- Director, Asthma / Airway Disease Research Center
- Professor, Pediatrics
- Regents Professor
- Endowed Chair, Swift - McNear
- Professor, BIO5 Institute
- Professor, Genetics - GIDP
- Longitudinal studies of asthma and asthma-related traits in early life. Over 20 years of experience in designing, conducting, and analyzing and publishing data from prospective birth cohorts enrolled either during the mother’s pregnancy or during the first days of life.
- Genetics and pharmacogenetics of asthma.
- Novel therapeutic approaches to childhood asthma
- Role of gene-environment interactions in the development of complex diseases, especially asthma and related traits.
No activities entered.
Independent StudyPSIO 399 (Spring 2018)
- Carr, T. F., Beamer, P. I., Rothers, J., Stern, D. A., Gerald, L. B., Rosales, C. B., Van Horne, Y. O., Pivniouk, O. N., Vercelli, D., Halonen, M., Gameros, M., Martinez, F. D., & Wright, A. L. (2017). Prevalence of Asthma in School Children on the Arizona-Sonora Border. The journal of allergy and clinical immunology. In practice, 5(1), 114-120.e2.More infoMexican-born children living in the United States have a lower prevalence of asthma than other US children. Although children of Mexican descent near the Arizona (AZ)-Sonora border are genetically similar, differences in environmental exposures might result in differences in asthma prevalence across this region.
- Croteau-Chonka, D. C., Qiu, W., Martinez, F. D., Strunk, R. C., Lemanske, R. F., Liu, A. H., Gilliland, F. D., Millstein, J., Gauderman, W. J., Ober, C., Krishnan, J. A., White, S. R., Naureckas, E. T., Nicolae, D. L., Barnes, K. C., London, S. J., Barraza-Villarreal, A., Carey, V. J., Weiss, S. T., , Raby, B. A., et al. (2017). Gene Expression Profiling in Blood Provides Reproducible Molecular Insights into Asthma Control. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 195(2), 179-188.More infoMaintaining optimal symptom control remains the primary objective of asthma treatment. Better understanding of the biologic underpinnings of asthma control may lead to the development of improved clinical and pharmaceutical approaches.
- Martinez, F. D. (2017). Bending the Twig Does the Tree Incline: Lung Function after Lower Respiratory Tract Illness in Infancy. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 195(2), 154-155.
- Bacharier, L. B., Guilbert, T. W., & Martinez, F. D. (2016). Early Azithromycin Treatment to Prevent Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Illnesses in Children--Reply. JAMA, 315(19), 2122-3.
- Beamer, P. I., Klimecki, W. T., Loh, M., Van Horne, Y. O., Sugeng, A. J., Lothrop, N., Billheimer, D., Guerra, S., Lantz, R. C., Canales, R. A., & Martinez, F. D. (2016). Association of Children's Urinary CC16 Levels with Arsenic Concentrations in Multiple Environmental Media. International journal of environmental research and public health, 13(5).More infoArsenic exposure has been associated with decreased club cell secretory protein (CC16) levels in adults. Further, both arsenic exposure and decreased levels of CC16 in childhood have been associated with decreased adult lung function. Our objective was to determine if urinary CC16 levels in children are associated with arsenic concentrations in environmental media collected from their homes. Yard soil, house dust, and tap water were taken from 34 homes. Urine and toenail samples were collected from 68 children. All concentrations were natural log-transformed prior to data analysis. There were associations between urinary CC16 and arsenic concentration in soil (b = -0.43, p = 0.001, R² = 0.08), water (b = -0.22, p = 0.07, R² = 0.03), house dust (b = -0.37, p = 0.07, R² = 0.04), and dust loading (b = -0.21, p = 0.04, R² = 0.04). In multiple analyses, only the concentration of arsenic in soil was associated with urinary CC16 levels (b = -0.42, p = 0.02, R² = 0.14 (full model)) after accounting for other factors. The association between urinary CC16 and soil arsenic may suggest that localized arsenic exposure in the lungs could damage the airway epithelium and predispose children for diminished lung function. Future work to assess this possible mechanism should examine potential associations between airborne arsenic exposures, CC16 levels, lung function, and other possible confounders in children in arsenic-impacted communities.
- Beamer, P. I., Klimecki, W. T., Loh, M., Van Horne, Y. O., Sugeng, A. J., Lothrop, N., Billheimer, D., Guerra, S., Lantz, R. C., Canales, R. A., & Martinez, F. D. (2016). Response to García-Nieto et al. Comments on Beamer et al. Association of Children's Urinary CC16 Levels with Arsenic Concentrations in Multiple Environmental Media. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 521. International journal of environmental research and public health, 13(10).More infoWe would like to thank the editors for providing us with the opportunity to respond to the points raised by Dr. García Nieto.[...].
- Berry, C. E., Billheimer, D., Jenkins, I. C., Lu, Z. J., Stern, D. A., Gerald, L. B., Carr, T. F., Guerra, S., Morgan, W. J., Wright, A. L., & Martinez, F. D. (2016). A Distinct Low Lung Function Trajectory from Childhood to the Fourth Decade of Life. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 194(5), 607-12.More infoLow maximally attained lung function increases the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease irrespective of the subsequent rate of lung function decline.
- Chang, E. H., Willis, A. L., McCrary, H. C., Noutsios, G. T., Le, C. H., Chiu, A. G., Mansfield, C. J., Reed, D. R., Brooks, S. G., Adappa, N. D., Palmer, J. N., Cohen, N. G., Stern, D. A., Guerra, S., & Martinez, F. D. (2016). Association between the CDHR3 rs6967330 risk allele and chronic rhinosinusitis. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology.
- Deshpande, D. R., & Martinez, F. D. (2016). The dilemma of systemic steroids in preschool children with recurrent wheezing exacerbations. Pediatric pulmonology, 51(8), 775-7.
- Fitzpatrick, A. M., Jackson, D. J., Mauger, D. T., Boehmer, S. J., Phipatanakul, W., Sheehan, W. J., Moy, J. N., Paul, I. M., Bacharier, L. B., Cabana, M. D., Covar, R., Holguin, F., Lemanske, R. F., Martinez, F. D., Pongracic, J. A., Beigelman, A., Baxi, S. N., Benson, M., Blake, K., , Chmiel, J. F., et al. (2016). Individualized therapy for persistent asthma in young children. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 138(6), 1608-1618.e12.More infoPhenotypic presentations in young children with asthma are varied and might contribute to differential responses to asthma controller medications.
- Gerald, J. K., Gerald, L. B., Vasquez, M. M., Morgan, W. J., Boehmer, S. J., Lemanske, R. F., Mauger, D. T., Strunk, R. C., Szefler, S. J., Zeiger, R. S., Bacharier, L. B., Bade, E., Covar, R. A., Guilbert, T. W., Heidarian-Raissy, H., Kelly, H. W., Malka-Rais, J., Sorkness, C. A., Taussig, L. M., , Chinchilli, V. M., et al. (2016). Markers of Differential Response to Inhaled Corticosteroid Treatment Among Children with Mild Persistent Asthma. The journal of allergy and clinical immunology. In practice, 3(4), 540-6.e3.More infoInhaled corticosteroids are recommended as first-line therapy for children with mild persistent asthma; however, specific patient characteristics may modify the treatment response.
- Gozdz, J., Holbreich, M., Metwali, N., Thorne, P. S., Sperling, A. I., Martinez, F. D., Ober, C., von Mutius, E., & Vercelli, D. (2016). Amish and Hutterite Environmental Farm Products Have Opposite Effects on Experimental Models of Asthma. Annals of the American Thoracic Society, 13 Suppl 1, S99.
- Martinez, F. D. (2016). Beyond the Paradigm of Asthma as an Inflammatory Disease. A Summary of the 2015 Aspen Lung Conference. Annals of the American Thoracic Society, 13 Suppl 1, S91-4.
- Martinez, F. D. (2016). Early-Life Origins of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. The New England journal of medicine, 375(9), 871-8.
- Martinez, F. D. (2016). Safety of Fluticasone plus Salmeterol in Asthma--Reassuring Data, but No Final Answer. The New England journal of medicine, 374(19), 1887-8.
- Oren, E., Gerald, L., Stern, D. A., Martinez, F. D., & Wright, A. L. (2016). Self-Reported Stressful Life Events During Adolescence and Subsequent Asthma: A Longitudinal Study. The journal of allergy and clinical immunology. In practice.More infoAlthough exposure to stressful life events in adolescence has been associated with poor health as measured by number of physicians' visits and symptom scores, little is known regarding stress in adolescence and either concurrent or subsequent asthma.
- Sheehan, W. J., Mauger, D. T., Paul, I. M., Moy, J. N., Boehmer, S. J., Szefler, S. J., Fitzpatrick, A. M., Jackson, D. J., Bacharier, L. B., Cabana, M. D., Covar, R., Holguin, F., Lemanske, R. F., Martinez, F. D., Pongracic, J. A., Beigelman, A., Baxi, S. N., Benson, M., Blake, K., , Chmiel, J. F., et al. (2016). Acetaminophen versus Ibuprofen in Young Children with Mild Persistent Asthma. The New England journal of medicine, 375(7), 619-30.More infoStudies have suggested an association between frequent acetaminophen use and asthma-related complications among children, leading some physicians to recommend that acetaminophen be avoided in children with asthma; however, appropriately designed trials evaluating this association in children are lacking.
- Stein, M. M., Hrusch, C. L., Gozdz, J., Igartua, C., Pivniouk, V., Murray, S. E., Ledford, J. G., Marques dos Santos, M., Anderson, R. L., Metwali, N., Neilson, J. W., Maier, R. M., Gilbert, J. A., Holbreich, M., Thorne, P. S., Martinez, F. D., von Mutius, E., Vercelli, D., Ober, C., & Sperling, A. I. (2016). Innate Immunity and Asthma Risk in Amish and Hutterite Farm Children. The New England journal of medicine, 375(5), 411-21.More infoThe Amish and Hutterites are U.S. agricultural populations whose lifestyles are remarkably similar in many respects but whose farming practices, in particular, are distinct; the former follow traditional farming practices whereas the latter use industrialized farming practices. The populations also show striking disparities in the prevalence of asthma, and little is known about the immune responses underlying these disparities.
- Yan, X., Chu, J. H., Gomez, J., Koenigs, M., Holm, C., He, X., Perez, M. F., Zhao, H., Mane, S., Martinez, F. D., Ober, C., Nicolae, D. L., Barnes, K. C., London, S. J., Gilliland, F., Weiss, S. T., Raby, B. A., Cohn, L., & Chupp, G. L. (2016). Noninvasive Analysis of the Sputum Transcriptome Discriminates Clinical Phenotypes of Asthma. Annals of the American Thoracic Society, 13 Suppl 1, S104-5.More infoIt is increasingly recognized that asthma is a heterogeneous disease. Therefore, it is possible that analysis of gene expression in the airway will reveal clinically meaningful transcriptional endotypes of asthma (TEA clusters).
- von Mutius, E., & Martinez, F. D. (2016). Inconclusive Results of Randomized Trials of Prenatal Vitamin D for Asthma Prevention in Offspring: Curbing the Enthusiasm. JAMA, 315(4), 347-8.
- Bacharier, L. B., Guilbert, T. W., Mauger, D. T., Boehmer, S., Beigelman, A., Fitzpatrick, A. M., Jackson, D. J., Baxi, S. N., Benson, M., Burnham, C. A., Cabana, M., Castro, M., Chmiel, J. F., Covar, R., Daines, M., Gaffin, J. M., Gentile, D. A., Holguin, F., Israel, E., , Kelly, H. W., et al. (2015). Early Administration of Azithromycin and Prevention of Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Illnesses in Preschool Children With a History of Such Illnesses: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA, 314(19), 2034-44.More infoMany preschool children develop recurrent, severe episodes of lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI). Although viral infections are often present, bacteria may also contribute to illness pathogenesis. Strategies that effectively attenuate such episodes are needed.
- Beamer, P. I., Lothrop, N., Lu, Z., Ascher, R., Ernst, K., Stern, D. A., Billheimer, D., Wright, A. L., & Martinez, F. D. (2015). Spatial clusters of child lower respiratory illnesses associated with community-level risk factors. Pediatric pulmonology.More infoIdentifying geographic areas with increased incidence of disease may elucidate community-level risk factors for intervention development. Lower respiratory illnesses (LRIs) are the leading cause of death in children and are associated with other morbidities. We assessed geographic clustering of LRIs and evaluated if these spatial patterns and associated risk factors differed by phenotype. Participants enrolled at birth in the Tucson Children's Respiratory Study were followed through age three for physician diagnosed LRIs. Spatial clustering analysis, based upon each participant's birth address, was performed for four LRI phenotypes. We conducted principal component analysis at the census tract level to generate indices for lower socioeconomic status (SES), poorer housing conditions, and increased air pollution. Enrollment addresses were mapped for 812 subjects, of whom 58.4%, 33.5%, 34.2%, and 23.4% had any LRI, a wheezing LRI, a viral LRI, and a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) LRI, respectively. Patterns of spatial clustering and associated risk factors differed by LRI phenotype. Multivariable regression analyses showed that wheezing LRI clusters were associated with increased air pollution (OR = 1.18, P = 0.01). Being in a viral cluster was associated with poorer housing conditions (OR = 1.28, P = 0.01), while being in a RSV cluster was associated with increased air pollution (OR = 1.14, P = 0.006), poorer housing conditions (OR = 1.54, P = 0.003), and higher SES (OR = 0.77, P = 0.001). Our use of social and environmental indices allowed us to identify broad contextual factors that may contribute to increased incidence of LRIs in specific geographic regions. To reduce LRI incidence, multifaceted interventions should be developed at the community level. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Brehm, J. M., Ramratnam, S. K., Tse, S. M., Croteau-Chonka, D. C., Pino-Yanes, M., Rosas-Salazar, C., Litonjua, A. A., Raby, B. A., Boutaoui, N., Han, Y., Chen, W., Forno, E., Marsland, A. L., Nugent, N. R., Eng, C., Colón-Semidey, A., Alvarez, M., Acosta-Pérez, E., Spear, M. L., , Martinez, F. D., et al. (2015). Stress and Bronchodilator Response in Children with Asthma. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 192(1), 47-56.More infoStress is associated with asthma morbidity in Puerto Ricans (PRs), who have reduced bronchodilator response (BDR).
- Chan, J. Y., Stern, D. A., Guerra, S., Wright, A. L., Morgan, W. J., & Martinez, F. D. (2015). Pneumonia in childhood and impaired lung function in adults: a longitudinal study. Pediatrics, 135(4), 607-16.More infoDiminished lung function and increased prevalence of asthma have been reported in children with a history of early lower respiratory illnesses (LRIs), including pneumonia. Whether these associations persist up to adulthood has not been established.
- Croteau-Chonka, D. C., Rogers, A. J., Raj, T., McGeachie, M. J., Qiu, W., Ziniti, J. P., Stubbs, B. J., Liang, L., Martinez, F. D., Strunk, R. C., Lemanske, R. F., Liu, A. H., Stranger, B. E., Carey, V. J., & Raby, B. A. (2015). Expression Quantitative Trait Loci Information Improves Predictive Modeling of Disease Relevance of Non-Coding Genetic Variation. PloS one, 10(10), e0140758.More infoDisease-associated loci identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) frequently localize to non-coding sequence. We and others have demonstrated strong enrichment of such single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), supporting an important role for regulatory genetic variation in complex disease pathogenesis. Herein we describe our initial efforts to develop a predictive model of disease-associated variants leveraging eQTL information. We first catalogued cis-acting eQTLs (SNPs within 100 kb of target gene transcripts) by meta-analyzing four studies of three blood-derived tissues (n = 586). At a false discovery rate < 5%, we mapped eQTLs for 6,535 genes; these were enriched for disease-associated genes (P < 10(-04)), particularly those related to immune diseases and metabolic traits. Based on eQTL information and other variant annotations (distance from target gene transcript, minor allele frequency, and chromatin state), we created multivariate logistic regression models to predict SNP membership in reported GWAS. The complete model revealed independent contributions of specific annotations as strong predictors, including evidence for an eQTL (odds ratio (OR) = 1.2-2.0, P < 10(-11)) and the chromatin states of active promoters, different classes of strong or weak enhancers, or transcriptionally active regions (OR = 1.5-2.3, P < 10(-11)). This complete prediction model including eQTL association information ultimately allowed for better discrimination of SNPs with higher probabilities of GWAS membership (6.3-10.0%, compared to 3.5% for a random SNP) than the other two models excluding eQTL information. This eQTL-based prediction model of disease relevance can help systematically prioritize non-coding GWAS SNPs for further functional characterization.
- Gardeux, V., Bosco, A., Li, J., Halonen, M. J., Jackson, D., Martinez, F. D., & Lussier, Y. A. (2015). Towards a PBMC "virogram assay" for precision medicine: Concordance between ex vivo and in vivo viral infection transcriptomes. Journal of biomedical informatics, 55, 94-103.More infoUnderstanding individual patient host-response to viruses is key to designing optimal personalized therapy. Unsurprisingly, in vivo human experimentation to understand individualized dynamic response of the transcriptome to viruses are rarely studied because of the obvious limitations stemming from ethical considerations of the clinical risk.
- Guerra, S., Halonen, M., Vasquez, M. M., Spangenberg, A., Stern, D. A., Morgan, W. J., Wright, A. L., Lavi, I., Tarès, L., Carsin, A., Dobaño, C., Barreiro, E., Zock, J., Martínez-Moratalla, J., Urrutia, I., Sunyer, J., Keidel, D., Imboden, M., Probst-Hensch, N., , Hallberg, J., et al. (2015). Relation between circulating CC16 concentrations, lung function, and development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease across the lifespan: a prospective study. The Lancet. Respiratory medicine, 3(8), 613-20.More infoLow concentrations of the anti-inflammatory protein CC16 (approved symbol SCGB1A1) in serum have been associated with accelerated decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated whether low circulating CC16 concentrations precede lung function deficits and incidence of COPD in the general population.
- Igartua, C., Myers, R. A., Mathias, R. A., Pino-Yanes, M., Eng, C., Graves, P. E., Levin, A. M., Del-Rio-Navarro, B. E., Jackson, D. J., Livne, O. E., Rafaels, N., Edlund, C. K., Yang, J. J., Huntsman, S., Salam, M. T., Romieu, I., Mourad, R., Gern, J. E., Lemanske, R. F., , Wyss, A., et al. (2015). Ethnic-specific associations of rare and low-frequency DNA sequence variants with asthma. Nature communications, 6, 5965.More infoCommon variants at many loci have been robustly associated with asthma but explain little of the overall genetic risk. Here we investigate the role of rare (
- Lange, P., Celli, B., Agustí, A., Boje Jensen, G., Divo, M., Faner, R., Guerra, S., Marott, J. L., Martinez, F. D., Martinez-Camblor, P., Meek, P., Owen, C. A., Petersen, H., Pinto-Plata, V., Schnohr, P., Sood, A., Soriano, J. B., Tesfaigzi, Y., & Vestbo, J. (2015). Lung-Function Trajectories Leading to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. The New England journal of medicine, 373(2), 111-22.More infoChronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is thought to result from an accelerated decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) over time. Yet it is possible that a normal decline in FEV1 could also lead to COPD in persons whose maximally attained FEV1 is less than population norms.
- Li, H., Pouladi, N., Achour, I., Gardeux, V., Li, J., Li, Q., Zhang, H. H., Martinez, F. D., 'Skip' Garcia, J. G., & Lussier, Y. A. (2015). eQTL networks unveil enriched mRNA master integrators downstream of complex disease-associated SNPs. Journal of biomedical informatics, 58, 226-34.More infoThe causal and interplay mechanisms of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with complex diseases (complex disease SNPs) investigated in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) at the transcriptional level (mRNA) are poorly understood despite recent advancements such as discoveries reported in the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTex). Protein interaction network analyses have successfully improved our understanding of both single gene diseases (Mendelian diseases) and complex diseases. Whether the mRNAs downstream of complex disease genes are central or peripheral in the genetic information flow relating DNA to mRNA remains unclear and may be disease-specific. Using expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) that provide DNA to mRNA associations and network centrality metrics, we hypothesize that we can unveil the systems properties of information flow between SNPs and the transcriptomes of complex diseases. We compare different conditions such as naïve SNP assignments and stringent linkage disequilibrium (LD) free assignments for transcripts to remove confounders from LD. Additionally, we compare the results from eQTL networks between lymphoblastoid cell lines and liver tissue. Empirical permutation resampling (p
- McGeachie, M. J., Dahlin, A., Qiu, W., Croteau-Chonka, D. C., Savage, J., Wu, A. C., Wan, E. S., Sordillo, J. E., Al-Garawi, A., Martinez, F. D., Strunk, R. C., Lemanske, R. F., Liu, A. H., Raby, B. A., Weiss, S., Clish, C. B., & Lasky-Su, J. A. (2015). The metabolomics of asthma control: a promising link between genetics and disease. Immunity, inflammation and disease, 3(3), 224-38.More infoShort-acting β agonists (e.g., albuterol) are the most commonly used medications for asthma, a disease that affects over 300 million people in the world. Metabolomic profiling of asthmatics taking β agonists presents a new and promising resource for identifying the molecular determinants of asthma control. The objective is to identify novel genetic and biochemical predictors of asthma control using an integrative "omics" approach. We generated lipidomic data by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS), - using plasma samples from 20 individuals with asthma. The outcome of interest was a binary indicator of asthma control defined by the use of albuterol inhalers in the preceding week. We integrated metabolomic data with genome-wide genotype, gene expression, and methylation data of this cohort to identify genomic and molecular indicators of asthma control. A Conditional Gaussian Bayesian Network (CGBN) was generated using the strongest predictors from each of these analyses. Integrative and metabolic pathway over-representation analyses (ORA) identified enrichment of known biological pathways within the strongest molecular determinants. Of the 64 metabolites measured, 32 had known identities. The CGBN model based on four SNPs (rs9522789, rs7147228, rs2701423, rs759582) and two metabolites-monoHETE_0863 and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) could predict asthma control with an AUC of 95%. Integrative ORA identified 17 significantly enriched pathways related to cellular immune response, interferon signaling, and cytokine-related signaling, for which arachidonic acid, PGE2 and S1P, in addition to six genes (CHN1, PRKCE, GNA12, OASL, OAS1, and IFIT3) appeared to drive the pathway results. Of these predictors, S1P, GNA12, and PRKCE were enriched in the results from integrative and metabolic ORAs. Through an integrative analysis of metabolomic, genomic, and methylation data from a small cohort of asthmatics, we implicate altered metabolic pathways, related to sphingolipid metabolism, in asthma control. These results provide insight into the pathophysiology of asthma control.
- McGeachie, M. J., Wu, A. C., Tse, S. M., Clemmer, G. L., Sordillo, J., Himes, B. E., Lasky-Su, J., Chase, R. P., Martinez, F. D., Weeke, P., Shaffer, C. M., Xu, H., Denny, J. C., Roden, D. M., Panettieri, R. A., Raby, B. A., Weiss, S. T., & Tantisira, K. G. (2015). CTNNA3 and SEMA3D: Promising loci for asthma exacerbation identified through multiple genome-wide association studies. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 136(6), 1503-10.More infoAsthma exacerbations are a major cause of morbidity and medical cost.
- Yan, X., Chu, J., Gomez, J., Koenigs, M., Holm, C., He, X., Perez, M. F., Zhao, H., Mane, S., Martinez, F. D., Ober, C., Nicolae, D. L., Barnes, K. C., London, S. J., Gilliland, F., Weiss, S. T., Raby, B. A., Cohn, L., & Chupp, G. L. (2015). Noninvasive analysis of the sputum transcriptome discriminates clinical phenotypes of asthma. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 191(10), 1116-25.More infoThe airway transcriptome includes genes that contribute to the pathophysiologic heterogeneity seen in individuals with asthma.