Iman A Hakim
- Dean, Public Health
- Professor, Public Health
- Research Professor, Family and Community Medicine
- Adjunct Professor, Nutritional Sciences
- Director, Global Health Institute
- Endowed Chair, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health
- Member of the Graduate Faculty
Iman Hakim, MD, PhD, MPH, is a professor of public health and the Dean of the University of Arizona Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health (MEZCOPH). Dr. Hakim is the Mel & Enid Zuckerman Endowed Chair in Public Health and the founding director of the Global Health Institute. She also has served as the Director of the Division of Health Promotion Sciences at MEZCOPH and as the director of family and child health concentration. She is a member of the UA Cancer Center and Sarver Heart Center at the UA College of Medicine. She holds joint appointments in the Department of Nutrition at the UA College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and in the Department of Family and Community Medicine at the UA College of Medicine.
She is internationally known for her translational research and work on the role of bioactive food compounds such as green tea and limonene in modulation of oxidative damage and prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Her research focuses on health promotion, dietary interventions, and the role of gene-environment and gene-nutrition interactions in chronic disease prevention.
She has been the Principal Investigator of several large-scale, behavior change interventions and clinical trials focused on nutrition and cancer prevention, tea consumption and coronary heart disease, chemoprevention of lung carcinogenesis using green tea; dietary interventions to study the effects of tea consumption on smoking-related oxidative stress and role of citrus-cancer association in Mediterranean diet.
Dr. Hakim has spoken at numerous national and international conferences.She was selected to represent the Association of Schools and Programs in Public Health (ASPPH) on the Council of Education for Public Health (CEPH) for A 3 year-term 2015-2017. She is the ASPPH representative to the One Health Global Think Tank for Sustainable Health and Wellbeing 2030 and a member of the executive council for the committee of international communication of Chinese Medicine under the World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies. She served on a panel of international health experts as a member of the Healthy Roads International Advisory Committee. She was the chair of the State of Arizona Biomedical Research Commission (ABRC) from 2011to 2015 and the Co-Chair of the UA Population and Health Outcomes Advisory Council.
Dr. Hakim earned her medical degree from Cairo University in Egypt where she completed her Pediatric residency. She received her PhD in in child health and nutrition from Ain-Shams University in Cairo, Egypt, and her Master of Public Health degree from the University of Arizona.
- University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (2009 - Ongoing)
- University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (2007 - Ongoing)
- Sarver Heart Center; University of Arizona (2007 - Ongoing)
- College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (2005 - Ongoing)
- Division of Cancer Prevention & Control, Arizona Cancer Center , University of Arizona (2005 - Ongoing)
- Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona (2005 - Ongoing)
- College of Medicine, Univeristy of Arizona (2005 - Ongoing)
- Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona (2002 - 2007)
- Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona (2001 - 2005)
- College of Medicine, Univeristy of Arizona (2001 - 2005)
- Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona (2001 - 2005)
- Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona (2001 - 2005)
- College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (2001 - 2005)
- Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona (2000 - 2001)
- College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (1998 - 2001)
- Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona (1998 - 2000)
- Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona (1997 - 2001)
- College of Medicine, Univeristy of Arizona (1996 - 2001)
- Arizona Prevention Center, College of Medicine, University of Arizona (1996 - 2000)
- College of Medicine, Univeristy of Arizona (1992 - 1996)
- National Research Center; Egypt (1988 - 1992)
- National Research Center; Egypt (1983 - 1988)
- Pediatrict Hospital, Cairo University, Egypt (1980 - 1983)
- National Research Center; Egypt (1980 - 1983)
- College of Medicine, University of Cairo (1979 - 1980)
- Preventive Oncology Career Development Award (NCI-K07)
- NCI/NIH, Fall 1998
- Outstanding Faculty Award
- National Research Center, Egypt, Fall 1991
- Selected as ASPPH representative to the One Health Global Think Tank for Sustainable Health and Wellbeing 2030
- Association of Schools and Programs in Public Health (ASPPH), Spring 2016
- Selected to join the advisory board of The Agnese Nelms Haury Program in Environment and Social Justice at the University of Arizona
- The Agnese Nelms Haury Board of trustee, Fall 2015
- Selected as member of the Scientific Committee of the 7th International Conference on Health Issues in Arab Communities Muscat, Oman
- ACCESS , Detroit, Michigan, Spring 2015
- Selected to represent the Association of Schools and Programs in Public (ASPPH) on the Council of Education for Public Health (CEPH) for a 3-year term 2015-17
- ASPPH, Spring 2015
- Selected as executive council member for the committee of international communication of Chinese Medicine under the World Federation of Chinese (2014-17)
- Beijing University of Chinese Medicine (BUCM), Fall 2014
- Selected member of the Arizona Healthy Aging Advisory group ( 2012-14)
- Arizona Department of Health Services, Fall 2013
- Best Oral presentation Award
- the International Society of Antioxidants in Nutrition and Health (ISANH) Polyphenols 2012 Conference in Paris, Summer 2012
- Appointed by the governor of Arizona to chair the Biomedical Research Commision for a 4-year term (2011-15)
- Arizona Department of Health Services, Spring 2011
- International Health Professional of the Year
- International Biographical Centre, Cambridge, England, Winter 2005 (Award Nominee)
- College of Public Health Outstanding Research Award
- Mel & Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, Fall 2005
- Selected member of Alpha Nu Chapter of the Delta Omega Society
- Honorary Public Health Society ; Zuckerman College of Public Health, Fall 2003
- Certificate of Appreciation for Minority Health
- University of Arizona, Fall 2002
- Loretta P. Lacey Award
- Association of Teachers in Maternal & Child Health (ATMCH), Fall 2002 (Award Nominee)
Women and children health issuesGlobal Health Nutrition intervention and clinical trials Food as medicine
Translational research on the role of bioactive food compounds such as green tea and d-limonene in modulation of oxidative damage and chronic inflammation for prevention of chronic and metabolic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetesMy research focuses on health promotion, dietary interventions, and the role of gene-environment and gene-nutrition interactions in health promotion and chronic disease prevention.I have been the Principal Investigator of several large-scale, behavior change interventions and clinical trials focused on nutrition and cancer prevention, tea consumption and coronary heart disease, chemoprevention of lung carcinogenesis using green tea; dietary interventions to study the effects of tea consumption on smoking-related oxidative stress; role of d-limonene and citrus-cancer association in Mediterranean diet; relationship between tobacco use, oxidative damage and metabolic syndrome among current and former smokers
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- Aldaham, S., Foote, J. A., Chow, H. S., & Hakim, I. A. (2015). Smoking Status Effect on Inflammatory Markers in a Randomized Trial of Current and Former Heavy Smokers. International journal of inflammation, 2015, 439396.More infoBackground. The level of systemic inflammation as measured by circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) is linked to an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cancer. Methods. We recruited 154 current and former smokers between 40 and 80 years of age with 25 or more pack-years of smoking history to study the relationship between inflammatory markers (CRP and IL-6) and smoking status. Results. Our results show that male smokers had significantly higher levels of serum IL-6 compared to male former smokers. We did not find any gender specific differences for smoking and CRP levels but the IL-6 levels were slightly lower in females compared to males. Additionally, our results show that CRP is significantly associated with IL-6 regardless of smoking status. Modelling indicates that the significant predictors of CRP levels were biomarkers of the metabolic syndrome while the significant predictors of IL-6 levels were age and plasma triglycerides among former smokers and the numbers of smoked packs of cigarettes per year among smokers. Conclusions. In conclusion, our study showed that CRP levels were not associated with markers of smoking intensity. However, IL-6 levels were significantly associated with smoking especially among current smokers.
- Miller, J. A., Thompson, P. A., Hakim, I. A., Lopez, A. M., Thomson, C. A., Hsu, C., & Chow, H. S. (2013). Expression of epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-β1 and adiponectin in nipple aspirate fluid and plasma of pre and post-menopausal women. Biomarker research, 1(1).More infoNipple aspirate fluid (NAF) contains large amounts of protein thought to reflect the microenvironment of the breast, and is of interest in breast cancer prevention research. The correlation between specific NAF proteins to plasma concentrations have not been well studied in healthy women. We collected matched NAF and plasma from 43 healthy pre and postmenopausal women participating in an early phase clinical study to compare the levels of putative cancer protein biomarkers. We compared baseline NAF and plasma levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), and adiponectin and evaluated menopausal status and body mass index (BMI) as potential modifying factors.
- Yousef, F. M., Jacobs, E. T., Kang, P. T., Hakim, I. A., Going, S., Yousef, J. M., Al-Raddadi, R. M., Kumosani, T. A., & Thomson, C. A. (2013). Vitamin D status and breast cancer in Saudi Arabian women: case-control study. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 98(1).More infoThe role of vitamin D in breast cancer prevention is equivocal. Saudi Arabian women may be at greater risk of vitamin D deficiency because of a darker skin type and a greater likelihood of reduced ultraviolet B radiation exposure. Data regarding the vitamin D status of Saudi Arabian women and its relation to breast cancer risk are lacking.
- Hakim, I. A., Harris, R., Garland, L., Cordova, C. A., Mikhael, D. M., & Sherry Chow, H. (2012). Gender difference in systemic oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in current and former heavy smokers. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 21(12).More infoSeveral studies suggested that women may be more susceptible to oxidative damage induced by cigarette smoking, but the role of smoking status and antioxidant capacity in gender difference in susceptibility to oxidative damage has not been well studied.
- Miller, J. A., Thompson, P. A., Hakim, I. A., Lopez, A. M., Thomson, C. A., Chew, W., Hsu, C., & Chow, H. S. (2012). Safety and Feasibility of Topical Application of Limonene as a Massage Oil to the Breast. Journal of cancer therapy, 3(5A).More infoLimonene, a major component in citrus oil, has demonstrated anti-cancer effects in preclinical mammary cancer models. However, the effective oral dose translates to a human dose that may not be feasible for chronic dosing. We proposed to evaluate topical application of limonene to the breast as an alternative dosing strategy.
- Chow, H. S., & Hakim, I. A. (2011). Pharmacokinetic and chemoprevention studies on tea in humans. Pharmacological research : the official journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society, 64(2).More infoGreen tea and its major polyphenols constituents, tea catechins, have been shown to have many health benefits including cancer prevention. Tea catechins and tea catechin metabolites/catabolites are bioavailable in the systemic circulation after oral intake of green tea or green tea catechins. The metabolites/catabolites identified in humans include glucuronide/sulfate conjugates, methylated tea catechin conjugates, and microflora-mediated ring fission products and phenolic acid catabolites. Plasma levels of unchanged tea catechins in humans are mostly in the sub-μM or nM concentration range, which is much lower than the effective concentrations determined in most in vitro studies. However, some of the catechin metabolites/catabolites are present in the systemic circulation at levels much higher than those of the parent catechins. The contribution of catechin derived metabolites/catabolites to the biological effects associated with green tea is yet to be defined. A limited number of chemoprevention trials of green tea or green tea catechins have been conducted to date and have observed potential preventive activity for oral, prostate, and colorectal cancer. Emerging data from multiple ongoing intervention trials will further contribute to defining the cancer preventive activity of green tea or green tea catechins.
- Jessica A. Miller, ., Patricia A. Thompson, ., Iman A. Hakim, ., H.-H. Sherry Chow, ., & Cynthia A. Thomson, . (2011). D-Limonene: A bioactive food component from citrus and evidence for a potential role in breast cancer prevention and treatment. Oncology Reviews, 5(1), 31-42.
- Miller, J. A., Hakim, I. A., Chew, W., Thompson, P., Thomson, C. A., & Chow, H. S. (2010). Adipose tissue accumulation of d-limonene with the consumption of a lemonade preparation rich in d-limonene content. Nutrition and cancer, 62(6), 783-8.More infod-limonene is a bioactive food component found in high concentration in citrus peel oil with anticancer effects in preclinical studies of mammary carcinogenesis. Extrapolation of preclinical data to human cancer is limited, in part, by inadequate information on the oral bioavailability and tissue disposition of d-limonene in humans. As a fat-soluble compound, d-limonene is more likely to deposit in fatty tissues such as the breast. To assess disposition of d-limonene in humans, we conducted a pilot study of oral d-limonene-rich lemonade. Following a 1-wk washout period devoid of citrus, healthy adults consumed 40 oz. of freshly prepared lemonade containing 500 to 600 mg d-limonene daily for 4 wk. On the first and last consumption days, blood and buttock fat biopsy were collected. Matched preintervention and postintervention fat biopsies (n = 7), and matched preintervention and postintervention plasma samples (n = 6), were analyzed for d-limonene levels using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. There was a significant increase in d-limonene levels in the fat biopsies after 4 wk (P = 0.009); initial levels ranged from nondetectable to 7.79 micromol/kg tissue, and postintervention levels ranged from 53.6 to 294 micromol/kg tissue. Plasma d-limonene levels increased from 0.35 to 0.72 micromol/l initially to postintervention levels of 0.54 to 1.65 micromol/l (P = 0.016). Postintervention adipose d-limonene levels were 51.0 to 195 times higher than plasma levels (P = 0.009). Our results demonstrate accumulation of d-limonene in adipose tissue after oral dosing and support additional studies of d-limonene for chemoprevention in tissues such as the breast that are comprised of a significant fat fraction.
- Stendell-Hollis, N. R., Thomson, C. A., Thompson, P. A., Bea, J. W., Cussler, E. C., & Hakim, I. A. (2010). Green tea improves metabolic biomarkers, not weight or body composition: a pilot study in overweight breast cancer survivors. Journal of human nutrition and dietetics : the official journal of the British Dietetic Association, 23(6), 590-600.More infoOverweight status after breast cancer treatment may increase a woman's risk for recurrent disease and/or early onset cardiovascular disease. Green tea has been proposed to promote weight loss and favourably modify glucose, insulin and blood lipids. This pilot study tested the effect of daily decaffeinated green tea consumption for 6 months on weight and body composition, select metabolic parameters and lipid profiles in overweight breast cancer survivors.
- Alsaif, M. A., Alhamdan, A. A., Alothman, A. M., Al-Mummar, M., Al-Attas, O., Hakim, I. A., Harris, R., & Lei, D. (2008). Variations between diagnosed and undiagnosed Saudi diabetics. The new Egyptian Journal of Medicine, 38(3), 131-141.
- Hakim, I. A., Chow, H. S., & Harris, R. B. (2008). Green tea consumption is associated with decreased DNA damage among GSTM1-positive smokers regardless of their hOGG1 genotype. The Journal of nutrition, 138(8), 1567S-1571S.More infoThe levels of tobacco-related DNA adducts in human tissues reflect a dynamic process that is dependent on the intensity and time of exposure to tobacco smoke, the metabolic balance between activation of detoxification mechanisms, and the removal of adducts by DNA repair and/or cell turnover. Urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is probably 1 of the most abundant DNA lesions formed during oxidative stress and is proposed as a sensitive biomarker of the overall oxidative DNA damage and repair. We performed this study to determine whether there were differences in increased oxidative stress susceptibility to smoking within the combined GSTM1 and hOGG1 genotypes and the impact of green tea drinking on this. We completed a Phase II randomized, controlled, 3-arm tea intervention trial to study the effect of high consumption of decaffeinated green or black tea or water on urinary 8-OHdG among heavy smokers and to evaluate the roles of GSTM1 and hOGG1 genotypes as effect modifiers. Assessment of urinary 8-OHdG after adjustment for baseline measurements and other potential confounders revealed a significant effect of green tea consumption (P = 0.001). The change from baseline was significant in all GSTM1-positive smokers regardless of their hOGG1 genotype. Our data show that consumption of 4 cups (960 mL) of tea/d is a feasible and safe approach and was associated with a significant decrease in urinary 8-OHdG among green tea consumers. Our finding also suggests that green tea intervention might be effective in decreasing DNA damage in the subgroup of smokers who are GSTM1 positive regardless of their hOGG1 genotype.
- Miller, J. A., Hakim, I. A., Thomson, C., Thompson, P., & Chow, H. S. (2008). Determination of d-limonene in adipose tissue by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences, 870(1), 68-73.More infoWe developed a novel method for analyzing d-limonene levels in adipose tissue. Fat samples were subjected to saponification followed by solvent extraction. d-Limonene in the sample extract was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with selected ion monitoring. Linear calibration curves were established over the mass range of 79.0-2529 ng d-limonene per 0.1g of adipose tissue. Satisfactory within-day precision (R.S.D. 6.7-9.6%) and accuracy (%difference of -2.7 to 3.8%) and between-day precision (R.S.D. 6.0-10.7%) and accuracy (%difference of 1.8-2.6%) were achieved. The assay was successfully applied to human fat biopsy samples from a d-limonene feeding trial.
- Chow, H. S., Hakim, I. A., Vining, D. R., Crowell, J. A., Tome, M. E., Ranger-Moore, J., Cordova, C. A., Mikhael, D. M., Briehl, M. M., & Alberts, D. S. (2007). Modulation of human glutathione s-transferases by polyphenon e intervention. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 16(8), 1662-6.More infoGreen tea consumption has been associated with decreased risk of certain types of cancers in humans. Induction of detoxification enzymes has been suggested as one of the biochemical mechanisms responsible for the cancer-preventive effect of green tea. We conducted this clinical study to determine the effect of repeated green tea polyphenol administration on a major group of detoxification enzymes, glutathione S-transferases (GST).
- Thomson, C. A., Newton, T. R., Graver, E. J., Jackson, K. A., Reid, P. M., Hartz, V. L., Cussler, E. C., & Hakim, I. A. (2007). Cruciferous vegetable intake questionnaire improves cruciferous vegetable intake estimates. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 107(4), 631-43.More infoTo develop a validated, focused Cruciferous Vegetable Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) as an assessment tool for specific quantification of dietary cruciferous vegetable exposure.
- Chow, H. S., Hakim, I. A., Vining, D. R., Crowell, J. A., Cordova, C. A., Chew, W. M., Xu, M., Hsu, C., Ranger-Moore, J., & Alberts, D. S. (2006). Effects of repeated green tea catechin administration on human cytochrome P450 activity. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 15(12), 2473-6.More infoPreclinical studies suggested that green tea or green tea catechins can modulate the activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes. We conducted this clinical study to determine the effect of repeated green tea catechin administration on human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities.
- Chow, H. S., Hakim, I. A., Vining, D. R., Crowell, J. A., Ranger-Moore, J., Chew, W. M., Celaya, C. A., Rodney, S. R., Hara, Y., & Alberts, D. S. (2005). Effects of dosing condition on the oral bioavailability of green tea catechins after single-dose administration of Polyphenon E in healthy individuals. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 11(12), 4627-33.More infoGreen tea has been shown to exhibit cancer-preventive activities in preclinical studies. Its consumption has been associated with decreased risk of certain types of cancers in humans. The oral bioavailability of the major green tea constituents, green tea catechins, is low, resulting in systemic catechin levels in humans many fold less than the effective concentrations determined in in vitro systems. We conducted this clinical study to test the hypothesis that the oral bioavailability of green tea catechins can be enhanced when consumed in the absence of food.
- Harris, R. B., Foote, J. A., Hakim, I. A., Bronson, D. L., & Alberts, D. S. (2005). Fatty acid composition of red blood cell membranes and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 14(4), 906-12.More infoDifferential effects of fatty acids on carcinogenesis suggest that fatty acid composition is important in tumor development. Arachidonic acid and its metabolites elicit inflammation and promote tumor formation in mouse skin. Inhibitors of the arachidonic cascade inhibit tumor incidence. A population-based case control study in Southeastern Arizona tested the hypothesis that lower levels of arachidonic acid in RBC membranes were associated with decreased risk of skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; n = 335 SCC cases and 321 controls). Extracted and esterified RBC fatty acids were analyzed using capillary gas chromatography. Individual peaks for 14 fatty acids were measured as a percentage of total fatty acids. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR), adjusting for SCC risk factors (age, gender, actinic keratosis history, freckling, and tanning ability). Increased levels of arachidonic acid in RBC membranes were associated with increased risk of SCC [odds ratio (OR), 1.08 per mg/100 mL change; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.02-1.15] and this association remained when controls with actinic keratosis precursor lesions were excluded. SCC risk was highest among the upper quartile of arachidonic acid (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.37-4.12). In contrast, increasing proportions of palmitic acid (OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-1.00) and palmitoleicacid (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.30-0.81) were associated with reduced SCC risk. More studies are needed to elucidate the function of RBC fatty acids so that recommendations can be made to alter the human diet for cancer prevention.
- Thomson, C. A., Giuliano, A. R., Shaw, J. W., Rock, C. L., Ritenbaugh, C. K., Hakim, I. A., Hollenbach, K. A., Alberts, D. S., & Pierce, J. P. (2005). Diet and biomarkers of oxidative damage in women previously treated for breast cancer. Nutrition and cancer, 51(2), 146-54.More infoThis study sought to evaluate the relationship between dietary intake of fat, polyunsaturated fat, saturated fat, arachidonic acid, and selected dietary antioxidants and levels of oxidative damage as measured by urinary levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2alpha) in women previously treated for breast cancer. Two hundred two study subjects participating in the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) study were included in this ancillary study. Dietary intakes and concentrations of urinary 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2alpha were measured at baseline and 12 mo in the 179 women included in the analytical cohort. Study subjects demonstrated a significant reduction in dietary total, polyunsaturated, and saturated fat intake and a significant increase in vitamins E and C and beta-carotene intake from baseline to 12 mo. Linear mixed-models analysis using baseline and Year 1 data indicated that vitamin E intake was inversely associated with both 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2alpha. 8-Iso-PGF2alpha is increased with increased body mass index (BMI) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake, indicating an increase in lipid peroxidation with greater BMI and higher PUFA intake. 8-OHdG was inversely related to age but positively related to arachidonic acid, indicating an increase in DNA damage with higher intake of arachidonic acid (meat). The results of this nested case-controlled study provide potential mechanisms by which a high fruit and vegetable, low-fat diet might reduce the recurrence rate of or early-stage breast cancer.
- Thomson, C. A., Harris, R. B., Craft, N. E., & Hakim, I. A. (2005). A cross-sectional analysis demonstrated the healthy volunteer effect in smokers. Journal of clinical epidemiology, 58(4), 378-82.More infoThis cross-sectional descriptive analysis sought to determine if a healthy volunteer effect can be demonstrated among smokers selected to participate in a dietary intervention trial.
- Boseila, S. A., Gabr, A. A., & Hakim, I. A. (2004). Blood lead levels in Egyptian children: influence of social and environmental factors. American journal of public health, 94(1), 47-9.
- Hakim, I. A., Chow, H. S., Harris, R., Dean, M., & Ali, I. U. (2004). hOGG1 Genotype, Green Tea, and Oxidative DNA Damage Among Heavy Smokers. Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine, 1(4), 245-251.
- Hakim, I. A., Dean, M., Harris, R. B., & Ali, I. U. (2004). Effect of a 4-Month Tea Intervention on Oxidative DNA Damage among Heavy Smokers: Role of XRCC1 Genotypes. Evidence Based Preventive Medicine, 1(2), 93-99.
- Hakim, I. A., Harris, R. B., Chow, H. S., Dean, M., Brown, S., & Ali, I. U. (2004). Effect of a 4-month tea intervention on oxidative DNA damage among heavy smokers: role of glutathione S-transferase genotypes. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 13(2), 242-9.More infoGlutathione S-transferase (GST), a member of the phase II group of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, has been intensively studied at the levels of phenotype and genotype. The GST mu 1 (GSTM1) and GST theta 1 (GSTT1) genes have a null-allele variant in which the entire gene is absent. The null genotype for both enzymes has been associated with many different types of tumors. The aim of this study was to determine the possible differences in increased oxidative stress susceptibility to smoking within the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes and the impact of high tea drinking on this. We designed a Phase II randomized, controlled, three-arm tea intervention trial to study the effect of high consumption (4 cups/day) of decaffeinated green or black tea, or water on oxidative DNA damage, as measured by urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), among heavy smokers over a 4-month period and to evaluate the roles of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes as effect modifiers. A total of 133 heavy smokers (100 females and 33 males) completed the intervention. GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotype statuses were determined with a PCR-based approach. Multiple linear regression models were used to estimate the main effects and interaction effect of green and black tea consumption on creatinine-adjusted urinary 8-OHdG, with or without adjustment for potential confounders. Finally, we studied whether the effect of treatment varied by GSTM1 and GSTT1 status of the individual. Although there were no differences in urinary 8-OHdG between the groups at baseline, the between-group 8-OHdG levels at month 4 were statistically significant for GSTM1-positive smokers (P = 0.05) and GSTT1-positive smokers (P = 0.02). GSTM1-positive and GSTT1-positive smokers consuming green tea showed a decrease in urinary 8-OHdG levels after 4 months. Assessment of urinary 8-OHdG after adjustment for baseline measurements and other potential confounders revealed significant effect for green tea consumption (P = 0.001). The change from baseline was significant in both GSTM1-positive (t = -2.99; P = 0.006) and GSTT1-positive (P = 0.004) green tea groups, but not in the GSTM1-negative (P = 0.07) or GSTT1-negative (P = 0.909) green tea groups. Decaffeinated black tea consumption had no effect on urinary 8-OHdG levels among heavy smokers. Our data show that consumption of 4 cups of tea/day is a feasible and safe approach and is associated with a significant decrease in urinary 8-OHdG among green tea consumers after 4 months of consumption. This finding also suggests that green tea intervention may be effective in the subgroup of smokers who are GSTM1 and/or GSTT1 positive.
- Chen, Z., Pettinger, M. B., Ritenbaugh, C., LaCroix, A. Z., Robbins, J., Caan, B. J., Barad, D. H., & Hakim, I. A. (2003). Habitual tea consumption and risk of osteoporosis: a prospective study in the women's health initiative observational cohort. American journal of epidemiology, 158(8), 772-81.More infoThe purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate associations of habitual drinking of regular tea with bone mineral density and fracture risk. Study participants were a multiethnic postmenopausal cohort (n = 91,465) from the nationwide Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. These women were recruited in the United States and aged 50-79 years at the time of enrollment (1994-1998). The average follow-up time was 4.1 years. Habitual consumption of regular tea was assessed with a structured questionnaire at baseline. Clinical fractures during the follow-up were reported in questionnaires, and hip fractures were further confirmed by reviewing medical records. Bone mineral density measurements were conducted among a subgroup of women (n = 4,979) at three Women's Health Initiative bone mineral density centers using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Multivariate analyses suggested a positive trend of increased total body bone mineral density with tea drinking (p < 0.05). However, results from the Cox proportional hazard models did not show any significant association between tea drinking and the risk of fractures at the hip and forearm/wrist. In conclusion, the results from this study indicate that the effect of habitual tea drinking on bone density is small and does not significantly alter the risk of fractures among the US postmenopausal population.
- Chow, H. S., Cai, Y., Hakim, I. A., Crowell, J. A., Shahi, F., Brooks, C. A., Dorr, R. T., Hara, Y., & Alberts, D. S. (2003). Pharmacokinetics and safety of green tea polyphenols after multiple-dose administration of epigallocatechin gallate and polyphenon E in healthy individuals. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 9(9), 3312-9.More infoGreen tea and green tea polyphenols have been shown to possess cancer preventive activities in preclinical model systems. In preparation for future green tea intervention trials, we have conducted a clinical study to determine the safety and pharmacokinetics of green tea polyphenols after 4 weeks of daily p.o. administration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) or Polyphenon E (a defined, decaffeinated green tea polyphenol mixture). In an exploratory fashion, we have also determined the effect of chronic green tea polyphenol administration on UV-induced erythema response.
- Hakim, I. A., Alsaif, M. A., Alduwaihy, M., Al-Rubeaan, K., Al-Nuaim, A. R., & Al-Attas, O. S. (2003). Tea consumption and the prevalence of coronary heart disease in Saudi adults: results from a Saudi national study. Preventive medicine, 36(1), 64-70.More infoThe aim of the study was to determine whether there was a relationship between tea consumption and the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Saudi Arabia.
- Hakim, I. A., Alsaif, M. A., Aloud, A., Alduwaihy, M., Al-Rubeaan, K., Al-Nuaim, A., & Al-Attas, O. (2003). BlackTea Consumption and serum lipid profiles in Saudi women: A Cross-sectional study in Saudi Arabia. Nutrition Research, 23(11), 1515-1526.
- Hakim, I. A., Harris, R. B., Brown, S., Chow, H. S., Wiseman, S., Agarwal, S., & Talbot, W. (2003). Effect of increased tea consumption on oxidative DNA damage among smokers: a randomized controlled study. The Journal of nutrition, 133(10), 3303S-3309S.More infoTea drinking has been associated with decreased occurrence of cancer and heart disease. One potential mechanism for these findings is the strong antioxidant effect of tea polyphenols. A phase II randomized controlled tea intervention trial was designed to study the effect of high consumption (4 cups/d) of decaffeinated green or black tea on oxidative DNA damage as measured by urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) among smokers over a 4-mo period. A total of 143 heavy smokers, aged 18-79 y, were randomized to drink either green or black tea or water. Levels of plasma and urinary catechins and urinary 8-OHdG were measured monthly. A total of 133 of 143 smokers completed the 4-mo intervention. Multiple linear regression models were used to estimate the main effects and interaction effect of green and black tea consumption on creatinine-adjusted urinary 8-OHdG, with or without adjustment for potential confounders. Plasma and urinary levels of catechins rose significantly in the green tea group compared with the other two groups. Assessment of urinary 8-OHdG after adjustment for baseline measurements and other potential confounders revealed a highly significant decrease in urinary 8-OHdG (-31%) after 4 mo of drinking decaffeinated green tea (P = 0.002). No change in urinary 8-OHdG was seen among smokers assigned to the black tea group. These data suggest that regular green tea drinking might protect smokers from oxidative damages and could reduce cancer risk or other diseases caused by free radicals associated with smoking.
- Alsaif, M. A., Hakim, I. A., Harris, R. B., Alduwaihy, M., Al-Rubeaan, K., Al-Nuaim, A., & Al-Attas, O. (2002). Prevalence and risk factors of obesity and overweight in adult Saudi population. NUTRITION RESEARCH, 22(11), 1243-1252.
- Chow, H. S., Salazar, D., & Hakim, I. A. (2002). Pharmacokinetics of perillic acid in humans after a single dose administration of a citrus preparation rich in d-limonene content. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 11(11), 1472-6.More infod-Limonene, a monoterpene, is widely distributed as a natural nonnutritive constituent of a variety of foods and volatile oils, particularly citrus oils. d-Limonene and its derived metabolites have been shown to possess cancer chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive efficacy in various preclinical model systems. In our previous work, we have found that lemonade prepared with the whole lemon (Mediterranean-style lemonade) contains high levels of d-limonene. The current study is designed to determine the systemic availability of perillic acid, a major and biologically active metabolite of d-limonene, after a single dose administration of Mediterranean-style lemonade. Healthy individuals were recruited to consume 30-40 oz of Mediterranean-style lemonade with a light breakfast. Blood samples were collected for up to 24 h after the completion of lemonade consumption. d-Limonene levels in the juice and perillic acid levels in plasma were determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. It was found that 40 oz of lemonade contained 596 mg of d-limonene and 30 oz contained 447 mg of d-limonene. Plasma concentrations of perillic acid reached maximal levels at 1 h after the lemonade consumption and declined rapidly as a function of time with the terminal elimination half-life ranging from 0.82 to 1.84 h. The maximum plasma perillic acid concentration ranged from 2.08 to 13.98 micro M, and the levels were undetectable at 24 h after the lemonade consumption. The area under the plasma concentration-time curves of perillic acid ranged from 5.07 to 32.59 (micro M) x h. Our study illustrates that the major metabolite of d-limonene is bioavailable after oral consumption of a citrus preparation rich in d-limonene content.
- Hakim, I. A., Hartz, V., Graver, E., Whitacre, R., & Alberts, D. (2002). Development of a questionnaire and a database for assessing dietary d-limonene intake. Public health nutrition, 5(6A), 939-45.More infoIncreasing recognition of the potential importance of phytochemicals in the aetiology of cancer and heart diseases has highlighted the need for methods to measure individual phytochemical consumption that are sufficiently simple to be used in large epidemiological studies and whose reproducibility and accuracy have been quantified. d-Limonene is a natural component of a variety of foods and beverages and is found mainly in citrus fruits. However, d-limonene is not assessed by any nationally available analysis database.
- Hakim, I. A., & Harris, R. B. (2001). Joint Effects of Citrus Peel Use and Black Tea Intake on the Risk of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin. BMC Dermatology, 1(3).
- Hakim, I. A., Hartz, V., Harris, R. B., Balentine, D., Weisgerber, U. M., Graver, E., Whitacre, R., & Alberts, D. (2001). Reproducibility and relative validity of a questionnaire to assess intake of black tea polyphenols in epidemiological studies. CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY BIOMARKERS & PREVENTION, 10(6), 667-678.
- Hakim, I. A., Harris, R. B., & Ritenbaugh, C. (2000). Citrus peel use is associated with reduced risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. NUTRITION AND CANCER-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, 37(2), 161-168.
- Hakim, I. A., Harris, R. B., & Ritenbaugh, C. (2000). Fat intake and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. NUTRITION AND CANCER-AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, 36(2), 155-162.
- Hakim, I. A., Harris, R. B., & Weisgerber, U. M. (2000). Tea intake and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: influence of type of tea beverages. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 9(7), 727-31.More infoDifferences in tea drinking habits are likely to vary by populations and could contribute to the inconsistencies found between studies comparing tea consumption and cancer risk. A population-based case-control study was used to evaluate how usual tea consumption patterns of an older population (n = 450) varied with history of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. A detailed tea questionnaire was developed to assess specific tea preparation methods and patterns of drinking. In this southwestern United States population, black tea was the predominant variety of tea consumed. We found no association between the broad definition of any tea consumption and skin SCC. However, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for hot and iced black tea intake were 0.63 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.36-1.10] and 1.02 (95% CI, 0.64-1.63), respectively. Controls were more likely to report usually drinking strong hot tea (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.53-1.03) with increased brewing time (P for trend = 0.03). Adjusting for brewing time, the association between skin SCC and hot black tea consumption suggests a significantly lower risk in consumers of hot tea compared to nonconsumers (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.12-0.87). This is one of the first studies to explore the relation between different types of tea consumption and occurrence of human cancers. Our results show that tea concentration (strength), brewing time, and beverage temperature have major influences on the potential protective effects of hot black tea in relation to skin SCC. Further studies with increased sample sizes are needed to evaluate the interrelationships between preparation techniques, tea type, and other life-style factors.
- Hakim, I. (1998). Mediterranean diets and cancer prevention. Archives of internal medicine, 158(11), 1169-70.