Stephen H Wright
- Professor, Physiology
- Investigator, Center for Toxicology
- Professor, Biochemistry/Molecular Biophysics
- Professor, Physiological Sciences - GIDP
- Professor, BIO5 Institute
- Ph.D. Biology
- University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA
- Amino Acid Transport in Lamellibranch Molluscs
- M.S. Zoology
- University of California, Davis, Davis, California, United States
- University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (1982 - Ongoing)
- Distinguishes Lecturer
- Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics, Fall 2017
Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Membrane Transport
Cell Physiology; Physiology and Biophysics of Membrane Transport
Cellular+Molecular PsioPSIO 503 (Fall 2020)
Integrative Cellular PSIOPSIO 303 (Fall 2020)
Cellular+Molecular PsioPSIO 503 (Fall 2019)
Integrative Cellular PSIOPSIO 303 (Fall 2019)
Introduction to ResearchMCB 795A (Spring 2019)
Cellular+Molecular PsioPS 503 (Fall 2018)
Cellular+Molecular PsioPSIO 503 (Fall 2018)
Integrative Cellular PSIOPSIO 303 (Fall 2018)
DissertationPSIO 920 (Spring 2018)
Honors ThesisPSIO 498H (Spring 2018)
Introduction to ResearchMCB 795A (Spring 2018)
ResearchPSIO 900 (Spring 2018)
Cellular+Molecular PsioPSIO 503 (Fall 2017)
DissertationPSIO 920 (Fall 2017)
Honors ThesisPSIO 498H (Fall 2017)
Integrative Cellular PSIOPSIO 303 (Fall 2017)
Introduction to ResearchMCB 795A (Fall 2017)
ResearchPSIO 900 (Fall 2017)
DissertationPSIO 920 (Spring 2017)
Honors Independent StudyPSIO 399H (Spring 2017)
Honors Independent StudyPSIO 499H (Spring 2017)
ResearchPSIO 900 (Spring 2017)
Cellular+Molecular PsioPSIO 503 (Fall 2016)
DissertationPSIO 920 (Fall 2016)
Honors Independent StudyPSIO 399H (Fall 2016)
Honors Independent StudyPSIO 499H (Fall 2016)
Integrat Cell Psio DiscsPSIO 304 (Fall 2016)
Integrative Cell PhysioPSIO 303A (Fall 2016)
ResearchPSIO 900 (Fall 2016)
Research Methods In PsioPSIO 610 (Fall 2016)
ThesisPSIO 910 (Fall 2016)
DissertationPSIO 920 (Spring 2016)
Honors Independent StudyPSIO 399H (Spring 2016)
Honors Independent StudyPSIO 499H (Spring 2016)
ResearchPSIO 900 (Spring 2016)
- Wright, S. H. (2016). Renal handling of organic solutes. In The Kidney, 10th Ed(pp 204-233). New York: Saunders.
- Pelis, R. M., & Wright, S. H. (2014). SLC22, SLC44, and SLC47 transporters--organic anion and cation transporters: molecular and cellular properties. In Current topics in membranes(pp 233-61).More infoTransporters within the SLC22, SLC44, and SLC47 families of solute carriers mediate transport of a structurally diverse array of organic electrolytes, that is, molecules that are generally charged (cationic, anionic, or zwitterionic) at physiological pH. Transporters in the SLC22 family--all of which are members of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) of transporters--represent a mechanistically diverse set of processes, including the organic anion transporters (OATs and URAT1) that physiologically operate as organic anion (OA) exchangers, the organic cation transporters (OCTs) that operate as electrogenic uniporters of organic cations (OCs), and the so-called "novel" organic cation transporters (OCTNs) that support Na-cotransport of selected zwitterions. Whereas the OCTNs display a high degree of substrate selectivity, the physiological hallmark of the OATs and OCTs is their multiselectivity--consistent with a principal role in renal and hepatic clearance of a wide array of both endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. SLC47 consists of members of the multidrug and toxin extruder (MATE) family, which are carriers that are obligatory exchangers and that physiologically support electroneutral H⁺ exchange. The MATEs also display a characteristic multiselectivity and are frequently paired with OCTs to mediate transepithelial OC secretion, with the OCTs typically supporting basolateral OC entry and the MATEs supporting apical OC efflux. The SLC44 family contains the choline transporter-like (CTL) transporters. Largely restricted to choline and a limited set of structural congeners, the CTLs appear to support the Na-independent, electrogenic uniport of choline, thereby providing choline for membrane biogenesis. The solution of X-ray crystal structures of representative prokaryotic MFS and MATE transporters has led to the development of homology models of mammalian OAT, OCT, and MATE transporters that, in turn, have supplemented studies of the molecular basis of the complex interactions of ligands with these multiselective proteins.
- Wright, S. H. (2014). Multidrug And Toxin Extrusion Proteins. In Drug Transporters(pp 223-243). Wiley.
- Sandoval, P. J., Morales, M., Secomb, T. W., & Wright, S. H. (2019). Kinetic basis of metformin-MPP interactions with organic cation transporter OCT2. American journal of physiology. Renal physiology, 317(3), F720-F734.More infoOrganic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) clears the blood of cationic drugs. Efforts to understand OCT2 selectivity as a means to predict the potential of new molecular entities (NMEs) to produce unwanted drug-drug interactions typically assess the influence of the NMEs on inhibition of transport. However, the identity of the substrate used to assess transport activity can influence the quantitative profile of inhibition. Metformin and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), in particular, display markedly different inhibitory profiles, with IC values for inhibition of MPP transport often being more than fivefold greater than IC values for the inhibition of metformin transport by the same compound, suggesting that interaction of metformin and MPP with OCT2 cannot be restricted to competition for a single binding site. Here, we determined the kinetic basis for the mutual inhibitory interaction of metformin and MPP with OCT2 expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Although metformin did produce simple competitive inhibition of MPP transport, MPP was a mixed-type inhibitor of metformin transport, decreasing the maximum rate of mediated substrate transport and increasing the apparent Michaelis constant () for OCT2-mediated metformin transport. Furthermore, whereas the IC value for metformin's inhibition of MPP transport did not differ from the value for metformin transport, the IC value for MPP's inhibition of metformin transport was less than its value for transport. The simplest model to account for these observations required the influence of a distinct inhibitory site for MPP that, when occupied, decreases the translocation of substrate. These observations underscore the complexity of ligand interaction with OCT2 and argue for use of multiple substrates to obtain the needed kinetic assessment of NME interactions with OCT2.
- Wright, S. H. (2019). Molecular and cellular physiology of organic cation transporter 2. American journal of physiology. Renal physiology, 317(6), F1669-F1679.More infoOrganic cation transporters play a critical role in mediating the distribution of cationic pharmaceuticals. Indeed, organic cation transporter (OCT)2 is the initial step in the renal secretion of organic cations and consequently plays a defining role in establishing the pharmacokinetics of many cationic drugs. Although a hallmark of OCTs is their broad selectivity, this characteristic also makes them targets for unwanted, adverse drug-drug interactions (DDIs), making them a focus for efforts to develop models of ligand interaction that could predict and preempt these adverse interactions. This review discusses the molecular characteristics of these transporters as well as the evidence that established the OCTs as key players in the distribution of organic cations. However, the primary focus is the present understanding of the complexity of ligand interaction with OCTs, particularly OCT2, including evidence for the presence of multiple ligand-binding sites and the influence of substrate structure on the affinity of the transporter for inhibitory ligands. This leads to a discussion of the complexities associated with the development of protocols for assessing the inhibitory potential of new molecular entities to perpetrate unwanted DDIs, the criteria that should be considered in the interpretation of the results of such protocols, and the challenges associated with development of models capable of predicting unwanted DDIs.
- Sandoval, P. J., Zorn, K. M., Clark, A. M., Ekins, S., & Wright, S. H. (2018). Assessment of Substrate-Dependent Ligand Interactions at the Organic Cation Transporter OCT2 Using Six Model Substrates. Molecular pharmacology, 94(3), 1057-1068.More infoOrganic cation transporter (OCT) 2 mediates the entry step for organic cation secretion by renal proximal tubule cells and is a site of unwanted drug-drug interactions (DDIs). But reliance on decision tree-based predictions of DDIs at OCT2 that depend on IC values can be suspect because they can be influenced by choice of transported substrate; for example, IC values for the inhibition of metformin versus MPP transport can vary by 5- to 10-fold. However, it is not clear whether the substrate dependence of a ligand interaction is common among OCT2 substrates. To address this question, we screened the inhibitory effectiveness of 20 M concentrations of several hundred compounds against OCT2-mediated uptake of six structurally distinct substrates: MPP, metformin, ,,-trimethyl-2-[methyl(7-nitrobenzo[c][1,2,5]oxadiazol-4-yl)amino]ethanaminium (NBD-MTMA), TEA, cimetidine, and 4-4-dimethylaminostyryl--methylpyridinium (ASP). Of these, MPP transport was least sensitive to inhibition. IC values for 20 structurally diverse compounds confirmed this profile, with IC values for MPP averaging 6-fold larger than those for the other substrates. Bayesian machine-learning models of ligand-induced inhibition displayed generally good statistics after cross-validation and external testing. Applying our ASP model to a previously published large-scale screening study for inhibition of OCT2-mediated ASP transport resulted in comparable statistics, with approximately 75% of "active" inhibitors predicted correctly. The differential sensitivity of MPP transport to inhibition suggests that multiple ligands can interact simultaneously with OCT2 and supports the recommendation that MPP not be used as a test substrate for OCT2 screening. Instead, metformin appears to be a comparatively representative OCT2 substrate for both in vitro and in vivo (clinical) use.
- Severance, A. C., Sandoval, P. J., & Wright, S. H. (2017). Correlation between Apparent Substrate Affinity and OCT2 Transport Turnover. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics, 362(3), 405-412.More infoOrganic cation (OC) transporter 2 (OCT2) mediates the first step in the renal secretion of many cationic drugs: basolateral uptake from blood into proximal tubule cells. The impact of this process on the pharmacokinetics of drug clearance as estimated using a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic approach relies on an accurate understanding of the kinetics of transport because the ratio of the maximal rate of transport to the Michaelis constant (i.e., Jmax/ Kt) provides an estimate of the intrinsic clearance (Clint) used in in vitro-in vivo extrapolation of experimentally determined transport data. Although the multispecificity of renal OC secretion, including that of the OCT2 transporter, is widely acknowledged, the possible relationship between relative affinity of the transporter for its diverse substrates and the maximal rates of their transport has received little attention. In this study, we determined the Jmax and apparent Michaelis constant (Ktapp) values for six structurally distinct OCT2 substrates and found a strong correlation between Jmax and Ktapp; high-affinity substrates [Ktapp values
- Martínez-Guerrero, L. J., Evans, K. K., Dantzler, W. H., & Wright, S. H. (2016). The multidrug transporter MATE1 sequesters OCs within an intracellular compartment that has no influence on OC secretion in renal proximal tubules. American journal of physiology. Renal physiology, 310(1), F57-67.More infoSecretion of organic cations (OCs) across renal proximal tubules (RPTs) involves basolateral OC transporter (OCT)2-mediated uptake from the blood followed by apical multidrug and toxin extruder (MATE)1/2-mediated efflux into the tubule filtrate. Whereas OCT2 supports electrogenic OC uniport, MATE is an OC/H(+) exchanger. As assessed by epifluorescence microscopy, cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that stably expressed human MATE1 accumulated the fluorescent OC N,N,N-trimethyl-2-[methyl(7-nitrobenzo[c][l,2,5]oxadiazol-4-yl)amino]ethanaminium (NBD-MTMA) in the cytoplasm and in a smaller, punctate compartment; accumulation in human OCT2-expressing cells was largely restricted to the cytoplasm. A second intracellular compartment was also evident in the multicompartmental kinetics of efflux of the prototypic OC [(3)H]1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP) from MATE1-expressing CHO cells. Punctate accumulation of NBD-MTMA was markedly reduced by coexposure of MATE1-expressing cells with 5 μM bafilomycin (BAF), an inhibitor of V-type H(+)-ATPase, and accumulation of [(3)H]MPP and [(3)H]NBD-MTMA was reduced by >30% by coexposure with 5 μM BAF. BAF had no effect on the initial rate of MATE1-mediated uptake of NBD-MTMA, suggesting that the influence of BAF was a secondary effect involving inhibition of V-type H(+)-ATPase. The accumulation of [(3)H]MPP by isolated single nonperfused rabbit RPTs was also reduced >30% by coexposure to 5 μM BAF, suggesting that the native expression in RPTs of MATE protein within endosomes can increase steady-state OC accumulation. However, the rate of [(3)H]MPP secretion by isolated single perfused rabbit RPTs was not affected by 5 μM BAF, suggesting that vesicles loaded with OCs(+) are not likely to recycle into the apical plasma membrane at a rate sufficient to provide a parallel pathway for OC secretion.
- Martínez-Guerrero, L. J., Morales, M., Ekins, S., & Wright, S. H. (2016). Lack of Influence of Substrate on Ligand Interaction with the Human Multidrug and Toxin Extruder, MATE1. Molecular pharmacology, 90(3), 254-64.More infoMultidrug and toxin extruder (MATE) 1 plays a central role in mediating renal secretion of organic cations, a structurally diverse collection of compounds that includes ∼40% of prescribed drugs. Because inhibition of transport activity of other multidrug transporters, including the organic cation transporter (OCT) 2, is influenced by the structure of the transported substrate, the present study screened over 400 drugs as inhibitors of the MATE1-mediated transport of four structurally distinct organic cation substrates: the commonly used drugs: 1) metformin and 2) cimetidine; and two prototypic cationic substrates, 3) 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), and 4) the novel fluorescent probe, N,N,N-trimethyl-2-[methyl(7-nitrobenzo[c][1,2,5]oxadiazol-4-yl)amino]ethanaminium iodide. Transport was measured in Chinese hamster ovary cells that stably expressed the human ortholog of MATE1. Comparison of the resulting inhibition profiles revealed no systematic influence of substrate structure on inhibitory efficacy. Similarly, IC50 values for 26 structurally diverse compounds revealed no significant influence of substrate structure on the kinetic interaction of inhibitor with MATE1. The IC50 data were used to generate three-dimensional quantitative pharmacophores that identified hydrophobic regions, H-bond acceptor sites, and an ionizable (cationic) feature as key determinants for ligand binding to MATE1. In summary, in contrast to the behavior observed with some other multidrug transporters, including OCT2, the results suggest that substrate identity exerts comparatively little influence on ligand interaction with MATE1.
- Ekins, S., Clark, A. M., & Wright, S. H. (2015). Making Transporter Models for Drug-Drug Interaction Prediction Mobile. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals, 43(10), 1642-5.More infoThe past decade has seen increased numbers of studies publishing ligand-based computational models for drug transporters. Although they generally use small experimental data sets, these models can provide insights into structure-activity relationships for the transporter. In addition, such models have helped to identify new compounds as substrates or inhibitors of transporters of interest. We recently proposed that many transporters are promiscuous and may require profiling of new chemical entities against multiple substrates for a specific transporter. Furthermore, it should be noted that virtually all of the published ligand-based transporter models are only accessible to those involved in creating them and, consequently, are rarely shared effectively. One way to surmount this is to make models shareable or more accessible. The development of mobile apps that can access such models is highlighted here. These apps can be used to predict ligand interactions with transporters using Bayesian algorithms. We used recently published transporter data sets (MATE1, MATE2K, OCT2, OCTN2, ASBT, and NTCP) to build preliminary models in a commercial tool and in open software that can deliver the model in a mobile app. In addition, several transporter data sets extracted from the ChEMBL database were used to illustrate how such public data and models can be shared. Predicting drug-drug interactions for various transporters using computational models is potentially within reach of anyone with an iPhone or iPad. Such tools could help prioritize which substrates should be used for in vivo drug-drug interaction testing and enable open sharing of models.
- Shibayama, T., Morales, M., Zhang, X., Martínez-Guerrero, L. J., Berteloot, A., Secomb, T. W., & Wright, S. H. (2015). Unstirred Water Layers and the Kinetics of Organic Cation Transport. Pharmaceutical research.More infoUnstirred water layers (UWLs) present an unavoidable complication to the measurement of transport kinetics in cultured cells, and the high rates of transport achieved by overexpressing heterologous transporters exacerbate the UWL effect. This study examined the correlation between measured Jmax and Kt values and the effect of manipulating UWL thickness or transport Jmax on the accuracy of experimentally determined kinetics of the multidrug transporters, OCT2 and MATE1.
- Klein, D. M., Wright, S. H., & Cherrington, N. J. (2014). Localization of multidrug resistance-associated proteins along the blood-testis barrier in rat, macaque, and human testis. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals, 42(1), 89-93.More infoThe blood-testis barrier (BTB) prevents the entry of many drugs into seminiferous tubules, which can be beneficial for therapy not intended for the testis but may decrease drug efficacy for medications requiring entry to the testis. Previous data have shown that some of the transporters in the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) family (ABCC) are expressed in the testis. By determining the subcellular localization of these transporters, their physiologic function and effect on drug disposition may be better predicted. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), we determined the site of expression of the MRP transporters expressed in the testis, namely, MRP1, MRP4, MRP5, and MRP8, from immature and mature rats, rhesus macaques, and adult humans. We determined that in all species MRP1 was restricted to the basolateral membrane of Sertoli cells, MRP5 is located in Leydig cells, and MRP8 is located in round spermatids, whereas MRP4 showed species-specific localization. MRP4 is expressed on the basolateral membrane of Sertoli cells in human and nonhuman primates, but on the apical membrane of Sertoli cells in immature and mature rats, representing a potential caution when using rat models as a means for studying drug disposition across the BTB. These data suggest that MRP1 may limit drug disposition into seminiferous tubules, as may MRP4 in human and nonhuman primates but not in rats. These data also suggest that MRP5 and MRP8 may not have a major impact on the penetration of drugs across the BTB.
- Klein, D. M., Wright, S. H., & Cherrington, N. J. (2014). Xenobiotic transporter expression along the male genital tract. Reproductive toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.), 47, 1-8.More infoThe male genital tract plays an important role in protecting sperm by forming a distinct compartment separate from the body which limits exposure to potentially toxic substrates. Transporters along this tract can influence the distribution of xenobiotics into the male genital tract through efflux back into the blood or facilitating the accumulation of toxicants. The aim of this study was to quantitatively determine the constitutive mRNA expression of 30 xenobiotic transporters in caput and cauda regions of the epididymis, vas deferens, prostate, and seminal vesicles from adult Sprague-Dawley rats. The epididymis was found to express at least moderate levels of 18 transporters, vas deferens 15, seminal vesicles 23, and prostate 18. Constitutive expression of these xenobiotic transporters in the male genital tract may provide insight into the xenobiotics that can potentially be transported into these tissues and may provide the molecular mechanism for site specific toxicity of select agents.
- Belzer, M., Morales, M., Jagadish, B., Mash, E. A., & Wright, S. H. (2013). Substrate-dependent ligand inhibition of the human organic cation transporter OCT2. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 346(2), 300-310.More infoPMID: 23709117;Abstract: Organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) mediates the initial step in renal secretion of organic cations: uptake from the blood, across the basolateral membrane, and into the renal proximal tubule cells. Because of its potential as a target for unwanted drug-drug interactions (DDIs), considerable attention has been directed toward understanding the basis of OCT2 selectivity. These studies typically assess selectivity based on ligand inhibition profiles for OCT2-mediated transport of a probe substrate. However, little attention has been given to the potential influence of the substrate on the profile of ligand inhibition. Here we compared the IC50 values obtained for a set of structurally distinct inhibitors against OCT2-mediated transport of three structurally distinct substrates: 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP); metformin; and a novel fluorescent substrate, N,N,Ntrimethyl- 2-[methyl(7-nitrobenzo[c][l, 2,5]oxadiazol-4-yl)amino] ethanaminium iodide (NBD-MTMA). The median IC 50 value for inhibition of MPP transport was 9-fold higher than that for inhibition of metformin transport. Similarly, the median IC50 value for inhibition of MPP transport was 5-fold higher than that for NBD-MTMA transport. However, this was not a systematic difference in inhibitory efficacy; the ratio of IC50 values, MPP versus NBD-MTMA, ranged from 88-fold (ipratropium) to 0.3-fold (metformin). These data show that 1) the choice of OCT2 substrate significantly influences both quantitative and qualitative inhibitory interactions with cationic drugs; and 2) ligand interactions with OCT2 are not restricted to competition for a common ligand binding site, consistent with a binding surface characterized by multiple, possibly overlapping interaction sites. Development of predictive models of DDIs with OCT2 must take into account the substrate dependence of ligand interaction with this protein. Copyright © 2013 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
- Klein, D. M., Evans, K. K., Hardwick, R. N., Dantzler, W. H., Wright, S. H., & Cherrington, N. J. (2013). Basolateral uptake of nucleosides by Sertoli cells is mediated primarily by equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics, 346(1), 121-9.More infoThe blood-testis barrier (BTB) prevents the entry of many xenobiotic compounds into seminiferous tubules thereby protecting developing germ cells. Understanding drug transport across the BTB may improve drug delivery into the testis. Members of one class of drug, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), do penetrate the BTB, presumably through interaction with physiologic nucleoside transporters. By investigating the mechanism of nucleoside transport, it may be possible to design other drugs to bypass the BTB in a similar manner. We present a novel ex vivo technique to study transport at the BTB that employs isolated, intact seminiferous tubules. Using this system, we found that over 80% of total uptake by seminiferous tubules of the model nucleoside uridine could be inhibited by 100 nM nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR, 6-S-[(4-nitrophenyl)methyl]-6-thioinosine), a concentration that selectively inhibits equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) activity. In primary cultured rat Sertoli cells, 100 nM NBMPR inhibited all transepithelial transport and basolateral uptake of uridine. Immunohistochemical staining showed ENT1 to be located on the basolateral membrane of human and rat Sertoli cells, whereas ENT2 was located on the apical membrane of Sertoli cells. Transepithelial transport of uridine by rat Sertoli cells was partially inhibited by the NRTIs zidovudine, didanosine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, consistent with an interaction between these drugs and ENT transporters. These data indicate that ENT1 is the primary route for basolateral nucleoside uptake into Sertoli cells and a possible mechanism for nucleosides and nucleoside-based drugs to undergo transepithelial transport.
- Wright, S., Belzer, M., Morales, M., Jagadish, B., Mash, E. A., & Wright, S. H. (2013). Substrate-dependent ligand inhibition of the human organic cation transporter OCT2. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics, 346(2).More infoOrganic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) mediates the initial step in renal secretion of organic cations: uptake from the blood, across the basolateral membrane, and into the renal proximal tubule cells. Because of its potential as a target for unwanted drug-drug interactions (DDIs), considerable attention has been directed toward understanding the basis of OCT2 selectivity. These studies typically assess selectivity based on ligand inhibition profiles for OCT2-mediated transport of a probe substrate. However, little attention has been given to the potential influence of the substrate on the profile of ligand inhibition. Here we compared the IC50 values obtained for a set of structurally distinct inhibitors against OCT2-mediated transport of three structurally distinct substrates: 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP); metformin; and a novel fluorescent substrate, N,N,N-trimethyl-2-[methyl(7-nitrobenzo[c][l,2,5]oxadiazol-4-yl)amino]ethanaminium iodide (NBD-MTMA). The median IC50 value for inhibition of MPP transport was 9-fold higher than that for inhibition of metformin transport. Similarly, the median IC50 value for inhibition of MPP transport was 5-fold higher than that for NBD-MTMA transport. However, this was not a systematic difference in inhibitory efficacy; the ratio of IC50 values, MPP versus NBD-MTMA, ranged from 88-fold (ipratropium) to 0.3-fold (metformin). These data show that 1) the choice of OCT2 substrate significantly influences both quantitative and qualitative inhibitory interactions with cationic drugs; and 2) ligand interactions with OCT2 are not restricted to competition for a common ligand binding site, consistent with a binding surface characterized by multiple, possibly overlapping interaction sites. Development of predictive models of DDIs with OCT2 must take into account the substrate dependence of ligand interaction with this protein.
- Wright, S., Harper, J. N., & Wright, S. H. (2013). Multiple mechanisms of ligand interaction with the human organic cation transporter, OCT2. American journal of physiology. Renal physiology, 304(1).More infoOCT2 is the entry step for organic cation (OC) secretion by renal proximal tubules. Although many drugs inhibit OCT2 activity, neither the mechanistic basis of their inhibition nor their transport status is generally known. Using representatives of several structural classes of OCT2-inhibitory ligands described recently (Kido Y, Matsson P, Giacomini KM. J Med Chem 54: 4548-4558, 2011), we determined the kinetic basis of their inhibition of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP) transport into Chinese hamster ovary cells that stably expressed hOCT2. The "cluster II" inhibitors (which contain known OCT2 substrates) metformin and cimetidine interacted competitively with MPP. However, other cluster II compounds, including tetraethylammonium (TEA), diphenidol and phenyltoloxamine, were mixed-type inhibitors of MPP transport (i.e., decreasing J(max) and increasing K(t)). A cluster III (neutral steroid) representative, adrenosterone, and a cluster I (large, flexible cation) representative, carvedilol, displayed noncompetitive inhibitory profiles. Competitive counterflow (CCF) was used to determine whether the inhibitory ligands served as substrates of hOCT2. Carvedilol (cluster I) and adrenosterone (cluster III) did not support CCF, consistent with the prediction that members of these structural classes are likely to be nontransported inhibitors of OCT2. The cluster II representatives MPP, metformin, cimetidine, and TEA all supported CCF, consistent with independent assessments of their OCT2-mediated transport. However, the other cluster II representatives, diphenidol and phenyltoloxamine, failed to support CCF, suggesting that neither compound is transported by OCT2. An independent assessment of diphenidol transport (using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectroscopy) confirmed this observation. The results underscore the caution required for development of predictive models of ligand interaction with multidrug transporters.
- Wright, S., Martínez-Guerrero, L. J., & Wright, S. H. (2013). Substrate-dependent inhibition of human MATE1 by cationic ionic liquids. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics, 346(3).More infoThe multidrug and toxin extruders 1- and 2-K (MATE1 and MATE2-K) are expressed in the luminal membrane of renal proximal tubule cells and provide the active step in the secretion of molecules that carry a net positive charge at physiologic pH, so-called organic cations. The present study tested whether structurally distinct MATE substrates can display different quantitative profiles of inhibition when interacting with structurally distinct ligands. The tested ligands were three structurally similar cationic ionic liquids (ILs, salts in the liquid state: N-butylpyridinium, NBuPy; 1-methyl-3-butylimidazolium, Bmim; and N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium, BmPy). Uptake was measured using Chinese hamster ovary cells that stably expressed MATE1 or MATE2-K. By trans-stimulation, all three ILs were transported by both MATE transporters. The three ILs also inhibited uptake of three structurally distinct MATE substrates: 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), triethylmethylammonium (TEMA), and N,N,N-trimethyl-2-[methyl(7-nitrobenzo[c][1,2,5]oxadiazol-4-yl)amino]ethanaminium (NBD-MTMA). MATE1 displayed a higher affinity for the pyridinium-based NBuPy (IC50 values, 2-4 µM) than for either the pyrrolidinium- (BmPy; 20-70 µM) or imidazolium-based ILs (Bmim; 15-60 µM). Inhibition of MPP, TEMA, and NBD-MTMA transport by NBuPy was competitive, with comparable Ki values against all substrates. Bmim also competitively blocked the three substrates but with Ki values that differed significantly (20 µM against MPP and 30 µM against NBD-MTMA versus 60 µM against TEMA). Together, these data indicate that renal secretion of ILs by the human kidney involves MATE transporters and suggest that the mechanism of transport inhibition is ligand-dependent, supporting the hypothesis that the binding of substrates to MATE transporters involves interaction with a binding surface with multiple binding sites.
- Baker, J., Wright, S. H., & Tama, F. (2012). Simulations of substrate transport in the multidrug transporter EmrD. Proteins, 80(6), 1620-32.More infoEmrD is a multidrug resistance (MDR) transporter from Escherichia coli, which is involved in the efflux of amphipathic compounds from the cytoplasm, and the first MDR member of the major facilitator superfamily to be crystallized. Molecular dynamics simulation of EmrD in a phospholipid bilayer was used to characterize the conformational dynamics of the protein. Motions that support a previously proposed lateral diffusion pathway for substrate from the cytoplasmic membrane leaflet into the EmrD central cavity were observed. In addition, the translocation pathway of meta-chloro carbonylcyanide phenylhydrazone (CCCP) was probed using both standard and steered molecular dynamics simulation. In particular, interactions of a few specific residues with CCCP have been identified. Finally, a large motion of two residues, Val 45 and Leu 233, was observed with the passage of CCCP into the periplasmic space, placing a lower bound on the extent of opening required at this end of the protein for substrate transport. Overall, our simulations probe details of the transport pathway, motions of EmrD at an atomic level of detail, and offer new insights into the functioning of MDR transporters.
- Ekins, S., Polli, J. E., Swaan, P. W., & Wright, S. H. (2012). Computational modeling to accelerate the identification of substrates and inhibitors for transporters that affect drug disposition. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics, 92(5), 661-5.
- Pelis, R. M., Dangprapai, Y., Cheng, Y., Zhang, X., Terpstra, J., & Wright, S. H. (2012). Functional significance of conserved cysteines in the human organic cation transporter 2. American journal of physiology. Renal physiology, 303(2), F313-20.More infoThe significance of conserved cysteines in the human organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2), namely the six cysteines in the long extracellular loop (loop cysteines) and C474 in transmembrane helix 11, was examined. Uptake of tetraethylammonium (TEA) and 1-methyl-4-phenypyridinium (MPP) into Chinese hamster ovary cells was stimulated >20-fold by hOCT2 expression. Both cell surface expression and transport activity were reduced considerably following mutation of individual loop cysteines (C51, C63, C89, C103, and C143), and the C89 and C103 mutants had reduced Michaelis constants (K(t)) for MPP. The loop cysteines were refractory to interaction with thiol-reactive biotinylation reagents, except after pretreatment of intact cells with dithiothreitol or following cell membrane solubilization. Reduction of disulfide bridge(s) did not affect transport, but labeling the resulting free thiols with maleimide-PEO(2)-biotin did. Mutation of C474 to an alanine or phenylalanine did not affect the K(t) value for MPP. In contrast, the K(t) value associated with TEA transport was reduced sevenfold in the C474A mutant, and the C474F mutant failed to transport TEA. This study shows that some but not all of the six extracellular loop cysteines exist within disulfide bridge(s). Each loop cysteine is important for plasma membrane targeting, and their mutation can influence substrate binding. The effect of C474 mutation on TEA transport suggests that it contributes to a TEA binding surface. Given that TEA and MPP are competitive inhibitors, the differential effects of C474 modification on TEA and MPP binding suggest that the binding surfaces for each are distinct, but overlapping in area.
- Wright, S., Astorga, B., Ekins, S., Morales, M., & Wright, S. H. (2012). Molecular determinants of ligand selectivity for the human multidrug and toxin extruder proteins MATE1 and MATE2-K. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics, 341(3).More infoThe present study compared the selectivity of two homologous transport proteins, multidrug and toxin extruders 1 and 2-K (MATE1 and MATE2-K), and developed three-dimensional pharmacophores for inhibitory ligand interaction with human MATE1 (hMATE1). The human orthologs of MATE1 and MATE2-K were stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and transport function was determined by measuring uptake of the prototypic organic cation (OC) substrate 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP). Both MATEs had similar apparent affinities for MPP, with K(tapp) values of 4.4 and 3.7 μM for MATE1 and MATE2-K, respectively. Selectivity was assessed for both transporters from IC(50) values for 59 structurally diverse compounds. Whereas the two transporters discriminated markedly between a few of the test compounds, the IC(50) values for MATE1 and MATE2-K were within a factor of 3 for most of them. For hMATE1 there was little or no correlation between IC(50) values and the individual molecular descriptors LogP, total polar surface area, or pK(a). The IC(50) values were used to generate a common-features pharmacophore, quantitative pharmacophores for hMATE1, and a bayesian model suggesting molecular features favoring and not favoring the interaction of ligands with hMATE1. The models identified hydrophobic regions, hydrogen bond donor and hydrogen bond acceptor sites, and an ionizable (cationic) feature as key determinants for ligand binding to MATE1. In summary, using a combined in vitro and computational approach, MATE1 and MATE2-K were found to have markedly overlapping selectivities for a broad range of cationic compounds, including representatives from seven novel drug classes of Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs.
- Wright, S., Zhang, X., He, X., Baker, J., Tama, F., Chang, G., & Wright, S. H. (2012). Twelve transmembrane helices form the functional core of mammalian MATE1 (multidrug and toxin extruder 1) protein. The Journal of biological chemistry, 287(33).More infoThe x-ray structure of the prototypic MATE family member, NorM from Vibrio cholerae, reveals a protein fold composed of 12 transmembrane helices (TMHs), confirming hydropathy analyses of the majority of (prokaryotic and plant) MATE transporters. However, the mammalian MATEs are generally predicted to have a 13(th) TMH and an extracellular C terminus. Here we affirm this prediction, showing that the C termini of epitope-tagged, full-length human, rabbit, and mouse MATE1 were accessible to antibodies from the extracellular face of the membrane. Truncation of these proteins at or near the predicted junction between the 13(th) TMH and the long cytoplasmic loop that precedes it resulted in proteins that (i) trafficked to the membrane and (ii) interacted with antibodies only after permeabilization of the plasma membrane. CHO cells expressing rbMate1 truncated at residue Gly-545 supported levels of pH-sensitive transport similar to that of cells expressing the full-length protein. Although the high transport rate of the Gly-545 truncation mutant was associated with higher levels of membrane expression (than full-length MATE1), suggesting the 13(th) TMH may influence substrate translocation, the selectivity profile of the mutant indicated that TMH13 has little impact on ligand binding. We conclude that the functional core of MATE1 consists of 12 (not 13) TMHs. Therefore, we used the x-ray structure of NorM to develop a homology model of the first 12 TMHs of MATE1. The model proved to be stable in molecular dynamic simulations and agreed with topology evident from preliminary cysteine scanning of intracellular versus extracellular loops.
- Astorga, B., Wunz, T. M., Morales, M., Wright, S. H., & Pelis, R. M. (2011). Differences in the substrate binding regions of renal organic anion transporters 1 (OAT1) and 3 (OAT3). American journal of physiology. Renal physiology, 301(2), F378-86.More infoThis study examined the selectivity of organic anion transporters OAT1 and OAT3 for structural congeners of the heavy metal chelator 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS). Thiol-reactive reagents were also used to test structural predictions based on a homology model of OAT1 structure. DMPS was near equipotent in its ability to inhibit OAT1 (IC(50) = 83 μM) and OAT3 (IC(50) = 40 μM) expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. However, removal of a thiol group (3-mercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid) resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in IC(50) toward OAT1 vs. a ∼55-fold increase in IC(50) toward OAT3. The data suggested that compound volume/size is important for binding to OAT1/OAT3. The sensitivity to HgCl(2) of OAT1 and OAT3 was also dramatically different, with IC(50) values of 104 and 659 μM, respectively. Consistent with cysteines of OAT1 being more accessible from the external medium than those of OAT3, thiol-reactive reagents reacted preferentially with OAT1 in cell surface biotinylation assays. OAT1 was less sensitive to HgCl(2) inhibition and less reactive toward membrane-impermeant thiol reactive reagents following mutation of cysteine 440 (C440) to an alanine. These data indicate that C440 in transmembrane helix 10 of OAT1 is accessible from the extracellular space. Indeed, C440 was exposed to the aqueous phase of the presumptive substrate translocation pathway in a homology model of OAT1 structure. The limited thiol reactivity in OAT3 suggests that the homologous cysteine residue (C428) is less accessible. Consistent with their homolog-specific selectivities, these data highlight structural differences in the substrate binding regions of OAT1 and OAT3.
- Cheng, Y., Martinez-Guerrero, L. J., Wright, S. H., Kuester, R. K., Hooth, M. J., & Sipes, I. G. (2011). Characterization of the inhibitory effects of N-butylpyridinium chloride and structurally related ionic liquids on organic cation transporters 1/2 and human toxic extrusion transporters 1/2-k in vitro and in vivo. Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals, 39(9), 1755-61.More infoIonic liquids (ILs) are a class of salts that are expected to be used as a new source of solvents and for many other applications. Our previous studies revealed that selected ILs, structurally related organic cations, are eliminated exclusively in urine as the parent compound, partially mediated by renal transporters. This study investigated the inhibitory effects of N-butylpyridinium chloride (NBuPy-Cl) and structurally related ILs on organic cation transporters (OCTs) and multidrug and toxic extrusion transporters (MATEs) in vitro and in vivo. After Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing rat (r) OCT1, rOCT2, human (h) OCT2, hMATE1, or hMATE2-K were constructed, the ability of NBuPy-Cl, 1-methyl-3-butylimidazolium chloride (Bmim-Cl), N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium chloride (BmPy-Cl), and alkyl substituted pyridinium ILs to inhibit these transporters was determined in vitro. NBuPy-Cl (0, 0.5, or 2 mg/kg per hour) was also infused into rats to assess its effect on the pharmacokinetics of metformin, a substrate of OCTs and MATEs. NBuPy-Cl, Bmim-Cl, and BmPy-Cl displayed strong inhibitory effects on these transporters (IC(50) = 0.2-8.5 μM). In addition, the inhibitory effects of alkyl-substituted pyridinium ILs on OCTs increased dramatically as the length of the alkyl chain increased. The IC(50) values were 0.1, 3.8, 14, and 671 μM (hexyl-, butyl-, and ethyl-pyridinium and pyridinium chloride) for rOCT2-mediated metformin transport. Similar structurally related inhibitory kinetics were also observed for rOCT1 and hOCT2. The in vivo coadministration study revealed that NBuPy-Cl reduced the renal clearance of metformin in rats. These results demonstrate that ILs compete with other substrates of OCTs and MATEs and could alter the in vivo pharmacokinetics of such substrates.
- Pelis, R. M., & Wright, S. H. (2011). Renal transport of organic anions and cations. Comprehensive Physiology, 1(4), 1795-835.More infoOrganic anions and cations (OAs and OCs, respectively) comprise an extraordinarily diverse array of compounds of physiological, pharmacological, and toxicological importance. The kidney, primarily the renal proximal tubule, plays a critical role in regulating the plasma concentrations of these organic electrolytes and in clearing the body of potentially toxic xenobiotics agents, a process that involves active, transepithelial secretion. This transepithelial transport involves separate entry and exit steps at the basolateral and luminal aspects of renal tubular cells. Basolateral and luminal OA and OC transport reflects the concerted activity of a suite of separate proteins arranged in parallel in each pole of proximal tubule cells. The cloning of multiple members of several distinct transport families, the subsequent characterization of their activity, and their subcellular localization within distinct regions of the kidney, now allows the development of models describing the molecular basis of the renal secretion of OAs and OCs. New information on naturally occurring genetic variation of many of these processes provides insight into the basis of observed variability of drug efficacy and unwanted drug-drug interactions in human populations. The present review examines recent work on these issues.
- Wright, S., Dangprapai, Y., & Wright, S. H. (2011). Interaction of H+ with the extracellular and intracellular aspects of hMATE1. American journal of physiology. Renal physiology, 301(3).More infoHuman multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 (hMATE1, SLC47A1) is a major candidate for being the molecular identity of organic cation/proton (OC/H(+)) exchange activity in the luminal membrane of renal proximal tubules. Although physiological function of hMATE1 supports luminal OC efflux, the kinetics of hMATE1-mediated OC transport have typically been characterized through measurement of uptake, i.e., the interaction between outward-facing hMATE1 and OCs. To examine kinetics of hMATE1-mediated transport in a more physiologically relevant direction, i.e., an interaction between inward-facing hMATE1 and cytoplasmic substrates, we measured the time course of hMATE1-mediated efflux of the prototypic MATE1 substrate, [(3)H]1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, under a variety of intra- and extracellular pH conditions, from Chinese hamster ovary cells that stably expressed the transporter. In this study, we showed that an IC(50)/K(i) for interaction between extracellular H(+) and outward-facing hMATE1 determined from conventional uptake experiments [12.9 ± 1.23 nM (pH 7.89); n = 9] and from the efflux protocol [14.7 ± 3.45 nM (pH 7.83); n = 3] was not significantly different (P = 0.6). Furthermore, kinetics of interaction between intracellular H(+) and inward-facing hMATE1 determined using the efflux protocol revealed an IC(50) for H(+) of 11.5 nM (pH 7.91), consistent with symmetrical interactions of H(+) with the inward-facing and outward-facing aspects of hMATE1.
- , I. T., Giacomini, K. M., Huang, S., Tweedie, D. J., Benet, L. Z., Brouwer, K. L., Chu, X., Dahlin, A., Evers, R., Fischer, V., Hillgren, K. M., Hoffmaster, K. A., Ishikawa, T., Keppler, D., Kim, R. B., Lee, C. A., Niemi, M., Polli, J. W., Sugiyama, Y., , Swaan, P. W., et al. (2010). Membrane transporters in drug development. Nature reviews. Drug discovery, 9(3), 215-36.More infoMembrane transporters can be major determinants of the pharmacokinetic, safety and efficacy profiles of drugs. This presents several key questions for drug development, including which transporters are clinically important in drug absorption and disposition, and which in vitro methods are suitable for studying drug interactions with these transporters. In addition, what criteria should trigger follow-up clinical studies, and which clinical studies should be conducted if needed. In this article, we provide the recommendations of the International Transporter Consortium on these issues, and present decision trees that are intended to help guide clinical studies on the currently recognized most important drug transporter interactions. The recommendations are generally intended to support clinical development and filing of a new drug application. Overall, it is advised that the timing of transporter investigations should be driven by efficacy, safety and clinical trial enrolment questions (for example, exclusion and inclusion criteria), as well as a need for further understanding of the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion properties of the drug molecule, and information required for drug labelling.
- Rödiger, M., Zhang, X., Ugele, B., Gersdorff, N., Wright, S. H., Burckhardt, G., & Bahn, A. (2010). Organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3) and renal transport of the metal chelator 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS). Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology, 88(2), 141-6.More infoRecent investigations involving intact rabbit renal proximal tubules indicated that organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3) may be involved in the transport of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS). Therefore, we evaluated the interaction of OAT3 with DMPS to determine the effect of OAT3 on basolateral DMPS uptake. We used stably transfected HEK293 cells expressing human and rabbit orthologs of the exchanger OAT1 and OAT3. Using 6-carboxyfluorescein (6-CF) as a substrate, the IC50 determinations for reduced DMPS (DMPSH) revealed a stronger interaction with OAT1 than with OAT3 (rbOAT1, 123.3 +/- 13.7; hOAT1, 85.1 +/- 8.8; rbOAT3, 171.7 +/- 22.3; and hOAT3, 172.2 +/- 36.4 micromol/L). However, inhibition of 6-CF uptake by the oxidized form of DMPS (DMPSS), the main form of DMPS in the blood, showed a greater affinity for OAT3 (rbOAT1, 237.4 +/- 23; hOAT1, 104.6 +/- 13.1; rbOAT3, 52.4 +/- 7.6; and hOAT3, 31.6 +/- 6.6 micromol/L). To determine whether DMPSH and DMPSS are substrates for OAT3, we performed efflux studies with [14C]glutarate and inwardly directed gradients of glutarate. The inhibitors trans-stimulated the efflux of [14C]glutarate, suggesting that OAT3 may be able to transport both forms of DMPS. On the basis of the substantial interaction of OAT3 with DMPSS, we conclude that OAT3 represents the dominant basolateral player in renal detoxification processes resulting from use of DMPS.
- Wright, S., Zhang, X., & Wright, S. H. (2009). MATE1 has an external COOH terminus, consistent with a 13-helix topology. American journal of physiology. Renal physiology, 297(2).More infoThe mammalian members of the Multidrug And Toxin Extruder family, i.e., MATE1 and MATE2-K, are suspected of mediating the luminal step in renal secretion of organic cations. The 1,000+ prokaryotic/fungal/plant MATE family members are predicted to have 12 transmembrane helices (TMHs), whereas MATE1/2-K appear to have an additional (13th) COOH-terminal helix. Here, we determined whether rabbit MATE1 has an external COOH terminus, consistent with the presence of 13 TMHs. A V5 epitope tag at the COOH terminus of MATE1 was freely accessible to external V5 antibody, whereas tags at the NH(2) terminus, or at sites of truncation within the long cytoplasmic loop between predicted TMHs 12 and 13, were only accessible to the V5 antibody following permeabilization of the membrane. The truncated mutants that lacked TMH13 still retained transport activity, indicating that the terminal helix was not necessary for transport function. Cells that expressed a mutant lacking only TMH13 displayed similar K(t) and J(max) values to those of the full-length protein, although when normalized to protein expressed at the plasma membrane, the transport rate of the mutant was
- Wright, S., Pelis, R. M., Dangprapai, Y., Wunz, T. M., & Wright, S. H. (2007). Inorganic mercury interacts with cysteine residues (C451 and C474) of hOCT2 to reduce its transport activity. American journal of physiology. Renal physiology, 292(5).More infoHuman organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2) is essential for the renal tubular secretion of many toxic organic cations. Previously, of the cysteines (C437, C451, C470, and C474) that occur within transmembrane helices that comprise the hydrophilic cleft (proposed site of substrate binding), only C474 was accessible to maleimide-PEO(2)-biotin (hydrophilic thiol-reactive reagent), and covalent modification of this residue caused lower transport rates (Pelis RM, Zhang X, Dangprapai Y, Wright SH, J Biol Chem 281: 35272-35280, 2006). Thus it was hypothesized that the environmental contaminant Hg(2+) (as HgCl(2)) would interact with C474 to reduce hOCT2-mediated transport. Uptake of [(3)H]tetraethylammonium (TEA) into Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing hOCT2 was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner by HgCl(2), with an IC(50) of 3.9 +/- 0.11 microM. Treatment with 10 microM HgCl(2) caused a sixfold reduction in the maximal rate of TEA transport but did not alter the affinity of hOCT2 for TEA. To determine which cysteines interact with Hg(2+), a mutant with all four cleft cysteines converted to alanines (quadruple mutant), and four variants of this mutant, each with an individual cysteine restored, were created. The quadruple mutant was less sensitive to HgCl(2) than wild-type, whereas the C451- and C474-containing mutants were more sensitive than the quadruple mutant. Consistent with the HgCl(2) effect on transport, MTSEA-biotin only interacted with C451 and C474. These data indicate that C451 and C474 of hOCT2 reside in the aqueous milieu of the cleft and that interaction of Hg(2+) with these residues causes reduced TEA transport activity.
- Wright, S., Zhang, X., Cherrington, N. J., & Wright, S. H. (2007). Molecular identification and functional characterization of rabbit MATE1 and MATE2-K. American journal of physiology. Renal physiology, 293(1).More infoAn electroneutral organic cation (OC)/proton exchanger in the apical membrane of proximal tubules mediates the final step of renal OC excretion. Two members of the multidrug and toxin extrusion family, MATE1 and MATE2-K, were recently identified in human and rodent kidney and proposed to be the molecular basis of renal OC/H(+) exchange. To take advantage of the comparative value of the large database on the kinetic and selectivity characteristics of OC/H(+) exchange that exists for rabbit kidney, we cloned rbMATE1 and rbMATE2-K. The rabbit homologs have 75% (MATE1) and 74% (MATE2-K) amino acid identity to their human counterparts (and 51% identity with each other). rbMATE1 and rbMATE2-K exhibited H(+) gradient-dependent uptake and efflux of tetraethylammonium (TEA) when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Both transporters displayed similar affinities for selected compounds [IC(50) values within 2-fold for TEA, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, and quinidine] and very different affinities for others (IC(50) values differing by 8- to 80-fold for choline and cimetidine, respectively). These results indicate that rbMATE1 and rbMATE2-K are multispecific OC/H(+) exchangers with similar, but distinct, functional characteristics. Overall, the selectivity of MATE1 and MATE2-K correlated closely with that observed in rabbit renal brush-border membrane vesicles.
- Wright, S., Groves, C. E., Suhre, W. B., Cherrington, N. J., & Wright, S. H. (2006). Sex differences in the mRNA, protein, and functional expression of organic anion transporter (Oat) 1, Oat3, and organic cation transporter (Oct) 2 in rabbit renal proximal tubules. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics, 316(2).More infoSex differences in transport of the organic anion (OA) substrate p-aminohippurate (PAH) and the organic cation (OC) substrate tetraethylammonium (TEA) have been recognized for some time. In the rat kidney, androgens up-regulate and estrogens down-regulate PAH and TEA transport, which correlate with similar changes in mRNA and protein expression for the renal basolateral membrane transporters organic anion transporter (Oat) 1 and organic cation transporter (Oct) 2. However, these sex differences are not readily demonstrated in other species. The present study characterizes the kinetics of basolateral membrane PAH, estrone sulfate (ES), and TEA uptake in renal proximal tubule (RPT) suspensions isolated from female and male rabbits to compare functional expression of transport with mRNA and protein expression for rbOat1, rbOat3, and rbOct2. Although rbOat1-rbOat3 mRNA expression exhibited developmental differences, no sex differences in mRNA levels were observed. Oat1 and Oat3 protein expression in RPT suspensions also was similar between adult female and male rabbits. In contrast, rbOct1 and rbOct2 mRNA levels did not show developmental differences, but rbOct2 mRNA expression was greater in adult male than female rabbits. However, the sex difference in rbOct2 mRNA level did not translate to rbOct2 protein expression. Importantly, functional expression of Oat1, Oat3, and Oct2 transport as measured by kinetics (J(max) and K(t)) of PAH, ES, and TEA uptake was similar between adult male and female rabbits, and correlated with rbOat1, rbOat3, and rbOct2 protein expression. Thus, unlike rodents, rabbit renal OA and OC transport does not exhibit sex differences, pointing to the need for caution in extrapolating transport-related sex differences between species.
- Wright, S., Pelis, R. M., Suhre, W. M., & Wright, S. H. (2006). Functional influence of N-glycosylation in OCT2-mediated tetraethylammonium transport. American journal of physiology. Renal physiology, 290(5).More infoOCT2, an organic cation transporter critical for removal of many drugs and toxins from the body, contains consensus sites for N-glycosylation at amino acid position 71, 96, and 112. However, the extent to which these sites are glycosylated by the cell, and the influence glycosylation has on OCT2 function, remains unknown. To address these issues, the acquisition of N-glycosylation was disrupted by mutating the amino acid asparagine (N) to glutamine (Q) at these sites in the rabbit ortholog of OCT2, which was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Disruption of N-glycosylation followed by Western blotting indicated that each site is indeed glycosylated and that OCT2 contains no other sites of N-glycosylation. Plasma membrane expression (determined by surface biotinylation) of the N112Q mutant, but not N71Q or N96Q mutants, was fourfold lower than that of wild-type OCT2, and unglycosylated OCT2 (N71Q/N96Q/N112Q) was sequestered in an unidentified intracellular compartment. The N71Q, N96Q, and N112Q mutants had a higher affinity ( approximately 2-fold) for tetraethylammonium (TEA). Maximum transport rate was reduced in the N96Q (3-fold) and N112Q (5-fold) mutants, but not the N71Q mutant, and unglycosylated OCT2 failed to transport TEA (associated with its absence in the plasma membrane). Whereas the reduction in maximum transport rate of the N112Q mutant is consistent with its reduced plasma membrane expression, the lower rate of the N96Q mutant, which appeared to traffic properly, suggests that glycosylation at N96 increases the transporter turnover number.
- Wright, S., Pelis, R. M., Zhang, X., Dangprapai, Y., & Wright, S. H. (2006). Cysteine accessibility in the hydrophilic cleft of human organic cation transporter 2. The Journal of biological chemistry, 281(46).More infoOrganic cation transporters (OCTs) are involved in the renal elimination of many cationic drugs and toxins. A hypothetical three-dimensional structure of OCT2 based on a homology model that used the Escherichia coli glycerol 3-phosphate transporter as a template has been described (Zhang, X., Shirahatti, N. V., Mahadevan, D., and Wright, S. H. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 34813-34822). To further define OCT structure, the accessibility to hydrophilic thiol-reactive reagents of the 13 cysteine residues contained in the human ortholog of OCT2 was examined. Maleimide-PEO2-biotin precipitated (surface biotinylation followed by Western blotting) and reduced tetraethylammonium transport by OCT2 expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, effects that were largely reversed by co-exposure to substrates and transport inhibitors, suggesting interaction with cysteines that are near to or part of a substrate-binding surface. Cysteines at amino acid position 437, 451, 470, and 474 were identified from the model as being located in transmembrane helices that participate in forming the hydrophilic cleft, the proposed region of substrate-protein interaction. To determine which residues are exposed to the solvent, a mutant with all four of these cysteines converted to alanine, along with four variants of this mutant each with an individual cysteine restored, were created. Maleimide-PEO2-biotin was only effective at precipitating and reducing transport by wild-type OCT2 and the mutant with cysteine 474 restored. Additionally, the smaller thiol-reactive reagent, methanethiosulfonate ethylsulfonate, reduced transport by wild-type OCT2 and the mutant with cysteine 474 restored. These data demonstrate that cysteine 474 of OCT2 is exposed to the aqueous milieu of the cleft and contributes to forming a pathway for organic cation transport.
- Wright, S., & Wright, S. H. (2005). Role of organic cation transporters in the renal handling of therapeutic agents and xenobiotics. Toxicology and applied pharmacology, 204(3).More infoOrganic cations (OCs) constitute a diverse array of compounds of physiological, pharmacological, and toxicological importance. Renal secretion of these compounds, which occurs principally along the proximal portion of the nephron, plays a critical role in regulating the concentration of OCs in the plasma and in clearing the body of potentially toxic xenobiotic OCs. Transepithelial OC transport in the kidney involves separate entry and exit steps at the basolateral and luminal aspects of renal tubular cells. It is increasingly apparent that basolateral and luminal OC transport reflects the concerted activity of a suite of separate transport processes arranged in parallel in each pole of proximal tubule cells. Most of the transporters that appear to dominate renal secretion of OCs belong to a single family of transport proteins: the OCT Family. The characterization of their activity, and their localization within distinct regions of the kidney, has permitted development of models describing the molecular and cellular basis of the renal secretion of OCs.
- Wright, S., Suhre, W. M., Ekins, S., Chang, C., Swaan, P. W., & Wright, S. H. (2005). Molecular determinants of substrate/inhibitor binding to the human and rabbit renal organic cation transporters hOCT2 and rbOCT2. Molecular pharmacology, 67(4).More infoOrganic cation transporters are important for the elimination of many drugs and toxins from the body. In the present study, substrate-transporter interactions were investigated in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with either the human or rabbit orthologs of the principal organic cation transporter in the kidney, OCT2. IC(50) values, ranging from 0.04 muM to >3 mM, for inhibition of [(14)C]tetraethylammonium transport were determined for more than 30 structurally diverse compounds. Although the two OCT orthologs displayed similar IC(50) values for some of these compounds, the majority varied by as much as 20-fold. Marked differences in substrate affinity were also noted when comparing hOCT2 to the closely related homolog hOCT1. These data suggest the molecular determinants of substrate binding differ markedly among both homologous and orthologous OCT transporters. The software package Cerius(2) (Accelrys, San Diego, CA) was used to generate a descriptor-based, two-dimensional, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) to produce a model relating the affinity of hOCT2 to particular physicochemical features of substrate/inhibitor molecules (r(2) = 0.81). Comparative molecular field analysis (Tripos, St. Louis, MO) was used to generate three-dimensional QSARs describing the structural basis of substrate binding to hOCT2 and rbOCT2 (q(2) = 0.60 and 0.53, respectively, and each with r(2) = 0.97). The quality of the models was assessed by their ability to successfully predict the inhibition of a set of test compounds. The current models enabled prediction of OCT2 affinity and may prove useful in the prediction of unwanted drug interactions at the level of the renal secretory process.
- Wright, S., Zhang, X., Shirahatti, N. V., Mahadevan, D., & Wright, S. H. (2005). A conserved glutamate residue in transmembrane helix 10 influences substrate specificity of rabbit OCT2 (SLC22A2). The Journal of biological chemistry, 280(41).More infoOCT1 and OCT2 are involved in renal secretion of cationic drugs. Although they have similar selectivity for some substrates (e.g. tetraethylammonium (TEA)), they have distinct selectivities for others (e.g. cimetidine). We postulated that "homolog-specific residues," i.e. the 24 residues that are conserved in OCT1 orthologs as one amino acid and in OCT2 as a different one, influence homolog-specific selectivity and examined the influence on substrate binding of three of these conserved residues that are found in the C-terminal half of the rabbit orthologs of OCT1/2. The N353L and R403I substitutions (OCT2 to OCT1) did not significantly change the properties of OCT2. However, the E447Q replacement shifted substrate selectivity toward an OCT1-like phenotype. Substitution of glutamate with cationic amino acids (E447K and E447R) abolished transport activity, and the E447L mutant displayed markedly reduced transport of TEA and cimetidine while retaining transport of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium. In a novel homology model of the three-dimensional structure of OCT2, Glu(447) was found in a putative docking region within a hydrophilic cleft of the protein. In addition, six residues identified in separate studies as exerting significant effects on OCT binding were also found within the putative cleft region. There was a significant correlation (r(2) = 0.82) between the IC(50) values for inhibition of TEA transport by 14 different compounds and their calculated K(D) values for binding to the model of rabbit OCT2. The results suggest that homology modeling offers an opportunity to direct future site-directed studies of OCT/substrate interaction.
- Wright, S., & Wright, S. H. (2004). Generation of resting membrane potential. Advances in physiology education, 28(1-4).More infoThis brief review is intended to serve as a refresher on the ideas associated with teaching students the physiological basis of the resting membrane potential. The presentation is targeted toward first-year medical students, first-year graduate students, or senior undergraduates. The emphasis is on general concepts associated with generation of the electrical potential difference that exists across the plasma membrane of every animal cell. The intention is to provide students a general view of the quantitative relationship that exists between 1) transmembrane gradients for K(+) and Na(+) and 2) the relative channel-mediated permeability of the membrane to these ions.
- Wright, S., Zhang, X., Groves, C. E., Bahn, A., Barendt, W. M., Prado, M. D., Rödiger, M., Chatsudthipong, V., Burckhardt, G., & Wright, S. H. (2004). Relative contribution of OAT and OCT transporters to organic electrolyte transport in rabbit proximal tubule. American journal of physiology. Renal physiology, 287(5).More infoWe compared the characteristics of several cloned rabbit organic electrolyte (OE) transporters expressed in cultured cells with their behavior in intact rabbit renal proximal tubules (RPT) to determine the contribution of each to basolateral uptake of the weak acid ochratoxin A (OTA) and the weak base cimetidine (CIM). The activity of organic anion transporters OAT1 and OAT3 proved to be distinguishable because OAT1 had a high affinity for PAH (K(t) of 20 microM) and did not support estrone sulfate (ES) transport, whereas OAT3 had a high affinity for ES (K(t) of 4.5 microM) and a weak interaction with PAH (IC(50) > 1 mM). In contrast, both transporters robustly accumulated OTA. Intact RPT also accumulated OTA, with OAT1 and OAT3 each responsible for approximately 50%: ES and PAH each reduced uptake by approximately 50%, and the combination of the two eliminated mediated OTA uptake. The weak base CIM was transported by OAT3 (K(t) of 80 microM) and OCT2 (K(t) of 2 microM); OCT1 had a comparatively low affinity for CIM, and CIM uptake by OAT1 was equivocal. Intact RPT accumulated CIM, with TEA and ES reducing CIM uptake by 20 and 75%, respectively, suggesting that OAT3 plays a quantitatively more significant role in CIM uptake in the early proximal tubule than OCT1/2. In single S2 segments of RPT, ES and TEA each blocked approximately 50% of CIM uptake. Thus the fractional contribution of different OE transporters to renal secretion is influenced by their affinity for substrate and relative expression level in RPT.
- Wright, S., Bednarczyk, D., Ekins, S., Wikel, J. H., & Wright, S. H. (2003). Influence of molecular structure on substrate binding to the human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. Molecular pharmacology, 63(3).More infoOrganic cation transporters play a critical role in the elimination of therapeutic compounds in the liver and the kidney. We used computational quantitative structure activity approaches to predict molecular features that influence interaction with the human ortholog of the organic cation transporter (hOCT1). [(3)H]tetraethylammonium uptake in HeLa cells stably expressing hOCT1 was inhibited to varying extents by a diverse set of 30 molecules. A subset of 22 of these was used to produce, using Catalyst, a pharmacophore that consisted of three hydrophobic features and a positive ionizable feature. The correlation coefficient of observed versus predicted IC(50) was 0.86 for this training set, which was superior to calculated logP alone (r = 0.73) as a predictor of hOCT1 inhibition. A descriptor-based quantitative structure-activity relationship study using Cerius(2) resulted in an equation relating five molecular descriptors to log IC(50) with a correlation coefficient of 0.95. Furthermore, a group of phenylpyridinium and quinolinium compounds were used to investigate the spatial limitations of the hOCT1 binding site. The affinity for hOCT was higher for 4-phenylpyridiniums > 3-phenylpyridiniums > quinolinium, indicating that substrate affinity was influenced by the distribution of hydrophobic mass. In addition, supraplanar hydrophobic mass was found to increase the affinity for binding hOCT1. These results indicate how a combination of computational and in vitro approaches may yield insight into the binding affinity of transporters and may be applicable to predicting these properties for new therapeutics.
- Wright, S., Dantzler, W. H., & Wright, S. H. (2003). The molecular and cellular physiology of basolateral organic anion transport in mammalian renal tubules. Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1618(2).More infoBasolateral transport of organic anions (OAs) into mammalian renal proximal tubule cells is a tertiary active transport process. The final step in this process involves movement of OA into the cells against its electrochemical gradient in exchange for alpha-ketoglutarate (alphaKG) moving down its electrochemical gradient. Two homologous transport proteins (OAT1 and OAT3) that function as basolateral OA/alphaKG exchangers have been cloned and sequenced. We are in the process of determining the functional distribution and regulation of OAT1 and OAT3 in renal tubules. We are using rabbit OAT1 (rbOAT1) and OAT3 (rbOAT3) expressed in heterologous cell systems to determine substrate specificity and putative regulatory steps and isolated rabbit proximal renal tubule segments to determine functional distribution and physiological regulation of these transporters within their native epithelium. Rabbit OAT1 and OAT3 differ distinctly in substrate specificity. For example, rbOAT1 has a high affinity for the classical renal OA transport substrate, p-aminohippurate (PAH), whereas rbOAT3 has no affinity for PAH. In contrast, rbOAT3 has a high affinity for estrone sulfate (ES), whereas rbOAT1 has only a very slight affinity for ES. Both rbOAT1 and rbOAT3 appear to have about the same affinity for fluorescein (FL). These differences and similarities in substrate affinities make it possible to functionally map transporters along the renal tubules. Initial data indicate that OAT1 predominates in S2 segments of the rabbit proximal tubules, but studies of other segments are just beginning. Transport of a given substrate in any tubule segment depends on both the affinity of each transporter which can accept that substrate as well as the level of expression of each of those processes in that particular tubule segment. Basolateral PAH transport (presumably OAT1 activity) appears to be down-regulated by activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and up-regulated via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) through phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), cyclic AMP, and protein kinase A (PKA) activation.
- Wright, S., Groves, C. E., Muñoz, L., Bahn, A., Burckhardt, G., & Wright, S. H. (2003). Interaction of cysteine conjugates with human and rabbit organic anion transporter 1. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics, 304(2).More infoOrganic anion (OA) transport mediates accumulation of the zwitterionic nephrotoxic cysteine S-conjugates S-dichlorovinylcysteine (DCVC) and S-chlorotrifluoroethylcysteine (CTFC) in the rabbit renal proximal tubule (RPT). Although these cysteine conjugates are nephrotoxic to the human RPT, neither the role of OA transport nor the specific OA transport pathway(s) involved in cysteine conjugate accumulation are known. Since the OAT1 transporter has the characteristics of para-aminokippurate (PAH) transport that closely correlate to the native RPT, we examined the interaction of DCVC, CTFC, and the nontoxic benzothiazolylcysteine (BTC) with PAH transport mediated by human OAT1 and rabbit Oat1 expressed in Chinese hamster ovary and COS7 heterologous expression systems, respectively. Although the K(m) values for PAH uptake by hOAT1 and rbOat1 (8.9 +/- 3.6 and 20.7 +/- 8 microM, respectively) were 5- to 10-fold less than the K(m) for peritubular PAH transport into rabbit RPT, the IC(50) values for DCVC, CTFC, and BTC inhibition of PAH uptake mediated by either hOAT1 or rbOat1 were similar between these two transporters and to the IC(50) values for these conjugates measured in rabbit RPT. The IC(50) for inhibition of hOAT1- and rbOat1-mediated PAH uptake by the hydrophobic conjugate BTC was more than 5-fold lower than the IC(50) values seen with DCVC and CTFC, suggesting that hydrophobicity increases the affinity of OAT1 for cysteine conjugates. Finally, preloading cells transfected with hOAT1 with BTC significantly trans-stimulated the uptake of PAH, consistent with the conclusion that BTC and, hence, other cysteine S-conjugates are substrates for hOAT1.
- Wright, S., Barendt, W. M., & Wright, S. H. (2002). The human organic cation transporter (hOCT2) recognizes the degree of substrate ionization. The Journal of biological chemistry, 277(25).More infoThe organic cation transporter, OCT2, plays a role in renal secretion of a broad array of weak bases. To determine whether the degree of ionization of these compounds plays a role in their interaction with OCT2, we examined the influence of external pH values on the activity of the human ortholog of OCT2, as expressed in Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells. Importantly, changing the pH value from 7.0 to 8.0 had no effect on the rate of transport of the fixed cations, tetraethylammonium and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, i.e. the pH value did not have an effect upon the transporter itself. Cimetidine (pK(a) 6.92), a competitive inhibitor of hOCT2, displayed a 3.5-fold increase in IC(50) as pH values increased from 7 to 8. hOCT2-mediated cimetidine transport decreased over this pH range, the consequence of an increase in K(t) and decrease in J(max) at the higher pH value. The weak bases trimethoprim and 4-phenylpyridine showed a similar pattern of pH-sensitive interaction with hOCT2. The non-ionizable sterol, corticosterone, also inhibited hOCT2 activity, although it was neither competitive in nature nor was it sensitive to pH in the manner observed with weak bases. We conclude that the degree of ionization plays a critical role in binding of substrate to organic cation transporters.
- Wright, S., Zhang, X., Evans, K. K., & Wright, S. H. (2002). Molecular cloning of rabbit organic cation transporter rbOCT2 and functional comparisons with rbOCT1. American journal of physiology. Renal physiology, 283(1).More infoMultiple organic cation transporters (OCTs) are present in rabbit kidney and may play different functional roles. We cloned rabbit OCT2 (rbOCT2) and compared its function with that of rabbit OCT1 (rbOCT1). In transiently transfected COS-7 cells, rbOCT1 and rbOCT2 mediated uptake of [3H]tetraethylammonium (TEA) with K(t) values of 188 and 125 microM, respectively. n-Tetraalkylammonium compounds showed similar affinities for the two homologs, with IC50 values for inhibition of OCT1- and OCT2-mediated [3H]TEA transport, respectively, of 4,538 and 1,395 microM for tetramethylammonium, 88.5 and 3.9 microM for tetrapropylammonium, 13.9 and 5.3 microM for tetrabutylammonium, and 8.8 and 7.6 microM for tetrapentylammonium. However, the transporters had very different affinities for cimetidine (CIM): IC50 of 916 and 5.7 microM for rbOCT1 and rbOCT2, respectively. CIM inhibition of TEA uptake into single S2 segments of rabbit proximal tubule was used to estimate the contributions of OCT1 and OCT2 to basolateral organic cation uptake. The median IC50 for CIM inhibition of TEA uptake was 12.3 microM, suggesting that OCT2 is the major contributor to basolateral organic cation transport in the S2 segment of proximal tubule in rabbit kidney.