum mechanical dynamics of the mirror become easier to observe. These improvements are expected to bring the task of achieving and detecting ground state occupation for the mirror closer to completion. © 2007 The American Physical Society.
- Bhattacharya, M., & Meystre, P. (2007). Using a Laguerre-Gaussian beam to trap and cool the rotational motion of a mirror. Physical Review Letters, 99(15).More infoAbstract: We show theoretically that it is possible to trap and cool the rotational motion of a macroscopic mirror made of a perfectly reflecting spiral phase element using orbital angular momentum transfer from a Laguerre-Gaussian optical field. This technique offers a promising route to the placement of the rotor in its quantum mechanical ground state in the presence of thermal noise. It also opens up the possibility of simultaneously cooling a vibrational mode of the same mirror. Lastly, the proposed design may serve as a sensitive torsional balance in the quantum regime. © 2007 The American Physical Society.
- Chen, W., Meiser, D., & Meystre, P. (2007). Cavity QED determination of atomic number statistics in optical lattices. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 75(2).More infoAbstract: We study the reflection of two counterpropagating modes of the light field in a ring resonator by ultracold atoms either in the Mott insulator state or in the superfluid state of an optical lattice. We obtain exact numerical results for a simple two-well model and carry out statistical calculations appropriate for the full lattice case. We find that the dynamics of the reflected light strongly depends on both the lattice spacing and the state of the matter-wave field. Depending on the lattice spacing, the light field is sensitive to various density-density correlation functions of the atoms. The light field and the atoms become strongly entangled if the latter are in a superfluid state, in which case the photon statistics typically exhibits complicated multimodal structures. © 2007 The American Physical Society.
- Dutta, O., & Meystre, P. (2007). Ground-state structure and stability of dipolar condensates in anisotropic traps. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 75(5).More infoAbstract: We study the Hartree ground state of a dipolar condensate of atoms or molecules in a three-dimensional anisotropic geometry and at T=0. We determine the stability of the condensate as a function of the aspect ratios of the trap frequencies and of the dipolar strength. We find numerically a rich phase space structure characterized by various structures of the ground-state density profile. © 2007 The American Physical Society.
- Dutta, O., Kanamoto, R., & Meystre, P. (2007). Fermionic stabilization and density-wave ground state of a polar condensate. Physical Review Letters, 99(11).More infoAbstract: We examine the stability of a trapped dipolar condensate mixed with a single-component fermion gas at T=0. Whereas pure dipolar condensates with a small s-wave interaction are unstable even at small dipole-dipole interaction strength, we find that the admixture of fermions can significantly stabilize them, depending on the strength of the boson-fermion interaction. Within the stable regime we find a region where a ground state is characterized by a density wave along the soft trap direction. © 2007 The American Physical Society.
- Jing, H., Cheng, J., & Meystre, P. (2007). Coherent atom-trimer conversion in a repulsive Bose-Einstein condensate. Physical Review Letters, 99(13).More infoAbstract: We show that the use of a generalized atom-molecule dark state permits the enhanced coherent creation of triatomic molecules in a repulsive atomic Bose-Einstein condensate, with further enhancement being possible in the case of heteronuclear trimers via the constructive interference between two chemical reaction channels. © 2007 The American Physical Society.
- Kanamoto, R., Wright, E. M., & Meystre, P. (2007). Quantum dynamics of Raman-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates using Laguerre-Gaussian beams. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 75(6).More infoAbstract: We investigate the quantum dynamics of Raman-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates driven by laser beams that carry orbital angular momentum. By adiabatically eliminating the excited atomic state we obtain an effective two-state Hamiltonian for the coupled condensates, and quantization of the matter-wave fields results in collapse and revivals in the quantum dynamics. We show that the revival period depends on whether the initial nonrotating condensate displays broken U(1) symmetry or not, and that the difference may be detected by measuring the motion of quantized vortices that are nested in the density profile of the Raman-coupled condensates. We further study the steady-state population transfer using a linear sweep of the two-photon detuning, by which the atomic population is coherently transferred from an initial nonrotating state to the final vortex state. © 2007 The American Physical Society.
- Meiser, D., & Meystre, P. (2007). Reply to "comment on 'coupled dynamics of atoms and radiation-pressure-driven interferometers' and 'superstrong coupling regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics'". Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 76(5).More infoAbstract: In their Comment, Asbóth and Domokos question the consistency of two approximations introduced in two recent articles. They show that the minimization of the atomic dipole potential does not in general give rise to a regular lattice of ultracold atoms and that the steady-state positions of atoms in a cavity are not normally characterized by a minimum of the dipole potential. Instead, the steady-state positions correspond to a vanishing force on each individual atom, the relevant force being proportional to the derivative of the optical field mode function. We agree with Asbóth and Domokos that the atomic lattice should be irregular. Using a microscopic model we show however that in the regime considered in our works and also in the preceding Comment the concept of force is generally not well defined, and a semiclassical theory may be inadequate for the description of the atomic motion. © 2007 The American Physical Society.
- Meystre, P., & III, M. S. (2007). Elements of quantum optics. Elements of Quantum Optics, 1-507.More infoAbstract: Elements of Quantum Optics gives a self-contained and broad coverage of the basic elements necessary to understand and carry out research in laser physics and quantum optics, including a review of basic quantum mechanics and pedagogical introductions to system-reservoir interactions and to second quantization. The text reveals the close connection between many seemingly unrelated topics, such as probe absorption, four-wave mixing, optical instabilities, resonance fluorescence and squeezing. It also comprises discussions of cavity quantum electrodynamics and atom optics. The 4th edition includes a new chapter on quantum entanglement and quantum information, as well as added discussions of the quantum beam splitter, electromagnetically induced transparency, slow light, and the input-output formalism needed to understand many problems in quantum optics. It also provides an expanded treatment of the minimum-coupling Hamiltonian and a simple derivation of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, an important gateway to research in ultracold atoms and molecules. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007. All rights are reserved.
- Miyakawa, T., & Meystre, P. (2007). Dissociation dynamics of ultracold atom-molecule mixtures in an optical lattice. Journal of Low Temperature Physics, 148(3-4), 429-434.More infoAbstract: We consider a gas of two-component fermionic atoms coupled to bosonic molecules via photoassociation in an optical lattice. The system consists initially of bosonic molecules only, assumed to be in a ground state corresponding to either a Mott-Insulator phase or a Superfluid phase. We show that in the strong fermion-fermion interaction limit the dissociation dynamics is governed by a spin-boson lattice Hamiltonian. In the framework of a mean-field analysis based on the Gutzwiller ansatz, we then examine the crossover of the dissociation from a regime of independent single-site dynamics to a regime of cooperative dynamics as the molecular tunneling increases. We also show that the observation of Rabi-like oscillations between atomic and molecular populations detects the number statistics and coherence properties between different lattice sites, and then provides useful information on the many-body ground states and interactions in the system. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.
- Saif, F., & Meystre, P. (2007). Coherent acceleration of material wave packets. International Journal of Modern Physics D, 16(12 B), 2593-2598.More infoAbstract: We study the quantum dynamics of a material wave packet bouncing off a modulated atomic mirror in the presence of a gravitational field. We find the occurrence of coherent accelerated dynamics for atoms. The acceleration takes place for certain initial phase space data and within specific windows of modulation strengths. The realization of the proposed acceleration scheme is within the range of present day experimental possibilities. © 2007 World Scientific Publishing Company.
- Uys, H., & Meystre, P. (2007). Quantum states for Heisenberg-limited interferometry. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 76(1).More infoAbstract: The phase sensitivity of interferometers is limited by the so-called Heisenberg limit, which states that the optimum phase sensitivity is inversely proportional to the number of interfering particles N, a 1 N improvement over the standard quantum limit. We have used simulated annealing, a global optimization strategy, to systematically search for quantum interferometer input states that approach the Heisenberg-limited uncertainty in estimates of the interferometer phase shift. We compare the performance of these states to that of other nonclassical states already known to yield Heisenberg-limited uncertainty. © 2007 The American Physical Society.
- Uys, H., & Meystre, P. (2007). Theory of coherent Raman superradiance imaging of condensed Bose gases. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 75(3).More infoAbstract: We describe theoretically the dynamics of the off-resonant superradiant Raman scattering of light in a prolate atomic Bose-Einstein condensate, from the initial stages governed by quantum fluctuations to the subsequent semiclassical regime, and within a multimode theory that fully accounts for propagation effects. Our results are in good agreement with recent experimental results that exploit Raman superradiance as an imaging technique to probe the long-range coherence of condensates, including the observed time-dependent spatial features, and account properly for the macroscopic shot-to-shot fluctuations resulting from the quantum noise that initiates the superradiance process. © 2007 The American Physical Society.
- Dutta, O., Jääskeläinen, M., & Meystre, P. (2006). Thomas-Fermi ground state of dipolar fermions in a circular storage ring. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 73(4).More infoAbstract: Recent developments in the field of ultracold gases has led to the production of degenerate samples of polar molecules. These have large static electric-dipole moments, which in turn causes the molecules to interact strongly. We investigate the interaction of polar particles in waveguide geometries subject to an applied polarizing field. For circular waveguides, tilting the direction of the polarizing field creates a periodic inhomogeneity of the interparticle interaction. We explore the consequences of geometry and interaction for stability of the ground state within the Thomas-Fermi model. Certain combinations of tilt angles and interaction strengths are found to preclude the existence of a stable Thomas-Fermi ground state. The system is shown to exhibit different behavior for quasi-one-dimensional and three-dimensional trapping geometries. © 2006 The American Physical Society.
- Jääskeläinen, M., & Meystre, P. (2006). Coherence dynamics of two-mode condensates in asymmetric potentials. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 73(1).More infoAbstract: Detection of weak forces with an accuracy beyond the standard quantum limit holds promise both for fundamental research and for technological applications. Schemes involving ultracold atoms for such measurements are now considered to be prime candidates for increased sensitivity. In this paper we use a combination of analytical and numerical techniques to investigate the possible subshot-noise estimation of applied force fields through detection of coherence dynamics of Bose-condensed atoms in asymmetric double-well traps. Following a semiclassical description of the system dynamics and fringe visibility, we present numerical simulations of the full quantum dynamics that demonstrate the dynamical production of phase squeezing beyond the standard quantum limit. Nonlinear interactions are found to limit the achievable amount to a finite value determined by the external weak force. © 2006 The American Physical Society.
- Meiser, D., & Meystre, P. (2006). Coupled dynamics of atoms and radiation-pressure-driven interferometers. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 73(3).More infoAbstract: We consider the motion of the end mirror of a cavity in whose standing-wave mode pattern atoms are trapped. The atoms and the light field strongly couple to each other because the atoms form a distributed Bragg mirror with a reflectivity that can be fairly high. We analyze how the dipole potential in which the atoms move is modified due to this back action of the atoms. We show that the position of the atoms can become bistable. These results are of a more general nature and can be applied to any situation where atoms are trapped in an optical lattice inside a cavity and where the back action of the atoms on the light field cannot be neglected. We analyze the dynamics of the coupled system in the adiabatic limit where the light field adjusts to the position of the atoms and the light field instantaneously and where the atoms move much faster than the mirror. We calculate the sideband spectrum of the light transmitted through the cavity and show that these spectra can be used to detect the coupled motion of the atoms and the mirror. © 2006 The American Physical Society.
- Meiser, D., & Meystre, P. (2006). Superstrong coupling regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 74(6).More infoAbstract: We describe a qualitatively different regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics, the superstrong coupling regime. This regime is characterized by atom-field coupling strengths of the order of the free spectral range of the cavity, resulting in a significant change in the spatial mode functions of the light field. It can be reached in practice for cold atoms trapped in an optical dipole potential inside the resonator. We present a nonperturbative scheme that allows us to calculate the frequencies and linewidths of the modified field modes, thereby providing a good starting point for a quantization of the theory. © 2006 The American Physical Society.
- Meiser, D., Miyakawa, T., Uys, H., & Meystre, P. (2006). Quantum Optics of Ultra-Cold Molecules. Advances in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, 53, 151-186.More infoAbstract: Quantum optics has been a major driving force behind the rapid experimental developments that have led from the first laser cooling schemes to the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of dilute atomic and molecular gases. Not only has it provided experimentalists with the necessary tools to create ultra-cold atomic systems, but it has also provided theorists with a formalism and framework to describe them: many effects now being studied in quantum-degenerate atomic and molecular systems find a very natural explanation in a quantum optics picture. This article briefly reviews three such examples that find their direct inspiration in the trailblazing work carried out over the years by Herbert Walther, one of the true giants of that field. Specifically, we use an analogy with the micromaser to analyze ultra-cold molecules in a double-well potential; study the formation and dissociation dynamics of molecules using the passage time statistics familiar from superradiance and superfluorescence studies; and show how molecules can be used to probe higher-order correlations in ultra-cold atomic gases, in particular bunching and antibunching. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- Miyakawa, T., & Meystre, P. (2006). Anderson lattice description of photoassociation in an optical lattice. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 73(2).More infoAbstract: We consider atomic mixtures of bosons and two-component fermions in an optical lattice potential. We show that if the bosons are in a Mott-insulator state with precisely one atom per lattice, the photoassociation of bosonic and fermionic atoms into heteronuclear fermionic molecules is described by the Anderson lattice model. We determine the ground-state properties of an inhomogeneous version of that model in the strong atom-molecule coupling regime, including an additional harmonic trap potential. Various spatial structures arise from the interplay between the atom-molecule correlations and the confining potential. Perturbation theory with respect to the tunneling coupling between fermionic atoms shows that antiferromagnetic correlations develop around a spin-singlet core of fermionic atoms and molecules. © 2006 The American Physical Society.
- Miyakawa, T., & Meystre, P. (2006). Dissociation dynamics of resonantly coupled Bose-Fermi mixtures in an optical lattice. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 74(4).More infoAbstract: We consider the photodissociation of ground-state bosonic molecules trapped in an optical lattice potential into a two-component gas of fermionic atoms. The system is assumed to be described by a single-band resonantly coupled Bose-Fermi Hubbard model. We show that in the strong fermion-fermion interaction limit the dissociation dynamics is governed by a spin-boson lattice Hamiltonian. In the framework of a mean-field analysis based on a generalized Gutzwiller ansatz, we then examine the crossover of the dissociation from a regime of independent single-site dynamics to a regime of cooperative dynamics as the molecular tunneling increases. We also show that in the limits of weak and strong intersite tunneling the mean-field solutions agree well with the results from the quantum optical Jaynes-Cummings and Tavis-Cummings models, respectively. Finally, we identify two types of self-trapping transitions, a coherent and an incoherent one, depending on the ratio of the repulsive molecule-molecule interaction strength to molecular tunneling. © 2006 The American Physical Society.
- Nunnenkamp, A., Meiser, D., & Meystre, P. (2006). Full counting statistics of heteronuclear molecules from Feshbach-assisted photoassociation. New Journal of Physics, 8.More infoAbstract: We study the effects of quantum statistics on the counting statistics of ultracold heteronuclear molecules formed by Feshbach-assisted photoassociation (Search and Meystre 2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 140405). Exploiting the formal similarities with sum frequency generation and using quantum optics methods, we consider the cases where the molecules are formed from atoms out of two Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC), out of a BEC and a gas of degenerate fermions, and out of two degenerate Fermi gases with and without superfluidity. Bosons are treated in a single-mode approximation and fermions in a degenerate model. In these approximations, we can numerically solve the master equations describing the system's dynamics and thus we find the full counting statistics of the molecular modes. The full quantum dynamics calculations are complemented by mean-field calculations and short time perturbative expansions. While the molecule production rates are very similar in all three cases at this level of approximation, differences show up in the counting statistics of the molecular fields. The intermediate field of closed-channel molecules is, for short times, second-order coherent if the molecules are formed from two BECs or a Bose-Fermi mixture. They show counting statistics similar to a thermal field if formed from two normal Fermi gases. The coherence properties of molecule formation in two superfluid Fermi gases are intermediate between the two previous cases. In all cases, the final field of deeply bound molecules is found to be twice as noisy as that of the intermediate state. This is a consequence of its coupling to the lossy optical cavity in our model, which acts as an input port for quantum noise, much like the situation in an optical beam splitter. © IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaf.
- Dutta, O., Jääskeläinen, M., & Meystre, P. (2005). Polarizing beam splitter for dipolar molecules. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 71(5).More infoAbstract: We propose a coherent beam splitter for polarized heteronuclear molecules based on a stimulated Raman adiabatic passage scheme that uses a tripod linkage of electrotranslational molecular states. We show that for strongly polarized molecules the rotational dynamics imposes significantly larger Rabi frequencies than would otherwise be expected, but within this limitation, a full transfer of the molecules to two counterpropagating ground-state wave packets is possible. © 2005 The American Physical Society.
- Jääskeläinen, M., & Meystre, P. (2005). Dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in double-well potentials. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 71(4).More infoAbstract: We study the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in symmetric double-well potentials following a sudden change of the potential from the Mott-insulator to the superfluid regime. We introduce a continuum approximation that maps that problem onto the wave-packet dynamics of a particle in an anharmonic effective potential. For repulsive two-body interactions the visibility of interference fringes that result from the superposition of the two condensates following a stage of ballistic expansion exhibits a collapse of coherent oscillations onto a background value whose magnitude depends on the amount of squeezing of the initial state. Strong attractive interactions are found to stabilize the relative number dynamics. We visualize the dynamics of the system in phase space using a quasiprobability distribution that allows for an intuitive interpretation of the various types of dynamics. © 2005 The American Physical Society.
- Meiser, D., & Meystre, P. (2005). Number statistics of molecules formed from ultracold atoms. Physical Review Letters, 94(9).More infoAbstract: We calculate the number statistics of a single-mode molecular field excited by photo-association or via a Feshbach resonance from an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a normal atomic Fermi gas, and a Fermi system with pair correlations (BCS state). We find that the molecule formation from a BEC leads for short times to a coherent molecular state in the quantum optical sense. Atoms in a normal Fermi gas, on the other hand, result for short times in a molecular field analog of a classical chaotic light source. The BCS situation is intermediate between the two and goes from producing an incoherent to a coherent molecular field with an increasing gap parameter. This distinct signature of the initial atomic state in the resulting molecular field makes single molecule counting into a powerful diagnostic tool. © 2005 The American Physical Society.
- Meiser, D., & Meystre, P. (2005). Reconstruction of the phase of matter-wave fields using a momentum-resolved cross-correlation technique. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 72(2).More infoAbstract: We investigate the potential of the so-called cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating (XFROG) technique originally developed for ultrashort laser pulses for the recovery of the amplitude and phase of the condensate wave function of a Bose-Einstein condensate. Key features of the XFROG method are its high resolution, versatility, and stability against noise and some sources of systematic errors. After showing how an analog of XFROG can be realized for Bose-Einstein condensates, we illustrate its effectiveness in determining the amplitude and phase of the wave function of a vortex state. The impact of a reduction of the number of measurements and of typical sources of noise on the field reconstruction are also analyzed. © 2005 The American Physical Society.
- Meiser, D., Meystre, P., & Search, C. P. (2005). Molecule formation as a diagnostic tool for second-order correlations of ultracold gases. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 71(3).More infoAbstract: We calculate the momentum distribution and the second-order correlation function in momentum space, g (2)(p, p′, t) for molecular dimers that are coherently formed from an ultracold atomic gas by photoassociation or a Feshbach resonance. We investigate using perturbation theory how the quantum statistics of the molecules depend on the initial state of the atoms by considering three different initial states: a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a normal Fermi gas of ultracold atoms, and a BCS-type superfluid Fermi gas. The cases of strong and weak coupling to the molecular field are discussed. It is found that BEC and BCS states give rise to an essentially coherent molecular field with a momentum distribution determined by the zero-point motion in the confining potential. On the other hand, a normal Fermi gas and the unpaired atoms in the BCS state give rise to a molecular field with a broad momentum distribution and thermal number statistics. It is shown that the first-order correlations of the molecules can be used to measure second-order correlations of the initial atomic state. © 2005 The American Physical Society.
- Meiser, D., Search, C. P., & Meystre, P. (2005). Diffraction of ultracold fermions by quantized light fields: Standing versus traveling waves. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 71(1).More infoAbstract: We study the diffraction of quantum-degenerate fermionic atoms off of quantized light fields in an optical cavity. We compare the case of a linear cavity with standing-wave modes to that of a ring cavity with two counterpropagating traveling wave modes. It is found that the dynamics of the atoms strongly depends on the quantization procedure for the cavity field. For standing waves, no correlations develop between the cavity field and the atoms. Consequently, standing-wave Fock states yield the same results as a classical standing wave field while coherent states give rise to a collapse and revivals in the scattering of the atoms. In contrast, for traveling waves the scattering results in quantum entanglement of the radiation field and the atoms. This leads to a collapse and revival of the scattering probability even for Fock states. The Pauli exclusion principle manifests itself as an additional dephasing of the scattering probability. © 2005 The American Physical Society.
- Meystre, P. (2005). From micromasers to atom optics and back. Laser Physics, 15(1), 99-106.More infoAbstract: During his long and remarkable career, Herbert Walther has made a number of trailblazing contributions to atomic, molecular, and optical physics, and has played a central role in defining this field, mentoring dozens of students and postdocs, and building a world-class research institute. Using the micromaser and matter-wave optics as an example, we show how his research continues to have a major impact on the frontiers of AMO science, and will likely do so for the foreseeable future. Copyright © 2005 by MAIK "Nauka/ Interperiodica" (Russia).
- Meystre, P. (2005). Nonlinear matter-wave optics of bosons and fermions. Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, 38(9), S617-S628.More infoAbstract: We briefly review some recent developments in nonlinear atom optics. Basic principles, as well as some of the early effects predicted and observed in the nonlinear optics of bosonic atoms, are presented in general terms. Recent results on fermionic four-wave mixing and on the matter-wave analogue of optical second-harmonic generation are discussed in detail. © 2005 IOP Publishing Ltd.
- Miyakawa, T., & Meystre, P. (2005). Boson-fermion coherence in a spherically symmetric harmonic trap. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 71(3).More infoAbstract: We consider the photoassociation of a low-density gas of quantum-degenerate trapped fermionic atoms into bosonic molecules in a spherically symmetric harmonic potential. For a dilute system and the photoassociation coupling energy small compared to the level separation of the trap, only those fermions in the single shell with Fermi energy are coupled to the bosonic molecular field. Introducing a collective pseudospin operator formalism we show that this system can then be mapped onto the Tavis-Cummings Hamiltonian of quantum optics, with an additional pairing interaction. By exact diagonalization of the Hamiltonian, we examine the ground state and low excitations of the Bose-Fermi system, and study the dynamics of the coherent coupling between atoms and molecules. In a semiclassical description of the system, the pairing interaction between fermions is shown to result in a self-trapping transition in the photoassociation, with a sudden suppression of the coherent oscillations between atoms and molecules. We also show that the full quantum dynamics of the system is dominated by quantum fluctuations in the vicinity of the self-trapping solution. © 2005 The American Physical Society.
- Search, C. P., & Meystre, P. (2005). Nonlinear and quantum optics of atomic and molecular fields. Progress in Optics, 47, 139-214.More infoAbstract: The idea that light carries a mechanical momentum and can modify the trajectories of massive objects can be traced back to Kepler, who offered it as an explanation for the direction of the tail of comets away from the Sun. More rigorously, the force exerted by light on atoms is implicit in Maxwell's equations. For example, it is readily derived from the classical Lorentz model of atom-radiation interaction, where the force of light on atoms is found to be {A formula is presented} Here r is the center-of-mass coordinate of the atom, x is the position of the electron relative to the nucleus, {A formula is presented} is the dipole potential due to the light, E ( r, t ) is the electric field at the center-of-mass location of the atom and q = - e is the electron charge. The force F ( r, t ) is often called the dipole force, or the gradient force. It indicates that it is possible to use light to manipulate atomic trajectories, even when considered at the classical level. An additional key element in understanding the motion of atoms in light fields derives from basic quantum mechanics: since the 1923 work of Louis de Broglie we know that any massive particle of mass M possesses wave-like properties, characterized by a de Broglie wavelength {A formula is presented} where h is Planck's constant and v the particle velocity. Combining de Broglie's matter wave hypothesis with the idea that light can exert a mechanical action on atoms, it is easy to see that in addition to conventional optics, where the trajectory of light is modified by material elements such as lenses, prisms, mirrors, and diffraction gratings, it is also possible to manipulate matter waves with light, resulting in atom optics. Indeed, atom optics (Meystre [2001]) often (but not always) proceeds by reversing the roles of light and matter, so that light provides the "optical" elements for matter waves. Very much like conventional optics can be organized into ray, wave, nonlinear, and quantum optics, matter-wave optics has recently witnessed parallel developments. Ray atom optics is concerned with those aspects of atom optics where the wave nature of the atoms does not play a central role, and the atoms can be treated as point particles. Wave atom optics deals with topics such as matter-wave diffraction and interference. Nonlinear atom optics considers the mixing of matter-wave fields, such as in atomic four-wave mixing, and the photoassociation of ultracold atoms - a matter-wave analog of second-harmonic generation. In such cases, the nonlinear medium appears to be the atoms themselves, but in a more proper treatment it turns out to be the electromagnetic vacuum, as we discuss in some detail later on. Finally, quantum atom optics deals with topics where the quantum statistics of the matter-wave field are of central interest. Examples include the generation of entangled and squeezed matter waves. In contrast to photons, which obey bosonic statistics, atoms can be either composite bosons or fermions. Hence, in addition to the atom optics of bosonic matter waves, which finds much inspiration in its electromagnetic counterpart, the atom optics of fermionic matter waves is now actively studied by a number of groups. This emerging line of investigations is likely to lead to the discovery of novel phenomena completely absent from bosonic atom optics. This chapter reviews some of the key recent developments in nonlinear and quantum atom optics that result from the availability of Bose-Einstein condensates and quantum-degenerate Fermi systems. After an elementary review of the formalism of second quantization, which describes atoms as a quantum field and leads to a simple understanding of much of atom optics in direct analogy to the optical case, we recall some important features of Bose-Einstein condensation and of quantum-degenerate Fermi systems. One important distinction between optical and matter-wave fields is that the latter ones are self-interacting, a result of atomic collisions. As it turns out, collisions play for atoms a role analogous to that of a nonlinear medium for light; hence it is important to introduce their main characteristics in the context of ultracold atoms. We show that attractive two-body interactions are the de Broglie waves analog of a self-focusing medium in optics, while repulsive interactions correspond to defocusing. We also discuss at some length the physics of Feshbach resonances, which provide us with an exquisite tool to change two-body collisions from being attractive to repulsive, with important implications in nonlinear atom optics. Indeed, much of the recent work in that field relies heavily on these resonances, as we shall see. After having understood the source of nonlinearities in de Broglie optics in this way, we turn our attention to the mean-field description of bosonic matter-wave fields, the analog of the semiclassical approximation in optics. We introduce the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, and study departures from its predictions in a linearized approach that introduces the concept of quasiparticles. We also introduce particle-hole operators that are of particular use in the description of fermionic fields. This formalism being established, we turn to nonlinear atom optics per se. Concentrating first on bosonic atoms, we discuss the focusing and defocusing of coherent atomic matter waves and the generation of dark and bright solitons. For lack of space, we omit several important topics including much of the fascinating work on optical lattices and the generation of vortices and vortex lattices. We also omit the nonlinear mixing of optical and matter waves, where the progress has been somewhat slower in the last three years than in the topics that we cover. The reader is referred to Chapter 13 of the monograph by Meystre [2001] for a discussion of this topic that is still reasonably current. We then turn to four-wave mixing, starting with bosonic atoms, which was one of the first nonlinear atom-optical effects demonstrated experimentally. We then extend our considerations to the four-wave mixing and phase conjugation of fermionic matter waves, drawing an analogy between this process and Dicke superradiance. Further extending the analogy with optics, the following section discusses three-wave mixing. We first return to quasiparticles to interpret Baliev and Landau damping in terms of nonlinear wave mixing, and then proceed with discussion of the mixing between atomic and molecular (dimer) matter-wave fields. This allows us to make some comments of a general nature on the so-called BEC-BCS cross-over and the potential use of Feshbach resonances to achieve resonant superfluidity in ultracold bosonic atomic samples. We conclude this section with the discussion of a molecular analog of the cavity QED micromaser. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- Uys, H., Miyakawa, T., Meiser, D., & Meystre, P. (2005). Fluctuations in the formation time of ultracold dimers from fermionic atoms. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 72(5).More infoAbstract: We investigate the temporal fluctuations characteristic of the formation of molecular dimers from ultracold fermionic atoms via Raman photoassociation. The quantum fluctuations inherent to the initial atomic state result in large fluctuations in the passage time from atoms to molecules. Assuming degeneracy of kinetic energies of atoms in the strong coupling limit, we find that a heuristic classical stochastic model yields qualitative agreement with the full quantum treatment in the initial stages of the dynamics. We also show that in contrast to the association of atoms into dimers, the reverse process of dissociation from a condensate of bosonic dimers exhibits little passage time fluctuations. Finally, we explore effects due to the nondegeneracy of atomic kinetic energies. © 2005 The American Physical Society.
- Jääskeläinen, M., Zhang, W., & Meystre, P. (2004). Limits to phase resolution in matter-wave interferometry. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 70(6), 063612-1-063612-9.More infoAbstract: The full quantum dynamics of a condensate in a symmetrically split double well was investigated. A matter-wave beam splitter was consider as a double-well potential with time-dependent well separation. The effects of internal degrees of freedom on the visibility of interference fringes during a stage of ballistic expansion were investigated varying particle number and tunneling coupling. The expressions for the phase resolution were derived and the possible enhancement due to squeezing was discussed.
- Meystre, P., Search, C. P., & Meystre, P. -. (2004). Molecular matter-wave amplifier. Physical review letters, 93(14).More infoWe describe a matter-wave amplifier for vibrational ground-state molecules which uses a Feshbach resonance to first form quasibound molecules starting from an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate. The quasibound molecules are then driven into their stable vibrational ground state via a two-photon Raman transition inside an optical cavity. The transition from the quasibound state to the electronically excited state is driven by a classical field. Amplification of ground state molecules is then achieved by using a strongly damped cavity mode for the transition from the electronically excited molecules to the molecular ground state.
- Meystre, P., Search, C. P., Zhang, W., & Meystre, P. -. (2004). Inhibiting three-body recombination in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates. Physical review letters, 92(14).More infoWe discuss the possibility of inhibiting three-body recombination in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates via the application of resonant 2pi laser pulses. These pulses result in the periodic change in the phase of the molecular state by pi, which leads to destructive interference between the decay amplitudes following successive pulses. We show that the decay rate can be reduced by several orders of magnitude under realistic conditions.
- Miyakawa, T., Search, C. P., & Meystre, P. (2004). Phase coherence in a driven double-well system. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 70(5 B), 053622-1-053622-7.More infoAbstract: The dynamics of a molecular field incoherently pumped by the photoassociation of fermionic atoms and coupled by quantum tunneling in a double-well potential was analyzed. The relative phase distribution of the molecular modes in each well and their phase coherence was observed to be building up owing to quantum-mechanical fluctuations starting from the vacuum state. Three qualitatively different steady-state phase distributions, were identified depending on the ratio of the molecule-molecule interaction strength to interwell tunneling. The crossover from a phase-coherent regime to a phase-incoherent regime was examined as the ratio of the molecule-molecule interaction strength to interwell tunneling increased.
- Search, C. P., & Meystre, P. (2004). Molecular matter-wave amplifier. Physical Review Letters, 93(14), 140405-1-140405-4.More infoPMID: 15524774;Abstract: The matter-wave amplifier which uses a feshback resonance to form quasibound molecules from an atomic-bose-einstein condensate (BEC), for vibrational ground state molecules, was discussed. The quasibound molecules are driven in to their stable vibrational ground state via a two-photon Raman transition inside an optical cavity. The pair of atoms were in a BEC were coupled to a quasibound state via a feshback resonance. The result show that the amplification of ground state molecules was achieved by using strongly damped cavity mode for the transition from the electronically excited molecules to the molecular ground state.
- Search, C. P., Miyakawa, T., & Meystre, P. (2004). Lattice array of molecular micromasers. Optics Express, 12(1), 30-41.More infoPMID: 19471509;Abstract: We consider the photoassociation of fermions trapped in a two-dimensional optical lattice into bosonic molecules, in the limit that intersite tunnelling is negligible. For the case of two fermions in different hyperfine states this process can be mapped into a generalized version of the Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian from quantum optics. We make use of this equivalence to show how to build a micromaser for the molecular field at each lattice site. © 2004 Optical Society of America.
- Search, C. P., Zhang, W., & Meystre, P. (2004). Inhibiting three-body recombination in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates. Physical Review Letters, 92(14), 140401-1.More infoPMID: 15089519;Abstract: The possibility of inhibiting three-body recombination in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates was discussed. It was found that the pulses result in the periodic change in the phase of the molecular state by π. This lead to destructive interference between the decay amplitudes. Results show that the decay rate can be reduced by several orders of magnitude.
- Anderson, B. P., & Meystre, P. (2003). Nonlinear atom optics. Contemporary Physics, 44(6), 473-483.More infoAbstract: The availability of coherent matter waves from Bose-Einstein condensates had led to the extension of atom optics from the linear to the nonlinear regime, in analogy with the developments in optics following the invention of the laser. We provide a tutorial introduction to this emerging field, emphasizing the role of collisions as a "nonlinear medium" in the focusing and defocusing of matter waves, the launching of atomic solitons, the generation of vortices, and the demonstration of four-wave mixing both among matter waves and between optical and matter waves.
- Christ, H., Search, C. P., & Meystre, P. (2003). Dynamics of fermionic four-wave mixing. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 67(6), 636111-636118.More infoAbstract: The dynamics of a beam of fermions diffracted off a density grating formed by fermionic atoms in the limit of a large grating was studied. A combination of analytical and numerical methods was used to quantitatively explore the Raman-Nath and the Bragg regimes of diffraction. The limits in diffraction efficiency resulting from the dephasing of the grating due to the distribution of energy states occupied by the fermions were discussed.
- Han, P. u., Zhang, W., & Meystre, P. (2003). Wave Mixing of Optical Pulses and Bose-Einstein Condensates. Physical Review Letters, 91(15), 1504071-1504074.More infoPMID: 14611457;Abstract: The wave mixing of optical pulses and Bose-Einstein Condensates was studied. The diffraction pattern was interpreted in terms of atom-photon wave mixing. The results show that the quantum-correlated parametric excitation of atomic pairs generated the forward and backward propagation matter waves.
- Meystre, P., Pu, H., Zhang, W., & Meystre, P. -. (2003). Wave mixing of optical pulses and bose-einstein condensates. Physical review letters, 91(15).More infoWe investigate theoretically the four-wave mixing of optical and matter waves resulting from the scattering of a short light pulse off an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate, as recently demonstrated by D. Schneble et al. [Science 300, 475 (2003)]]. We show that atomic "pair production" from the condensate results in the generation of both forward- and backward-propagating matter waves. These waves are characterized by different phase-matching conditions, resulting in different angular distributions and temporal evolutions.
- Meystre, P., Search, C. P., & Meystre, P. -. (2003). Phase conjugation of a quantum-degenerate atomic fermion beam. Physical review letters, 91(10).More infoWe discuss the possibility of phase conjugation of an atomic Fermi field via nonlinear wave mixing in an ultracold gas. It is shown that for a beam of fermions incident on an atomic phase-conjugate mirror, a time-reversed backward propagating fermionic beam is generated similar to the case in nonlinear optics. By adopting an operational definition of the phase, we show that it is possible to infer the presence of the phase-conjugate field by the loss of the interference pattern in an atomic interferometer.
- Meystre, P., Search, C. P., Zhang, W., & Meystre, P. -. (2003). Molecular micromaser. Physical review letters, 91(19).More infoWe show that photoassociation of fermionic atoms into bosonic molecules inside an optical lattice can be described using a Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian with a nonlinear detuning. Using this equivalence to the Jaynes-Cummings dynamics, we show how one can construct a micromaser for the molecular field in each lattice site.
- Miyakawa, T., Christ, H., Search, C. P., & Meystre, P. (2003). Four-wave mixing in degenerate Fermi gases: Beyond the undepleted pump approximation. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 67(6), 636031-636039.More infoAbstract: Four-wave mixing in degenerate Fermi gases was discussed. Density grating and beam density were studied. Results showed that the lifetime for the fermionic four-wave mixing can be improved by making the number of atoms in the beam comparable to the number of atoms that form the density grating.
- Pu, H., Baksmaty, L. O., Zhang, W., Bigelow, N. P., & Meystre, P. (2003). Effective-mass analysis of Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices: Stabilization and levitation. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 67(4), 436051-436058.More infoAbstract: The time evolution of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a periodic optical potential was investigated. The equation of motion for the envelop function modulating the Bloch states of the lattice potential was studied by using an effective mass formalism. It was shown that how that negative effective-mass affects the dynamics of the condensate.
- Search, C. P., & Meystre, P. (2003). Noise limits in matter-wave interferometry using degenerate quantum gases. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 67(6), 616011-616014.More infoAbstract: The phase resolution limit of a Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer whose input consists of degenerate quantum gases of either bosons or fermions is analyzed. It is indicated that for degenerate gases, the number of atoms within one de Broglie wavelength is larger than unity, so that atom-atom interactions and quantum statistics are no longer negligible. It is shown that for equal atom numbers, the phase resolution achievable with fermions is noticeably better than for interacting bosons.
- Search, C. P., & Meystre, P. (2003). Phase Conjugation of a Quantum-degenerate Atomic Fermion Beam. Physical Review Letters, 91(10), 1004011-1004014.More infoPMID: 14525466;Abstract: A study was performed on the phase conjugation of a quantum-degenerate atomic fermion beam. For a beams of fermions incident on an atomic phase-conjugate mirror, a time-reversed backward propagating fermionic beam was generated. The results showed that it was possible to infer the presence of the phase-conjugate field by the loss of the interference pattern in an atomic interferometers.
- Search, C. P., Zhang, W., & Meystre, P. (2003). Molecular micromaser. Physical Review Letters, 91(19), 190401/1-190401/4.More infoAbstract: Two lines of research which have recently converged in theoretical proposals to photoassociate bosonic atoms in the Mott-insulator state into molecules was further extended to the case of fermionic atoms. As a consequence of Pauli statistics, the problem reduces mathematically within each lattice site to a situation almost identical to that of the familiar micromaser of quantum optics, the only significant difference resulting from the presence of an intrinsic nonlinearity in the case of matter-wave fields. It was well established that the radiation field generated in a micromaser exhibits a number of quantum-mechanical features that were absent in normal lasers and masers.
- Zhang, W., Han, P. u., Search, C. P., Meystre, P., & Wright, E. M. (2003). Two-fermion bound state in a Bose-Einstein condensate. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 67(2), 021601/1-021601/4.More infoAbstract: A nonlinear Schrodinger equation for a fermionic beam in a condensate was derived. It was shown that the condensate acts as an effective nonlinear medium for the fermions, leading to formation of a two-atom bound state closely analogous to the two-photon bound state in self-focusing media. Signatures of the bound state in a nonlinear atom optics experiment was also proposed.
- Zhang, W., Search, C. P., Han, P. u., Meystre, P., & Wright, E. M. (2003). Feshbach-resonance-induced atomic filamentation and quantum pair correlation in atom-laser-beam propagation. Physical Review Letters, 90(14), 140401/1-140401/4.More infoAbstract: The propagation of an atom laser beam through a Feshbach resonance region where the interaction between atoms is tuned from being repulsive to being attractive was studied. The attractive interaction was shown to produce quantum-correlated atomic pairs via modulational instability and highlights the promise for realizing nonclassical ultracold atomic sources by coherent control of the atomic interactions.
- Zhang, W., Wright, E. M., Han, P. u., & Meystre, P. (2003). Fundamental limit for integrated atom optics with Bose-Einstein condensates. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 68(2), 236051-236056.More infoAbstract: The fundamental limit with Bose-Einstein condensates manipulated by an integrated atom-optics device was studied. The device used was a microtrap or a microfabricated waveguide. A sufficiently high condensate density was enforced by the miniaturization of the device. It was found that a spatial modulational instability led by three-body interactions resulted in a fundamental limit on the coherent manipulation of Bose-Einstein condensates.
- Anderson, B. P., & Meystre, P. (2002). Nonlinear atom optics. Optics and Photonics News, 13(6), 20-25+54.More infoAbstract: Various issues related to the nonlinear atom optics are discussed. All atomic interactions results from the exchange of photons between atoms, collisions are only a way to describe these processes. The atoms in the condensate experiences an energy shift due to the presence of all other atoms.
- Gross, K., Search, C. P., Han, P. u., Zhang, W., & Meystre, P. (2002). Magnetism in a lattice of spinor Bose-Einstein condensates. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 66(3), 336031-336039.More infoAbstract: The ground state magnetism of ferromagnetic spinor Bose-Einstein condensates confined in deep optical lattices was investigated. The 'minicondensates' at each lattice site interacted with neighboring sites through both the static magnetic dipolar interaction and the light-induced dipolar interaction. The 'minicondensates,' behaving as mesoscopic spin magnets, were found to undergo a ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic phase transition under the magnetic dipolar interaction depending on the dimension of the confining optical lattice.
- Han, P. u., Search, C., Zhang, W., & Meystre, P. (2002). Atom optics - From de Broglie waves to Heisenberg ferromagnets. Fortschritte der Physik, 50(5-7), 664-669.More infoAbstract: We review some of the key developments that lead to the field of atom optics, and discuss how it has recently began to make connections with Werner Heisenberg s trailblazing work on magnetism.
- Han, P. u., Zhang, W., & Meystre, P. (2002). Macroscopic spin tunneling and quantum critical behavior of a condensate in a double-well potential. Physical Review Letters, 89(9), 904011-904014.More infoAbstract: Macroscopic spin tunneling and quantum critical behavior of a condensate in a double-well potential were discussed. The system possessed several advantages compared to the conventional solid-state magnetic materials. The system is characterized by few simple parameters, without the complication of domain separations. The transverse field strength parameter is capable of switching on or off the tunneling. Results showed that the tunneling rate depends on the strength of the transverse field.
- Han, P. u., Zhang, W., Wilkens, M., & Meystre, P. (2002). Phonon spectrum and dynamical stability of a dilute quantum degenerate Bose-Fermi mixture. Physical Review Letters, 88(7), 704081-704084.More infoAbstract: The phonon excitation spectrum in a dilute boson-fermion gaseous mixture was calculated. The dynamical stability regime of a homogeneous mixture was determined. The change in sound velocity due to the boson-fermion interaction was investigated. A resonant phonon-exchange interaction between the fermions was found to be the physical mechanism resulting in the instability.
- Meystre, P. (2002). Nonlinear atom optics: Recent results and prospects. Laser Physics, 12(1), 1-7.More infoAbstract: We briefly review some recent results in nonlinear atom optics, and discuss its potential for future developments and applications.
- Meystre, P., Pu, H., Zhang, W., & Meystre, P. -. (2002). Macroscopic spin tunneling and quantum critical behavior of a condensate in a double-well potential. Physical review letters, 89(9).More infoIn a previous work [H. Pu, W. Zhang, and P. Meystre, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 140405 (2001)]], we have shown that a spinor condensate confined in a periodic or double-well potential exhibits ferromagnetic behavior due to the magnetic dipole-dipole interactions between different wells, and in the absence of external magnetic field, the ground state has a twofold degeneracy. In this work, we demonstrate the possibility of observing macroscopic quantum spin tunneling between these two degenerate states and show how the tunneling rate critically depends on the strength of the transverse field.
- Meystre, P., Pu, H., Zhang, W., Wilkens, M., & Meystre, P. -. (2002). Phonon spectrum and dynamical stability of a dilute quantum degenerate Bose-Fermi mixture. Physical review letters, 88(7).More infoWe calculate the phonon excitation spectrum in a zero-temperature dilute boson-fermion gaseous mixture. We show how the sound velocity changes due to the boson-fermion interaction, and we determine the dynamical stability regime of a homogeneous mixture. We identify a resonant phonon-exchange interaction between the fermions as the physical mechanism leading to the instability.
- Meystre, P., Zhang, W., Pu, H., Search, C., & Meystre, P. -. (2002). Spin waves in a Bose-Einstein--condensed atomic spin chain. Physical review letters, 88(6).More infoThe spin dynamics of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates confined in a one-dimensional optical lattice is studied. The condensates at each lattice site behave like spin magnets that can interact with each other through both the light-induced dipole-dipole interaction and the static magnetic dipole-dipole interaction. We show how these site-to-site dipolar interactions can distort the ground-state spin orientations and lead to the excitation of spin waves. The dispersion relation of the spin waves is studied and possible detection schemes are proposed.
- Pötting, S., Cramer, M., Zhang, W., & Meystre, P. (2002). Raman coupler for a trapped two-component quantum-degenerate Fermi gas. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 65(6 A), 636201-636207.More infoAbstract: The Raman coupling between two internal states of a trapped low-density quantum-degenerate Fermi gas was discussed. It was found that under appropriate conditions, the two-body collisions suppressed the dephasing leading to collapse of population difference and restoration of almost full Rabi oscillations between the two internal states. The analysis showed that the collisions changed the fermionic dynamics in a non-trivial fashion.
- Search, C. P., Pu, H., Zhang, W., & Meystre, P. (2002). Diffraction of a superfluid fermi gas by an atomic grating. Physical Review Letters, 88(11), 1104011-1104014.More infoPMID: 11909390;Abstract: The possibility of using atom optics techniques to directly study the coherence present in a gas of fermionic atoms that went through Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) transition was studied. An atomic grating generated by a pulsed standing-wave laser field was proposed to manipulate the superfluid state in a quantum degenerate gas of fermionic atoms. It was shown that density oscillations of the gas caused by the atomic grating exhibited a much longer coherence time than in the normal Fermi gas in the presence of atomic Cooper pairs.
- Search, C. P., Pu, H., Zhang, W., & Meystre, P. (2002). Quasiparticle spectrum and dynamical stability of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate coupled to a degenerate Fermi gas. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 65(6 A), 636151-6361512.More infoAbstract: The quasiparticle excitations and dynamical stability of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), coupled to a quantum degenerate Fermi gas of atoms at zero temperature, were discussed. The quasiparticle excitations of the Bose-Einstein condensate were found to exhibit a dynamical instability due to a resonant exchange of energy and momentum with quasiparticle excitations of the Fermi gas. The analysis showed that the energy gap in the quasiparticle spectrum for the superfluid state stabilized the low-energy excitations of the condensates.
- Search, C. P., Pu, H., Zhang, W., Anderson, B. P., & Meystre, P. (2002). Manipulating the critical temperature for the superfluid phase transition in trapped atomic Fermi gases. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 65(6 A), 636161-636164.More infoAbstract: The effects of the trapping potential on the critical temperature Tc for the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) transition to a superfluid state in trapped atomic gases of fermions were discussed. It was found that for anharmonic traps, Tc increased by several orders of magnitude in comparison to a harmonic trap. The analysis showed that the critical temperature for the BCS transition were manipulated by shaping the traps confining the atomic Fermi gases.
- Search, C. P., Pötting, S., Zhang, W., & Meystre, P. (2002). Input-output theory for fermions in an atom cavity. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 66(4), 436161-4361610.More infoAbstract: The quantum optical input-output theory for optical cavities to ultracold fermionic atoms was studied. Quantum Langevin equations for all cavity modes were derived to account for the Pauli exclusion principle. A set of boundary boundary conditions for the Fermi field were also derived that relate the output fields to the input fields and the field radiated by the cavity.
- Zhang, W., Han, P. u., Search, C., & Meystre, P. (2002). Spin waves in a Bose-Einstein-condensed atomic spin chain. Physical Review Letters, 88(6), 060401/1-060401/4.More infoAbstract: A scheme to study the excitation and propagation of spin waves in an array of atomic spinor Bose-Einstein condensates confined or created in an optical lattice is proposed. The Bose statistics in each lattice site makes the atoms behave like a spin magnet. Such spin magnet arrays not only exhibit fascinating spin dynamics, but also may find potential applications in quantum information and computation.
- Heurich, J., Pu, H., Moore, M. G., & Meystre, P. (2001). Instabilities and self-oscillations in atomic four-wave mixing. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 63(3), 1-7.More infoAbstract: The development of integrated, waveguide-based atom optical devices requires a thorough understanding of nonlinear matter-wave mixing processes in confined geometries. This paper analyzes the stability of counter-propagating two-component Bose-Einstein condensates in such a geometry. The steady-state field equations of this system are solved analytically, predicting a multivalued relation between the input and output field intensities. The spatiotemporal linear stability of these solutions is investigated numerically, leading to the prediction of a self-oscillation threshold that can be expressed in terms of a matter-wave analog of the Fresnel number in optics. ©2000 The American Physical Society.
- Heurich, J., Pu, H., Moore, M. G., & Meystre, P. (2001). Instabilities and self-oscillations in atomic four-wave mixing. Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 63(3), 336051-336057.More infoAbstract: A thorough understanding of nonlinear matter four wave mixing processes in confined geometries is required when developing integrated, waveguide-based atom optical devices. In such a geometry, counter-propagating two-component Bose-Einstein condensates were aanalyzed based on their stability. The system is studied using steady-state field equations.
- Meystre, P. (2001). Nonlinear optics of de Broglie waves. Advances in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, 47(C), 1-52.
- Moore, M. G., & Meystre, P. (2001). Atomic four-wave mixing: Fermions versus bosons. Physical Review Letters, 86(19), 4199-4202.More infoPMID: 11328134;Abstract: The four wave mixing in quantum degenerate gases of bosonic and fermionic atoms was compared. The matter wave gratings formed from the bosonic and the fermionic atoms exhibit identical Bragg scattering. The coherent matter-wave amplification and superradiance that occur in degenerate Fermi gases is due to constructive many particle quantum interferences called as `Bose enhancement'.
- Pu, H., Zhang, W., & Meystre, P. (2001). Ferromagnetism in a lattice of Bose-Einstein condensates. Physical Review Letters, 87(14), 140405/1-140405/4.More infoAbstract: Based on recent measurements of the scattering length of spin-changing collisions, it was established that the ground state of optically trapped 87Rb spinor Bose condensates is ferromagnetic. The present study shows that this result, combined with the recent experimental realization of regular arrays of Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices, leads to a situation where it becomes possible to carry out detailed static and dynamic studies of magnetism on one- to three-dimensional periodic lattices. It is shown that spinor condensates undergo a ferromagneticlike phase transition that leads to a "macroscopic" magnetization of the condensate array.
- Pötting, S., Cramer, M., & Meystre, P. (2001). Momentum-state engineering and control in Bose-Einstein condensates. Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 64(6), 063613/1-063613/8.More infoAbstract: The usefulness of genetic algorithms in the control and manipulation, of the quantum states of Bose-Einstein condensates was addressed. This was illustrated in two examples, the coherent population transfer between momentum states in a large condensate where the mean-field effects are important, and the creation of coherent superpositions of states of prescribed population and relative phase. It was found that time-dependent Bragg scattering combined with the powerful optimization capabilities of genetic algorithms, provides a different tool for quantum-state design and coherent control in linear and nonlinear atom optics.
- Pötting, S., Cramer, M., Schwalb, C. H., Han, P. u., & Meystre, P. (2001). Coherent acceleration of Bose-Einstein condensates. Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 64(2), 023604/1-023604/9.More infoAbstract: An overview is given on two coherent mechanisms to accelerate Bose-Einstein condensates with very little atom loss while preserving its monochromaticity. The first mechanism, based on the use of an accelerated optical lattice, can be interpreted as resulting from a sequence of Bragg resonances, which can lead to a remarkable preservation of the monochromaticity of the atomic sample under appropriate conditions. The second scheme uses a time-varying potential analogous to those used in the synchronous acceleration of charged particle.
- Raghavan, S., Pu, H., Meystre, P., & Bigelow, N. P. (2001). Generation of arbitrary Dicke states in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates. Optics Communications, 188(1-4), 149-154.More infoAbstract: An arbitrary collective spin squeezing and entanglement of a two-component spinor condensate can be readily controlled by the coupling fields between the two components. Squeezed or entangled spin states will find applications in high-precision spectroscopy, atomic interferometry and quantum information, and spinor condensates are attractive candidates to create such states. The scheme presented can be realized in the two-component 87Rb condensate. Another possibility is offered by the F = 1 spinor condensate of 23Na which can be reduced to an effective spin-(1/2) system by shifting the energy level of the mF = 0 state with an ac Stark shift.
- Zapata, J., Guzmán, A., Moore, M. G., & Meystre, P. (2001). Gravity-induced Wannier-Stark ladder in an optical lattice. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 63(2), 023607-023601.More infoAbstract: A Floquet representation of the Wannier atomic states was employed for the calculation of Wannier-Stark ladders induced by gravity on atoms in optical lattices. The widths of the Wannier-Stark ladder of resonances were obtained by the dynamics of ultracold atoms in an optical potential. The rate transition to the continuum was obtained by the width of the resonances. A physical model was developed for the Wannier states including the eigenstates of the system in the absence of gravitational field.
- Zapata, J., Guzmán, A., Moore, M. G., & Meystre, P. (2001). Gravity-induced Wannier-Stark ladder in an optical lattice. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 63(2), 1-7.More infoAbstract: We discuss the dynamics of ultracold atoms in an optical potential accelerated by gravity. The positions and widths of the Wannier-Stark ladder of resonances are obtained as metastable states. The metastable Wannier-Bloch states oscillate in a single band with the Bloch period. The width of the resonance gives the rate transition to the continuum. ©2001 The American Physical Society.
- Goldstein, E. V., Moore, M. G., & Meystre, P. (2000). Nonlinear manipulation and control of matter waves. Laser Physics, 10(1), 8-14.More infoAbstract: This paper reviews some of our recent results in nonlinear atom optics. In addition to nonlinear wave-mixing between matter waves, we also discuss the dynamical interplay between optical and matter waves. This new paradigm, which is now within experimental reach, has the potential to impact a number of fields of physics, including the manipulation and applications of atomic coherence, and the preparation of quantum entanglement between microscopic and macroscopic systems. Possible applications include quantum information processing, matter-wave holography, and nanofabrication.
- Goldstein, E. V., Moore, M. G., Pu, H., & Meystre, P. (2000). Eliminating the mean-field shift in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. Physical Review Letters, 85(24), 5030-5033.More infoAbstract: We demonstrate that the nonlinear mean-field shift in a multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensate may be eliminated by controlling the two-body interaction coefficients. This modification can be achieved by engineering the environment of the condensate. We consider the case of a two-component condensate in a quasi-one-dimensional atomic waveguide, achieving modification of the atom-atom interactions by varying the transverse wave functions of the components. Eliminating the density-dependent phase shift represents a promising potential application for multicomponent condensates in atom interferometry and precision measurements. © 2000 The American Physical Society.
- Heurich, J., Moore, M. G., & Meystre, P. (2000). Cavity atom optics and the 'free atom laser'. Optics Communications, 179(1), 549-558.More infoAbstract: The trap environment in which Bose-Einstein condensates are generated and/or stored strongly influences the way they interact with light. The situation is analogous to cavity QED in quantum optics, except that in the present case, one tailors the matter-wave mode density rather than the density of modes of the optical field. Just as in QED, for short times, the atoms do not sense the trap and propagate as in free space. After times long enough that recoiling atoms can probe the trap environment, however, the way condensates and light fields are mutually influenced differs significantly from the free-space situation. We use as an example the condensate collective atomic recoil laser, which is the atomic matter-wave analog of the free-electron laser.
- Meystre, P. (2000). Amplifier means gains for atom optics. Physics World, 13(3), 24-25.
- Moore, M. G., & Meystre, P. (2000). Generating entangled atom-photon pairs from Bose-Einstein condensates. Physical Review Letters, 85(24), 5026-5029.More infoAbstract: We propose using spontaneous Raman scattering from an optically driven Bose-Einstein condensate as a source of atom-photon pairs whose internal states are maximally entangled. Generating entanglement between a particle which is easily transmitted (the photon) and one which is easily trapped and coherently manipulated (an ultracold atom) will prove useful for a variety of quantum-information related applications. We analyze the type of entangled states generated by spontaneous Raman scattering and construct a geometry which results in maximum entanglement. © 2000 The American Physical Society.
- Prataviera, G. A., Zapata, J., & Meystre, P. (2000). Higher-order mutual coherence of optical and matter waves. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 62(2), 023605-023601.More infoAbstract: In this study, the theory of mutual coherence between optical and matter waves to the study of higher-order correlation functions was extended. The role of the quantum statistics of the constituent particle was highlighted.
- Prataviera, G. A., Zapata, J., & Meystre, P. (2000). Higher-order mutual coherence of optical and matter waves. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 62(2), 1-8.More infoAbstract: We use an operational approach to discuss ways to measure the higher-order cross correlations between optical and matter-wave fields. We pay particular attention to the fact that atomic fields actually consist of composite particles that can easily be separated into their basic constituents by a detection process such as photoionization. In the case of bosonic fields, that we specifically consider here, this leads to the appearance in the detection signal of exchange contributions due to both the composite bosonic field and its individual fermionic constituents. We also show how time-gated counting schemes allow to isolate specific contributions to the signal, in particular involving different orderings of the Schrödinger and Maxwell fields. ©2000 The American Physical Society.
- Pu, H., & Meystre, P. (2000). Creating macroscopic atomic Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states from Bose-Einstein condensates. Physical Review Letters, 85(19), 3987-3990.More infoAbstract: A simple scheme to create a macroscopic Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlated atomic state is proposed and analyzed. Such a state possesses a nonlocal entanglement and is maximally squeezed, in the sense that the fluctuations of the z component of its quasispin vanish. The study shows that an elongated spinor condensate with large aspect ratio and large energy difference between spin-0 and spin-(±1) states is the best candidate to create such a state. The correlations between the atomic ensembles arise from the nonlinear atom-atom interaction among the condensate atoms.
- Pötting, S., Lee, E. S., Schmitt, W., Rumyantsev, I., Mohring, B., & Meystre, P. (2000). Quantum coherence and interaction-free measurements. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 62(6), 060101-060101.More infoAbstract: The effect of interaction-free measurements (IFM) on quantum coherence was investigated. The quantum system was subject to measurement dependent decoherences as energy exchanges were insufficient. The design of interaction-free measurement schemes to preserve the state was found feasible. The requirement of quantum coherence preservation yielded very low efficiency. The impact of quantum superposition on the IFM measurements was also presented.
- Pötting, S., Zobay, O., Meystre, P., & Wright, E. M. (2000). Magneto-optical control of bright atomic solitons. Journal of Modern Optics, 47(14-15 SPEC.), 2653-2669.More infoAbstract: In previous work we showed that bright atomic solitons can arise in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates in the form of gap solitons even for repulsive many-body interactions. Here we further explore the properties of atomic gap solitons and show that their internal structure can be used to both excite them and control their centre-of-mass motion using applied laser and magnetic fields. As an illustration we demonstrate a nonlinear atom-optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on gap solitons. © 2000 Taylor & Francis Ltd.
- Goldstein, E. V., & Meystre, P. (1999). Phase conjugation of multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensates. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 59(2-3), 1509-1513.More infoAbstract: We consider a trapped multicomponent atomic Bose-Einstein condensate, concentrating specifically on condensates in the hyperfine ground state F = 1, where spin exchange collisions result in a transfer of population between m = 0 and m = ± 1 internal states. Drawing an analogy with the optical situation, we show that this system can be regarded as a matter-wave analog of optical multiwave mixing. This opens up the way to realize matter-wave phase conjugation, whereby an incident atomic beam can be "time reversed." In addition, matter-wave phase conjugation also offers novel diagnostic tools to study the coherence properties of condensates, as well as to measure the relative scattering lengths of hyperfine sublevels.
- Goldstein, E. V., & Meystre, P. (1999). Quantum theory of atomic four-wave mixing in Bose-Einstein condensates. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 59(5), 3896-3901.More infoAbstract: We present an exact quantum-mechanical analysis of collinear four-wave mixing in a multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensate consisting of sodium atoms in the F = 1 ground state. Technically, this is achieved by taking advantage of the conservation laws of the system to cast its Hamiltonian in terms of angular momentum operators. We discuss explicitly the build-up of matter-wave side modes from quantum fluctuations, as well as the correlations between these modes. We show the appearance of a strong quantum entanglement between hyperfine states. We also demonstrate that for finite atomic numbers, the system exhibits periodic collapses and revivals in the exchange of atoms between different spin states. ©1999 The American Physical Society.
- Goldstein, E. V., Moore, M. G., Zobay, O., & Meystre, P. (1999). Characterization and manipulation of matter-wave coherence. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 3572, 483-493.More infoAbstract: The optical coherence theory in the case of atomic Schrodinger waves, that requires the introduction of several classes of coherence, is presented. Optical methods to manipulate the coherence of matter-wave fields are discussed.
- Lee, E. S., Geckeler, C., Heurich, J., Gupta, A., Cheong, K., Secrest, S., & Meystre, P. (1999). Dark states of dressed Bose-Einstein condensates. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 60(5), 4006-4011.More infoAbstract: We combine the ideas of dressed Bose-Einstein condensates, where an intracavity optical field allows one to design coupled, multicomponent condensates, and of dark states of quantum systems, to generate a full quantum entanglement between two matter waves and two optical waves. While the matter waves are macroscopically populated, the two optical modes share a single photon. As such, this system offers a way to influence the behavior of a macroscopic quantum system via a microscopic "knob,".
- Meystre, P. (1999). Quantum mechanics: Putting an electron to rest. Nature, 401(6756), 869-870.
- Moore, M. G., & Meystre, P. (1999). Optical control and entanglement of atomic Schrödinger fields. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 59(3), R1754-R1757.More infoAbstract: We develop a fully quantized model of a Bose-Einstein condensate driven by a far off-resonant pump laser and interacting with a single mode of an optical ring cavity. This geometry leads to the generation of two condensate side modes that grow exponentially and are strongly entangled with the cavity mode. By changing the initial state of the optical field one can vary the quantum-statistical properties of the atomic side modes between thermal and coherent limits, as well as vary the degree of quantum entanglement. © 1999 The American Physical Society.
- Moore, M. G., & Meystre, P. (1999). Theory of Superradiant Scattering of Laser Light from Bose-Einstein Condensates. Physical Review Letters, 83(25), 5202-5205.More infoAbstract: In a recent MIT experiment, a new form of superradiant Rayleigh scattering was observed in Bose-Einstein condensates. We present a detailed theory of this phenomenon in which condensate depletion leads to mode competition, which, together with the directional dependence of the scattering rate, is ultimately responsible for the observed phenomena. The nonlinear response of the system is shown to be highly sensitive to initial quantum fluctuations which cause large run to run variations in the observed superradiant pulses.
- Moore, M. G., Zobay, O., & Meystre, P. (1999). Quantum optics of a Bose-Einstein condensate coupled to a quantized light field. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 60(2), 1491-1506.More infoAbstract: We consider the interaction between a Bose-Einstein condensate and a single-mode quantized light field in the presence of a strong far-off-resonant pump laser. The dynamics is characterized by an exponential instability, hence the system acts as an atom-photon parametric amplifier. Triggered by a small injected probe field, or simply by quantum noise, entangled atom-photon pairs are created which exhibit nonclassical correlations similar to those seen between photons in the optical parametric amplifier. In addition, the quantum statistics of the matter and light field depend strongly on the initial state which triggers the amplifier. Thus, by preparing different initial states of the light field, one can generate matter waves in a variety of quantum states, demonstrating optical control over the quantum statistics of matter waves. ©1999 The American Physical Society.
- Prataviera, G. A., Goldstein, E. V., & Meystre, P. (1999). Mutual coherence of optical and matter waves. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 60(6), 4846-4850.More infoAbstract: We propose a scheme to measure the cross correlations and mutual coherence of optical and matter fields. It relies on the combination of a matter-wave detector operating by photoionization of the atoms and a traditional absorption photodetector. We show that the double-detection signal is sensitive to cross-correlation functions of light and matter waves.
- Yang, G. J., Zobay, O., & Meystre, P. (1999). Two-atom dark states in electromagnetic cavities. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 59(5), 4012-4020.More infoAbstract: The center-of-mass motion of two two-level atoms coupled to a single damped mode of an electromagnetic resonator is investigated. For the case of one atom being initially excited and the cavity mode in the vacuum state, it is shown that the atomic time evolution is dominated by the appearance of dark states. These states, in which the initial excitation is stored in the internal atomic degrees of freedom and the atoms become quantum mechanically entangled, are almost immune against photon loss from the cavity. Various properties of the dark states within and beyond the Raman-Nath approximation of atom optics are worked out. ©1999 The American Physical Society.
- Zobay, O., Goldstein, E. V., & Meystre, P. (1999). Atom holography. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 60(5), 3999-4005.More infoAbstract: We study the conditions under which atomic condensates can be used as holographic recording media and then suggest a scheme which allows us to reconstruct the original object with an atomic reading beam. The recording method relies on the observation that the shape of a condensate in the Thomas-Fermi limit-closely follows the form of the confining potential. Holographic information can thus be stored as density modulations. The reading scheme proceeds in analogy to optical Fresnel sideband holography with an atomic beam replacing the reading laser.
- Zobay, O., Pötting, S., Meystre, P., & Wright, E. M. (1999). Creation of gap solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 59(1), 643-648.More infoAbstract: We discuss a method to launch gap solitonlike structures in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates confined in optical traps. Bright vector solitons consisting of a superposition of two hyperfine Zeeman sublevels can be created for both attractive and repulsive interactions between the atoms. Their formation relies on the dynamics of the atomic internal ground states in two far-off-resonance counterpropagating (σ+-σ-)-polarized laser beams that form the optical trap. Numerical simulations show that these solitons can be prepared from a one-component state provided with an initial velocity. © 1999 The American Physical Society.
- Goldstein, E. V., & Meystre, P. (1998). Atomic detection and matter-wave coherence. Physical Review Letters, 80(23), 5036-5039.More infoAbstract: We analyze several models of atomic detectors in the context of the measurement of coherence properties of matter waves. In particular, we show that an ionization scheme measures normally ordered correlation functions of the Schrödinger field, in analogy with the optical situation. However, it exhibits a sensitivity to exchange processes that is normally absent in optics.
- Goldstein, E. V., Wright, E. M., & Meystre, P. (1998). Detection of condensate vortex states. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 58(1), 576-579.More infoAbstract: We discuss a detection scheme that reveals the existence of vortex states in a cylindrically symmetric condensate trap. It relies on the measurement of the second-order correlation function of the Schrödinger field and yields directly the topological charge of the vortex state, as well as direct evidence of the existence of persistent currents.
- Goldstein, E. V., Wright, E. M., & Meystre, P. (1998). Dressed Bose-Einstein condensates in high-Q cavities. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 57(2), 1223-1229.More infoAbstract: We propose and analyze a way in which effective multicomponent condensates can be created inside high-Q multimode cavities. In contrast to the situation involving several atomic species or levels, the coupling between the various components of the dressed condensates is linear. We predict analytically and confirm numerically the onset of instabilities in the quasiparticle excitation spectrum.
- Goldstein, E. V., Zobay, O., & Meystre, P. (1998). Coherence of atomic matter-wave fields. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 58(3), 2373-2384.More infoAbstract: In analogy to Glauber's analysis of optical coherence, we adopt an operational approach to introduce different classes of atomic coherence associated with different types of measurements. For the sake of concreteness we consider specifically fluorescence, nonresonant imaging, and ionization. We introduce definitions of coherence appropriate to them, which we call electronic, density, and field coherence, respectively. We illustrate these concepts in various descriptions of Bose-Einstein condensation, showing that each of these descriptions makes different implicit assumptions on the coherence of the system. We also study the impact of elastic collision on the field and density coherence properties of atom lasers.
- Guzmán, A., & Meystre, P. (1998). Dynamical effects of the dipole-dipole interaction in three-dimensional optical lattices. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 57(2), 1139-1148.More infoAbstract: We present a many-body theory of the dipole-dipole interaction in three-dimensional optical lattices generated by a four-beam configuration, specializing to the case of Jg=1/2→Je=3/2 transitions. We construct a many-body interaction Hamiltonian in coordinate representation for an antiferromagnetic fee optical lattice, the Schrödinger field operators being expanded on a basis of Wannier functions. We discuss the main characteristics of the dipole-dipole matrix elements giving rise to bound-bound and bound-free atom interactions in the lattice. Because of the anisotropy of the dipole-dipole interaction, specific directions can be favored for transport and scattering processes. Furthermore, since the dipole-dipole interaction depends on atomic magnetic quantum numbers, the dipole-dipole potential resembles a spin-dependent potential, and can give rise to atomic hopping with simultaneous change in the magnetic quantum number.
- Moore, M. G., & Meystre, P. (1998). Effects of atomic diffraction on the collective atomic recoil laser. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 58(4), 3248-3258.More infoAbstract: We formulate a wave-atom-optics theory of the collective atomic recoil laser (CARL) where the atomic center-of-mass motion is treated quantum mechanically. By comparing the predictions of this theory with those of the ray-atom-optics theory, which treats the center-of-mass atomic motion classically, we show that for the case of a far off-resonant pump laser the ray-optics model fails to predict the linear response of the CARL when the temperature is of the order of the recoil temperature or less. This is due to the fact that in this temperature regime one can no longer ignore the effects of matter-wave diffraction on the atomic center-of-mass motion.
- Zobay, O., & Meystre, P. (1998). Phase dynamics in a binary-collision atom-laser scheme. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 57(6), 4710-4719.More infoAbstract: Various aspects of the phase dynamics of an atom-laser scheme based on binary collisions are investigated. Analytical estimates of the influence of elastic atom-atom collisions on the laser linewidth are given, and linewidths achievable in a recently proposed atom-laser scheme [M. G. Moore and P. Meystre, Phys. Rev. A 56, 2989 (1997)] are evaluated explicitly. The extent to which a relative phase can be established between two interfering atom lasers as well as the properties of this phase are also investigated.
- Goldstein, E. V., & Meystre, P. (1997). Dipole-dipole interaction in optical cavities. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 56(6), 5135-5146.More infoAbstract: At the most fundamental level of quantum electrodynamics, there is no such thing as two-body interactions between atoms. The potentials that describe these interactions are effective potentials resulting from a series of approximations whose validity depends on the precise situation at hand. Considering a one-dimensional geometry for simplicity, we discuss under which conditions the familiar form of the near-resonant dipole-dipole interaction is valid, paying particular attention to the effects of interatomic propagation of light, and to what extent it can be modified in the tailored electromagnetic environments provided by optical resonators. We find that once the atoms have established that they are inside a resonator, the dipole-dipole potential may or may not remain a useful concept, depending upon the strength of the atom-field interaction. In the weak-coupling regime, one finds a two-body dipole-dipole interaction that can be enhanced or inhibited by varying the atom-field detuning. In the strong-coupling regime, by contrast, the two-body dipole-dipole potential ceases to be meaningful.
- Goldstein, E. V., & Meystre, P. (1997). Quasiparticle instabilities in multicomponent atomic condensates. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 55(4), 2935-2940.More infoAbstract: We extend the Hartree-Bogoliubov theory to the case of a multicomponent Bose condensate and determine the resulting quasiparticle frequency spectrum. We show that interferences resulting from cross coupling between the condensate components can lead to a reversal of the sign of the effective two-body interaction and to the onset of spatial instabilities.
- Goldstein, E. V., Pax, P., & Meystre, P. (1997). Collapse of atomic motion in a quantized cavity mode. Optics Communications, 142(4-6), 234-238.More infoAbstract: The state of a quantized single-mode cavity field strongly influences the motion of atomic wave packets trapped into the optical potential that it provides, to the point where the atomic motion can be effectively "frozen" for long periods of time. This effect, which should not be confused with cooling, is reminiscent of the collapse and revivals phenomena familiar from the Jaynes-Cummings model. © 1997 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.
- Greenwood, W., Pax, P., & Meystre, P. (1997). Atomic transport on one-dimensional optical lattices. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 56(3), 2109-2122.More infoAbstract: We carry out quantum and semiclassical numerical simulations of the dynamics, particularly diffusion, of atoms in an optical lattice. We consider specifically the situation of a J= 1/2↔J = 3/2 atomic transition, whose experimental counterpart can be realized in Mg+ experiments. The semiclassical results, which cover a larger range of parameters than would be practical for fully quantum calculations, confirm and extend the work of Marksteiner et al. [Phys. Rev. A 53, 3409 (1996)], characterize the transition from normal to anomalous diffusion and the atomic trajectories which give rise to it, and provide a physical explanation for the difference between these two regimes. The full quantum calculations reveal uniquely quantum features of individual atomic trajectories,and in addition, predict significantly lower diffusion, by a factor of 1.2 to 2, than their semiclassical counterparts.
- Moore, M. G., & Meystre, P. (1997). Dipole-dipole selection rules for an atom laser cavity. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 56(4), 2989-2995.More infoAbstract: The effects of a recently proposed quasi-one-dimensional atom cavity on dipole-dipole collisions in a trapped atomic sample are investigated. It is shown that the cavity geometry leads to a high degree of selectivity in the allowed exchange of momentum during transitions between cavity modes. Furthermore, by a temporal modulation of the trap potential at the frequency corresponding to the energy defect of the momentum-selected transition, energy selectivity can also be achieved. Hence, in a properly designed atom laser cavity, the combined effects of energy and momentum selection rules give rise to a mode selectivity which is analogous to the mode selectivity in an optical laser.
- Moore, M. G., & Meystre, P. (1997). Monte Carlo investigation of an atom laser with a modulated quasi-one-dimensional cavity. Journal of Modern Optics, 44(10), 1815-1825.More infoAbstract: The dynamics of a recently proposed atom laser scheme based on a modulated quasi-one-dimensional atom cavity are investigated. A three-mode model is developed which includes the effects of dipole-dipole collisions as well as pump and loss mechanisms. It is shown that the Monte Carlo wavefunction simulation technique is superior to a direct solution of the resulting master equation because of the existence of constants of motion which are present in the Monte Carlo wavefunctions but not in the full density operator. Under suitable parameter choices, the solution to the master equation leads to Poissonian atom statistics in the occupation of a single-atomic-cavity mode, analogous to the photon statistics of the optical laser. A threshold behaviour is predicted as the losses are varied relative to the gain for the laser mode.
- Gießen, H., Berger, J. D., Mohs, G., Meystre, P., & Yelin, S. F. (1996). Cavity-modified spontaneous emission: From Rabi oscillations to exponential decay. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 53(4), 2816-2821.More infoAbstract: We revisit the problem of spontaneous emission by a two-level system in a cavity, concentrating in particular on those aspects associated with the finite propagation time of light between the atom and the cavity boundaries. We find that spontaneous emission always occurs first at the free space rate and there is then an abrupt change in these dynamics when light reflected by the cavity mirrors returns to the atom, leading to interference effects that result either in an enhancement or a reduction of this rate or in a periodic exchange of excitation between the atom and the cavity field. From this point of view, reversible spontaneous emission in terms of single-mode "vacuum Rabi oscillations" can be interpreted as resulting from the interference between the multimode partial waves reflected at the cavity mirrors and the instantaneously radiated light.
- Goldstein, E. V., & Meystre, P. (1996). Dipole-dipole interaction in squeezed vacua. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 53(5), 3573-3581.More infoAbstract: We study the near-resonant dipole-dipole interaction between two atoms in a broadband squeezed vacuum. We show that this "vacuum" modifies the rate of spontaneous emission of the atoms so that it may depend not merely on their relative position, as is normally the case, but also on their center-of-mass position. The explicit form of this latter dependence is a function of the way squeezing is achieved. We also show that in contrast to the spontaneous decay rate, squeezed vacua do not modify the dipole-dipole potential between the atoms as compared to its usual form. Finally, we develop a Monte Carlo wave-function description of the interaction between atoms with an arbitrary internal structure and a squeezed vacuum and apply this formalism to the case of off-resonant excitation of the atoms. We find that in addition to the usual light shift, the squeezed vacuum results in an additional contribution to the effective potential governing the evolution of the atomic ground states.
- Goldstein, E. V., Pax, P., & Meystre, P. (1996). Dipole-dipole interaction in three-dimensional optical lattices. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 53(4), 2604-2615.More infoAbstract: We compute the near-resonant dipole-dipole interaction between atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice. After a general derivation, we concentrate specifically on the case of a J=1/2→J=3/2 off-resonant transition, in which case the excited electronic states can be adiabatically eliminated. We present in detail the spatial dependence of the resulting effective dipole-dipole potential, and discuss the physical origin of its anisotropy. In addition to impacting the center-of-mass motion of the atoms, the effective dipole-dipole potential can induce electronic transitions within one or both atoms. The symmetries of the matrix elements corresponding to these various mechanisms are also commented upon.
- Goldstein, E. V., Plattner, K., & Meystre, P. (1996). Monte Carlo wave functions for nonlinear master equations. Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS) - Technical Digest Series, 9, 145-.More infoAbstract: A generic situation leading to a nonlinear Schrodinger equation description involves the effective single-particle dynamics of a many-particle system coupled by a two-body interaction, and with the many-body wave function truncated via a Hartree-Fock Ansatz. However, if this system is in addition coupled to one, or possibly several reservoirs, such a description is no longer appropriate, and must be superseded by a master equation. It is shown here that a general class of such nonlinear master equations is amenable to Monte Carlo wave function simulations, similarly to the linear case. Their equivalence can be proven if the nonlinear master equation results from a Hartree-Fock factorization scheme and if, in addition, the nonlinear Liouvillian Lnl does not include a 'fill-up' term, all such terms being included in Lr only.
- Goldstein, E. V., Plättner, K., & Meystre, P. (1996). Atomic phase conjugation from a Bose condensate. Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, 101(4), 583-592.More infoAbstract: We discuss the possibility of observing atomic phase conjugation from Bose condensates, and using it as a diagnostic tool to access the spatial coherence properties and to measure the lifetime of the condensate. We argue that since phase conjugation results from the scattering of a partial matter wave off the spatial grating produced by two other waves, it offers a natural way to directly measure such properties, and as such provides an attractive alternative to the optical methods proposed in the past.
- Guzman, A. M., Moore, M., & Meystre, P. (1996). Coherent atomic beam generator. Conference on Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS) - Technical Digest Series, 9, 1pp.More infoAbstract: The availability of ultracold atoms, as well as the recent demonstration of Bose condensation for trapped alkali, have lead to renewed efforts to produce a coherent atomic beam generator, or 'atom laser.' This paper discusses such a scheme based on a driven-damped sample of ultracold atoms in an extended, quasi-one-dimensional cavity. An important aspect of this scheme is that the atoms are subjected to the near-resonant dipole-dipole interaction, whose collisional cross section can be tuned over several orders of magnitude by varying the atom-field detuning and the precise geometry of the cavity. In addition, for transversally well confined atoms the dipole-dipole selection rules lead to a major simplification in that only two quantized levels of atomic motion need be considered explicitly, the other levels being inadequately treated as two thermal reservoirs.
- Guzmán, A., Moore, M., & Meystre, P. (1996). Theory of a coherent atomic-beam generator. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 53(2), 977-984.More infoAbstract: We present a many-body theory of a driven and damped trapped gas of interacting bosons, and demonstrate that one of the trap levels can become coherently populated, thereby leading to a coherent atomic-beam generator, or "laser for atoms." The specific system we consider consists of a sample of bosonic atoms interacting via the near-resonant dipole-dipole interaction. The transverse center-of-mass motion of the atoms is confined by a two-dimensional potential well created by an array of cooling laser beams, while their longitudinal motion is quantized by a Fabry-Pérot for atoms. Under appropriate conditions, the dipole-dipole selection rules lead to the simplification that only two quantized levels of atomic motion need to be considered explicitly, the other levels being treated as reservoirs. One of the two levels is the "pump level," while the other is the one where atomic coherence builds up (the "lasing" level). The master equation describing the dynamics of these levels can be solved numerically, and its solution exhibits a "threshold behavior" with a transition from super-Poissonian to Poissonian atom statistics in the "lasing mode.".
- Berger, J. D., Gießen, H., Meystre, P., Nelson, T., Haycock, D., & Hamann, S. (1995). Effects of dissipation on nonlocal microwave fields. Physical Review A, 51(3), 2482-2490.More infoAbstract: We apply Monte Carlo wave-function-simulation methods to study the effects of dissipation on a recently proposed technique to generate entangled states of relevance for quantum teleportation. We find that a high degree of quantum entanglement can be preserved for damping rates achievable with presently available cavities. We further determine the effects of dissipation in an atom tagging scheme relevant for quantum complementarity experiments. © 1995 The American Physical Society.
- Goldstein, E., Pax, P., Schernthanner, K. J., Taylor, B., & Meystre, P. (1995). Influence of the dipole-dipole interaction on velocity-selective coherent population trapping. Applied Physics B Laser and Optics, 60(2-3), 161-167.More infoAbstract: We analyze the influence of the dipole-dipole interaction between ground and excited state atoms on atomic cooling by velocity-selective coherent population trapping. We consider two three-level atoms in the λ-configuration, interacting with two counterpropagating laser fields as well as with the electromagnetic vacuum modes. The elimination of these modes in the Born-Markov approximation results in spontaneous decay, which is essential in providing the momentum diffusion necessary for cooling, as well as a two-body dipole-dipole interaction between ground-and excited-state atoms. The corresponding two-body master equation is solved numerically by Monte-Carlo wave-function simulations. Our main result is that although a dark state survives the inclusion of dipole-dipole interactions, the presence of this interaction can significantly slow down the cooling process for sufficiently high atomic densities. © 1995 Springer-Verlag.
- Goldstein, E., Plattner, K., & Meystre, P. (1995). Atomic phase conjugation. Quantum and Semiclassical Optics: Journal of the European Optical Society Part B, 7(4), 743-749.More infoAbstract: We discuss the potential of nonlinear atomic optics to achieve phase conjugation of atomic de Broglie waves. We discuss specifically two examples which help illustrate the analogies and differences between the cases of conventional optics and of atomic optics. In the first case, the upper electronic level of the atoms is adiabatically eliminated, leading to a scalar theory formally identical to conventional four-wave mixing. In the second case, both electronic levels are kept, leading to a vector field for which the 'coupled-mode equations' of phase conjugation involve the coupling between the wavefunctions of the two electronic levels.
- Pax, P., Lenz, G., & Meystre, P. (1995). Dipole-dipole interaction in the near-resonant Kapitza-Dirac effect. Physical Review A, 51(5), 3972-3981.More infoAbstract: We study the near-resonant Kapitza-Dirac diffraction of two atoms interacting via the dipole-dipole interaction within the framework of an effective one-dimensional model. We concentrate mostly on the Stern-Gerlach regime of diffraction, where the atomic wave functions are sufficiently well localized that a good physical understanding of the system dynamics in terms of local potentials can be achieved. In general, the dipole-dipole interaction can lead to substantial modifications of the Stern-Gerlach diffraction pattern. We find in particular that under appropriate conditions, bound states of the atomic system can be established, with the two atoms separated by a distance of the order of hundreds of nanometers. However, spontaneous emission eventually destroys the binding between these states via a heating mechanism somewhat similar to strong-field Sysiphus heating. In this respect, the behavior of the ''diatom'' bound state under the influence of spontaneous emission is similar to that of the atomic solitons predicted to occur in near-resonant Kapitza-Dirac diffraction in the framework of nonlinear atom optics. © 1995 The American Physical Society.
- Schernthanner, K. J., Lenz, G., & Meystre, P. (1995). Many-body effects in near-resonant Kapitza-Dirac diffraction: The nonlinear Pendellosung. Physical Review A, 51(4), 3121-3127.More infoAbstract: We investigate the modifications of the Pendello$iuml-sung of near-resonant Kapitza-Dirac diffraction due to many-body effects. For the case of ''two-beam'' doppleron (velocity-tuned) resonances, we find that in the absence of dissipation, the population oscillations between diffraction orders, which are complete in the linear case, can either be decreased in frequency, or become partial, or even be completely suppressed, in which case the system evolves to a quasistationary state where the atoms are in a coherent superposition of their upper and lower excited states. The influence of spontaneous emission on these predictions is then studied by numerically solving the effective single-atom Hartree-Fock master equation of nonlinear atom optics. We find that spontaneous emission is not detrimental in weakly allowed transitions, in which case the predicted effects survive for several spontaneous lifetimes. © 1995 The American Physical Society.
- Zhang, W., Meystre, P., & Wright, E. M. (1995). Self-induced modulation and compression of an ultracold atomic cloud in a nonlinear atomic cavity. Physical Review A, 52(1), 498-503.More infoAbstract: We consider a sample of ultracold atoms inside an atomic cavity and driven by a laser field. We show that this field acts effectively as a nonlinear ''light crystal'' for the intracavity atomic wave, which in turn can cause self-modulation and compression of ultracold atomic wave packets. The analogy to the conventional compression technique of optical pulses in a nonlinear optical cavity is discussed. © 1995 The American Physical Society.
- Jin, R., Boggavarapu, D., III, M. S., Meystre, P., Gibbs, H. M., & Khitrova, G. (1994). Photon-number correlations near the threshold of microcavity lasers in the weak-coupling regime. Physical Review A, 49(5), 4038-4042.More infoAbstract: The quantum-noise properties near the threshold of microcavity lasers are studied theoretically and experimentally in the weak-coupling regime. Computations based on two-level quantum theory show that the microlasers exhibit a high degree of second-order coherence compared with conventional lasers as a result of the suppression of spontaneous emission into nonlasing modes, and that there always exists a finite threshold for these lasers defined by the peak of the photon-number correlation function corresponding to the spontaneous-to-stimulated transition. © 1994 The American Physical Society.
- Lenz, G., Meystre, P., & Wright, E. M. (1994). Nonlinear atom optics: general formalism and atomic solitons. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 50(2 pt B), 1681-1691.More infoAbstract: A formal development of the theory of nonlinear atom optics was presented. Commencing from an ensemble of N atoms interacting with the vacuum electromagnetic field as well as an arbitrary number of classical laser fields required, a Fock state master equation by adiabatically eliminating the vacuum modes was derived. A valid single-atom master equation was then achieved by constructing a Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy and presenting a Hartree-Fock ansatz. It was also shown how nonlinear atom optics led to the prediction of atomic solitons, provided only the coherent part of the dynamics was maintained. It was stressed that the Hartree-Fock approximation was not lacking in difficulties and shortcomings. For the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approximation, only the built-in conversation of norm and Hermiticity were observed. The ansatz must be generalized to a full Fock-space density operator that is not diagonal and pure in number space. Due to the intrinsic nonlinear property, it did not seem that the valid master equation was amenable to numerical solutions by Monte Carlo wave function simulations.
- Schernthanner, K. J., Lenz, G., & Meystre, P. (1994). Influence of spontaneous emission on atomic solitons. Physical Review A, 50(5), 4170-4175.More infoAbstract: We numerically solve an effective single-atom Hartree-Fock master equation in order to investigate the effects of spontaneous emission on atomic Thirring solitons and atomic gap solitons. We show that spontaneous emission detrimentally effects the existence of Thirring solitons, as expected from the fact that they only occur on resonance. In contrast, gap solitons, which can also exist off resonance, survive in the presence of spontaneous emission in weakly allowed transitions, albeit at high atomic densities. This result is illustrated in the case of the [2 1S02 3P1]- intercombination line of magnesium. © 1994 The American Physical Society.
- Taylor, B., Schernthanner, K. J., Lenz, G., & Meystre, P. (1994). The van Cittert-Zernike theorem in atom optics. Optics Communications, 110(5-6), 569-575.More infoAbstract: The van Cittert-Zernike theorem of classical optics is generalized to the situation of matter-wave optics. Applying a Green's function method the first- and second-order correlation functions of the matter field emitted from an incoherent source are calculated, and the results are compared to the case of electromagnetic waves. © 1994.
- Zaugg, T., Meystre, P., Lenz, G., & Wilkens, M. (1994). Theory of adiabatic cooling in cavities. Physical Review A, 49(4), 3011-3021.More infoAbstract: We analyze how a decaying cavity field can lead to significant atomic cooling. This cooling can be intuitively understood by invoking the adiabatic theorem to characterize the dynamics of an atom dressed by a classical field. We find numerically that cooling can proceed well into the quantum regime where there are only a few photons left in the cavity, and where the adiabatic theorem ceases to be applicable. A physical interpretation of this final cooling stage is given. © 1994 The American Physical Society.
- Lenz, G., & Meystre, P. (1993). Resonance fluorescence from two identical atoms in a standing-wave field. Physical Review A, 48(4), 3365-3374.More infoAbstract: We investigate the resonance fluorescence spectrum from two identical atoms driven by a strong standing-wave field. We find interesting modifications of the Mollow spectrum, caused by interferences between the two atoms, and in particular a succession of ''dark'' and ''bright'' states as one of the atoms is moved to successive nodes of the field. Large enough separation between the atoms leads to their decorrelation and the disappearance of these interferences, the atoms acting then as independent radiators. From a technical viewpoint, we also illustrate how the use of superoperators in Liouville space keeps the discussion transparent and provides a convenient tool for numerical calculations. © 1993 The American Physical Society.
- Lenz, G., Meystre, P., & Wright, E. M. (1993). Nonlinear atom optics. Physical Review Letters, 71(20), 3271-3274.More infoAbstract: We study an ensemble of N bosonic atoms coupled by dipole-dipole interaction and also interacting with an electromagnetic field. Effective single-atom nonlinear Schrödinger equations are derived. The implications of these equations are discussed in the context of some standard atom optics geometries, illustrating in particular how many-body effects modify the Pendellösung of Bragg scattering. In another regime, the problem is reduced to a classical massive Thirring model, with the possibility of generating atomic Thirring solitons.
- Lenz, G., Pax, P., & Meystre, P. (1993). Exchange force in the near-resonant Kapitza-Dirac effect. Physical Review A, 48(2), 1707-1710.More infoAbstract: We study the influence of the quantum statistics of the incident atoms in the Raman-Nath regime of atomic diffraction by an optical standing wave. The diffraction pattern of fermions shows a clear signature of the exchange force between particles. © 1993 The American Physical Society.
- Wilkens, M., Goldstein, E., Taylor, B., & Meystre, P. (1993). Fabry-Pérot interferometer for atoms. Physical Review A, 47(3), 2366-2369.More infoAbstract: We investigate the prospects of a Fabry-Pérot interferometer for atomic matter waves. © 1993 The American Physical Society.
- Zaugg, T., Wilkens, M., & Meystre, P. (1993). Back-action in the measurement of "macroscopic quantum superpositions" in microwave cavities. Foundations of Physics, 23(6), 857-871.More infoAbstract: We analyze the back-action of nonlinear atomic homodyning measurements on steady-state "macroscopic superpositions" that can be generated in high-Q microwave cavities. We show that a full characterization of the state requires measurements such that the macroscopic superposition is irreversibly destroyed, that is, it cannot be reconstructed by using the scheme that was used to generate it in the first place. © 1993 Plenum Publishing Corporation.
- Zaugg, T., Wilkens, M., Meystre, P., & Lenz, G. (1993). Adiabatic atomic cooling in microwave cavities. Optics Communications, 97(3-4), 189-193.More infoAbstract: We propose a novel adiabatic cooling scheme particularly adapted to microwave cavity QED situations where it is desirable to avoid the normal damping mechanism, spontaneous emission. It exploits the inevitable cavity losses, and the concomittant decrease in the gradient force, to irreversibly dispose of the atomic center of mass energy. © 1993.
- Hong, F. u., Mansuripur, M., & Meystre, P. (1992). Fu, Mansuripur, and Meystre reply. Physical Review Letters, 68(9), 1441-.More infoAbstract: It is pointed out that the surface dipolar contributions to perpendicular anisotropy in ferrimagnetic films are qualitively different from those for ferromagnetic films. (AIP) © 1992 The American Physical Society.
- Meystre, P. (1992). Theoretical developments in cavity quantum optics: A brief review. Physics Report, 219(3-6), 243-262.More infoAbstract: We review some recent developments in theoretical cavity quantum optics, with special attention to the microwave regime and to aspects related to quantum measurement theory.
- Meystre, P. (1992). V Cavity Quantum Optics and the Quantum Measurement Process. Progress in Optics, 30(C), 261-355.
- Meystre, P. (1992). Velocity-dependent spontaneous emission: The strong coupling regime. Optics Communications, 90(1-3), 41-45.More infoAbstract: We analyze the strong coupling limit of spontaneous emission by an atom moving along the axis of a Fabry-Pérot cavity. The combined effects of the spatial cavity mode structure and of the Doppler shift lead in general to a damped oscillatory behaviour characterized by a large number of Doppler-shifted spectral sidebands. © 1992.
- Mlynek, J., Balykin, V., & Meystre, P. (1992). Optics and interferometry with atoms. Applied Physics B Photophysics and Laser Chemistry, 54(5), 319-320.
- Schumacher, E., Wilkens, M., Meystre, P., & Glasgow, S. (1992). Spontaneous emission in the near-resonant kapitza-dirac effect. Applied Physics B Photophysics and Laser Chemistry, 54(5), 451-466.More infoAbstract: We study the influence of spontaneous emission on atom diffraction by a standing wave laser field. We characterize, analytically, the major regimes of the near-resonant Kapitza-Dirac effect and study, numerically, the influence of spontaneous emission. In particular, we discuss in some detail two important classes of two-beam resonances which are major candidates to develop effective atom beam splitters, the so-called Bragg and Doppleron resonances. © 1992 Springer-Verlag.
- Wilkens, M., & Meystre, P. (1992). Spectrum of spontaneous emission in a Fabry-Pérot cavity: the effects of atomic motion. Optics Communications, 94(1-3), 66-70.More infoAbstract: We discuss the spectrum of spontaneous emission of an atom strongly coupled to a single cavity mode, taking into account the effects of atomic motion. © 1992.
- Wilkens, M., Bialynicka-Birula, Z., & Meystre, P. (1992). Spontaneous emission in a Fabry-Pérot cavity: The effects of atomic motion. Physical Review A, 45(1), 477-482.More infoAbstract: We show that the spontaneous emission of a moving atom inside a cavity is modified by two different mechanisms. The first one is a Doppler-induced detuning of the cavity line that leads to observable changes in the spontaneous emission rate for atomic velocities in excess of a characteristic velocity vcav=c/Q, Q being the quality factor of the cavity. In addition, spatial mode effects can lead to a temporal modulation of the exponential decay rate. This modulation is observable for velocities that do not exceed another characteristic velocity vmod which is typically several orders of magnitude smaller than vcav. © 1992 The American Physical Society.
- Białlynicka-Birula, Z., Meystre, P., Schumacher, E., & Wilkens, M. (1991). Velocity-dependent spontaneous emission. Optics Communications, 85(4), 315-318.More infoAbstract: We show that atoms moving inside cavities experience a velocity-dependent spontaneous emission rate caused by the Doppler shifting of the atomic transition frequency on or off the cavity resonance. This is in contrast to the free space situation, where galilean invariance guarantees that this rate is independent of velocity for atoms in uniform motion. © 1991.
- Chang, R., & Meystre, P. (1991). Instabilities of counterpropagating beams in a nonlinear medium. Physical Review A, 44(5), 3188-3200.More infoAbstract: The dynamical behavior of counterpropagating light beams interacting with a nonlinear medium is studied numerically. When the incident intensities are increased, this system becomes unstable and exhibits oscillations undergoing complex behavior, including quasiperiodic motion and chaos. We analyze the output fields by using Fourier spectra, phase portraits, and autocorrelation functions. In the chaotic regime, the Lyapunov exponents and dimensions are calculated. A physical interpretation of the quasiperiodic motion is also given by an exact calculation of the absorption spectrum of a two-level atom. © 1991 The American Physical Society.
- Fu, H., Mansuripur, M., & Meystre, P. (1991). Generic source of perpendicular anisotropy in amorphous rare earth-transition metal films: Analytical results. Journal of Applied Physics, 70(10), 6314-6316.More infoAbstract: We derive an analytical expression for the intrinsic perpendicular anisotropy density Ku produced by surface magnetic dipolar interactions in amorphous rare earth-transition metal thin films.
- Glasgow, S., Meystre, P., Wilkens, M., & Wright, E. M. (1991). Theory of an atomic beam splitter based on velocity-tuned resonances. Physical Review A, 43(5), 2455-2463.More infoAbstract: We develop the theory of an atomic beam splitter in which a monoenergetic beam of two-level atoms is incident normally to a classical standing-wave light field. The incident atomic wave function can be split into two coherent components with transverse momenta (2n+1)Latin small letter h with strokek using velocity-tuned resonances, where n is the order of the resonance. We discuss the cases of zero- and first-order resonances in detail, and show that the velocity-tuned resonances are renormalized due to a high-frequency Stark shift. Numerical results that display the effects of a finite momentum spread in the incident atomic beam are presented. © 1991 The American Physical Society.
- Hong, F. u., Mansuripur, M., & Meystre, P. (1991). Generic source of perpendicular anisotropy in amorphous rare-earth-transition-metal films. Physical Review Letters, 66(8), 1086-1089.More infoAbstract: We show that the magnetic dipolar energy of antiparallel dipoles in the surface layers contributes to the intrinsic uniaxial perpendicular anisotropy in amorphous rare-earth-transition-metal films. The volume anisotropy energy density Ku of this contribution depends inversely on the thickness of the film. For an amorphous GdCo film with a thickness of 1000 Å the calculated Ku is on the order of 103-104 ergs/cm3 Dependence of Ku on temperature and atomic concentration is also calculated.
- Meystre, P., Slosser, J., & Wilkens, M. (1991). Cotangent states of the electromagnetic field: Squeezing and phase properties. Physical Review A, 43(9), 4959-4964.More infoAbstract: We analyze the phase and squeezing properties of the cotangent states of the electromagnetic field. We calculate the phase distribution, phase variance, and number-phase uncertainty product for these states. Under appropriate conditions, the phase distribution develops oscillations resulting from the formation of states, reminiscent of macroscopic superpositions. In other cases the cotangent states are nearly minimum number-phase uncertainty states, emulating the coherent states. We also study the quadrature squeezing properties of the cotangent states and find that under a wide range of conditions they are highly squeezed. © 1991 The American Physical Society.
- Wilkens, M., & Meystre, P. (1991). Nonlinear atomic homodyne detection: A technique to detect macroscopic superpositions in a micromaser. Physical Review A, 43(7), 3832-3835.More infoAbstract: We propose a measurement scheme to detect the multiphoton coherences inherent in the macroscopic quantum superpositions that can be generated in a superconducting micromaser cavity. The scheme is a nonlinear version of a single-atom homodyne detector. It is shown that the ionization probability of a single test atom is given in terms of the Wigner characteristic function of the field. © 1991 The American Physical Society.
- Wilkens, M., Schumacher, E., & Meystre, P. (1991). Band theory of a common model of atom optics. Physical Review A, 44(5), 3130-3137.More infoAbstract: We develop the band theory of a two-level atom moving in a standing light wave. The energy bands allow for a simple discussion of various scattering resonances that play an important role in atom optics. © 1991 The American Physical Society.
- Wilkens, M., Schumacher, E., & Meystre, P. (1991). Transition from diffraction to diffusion in the near-resonant Kapitza-Dirac effect: a numerical approach. Optics Communications, 86(1), 34-40.More infoAbstract: We present selected results from a numerical analysis of the transition between the diffractive and diffusive regimes of the near- resonant Kapitza-Dirac effect. Our solution explicitly retains the kinetic energy term in the atomic Hamiltonian and is applicable in all parameter regions, from the Raman-Nath to the Bragg regime and from the purely diffractive to the diffusive limit. © 1991.
- Meystre, P., Slosser, J. J., & Wilkens, M. (1990). Cat in a cold niobium box. Optics Communications, 79(5), 300-304.More infoAbstract: At very low temperatures, steady-state macroscopic superpositions can be generated in a micromaser pumped by a stream of polarized two-level atoms. We show that the onset of these superpositions can be interpreted in terms of a first-order phase transition. While conventional bistable systems involved an incoherent mixture of two state localized at the two minima of an effective potential, the present situation is characterized by a coherent superposition of two such states. © 1990.
- Meystre, P., Slosser, J. J., & Wright, E. M. (1990). Steady state macroscopic superpositions in a micromaser. XVII International Conference on Quantum Electronics. Digest of, 184-185.More infoAbstract: The micromaser field master equation has been solved for atoms injected in a coherent superposition of their upper and lower states. The results show that at very low temperatures, steady-state macroscopic superpositions can be generated in a micromaser pumped by two-level atoms injected in a coherent superposition of their upper and lower states. In particular, the steady-state field entropy undergoes a sharp transition as a function of the ratio Nex = R/γ between the atomic injection rate and cavity decay rate. A broad region of generally constant entropy is followed by a region where S decreases approximately as 1/Nex. This is clear evidence that the steady state of the micromaser field approaches a pure state. The impact of this transition on the mean photon number and the normalized variance as a function of Nex is examined. At the transition, the micromaser field changes its character from a near-vacuum state for low Nex to a field with distinctly super-Poissonian photon statistics. This transition is distinct from the conventional laser threshold.
- Slosser, J. J., & Meystre, P. (1990). Tangent and cotangent states of the electromagnetic field. Physical Review A, 41(7), 3867-3874.More infoAbstract: We consider a lossless micromaser in which a monoenergetic, low-density beam of two-level atoms in a coherent superposition of their upper and lower states is injected inside a single-mode high-Q cavity. This is a realization of a harmonic oscillator driven by a quantum current. We find that under appropriate conditions the field may evolve to pure states, which we call tangent and cotangent states, even for mixed-state initial conditions. In various limits, they exhibit nonclassical properties such as sub-Poissonian photon statistics, or even more interestingly acquire the characteristics of macroscopic quantum superpositions. The conditions under which these states are reached, as well as the dynamical approach of the system to steady state are discussed in detail. © 1990 The American Physical Society.
- Watson, M. D., & Meystre, P. (1990). Direct overwrite without initialization in a bilayer magneto-optical disk. Applied Physics Letters, 56(22), 2249-2251.More infoAbstract: We propose and analyze a bilayer direct overwrite scheme that does not require an initialization bias field. This is achieved by using permanent domains in a reference layer to help stabilize bits in a memory layer on writing, and to destabilize the memory layer bits on erasure.
- Watson, M., & Meystre, P. (1990). Direct overwrite on preformated bilayer magneto-optical disk. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 1316, 299-305.More infoAbstract: We have demonstrated that direct overwrite without an initialization field is possible in a bilayer magneto-optical disk. This is however, achieved at the expense of preformatting domains in the reference layer which help in both the write and the erase processes. In addition this scheme may be sensitive to disk velocity, beam tracking, and pulse timing. To address issues such as these, we will treat the general two dimensional case of writing and erasure by removing the radial symmetry in our model.
- Wright, E. M., & Meystre, P. (1990). Theory of an atomic interferometer in the Raman-Nath regime. Optics Communications, 75(5-6), 388-396.More infoAbstract: We give a detailed description of an atomic interferometer in which a gaussian beam of two-level atoms interacts with two separated standing waves. We consider specifically a situation where the atom-field interaction is sufficiently off-resonance that spontaneous emission can be ignored, and the Raman-Nath regime which neglects phase-matching and where multiple scattering orders can occur. © 1990.
- Wright, E. M., Glasgow, S., & Meystre, P. (1990). Raman-Nath and Bragg scattering in atomic deflection. XVII International Conference on Quantum Electronics. Digest of, 214-.More infoAbstract: A combined analytical/numerical study of atomic deflection from a standing-wave light field that incorporates both the Bragg and Raman-Nath scattering regimes as extremes has been conducted. The numerical approach uses a variant of the beam propagation method (BPM). By using the BPM it is possible to stimulate atomic scattering without having to assume the number of scattered beams and, therefore, to investigate the transition between the Raman-Nath and Bragg scattering regimes. The results show that the various scattering regimes can be characterized in terms of a few dimensionless parameters of the system. In addition, the BPM allows the study of a finite velocity spread in the incident atomic and of its potential detrimental effect on the atomic scattering, particularly in an atomic interferometer. Analytical results show a very close correspondence between atomic deflection and acoustooptic deflection. In the general case, atomic deflection is analogous to light scattering from a birefringent grating. If the atomic frequency is significantly detuned from the laser, the analogy is with an isotropic grating.
- Guzman, A. M., Meystre, P., & Wright, E. M. (1989). Semiclassical theory of a micromaser. Physical Review A, 40(5), 2471-2478.More infoAbstract: We present a semiclassical theory of the micromaser by using a consistent multiple-time-scale expansion of its dynamics. The time scale over which the semiclassical approximation is valid is established, and the effects of quantum and thermal fluctuations in the long-time limit are investigated. A thermodynamical analogy is introduced to interpret the steady-state properties of the micromaser, and we show that a simple model allowing for two-phase coexistence provides the best agreement between the semiclassical and quantum theories. © 1989 The American Physical Society.
- Meystre, P., & Slosser, J. J. (1989). Destruction of quantum coherence in a micromaser by finite detection efficiency. Optics Communications, 70(2), 103-108.More infoAbstract: We discuss the relative effects of selective and nonselective atomic measurements on the "quantum purity" of a single mode field. This is a model for non-unit detection efficiency in a micromaser. We show that the quantum mixing associated with non- selective measurements imposes strong limitations on the detection efficiency that can be tolerated if quantum coherences are to be generated and detected. © 1989.
- Meystre, P., Schumacher, E., & Stenholm, S. (1989). Atomic beam deflection in a quantum field. Optics Communications, 73(6), 443-447.More infoAbstract: We study atomic beam deflection in a quantum standing wave field and show that the deflection is a sensitive function of the field photon statistics. © 1989.
- Savage, C. M., Watson, M., & Meystre, P. (1989). Modeling magneto-optical domain erasure without cylindrical symmetry. Journal of Applied Physics, 66(4), 1789-1792.More infoAbstract: We describe a technique for modeling domain dynamics in the context of thermomagnetic magneto-optical recording. The new feature of our model is that no assumption of cylindrical symmetry is required. We illustrate the potential of our technique by applying it to domain erasure on a moving disk.
- Slosser, J. J., Meystre, P., & Braunstein, S. L. (1989). Harmonic oscillator driven by a quantum current. Physical Review Letters, 63(9), 934-937.More infoAbstract: We show that under certain circumstances a simple quantum harmonic oscillator driven by a quantum current evolves to unique pure states even if started as a mixed state. In various limits, these states exhibit nonclassical properties such as sub-Poissonian statistics, or more interestingly resemble macroscopic superpositions. © 1989 The American Physical Society.
- Meystre, P., & Wright, E. M. (1988). Measurements-induced dynamics of a micromaser. Physical Review A, 37(7), 2524-2529.More infoAbstract: Repeated measurements of the atomic inversion are incorporated in the theory of the micromaser. Two examples of measurements-induced dynamics are presented which display (a) quantum diffusion above a potential barrier and (b) an instability in the form of quantum-mechanical relaxation oscillations. Implications of these results on the study of the quantum-classical interface are briefly discussed. © 1988 The American Physical Society.
- Savage, C. M., Marquis, F., Watson, M., & Meystre, P. (1988). Direct overwrite in magneto-optical recording. Applied Physics Letters, 52(15), 1277-1278.More infoAbstract: We have used a numerical model of thermomagnetic recording to investigate direct overwrite by domain destabilization in magneto-optical thin films. Our model includes a linear dependence of domain wall velocity on the net wall pressure due to the demagnetizing field and the wall energy density. Direct overwrite by domain destabilization can be accomplished in one step, without bias fields or prior reading or erasure.
- Filipowicz, P., Garrison, J. C., Meystre, P., & Wright, E. M. (1987). Noise-induced switching of photonic logic elements. Physical Review A, 35(3), 1172-1180.More infoAbstract: We study the stability of optical bistable elements against holding-field noise by considering the specific case of a purely dispersive Kerr medium. For small devices, i.e., those for which the round-trip time is small compared to the material-response time, we show that operation of an optical switch with a holding-field intensity a few percent away from the switching value will not be subject to problems due to the noise in the holding laser. This is due to the extremely rapid increase of the average time between noise-induced switching events as the distance, in intensity, from the switching point increases. White noise or Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise models are not sufficiently smooth for a correct description of this problem, and so we use a more elaborate colored-noise model to evaluate the diffusion constant in the Fokker-Planck equation for the nonlinear phase shift. The time between switching events is then obtained by solving a first-passage-time problem. © 1987 The American Physical Society.
- Kennedy, T. A., Meystre, P., Savage, C., & Wright, E. M. (1987). CHAOS IN THE MICROMASER.. Array, 86-.More infoAbstract: The semiclassical dynamics of the micromaser are analyzed and it is shown that it exhibits deterministic chaos in a rather general set of circumstances. In general, it exhibits a number of coexisting attractors. In the generic case, each of these follows a period-doubling route to chaos, with a subsequent inverse route back to stability, as one of the order parameters of the system (e. g. , the cavity losses) is varied. The various bifurcations occur at different values of the order parameter for different attractors, and because of the complexity of the return map of the system, other possibilities such as intermittency and crises cannot be ruled out in general. In contrast to the lossless case, which is characterized by an infinite set of marginally stable fixed points corresponding to 2n pi atom-field interactions, the semiclassical lossy micromaser possesses a finite number of fixed points with an alternance of unstable fixed points and of potentially unstable fixed points which can evolve into more complex attractors. As in the lossless case, the map is not invertible, and the determination of the basins of attraction of the various fixed points requires a detailed numerical analysis.
- Marquis, F., & Meystre, P. (1987). OPTICAL BISTABILITY NEAR THE OPTICAL FREEDERICKSZ TRANSITION.. Array, 52, 54.More infoAbstract: Dispersive optical bistability is discussed using a medium whose intrinsic nonlinear behavior exhibits a second-order phase transition. The combined effects of this response and of the first-order-type phase transition imposed by the feedback mechanism, here a Fabry-Perot resonator, lead to novel effects absent from more conventional systems.
- Marquis, F., & Meystre, P. (1987). Optical bistability near the optical Freedericksz transition. Optics Communications, 62(6), 409-412.More infoAbstract: We discuss dispersive optical bistability near the intrinsic second-order-type optical Freedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal. The combined effects of this intrinsic transition and of the first-order-type phase transition imposed by the feedback mechanism, here a Fabry-Perot resonator, leads to novel effects absent from conventional bistable system. © 1987.
- Marquis, F., Meystre, P., Wright, E. M., & Kaplan, A. E. (1987). Dynamics of the optical Freedericksz transition. Physical Review A, 36(2), 875-887.More infoAbstract: We investigate theoretically dynamical aspects of the optical Freedericksz transition in nematic liquid crystals. Specifically, we analyze (1) the existence and stability of a sequence of higher-order longitudinal modes past the Freedericksz transition, (2) effects due to transverse correlations of the molecular orientation, and (3) the effects of thermal noise on the stability of the spatial modes. Higher-order longitudinal modes are studied both in the weak-anisotropy limit, in which case the problem reduces at steady state to a sine-Gordon equation, and in the general case, using a combination of analytical and numerical methods. They can be excited by the influence of internal fluctuations. Transverse correlations are shown to lead to the existence of transverse inhomogeneities (kinks) of the direct-angle distribution that can appear even under plane-wave illumination. © 1987 The American Physical Society.
- Reiner, G., & Meystre, P. (1987). ROUTES TO CHAOS IN A PHASE CONJUGATE RESONATOR WITH FAST MEDIUM RESPONSE TIME.. Array, 134-.More infoAbstract: The dynamics have been investigated of a high-diffraction phase conjugate resonator in which the phase conjugate mirror is a diffusive Kerr-type medium and operates in the Raman-Nath scattering regime. Results derived on the limit of phase conjugate mirrors with fast response time, such as semiconductor materials, are presented. It is found that when the system is described by a delay-difference equation, the phase conjugate resonator becomes unstable and follows either a period-doubling scenario or a Ruelle-Takens-Newhouse route to chaos, depending on the geometrical aperture of the conventional backreflecting mirror and the Fresnel number of the resonator. In contrast, in the case of the delay-differential description the transition to chaos involves two or three incommensurate frequencies without preceding period-doubling bifurcations. This confirms previous results. In the delay-difference description the route to high-dimensional chaos was analyzed by means of the spectrum of the Lyapunov exponents. This route is found completely different from that of the one-dimensional delay-differential equations.
- Filipowicz, P., Javanainen, J., & Meystre, P. (1986). The microscopic maser. Optics Communications, 58(5), 327-330.More infoAbstract: We present the theory of a truly microscopic maser, and show that it exhibits novel features not associated with masers and lasers generally. In particular, it usually does not produce coherent radiation. The coherence of the field in conventional masers and lasers originates from incoherent averages which smear out quantum details of the field-matter interaction. © 1986.
- Filipowicz, P., Javanainen, J., & Meystre, P. (1986). Theory of a microscopic maser. Physical Review A, 34(4), 3077-3087.More infoAbstract: We present the theory of a truly microscopic maser consisting of a single-mode high-Q resonator in which a monoenergetic beam of excited two-level atoms is injected at such a low flux that at most one atom at a time is present inside the cavity. Both a microscopic theory and a heuristic Fokker-Planck approach are presented. We show that the micromaser exhibits a number of novel features that are averaged out in usual masers and lasers. First, the field is in general sub-Poissonian, which reflects the quantization of both the field and its sources. Second, the onset of maser oscillations may be followed by a succession of abrupt transitions in the state of the field. Finally, as the atomic flux through the resonator is increased, the maser threshold acquires characteristics of a continuous phase transition, whereas the subsequent changes in the field distribution become analogous to first-order phase transitions. © 1986 The American Physical Society.
- Filipovicz, P., Meystre, P., Rempe, G., & Walther, H. (1985). Rydberg atoms. A testing ground for quantum electrodynamics. Optica Acta, 32(9-10), 1105-1123.
- Guzman, A., Meystre, P., & Salomaa, R. R. (1985). Time-delayed probe spectroscopy in two-photon pumped systems. Physical Review A, 32(3), 1531-1540.More infoAbstract: We study transients in resonantly coupled three-level systems. Two of the levels are coupled by intense two-photon pumping, and the third one provides a probing level. Adiabatically eliminated levels appear in effective system parameters. Experimentally, this model is applicable, e.g., in resonantly enhanced parametric and harmonic generation in atomic vapors. A distinguishing feature in the system is the appearance of ac Stark shifts in the probe spectra when pumping at the two-photon resonance. The nutation signal is shown to give information on the effective two-photon Rabi frequency and on the decay rate of the dipole-forbidden two-photon coherence. Free-induction decay is strongly dominated by population-induced effects; Raman-like peaks introduced by Stark shifts may show large instantaneous gain. Gaussian pump pulses are investigated to investigate effects arising from the temporal sweeping of the two-photon Rabi flipping and the modulation of the Stark shifts. The results also provide relevant information on the gain dynamics of coherently pumped lasers. © 1985 The American Physical Society.
- O'Brien, D. P., Meystre, P., & Walther, H. (1985). Subnatural Linewidths in Atomic Spectroscopy. Advances in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, 21(C), 1-49.
- Ujihara, K., & Meystre, P. (1985). On the finesse of a phase-conjugate Fabry-Perot resonator using nearly-degenerate four-wave mixing. Optics Communications, 53(1), 48-52.More infoAbstract: We consider a Fabry-Perot cavity in which one of the mirrors is a phase-conjugate mirror (PCM) using near-degenerate four-wave mixing. We show that when taking pump depletion into account, the divergence in finesse of the resonator predicted by linear theories for a resonator round trip gain approaching unity is eliminated. The saturation of the finesse as a function of pump intensity leads to a new kind of bistability in the transmission characteristics of the system. © 1985.
- Wright, E. M., & Meystre, P. (1985). Nonlinear theory of near degenerate four-wave mixing in a Kerr medium in the Raman-Nath approximation. Optics Communications, 53(4), 269-273.More infoAbstract: We present a plane wave analysis of near degenerate four-wave mixing in a Kerr medium within the Raman-Nath approximation. Our theory, which includes pump depletion, yields simple closed form solutions for the nonlinear reflection and transmission coefficients of arbitrary scattering order. The nonlinear filter characteristics of the near degenerate four-wave mixing process are discussed. © 1985.
- Wright, E. M., Meystre, P., Firth, W. J., & Kaplan, A. E. (1985). Theory of the nonlinear Sagnac effect in a fiber-optic gyroscope. Physical Review A, 32(5), 2857-2863.More infoAbstract: The nonlinearly induced nonreciprocity of counterpropagating waves caused by an index grating in a Kerr medium can be used to nonlinearly enhance the Sagnac effect in a ring resonator. A specific discussion of this effect in the case of a fiber-optic rotation sensor is presented. Our theory, which holds for any value of the cavity finesse, includes transverse effects explicitly, but neglects stimulated scattering. Special emphasis is given to pure cavity effects which always occur simultaneously with the nonlinear Sagnac effect. © 1985 The American Physical Society.
- Barut, A. O., & Meystre, P. (1984). A classical model of EPR experiment with quantum mechanical correlations and bell inequalities. Physics Letters A, 105(9), 458-462.More infoAbstract: A simple model of a classical break-up process is given in which the correlation E(a,b) of the components A and B of the spins of the two subsystems along directions a and b gives precisely the quantum mechanical result -cos(a·b). The model is "local", but the normalization procedure of correlation functions in terms of "hidden variables" is different from that used in deriving Bell's inequalities. A discretization procedure of the classical spins is then given which reproduces fully the dichotomous quantum mechanical results both for probabilities and for correlation functions. This procedure illustrates particularly clearly the difference between quantum and classical spins and provides a possible intuitive picture for the notion of the "reduction of the wave function". © 1984.
- Barut, A. O., & Meystre, P. (1984). Rotational invariance, locality, and einstein-podolsky-rosen experiments. Physical Review Letters, 53(10), 1021-.
- Dorsel, A., McCullen, J. D., Meystre, P., Walther, H., & Wright, E. (1984). LIGHT-PRESSURE STABILIZATION OF OPTICAL RESONATORS.. Array, 27-28.
- Eberly, J. H., Yoo, H. -., Meystre, P., Narozhny, N. B., & Sanchez-Mondragon, J. (1984). SPONTANEOUS QUANTUM COLLAPSE AND REVIVAL.. Array, 106-.
- McCullen, J. D., Meystre, P., & Wright, E. M. (1984). MIRROR CONFINEMENT AND CONTROL THROUGH RADIATION PRESSURE.. Optics Letters, 9(6), 193-195.More infoAbstract: The control of the position of a mirror by radiation pressure is analyzed theoretically. Under realistic noise conditions, the position of a light mirror suspended inside a fixed Fabry-Perot interferometer can be stabilized within a few nanometers with incident powers of less than 1 w.
- Wright, E. M., Meystre, P., & Firth, W. J. (1984). Nonlinear theory of self-oscillations in a phase-conjugate resonator. Optics Communications, 51(6), 428-432.More infoAbstract: We present an exact, nonlinear analysis of self-oscillations in a phase-conjugate resonator. Optical bi- and multistability, as well as period doubling to chaos are predicted. © 1984.
- Dobiasch, P., Hohla, K. L., & Meystre, P. (1983). Free-electron lasers and their applications. Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 4(2), 91-119.More infoAbstract: We review the classical theory of the free-electron laser and discuss possible applications in laser fusion, laser-induced chemistry, biochemistry, and solid-state physics. The possibility of using optical wigglers to reach the VUV and soft X-ray regimes is also analysed. © 1983.
- Dobiasch, P., Meystre, P., & Scully, M. O. (1983). OPTICAL WIGGLER FREE-ELECTRON X-RAY LASER IN THE 5 A REGION.. IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, QE-19(12), 1812-1820.More infoAbstract: The scaling of free-electron lasers down to the X-ray regime is analyzed theoretically. The authors show that the combined use of an optical wiggler and an X-ray Bragg reflecting ring resonator provides enough roundtrip gain to bring the system above threshold in the 5 Angstrom region. The proposed system can be built with existing technology.
- Dorsel, A., McCullen, J. D., Meystre, P., Vignes, E., & Walther, H. (1983). Optical bistability and mirror confinement induced by radiation pressure. Physical Review Letters, 51(17), 1550-1553.More infoAbstract: This paper reports the observation of optical bistability due to a radiation-pressure-induced change of the length of a Fabry-Perot resonator. In addition, for higher laser powers, a purely optical mechanism leading to the stabilization of the resonator has been observed. © 1983 The American Physical Society.
- Barut, A., Meystre, P., & Scully, M. (1982). LASER PROBES OF THE MICRO AND MACRO COSMOS.. Laser focus with fiberoptic technology, 18(10), 49-54, 56.More infoAbstract: A discussion is presented of laser physics and the structure of spacetime and, quantum theory and quantum optics.
- Cresser, J. D., Hammonds, D., Louisell, W. H., Meystre, P., & Risken, H. (1982). Quantum noise in ring-laser gyros. II. Numerical results. Physical Review A, 25(4), 2226-2234.More infoAbstract: This is the second of three papers dealing with the effects of quantum noise on the operation of a ring-laser gyro. Exact expressions for the spectrum and the mean beat frequency of the beat signal are obtained in terms of infinite continued fractions. The spectrum is found to be always separable into a "coherent" -function contribution at zero frequency, representing the effects of locking, and an "incoherent" part of nonzero band-width. Computed forms for the spectrum and the frequency response curve are presented for parameter values appropriate to the ring-laser gyro. The results obtained show that for laser rotation rates corresponding to the locked zone in the absence of noise, the tendency for locking as measured by the strength of the coherent contribution continues to dominate, but this effect rapidly becomes negligibly small outside this zone. In addition, the transition in beat frequency between the locked and unlocked zones which is discontinuous in the noise-free case ceases to be well defined in the presence of noise. Finally, the higher harmonics predicted to occur in the unlocked zone in the absence of noise are found to reoccur in the presence of noise except that the individual harmonics are now found to be broadened. © 1982 The American Physical Society.
- Cresser, J. D., Louisell, W. H., Meystre, P., Schleich, W., & Scully, M. O. (1982). Quantum noise in ring-laser gyros. I. Theoretical formulation of problem. Physical Review A, 25(4), 2214-2225.More infoAbstract: This is the first of three papers dealing with the effects of quantum noise on the mean beat frequency and the spectrum of the beat signal produced by a ring-laser gyro. The behavior of a noise-free ring laser is analyzed from a novel point of view, and the characteristic response curve, demonstrating the existence of the well-known locked region, is derived. The noise-free spectrum is calculated in both the locked and unlocked regions, and the existence of higher harmonics in the unlocked region is demonstrated. The general eqution for the phase of the beat signal is then derived from a quantum-noise perspective and the general approach to the problem of calculating the spectrum in the presence of noise is presented from a Fokker-Planck point of view. Approximate analytic expressions for the spectrum are derived in the locked region and well into the unlocked region. In the latter case, the usual laser spectrum is obtained, while in the former case, the spectrum is shown to separate into two parts: a "coherent" part consisting of a function centered at zero frequency which represents the continued effect of locking even in the presence of noise, and a weak background "incoherent" part representing the effects of noise. © 1982 The American Physical Society.
- García, A. d., Meystre, P., & III, M. S. (1982). Probe gain in two-photon pumped three-level system. Optics Communications, 43(5), 364-368.More infoAbstract: Probe gain in two-photon pumped three-level systems is analyzed, and its similarities and differences with usual three-level systems are discussed. We show that here, the Stark splitting originates from nonresonant oscillating population components. It can disappear for certain values of the relevant oscillator strengths. © 1982.
- Kaplan, A. E., & Meystre, P. (1982). Directionally asymmetrical bistability in a symmetrically pumped nonlinear ring interferometer. Optics Communications, 40(3), 229-232.More infoAbstract: We consider a nonlinear ring resonator pumped symmetrically by two beams of equal intensities and opposite directions. We show that this system is characterized by a new directionally asymmetrical regime of multistability. This is due to the non-reciprocity of propagation of the counterpropagating waves in the resonator produced by a nonlinear index grating. © 1982.
- Kaplan, A. E., & Meystre, P. (1982). LARGE ENHANCEMENT OF THE SAGNAC EFFECT IN A NONLINEAR RING RESONATOR AND RELATED EFFECTS.. Springer Series in Optical Sciences, 32, 375-385.
- Last, I., Baer, M., Konopnicki, M. J., Drummond, P. D., Eberly, J. H., Kaplan, A. E., Meystre, P., Bergou, J., Varró, S., Hioe, F. T., Benjamin, J., Levine, R. D., Roosmalen, O. S., Tachello, F., Zmuidzinas, J. S., Walls, D. F., Strini, G., Casagrande, F., Lugiato, L. A., , Milburn, G. J., et al. (1982). Quantum optics - Space-averaged time-dependent equations for a pulsed laser with a finite phase memory decay constant. Applied Physics B Photophysics and Laser Chemistry, 28(2-3), 102-111.
- Lugiato, L. A., Milani, M., & Meystre, P. (1982). Analytical description of anomalous switching in dispersive optical bistability. Optics Communications, 40(4), 307-311.More infoAbstract: We give analytical description of anomalous switching in dispersive optical bistability, and determine approximately its threshold indicent field as a function of the parameters of the system. © 1982.
- Meystre, P., & Zubairy, M. S. (1982). Squeezed states in the Jaynes-Cummings model. Physics Letters A, 89(8), 390-392.More infoAbstract: It is shown that squeezed states of the electromagnetic field are obtained in the Jaynes-Cummings model of an atomic transition coupled to a single mode, quantized electromagnetic field. © 1982.
- Gronchi, M., Benza, V., Lugiato, L. A., Meystre, P., & III, M. S. (1981). Analysis of self-pulsing in absorptive optical bistability. Physical Review A, 24(3), 1419-1435.More infoAbstract: We review and extend the theory of instabilities in absorptive optical bistability for ring cavities containing homogeneously broadened two-level media. The instabilities occur in the high-transmission branch and result in either a precipitation to the low-transmission branch or in pulsed multimode operation. Two numerical approaches are used to predict operation away from the simple mean-field limit. First, an iterative method is used to solve the general field eigenvalue equation for cavity modes with frequencies displaced from the input frequency. This work shows that the instability region decreases in size as the mirror transmission increases. These calculations are confirmed by the second numerical technique, consisting of direct integrations of the coupled Maxwell-Bloch equations. This second approach also provides time histories of the instability evolutions, and divides the instability range into a precipitation regime and a self-pulsing regime. The results are discussed in terms of first- and second-order phase transitions, and agree with the analytical results obtained within the dressed-mode description of optical bistability. They show that when the incident field is adiabatically decreased along the high-transmission branch, the spiking behavior always appears abruptly. By further decreasing the incident intensity, the self-pulsing disappears either continuously if the system remains in the high-transmission branch, or discontinuously if the system precipitates to the low-transmission branch. Connection is made with induced probe gain known in the saturation spectroscopy of absorbers (uninverted media), in which population pulsations transfer energy from a saturating wave to the probe waves. The very close relationship with multimode operation in homogeneously broadened unidirectional ring lasers is also established. © 1981 The American Physical Society.
- Lee, H., Meystre, P., & Scully, M. O. (1981). Theory of time-delayed measurement: Subnatural linewidth and transient dip spectroscopy. Physical Review A, 24(4), 1914-1924.More infoAbstract: Time-delayed measurement of naturally broadened transitions can lead to a narrowing of the linewidth. Moreover, under appropriate conditions, it may result in the appearance of a dip at the line center. An analysis of time-delayed measurement thus provides a theoretical basis for useful optical techniques yielding high spectral resolution. Such an analysis is presented in this work. © 1981 The American Physical Society.
- Louisell, W. H., & Meystre, P. (1981). Erratum: Semiclassical theory of two-photon induced Raman scattering (Physical Review A (1981) 24, 3, (1655)). Physical Review A, 24(3), 1655-.
- Louisell, W. H., & Meystre, P. (1981). Semiclassical theory of two-photon induced Raman scattering. Physical Review A, 23(3), 1015-1025.More infoAbstract: Stimulated two-photon induced Raman scattering (hyper-Raman scattering) in an amplifier consisting of four-level atoms is analyzed semiclassically, via the coupled density matrix and Maxwell equations. We consider conditions typically encountered in the optical regime and in vapors. We show that even in the linear regime, it is characterized by a significant depletion of the atomic ground-state population, thus invalidating perturbative analyses based, for instance, on the nonlinear susceptibility tensor. Two major regimes of operation are found, one in which the population is completely consumed by the interaction ("linear regime"), and one in which the pump laser is depleted ("nonlinear regime"). Both regimes are, however, characterized by small photon conversion efficiencies. The tuning range is also briefly discussed. © 1981 The American Physical Society.
- Weyer, K. G., Wiedenmann, H., Rateike, M., Gillivray, W. M., Meystre, P., & Walther, H. (1981). Observation of absorptive optical bistability in a fabry-perot cavity containing multiple atomic beams. Optics Communications, 37(6), 426-430.More infoAbstract: Using an arrangement of highly collimated sodium atomic beams in a Fabry-Perot cavity absorptive optical bistability has been observed. The response of the optically bistable system was investigated on a time scale of the order of 100 times the characteristic time of the cavity. Even so a non steady state behaviour of the system was observed. Good qualitative agreement with the two-level atom mean field radiation theory has been obtained. © 1981.
- Benza, V., Lugiato, L. A., & Meystre, P. (1980). Analytical description of self-pulsing in absorptive optical bistability. Optics Communications, 33(1), 113-118.More infoAbstract: Using Haken's theory of phase transition-like phenomena in systems far from thermal equilibrium, we give an analytical description of the self-pulsing behavior in absorptive optical bistability. The results are compared with the corresponding computer solutions. We discuss the order (first or second) of the phase transition from CW to pulsed transmission. © 1980.
- Bonifacio, R., Meystre, P., Moore, G. T., & Scully, M. O. (1980). Coherent dynamics of a free-electron laser with arbitrary magnet geometry. II. Conservation laws, small-signal theory, and gain-spread relations. Physical Review A, 21(6), 2009-2019.More infoAbstract: Generalized conservation laws and gain-spread relations in the free-electron laser are derived for variable wiggler configurations. The derivation follows from the general equations of paper I in this series. It is suggested that bandwidth limitations on the optimization of the small-signal gain-to-spread ratio of a storage ring FEL might be overcome by transverse velocity filtering of the electrons. © 1980 The American Physical Society.
- Carmichael, H. J., Drummond, P. D., Walls, D. F., & Meystre, P. (1980). Photon antibunching in resonance fluorescence in the presence of atomic number fluctuations. Optica Acta, 27(5), 581-586.More infoAbstract: An analysis of photon correlation measurements for fluorescent light from a beam of 2-level atoms is given where the number of pulse pairs n(tau) with time separation tau is recorded using a time-to-digital converter. These measurements are shown to correspond precisely to a subsequently normalized second-order correlation function (i.e. the normalization is performed after time averaging).
- Hopf, F. A., & Meystre, P. (1980). Phase-switching of a dispersive non-linear interferometer. Optics Communications, 33(2), 225-230.More infoAbstract: The phase-space relevant to the discussion of the dynamics of a dispersive non-linear interferometer is studied theoretically. The regimes of higher order optical bistability and of optical multistability are also considered. We perform a phase-space analysis to show that phase switching is possible in these regimes. However, it can in general be used only to switch the system down to lower transmission steady-states or in first order bistability. In this last case, the interest of phase switching becomes marginal when high transmission mirrors are considered. © 1980.
- Meystre, P., Scully, M. O., & Walther, H. (1980). Transient line narrowing: A laser spectroscopic technique yielding resolution beyond the natural linewidth. Optics Communications, 33(2), 153-157.More infoAbstract: In problems involving transitions between two decaying states, one encounters lorentzian factors whose width is given by the sum of the decay rates from the two states in question, i.e. by the natural linewidth. In the present paper, we discuss techniques for achieving resolution beyond the natural linewidth, limited by the difference between the decay rates rather than their sum. These techniques provide the possibility of enhanced spectral resolution, as well as giving a direct measurement of the difference between the decay rates. © 1980.
- Bonifacio, R., & Meystre, P. (1979). Critical slowing down in optical bistability. Optics Communications, 29(1), 131-134.More infoAbstract: The role of critical slowing down in optical bistability is discussed, taking fully into account the non-linear effects. In particular, we show that the critical slowing down may lead to interesting novel applications, such as compact optical delay lines and electric field to time converters. © 1979.
- Hopf, F. A., & Meystre, P. (1979). Numerical studies of the switching of a bistable optical memory. Optics Communications, 29(2), 235-238.More infoAbstract: The switching of a bistable optical memory in presence of external noise is discussed. © 1979.
- Hopf, F. A., Meystre, P., Drummond, P. D., & Walls, D. F. (1979). Anomalous switching in dispersive optical bistability. Optics Communications, 31(2), 245-250.More infoAbstract: The response of a dispersive bistable optical device to an instantaneous change in the driving field is studied theoretically. The device is shown to respond in ways that are significantly different from absorptive bistability. Threshold for switching between stable states do not occur at the same values as in the quasi-steady-state. Instead, anomalous thresholds are predicted. It is suggested that this anomalous switching behaviour may place limitations on the possible device applications. It also implies that dispersive bistable devices may be switched merely by an appropriate change of the phase of the driving field. © 1979.
- Meystre, P. (1979). Comment on "space and time-dependent effects in optical bistability", by A. Abraham, R.K. Bullough and S.S. Hassan. Optics Communications, 30(2), 262-.
- Meystre, P., Moore, G. T., Scully, M. O., & Hopf, F. A. (1979). On velocity narrowing in free-electron lasers using electron echo techniques. Optics Communications, 29(1), 87-90.More infoAbstract: A technique analogous to conventional photon echo is proposed to reduce the velocity spread at the output of a free-electron laser. © 1979.
- Bonifacio, R., & Meystre, P. (1978). Transient response in optical bistability. Optics Communications, 27(1), 147-150.
- Carmichael, H. J., Drummond, P., Meystre, P., & Walls, D. F. (1978). Intensity correlations in resonance fluorescence with atomic number fluctuations. Journal of Physics A: General Physics, 11(5), L121-L126.More infoAbstract: The experimental conditions under which the intensity correlation function from a single atom undergoing resonance fluorescence may be observed are studied. As was pointed out by Jakeman et al. (1977), even under optimum conditions the number of fluctuations in the atomic beam prevent a direct observation of photon antibunching under the subsequent normalisation scheme used by Kimble et al. (1977). However, a direct observation of photon antibunching is possible in principle by adopting alternative normalisation schemes of the intensity correlation function.
- Meystre, P. (1978). On the use of the mean-field theory in optical bistability. Optics Communications, 26(2), 277-280.More infoAbstract: The validity of the mean-field approximation in the theory of optical bistability is discussed. We show that major deviations from its predictions may occur if the mirrorreflectivity is decreased below a value which is strongly dependent on the bistability parameter C, and if the absorption αL is larger than a value weakly dependent on C (αL{greater-than or approximate}4). © 1978.
- Abawi, H. A., Hopf, F. A., & Meystre, P. (1977). Electron dynamics in a free-electron laser. Physical Review A, 16(2), 666-671.More infoAbstract: The behavior of the momentum distribution function is discussed theoretically in the small-signal regime of the free-electron laser (FEL). The distribution function is derived analytically following a series of approximations that reduce this problem to the Klein-Gordon equation. The distribution function changes in nontrivial ways that may play an important role in the efficiency of the FEL. © 1977 The American Physical Society.
- Hopf, F. A., Meystre, P., Scully, M. O., & Louisell, W. H. (1977). Erratum: Strong-signal theory of a free-electron laser (Physical Review Letters). Physical Review Letters, 39(23), 1496-.
- Baltes, H. P., Meystre, P., & Quattropani, A. (1976). Relevance of the statistical nature of the radiation to the time evolution of atomic variables. Il Nuovo Cimento B Series 11, 32(2), 303-323.More infoAbstract: We present the genral and rigorous equation of motion for the reduced density matrix (RDM) describing the time evolution of a system A coupled to a system B for any initial statistical state. We derive the corresponding perturbation expansion up to the second order in the interaction and discuss it for a variety of physical initial conditions. We apply the formalism to the interaction of radiation with matter in terms of a single-mode field coupled to a two-level atomic system through electric-dipole interaction. We solve the equations of motion for the dynamical variables describing the atomic system interacting with i) thermal and ii) coherent incident radiation or coupled to iii) a field produced by classical currents. We show that the «effective» semi-classical Hamiltonian can be established in the case ii), whereas the semi-classical approximation (SCA) is meaningless in the case i). We discuss the range of validity of the SCA in terms of the exactly solvable rotating-wave version of the dipole coupling. We report drastic deviations from the SCA results even in the limit of high intensity of the incident coherent field unless the coupling is very weak or the interaction time elapsed is very short. We analyse the relevance of the initial photon statistics by comparing the SCA with the exact RDM. We discuss the validity of the SCA for various spectroscopic techniques. © 1976 Società Italiana di Fisica.
- Baltes, H. P., Quattropani, A., & Meystre, P. (1976). Interaction of radiation with matter. Relevance of the statistical nature of the radiation to the time evolution of material variables. Infrared Physics, 16(1-2), 9-11.More infoAbstract: We present the equation of motion for the reduced density matrix describing the time evolution of coupled systems for any initial statistical state, solve it for the two-level system interacting with (i) thermal and (ii) coherent radiation, and discuss the validity of the semiclassical approximation used in i.r. spectroscopy and laser theory. © 1976.
- Hopf, F. A., Meystre, P., Scully, M. O., & Louisell, W. H. (1976). Classical Theory of a free-electron laser. Physical Review Letters, 37(18), 1215-1218.More infoAbstract: We present a completely classical analysis of the small-signal regime of a free-electron laser. It is explicitly shown that the amplification is due to stimulated scattering produced by a bunching of the electron distribution. © 1976 The American Physical Society.
- Hopf, F. A., Meystre, P., Scully, M. O., & Louisell, W. H. (1976). Classical theory of a free-electron laser. Optics Communications, 18(4), 413-416.More infoAbstract: We present a completely classical analysis of the small-signal regime of a free-electron laser. It is explicitly shown that the amplification is due to stimulated scattering produced by a bunching of the electron distribution. © 1976.
- Hopf, F. A., Meystre, P., Scully, M. O., & Louisell, W. H. (1976). Erratum: Classical theory of a free-electron laser (Physical Review Letters (1976) 37, 20, (1368)). Physical Review Letters, 37(20), 1368-.
- Hopf, F. A., Meystre, P., Scully, M. O., & Louisell, W. H. (1976). Strong-signal theory of a free-electron laser. Physical Review Letters, 37(20), 1342-1345.More infoAbstract: The strong-signal regime of a free-electron laser is analyzed in terms of a set of "generalized Bloch equations." We show that for current free-electron-laser configurations the saturation will be reached for a field on the order of 107 V/m, with an efficiency at saturation of 5×10-3. However, a strong reshaping of the electron distribution may alter the efficiency of free-electron lasers in cases where the electron beam is recycled from one shot to the next. © 1976 The American Physical Society.
- Hopf, F., Meystre, P., & McLaughlin, D. W. (1976). Quantum theory of a swept-gain amplifier. II. Physical Review A, 13(2), 777-783.More infoAbstract: Small-signal-pulse growth in a homogeneously broadened amplifier with swept gain is discussed from a quantum-mechanical and a semiclassical treatment. The regime in which Beer's law fails is discussed analytically. There we find nonexponential growth and the formation of steady states in the small-signal regime. © 1976 The American Physical Society.
- Bonifacio, R., Hopf, F. A., Meystre, P., & Scully, M. O. (1975). Steady-state pulses and superradiance in short-wavelength, swept-gain amplifiers. Physical Review A, 12(6), 2568-2573.More infoAbstract: The steady-state behavior of amplifiers in which the excitation is swept at the speed of light is discussed in the semiclassical approximation. In the present work we examine the case where the decay time of the population is comparable to that of the polarization. Pulse propagation is shown to obey a generalized sine-Gordon equation which contains the effects of atomic relaxations. The analytical expression of the steady-state pulses (SSP) gives two threshold conditions. In the region of limited gain the SSP is a broad pulse with small area which can be obtained by small signal theory. In the second region of high gain the SSP is the superradiant π pulse. Its pulse power is not limited as in usual superradiant theory because, as we show, for a swept excitation the cooperation-length limit does not exist. © 1975 The American Physical Society.
- Hopf, F. A., & Meystre, P. (1975). Quantum theory of a swept-gain laser amplifier. Physical Review A, 12(6), 2534-2548.More infoAbstract: The buildup of radiation from noise is considered in the case of the small-signal regime of a swept-gain amplifier with small Doppler width, of the sort indicated in recent schemes for an x-ray laser. The treatment uses the fully quantized electromagnetic field in order to take into account the spontaneous emission. The pulse is seen to grow nonexponentially with a rate that vanishes in the limit of large distances. The gain is generally much smaller than would be expected on the basis of the usual development. Many of the features normally associated with the small-signal regime of an amplifier, such as threshold conditions and spectral narrowing, are not seen. Instead we find spectral broadening, saturation, and the formation of steady states. © 1975 The American Physical Society.
- Hopf, F. A., Meystre, P., Scully, M. O., & Seely, J. F. (1975). Coherence brightening and laser lethargy in X-ray laser amplifiers. Physical Review Letters, 35(8), 511-513.More infoAbstract: The lethargic response of the lasing medium produced by the combined effects of finite bandwidth and rapid decay of the population inversion leads to a reduction of the linear gain expected in certain x-ray laser amplifiers. However, the effects of coherence brightening are also important, and in the superradiant regime, the laser output approaches that predicted by the usual calculation. © 1975 The American Physical Society.
- Meystre, P., Geneux, E., Quattropani, A., & Faist, A. (1975). Long-time behaviour of a two-level system in interaction with an electromagnetic field. Il Nuovo Cimento B Series 11, 25(2), 521-537.More infoAbstract: We present an exactly solvable model describing the interaction between a two-level system and the electromagnetic field. For long interaction times we evidence some purely quantum-mechanical effects, such as the destruction of coherence of radiation and the Gaussian envelope of the transition probability. © 1975 Società Italiana di Fisica.
- Meystre, P., Quattropani, A., & Baltes, H. (1974). Quantum mechanical approach to rabi flipping. Physics Letters A, 49(1), 85-86.More infoAbstract: A fully quantum mechanical treatment of the Rabi flipping shows that for sufficiently large interaction times, the semi-classical approximation is inadequate even in the case of large field intensities. © 1974.
- Meystre, P., Geneux, E., Faist, A., & Quattropani, A. (1973). Destruction of coherence by scattering of radiation on atoms. Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento Series 2, 6(8), 287-291.
- Faist, A., Geneux, E., & Meystre, P. (1971). Détection optique du couplage alignement-orientation d'états atomiques excités. Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Physik ZAMP, 22(4), 772-773.

#### Presentations

- Meystre, P. (2014, Fall). Atoms, resonators, and the cavity QED paradigm shift. ‘Investigation of Novel Quantum Phenomena with Atoms and Photons,’ Symposium honoring Daniel Kleppner, 2014 Franklin Institute Awards Convocation. Newark, DE.More infoInvited talk, `Investigation of Novel Quantum Phenomena with Atoms and Photons,' Symposium honoring Daniel Kleppner, 2014 Franklin Institute Awards Convocation, Newark, DE (2014)
- Meystre, P. (2014, Fall). Hybrid optomechanical cooling via atomic three-level schemes. Frontiers in Optics Conference. Tucson, AZ: Optical Society.More infoF. Bariani, P. Meystre, S. Singh, L. Buchmann and M. Vengalattore, ``Hybrid optomechanical cooling via atomic three-level schemes"
- Meystre, P. (2014, January). Multimode aspects of quantum optomechanics. 44th Winter Colloquium on the Physics of Quantum Electronics. Snowbird, UT.
- Meystre, P. (2014, Summer). Atom mediated sensing in a hybrid optomechanical system. APS DAMOP Annual Meeting. Madison, WI.More infoS. Chakram, Y. Patil, S. Steinke, F. Bariani, P. Meystre and M. Vengalattore, ``Atom mediated sensing in a hybrid optomechanical system"'
- Meystre, P. (2014, Summer). Quantum optomechnical heat engine. APS DAMOP Annual Meeting. Madison, WI: Amricn Physical Society.
- Meystre, P. (2014, spring). Optomechanical systems with ultracold atoms. Gordon Research Conference "Mechanical Systems in the Quantum Regime. Ventura, CA.
- Meystre, P. (2014, summer). Atom mediated sensing in a hybrid optomechanical system. APS DAMOP Annual meeting. Madison, WI: Americn Physical Society.More infoS. Steinke, F. Bariani, S. Singh, P. Meytre and M. Vengalattore, ``Atom mediated sensing in a hybrid optomechanical system''

#### Poster Presentations

- Meystre, P. (2014, Fall). Multimode aspects of quantum optomechanics. 44th Winter Colloquium on the Physics of Quantum Electronics. Snowbird, UT.
- Meystre, P. (2014, Fall). Optomechanical systems with ultracold atoms. Gordon Conference on “Mechanical Systems in the Quantum Regime”. Ventura, CA.
- Buchmann, L., Wright, E., & Meystre, P. (2013, Fall). Phononic phase conjugation in an optomechanical system. APS DAMOP Annual Meeting. Quebec City, Canada.
- Meystre, P. (2013, Fall). Multimode dynamics in quantum optomechanics. Quantum nano- and micromechanics QNM. Monte Verita, Switzerland.
- Meystre, P. (2013, Fall). Quantum Optics, “Cavity QED, and Quantum Optomechanics. DAMOP Annual Meeting. Quebec City, Canada.
- Meystre, P. (2013, Fall). Recent advances in quantum optomechanics. Quantum optics and new materials V conference. Beijing, China.
- Meystre, P., & Steinke, S. (2013, Fall). Basic concepts in quantum optics – an overview. ITAMP/B2 Winter Graduate School on AMO Science. Tucson, AZ.
- Steinke, S., Singh, S., Meystre, P., Schwab, K., & Vengalattore, M. (2013, Fall). Measurement back action of a spinor condensate from off-resonant light. APS DAMOP Annual Meeting. Quebec City, Canada.
- Tan, H., Bariani, F., Li, G., & Meystre, P. (2013, Fall). Deterministic macroscopic quantum superpositions of motion by quadratic optomechanical coupling. APS DAMOP Annual Meeting. Quebec City, Canada.
- Tan, H., Li, G., & Meystre, P. (2013, Fall). Dissipation-driven two-mode mechanical squeezed states in optomechanical systems. APS DAMOP Annual Meeting. Quebec City, Canada.
- Buchmann, L., Jing, H., Chiruvelli, A., & Meystre, P. (2012, Fall). Macroscopic tunneling of a membrane in an optomechanical double-well potential. APS Division of Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics Annual Meeting. Anaheim, CA.
- Buchmann, L., Zhang, L., Chiruvelli, A., & Meystre, P. (2012, Fall). Macroscopic tunneling of a membrane in an optomechanical double-well potential. Gordon Conference on mechanical Systems in the Quantum Regime. Galveston, TX.
- Meystre, P. (2012, Fall). Cavity optomechanics -- putting mechanics back into the quantum. Optomechanics on the Hudson Workshop. New York, NY.
- Meystre, P. (2012, Fall). Cavity optomechanics. ITAMP/B2 Winter Graduate School on AMO Science. Tucson, AZ.
- Meystre, P. (2012, Fall). Cavity optomechanics. Third Annual Graduate Research Symposium. Edmonton, Canada: College of Engineering, University of Alberta.
- Meystre, P. (2012, Fall). Quantum optomechanics – from basic science to quantum metrology (and back). Photonics without Frontiers. Lausanne, Switzerland.
- Seok, H., Buchmann, L., Singh, S., Steinke, S., & Meystre, P. (2012, Fall). Characterization of the motional state of a quantum mechanical oscillator by coherent state transfer. APS Division of Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics Annual Meeting. Anaheim, CA.
- Steinke, S., Singh, S., Meystre, P., Schwab, K., & Vengallatore, M. (2012, Fall). Indirect position sensing and state control in a coupled BEC-mechanical system. APS Division of Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics Annual Meeting. Anaheim, CA.
- Steinke, S., Singh, S., Schwab, K., Vengalattore, M., & Meystre, P. (2012, Fall). Indirect position sensing and state control in a coupled BEC-mechanical system. Gordon Conference on mechanical Systems in the Quantum Regime. Galveston, TX.