Johann Rafelski
 Professor, Physics
 Professor, Arizona Research Labs
 (520) 6216820
 PhysicsAtmospheric Sciences, Rm. 00386D
 Tucson, AZ 85721
 rafelski@physics.arizona.edu
Biography
Research profile
Quantum theory implies that the laws of physics, including how energy is converted into matter and antimatter, are determined by the structure and properties of the vacuum (i.e., space empty of matter). Understanding the nature of the quantum vacuum and how matter and energy convert into each other would help satisfy our curiosity about how matter formed in the early universe. Moreover, being able to control such matterenergy conversion would reshape the future of humanity in a way the world has not seen since electricity, magnetism, and light were first understood 150 years ago.
Dr. Johann Rafelski works across subatomic physics disciplines to further our understanding of the quantum vacuum. His expertise relates to the characterization of the behavior of elementary particles and matter at the most extreme conditions of temperature, density, and force. Such extreme conditions are required to cause a drastic modification in the quantum vacuum, enabling its experimental exploration.
For example, smashing atomic nuclei with each other in a particle accelerator can generate temperatures 300 million times hotter than the surface of the sun. At such temperatures, the quantum vacuum properties that hold quarks and gluons together to form protons and neutrons break down (a process known as "quark deconfinement"), resulting in a quarkgluon plasma. Dr. Rafelski studies the behavior of deconfined "strange" quarks in this new phase of matter, seeking to explore how energy is converted into matter and antimatter.
Focusing on behavior of individual particles, Dr. Rafelski works to improve our understanding of the vacuum radiation friction force experienced by charged particles subject to extremely strong force fields. He studies how force field energy is converted into matter and antimatter and explores novel particle and radiation formation phenomena. This work helps clarify the mechanisms of quarkgluon plasma formation and of laser pulse generated radiation flashes.
In the past decade, Dr. Rafelski's curiosity has also led him to explore further related, but distinct, topics:
 The properties of the (as yet invisible) cosmic neutrinomicrowave background;
 Vacuum structure fluctuations induced by strong forces and their relation to dark energy;
 Exploration of dark matter in form of compact ultradense objects (CUDOs); and
 The application of high force laser pulses in nuclear fusion.
Current Research:
a) Strange particle signatures of deconfined quarkgluon plasma formed in relativistic heavy ion collisions; the formation of matter out of quarkgluon plasma in the hadronization processes, in the laboratory and in the early Universe; connecting the quark Universe with the present day
b) The quantum vacuum structure: questions arising in cosmology, strong interaction (QCD) and strong field QED; vacuum instability, elementary particle mass, dark energy
External Academic Functions
1) Visiting scientist at CERN, Geneva (since 1979)  developing quarkgluon plasma programme
2) Senior visiting scientist at Ecole Polytechnique Palaiseau, France (since 2009)  developing laser fusion research program
3) Consultant at Extreme Light Infrastruccture  BeamLines laboratory in Prague  development of strong field physics research program
Past External Visiting Appointment
a) Adjunct professor at the International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics Network (ICRANet) in Italy
b) DFG excellence professor 9 at LMU Munich, Germany
c) Visiting Professor at University Paris 7
Degrees
 Ph.D. Physics
 JW Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany
Work Experience
 The University of Arizona (1987  Ongoing)
 University of Cape Town (1984  1987)
 JW Goethe University (1979  1983)
 CERN (1977  1979)
 Argonne National Laboratory (1974  1977)
 University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1973  1974)
Interests
Research
Theoretical subatomic and astroparticle physics
Teaching
Relativity, Quantum, Particle, Nuclear
Courses
201819 Courses

Dissertation
PHYS 920 (Spring 2019) 
Hnrs Intr Optics+Thermod
PHYS 162H (Spring 2019) 
Quantum Theory II
PHYS 472 (Spring 2019) 
Directed Research
PHYS 492 (Fall 2018) 
Dissertation
PHYS 920 (Fall 2018) 
Independent Study
PHYS 499 (Fall 2018) 
Independent Study
PHYS 599 (Fall 2018)
201718 Courses

Classical & Quantum Relativity
PHYS 468 (Spring 2018) 
Classical & Quantum Relativity
PHYS 568 (Spring 2018) 
Dissertation
PHYS 920 (Spring 2018) 
Independent Study
PHYS 599 (Spring 2018) 
Dissertation
PHYS 920 (Fall 2017) 
Electromagnetic Theory
PHYS 515B (Fall 2017) 
Independent Study
PHYS 599 (Fall 2017)
201617 Courses

Independent Study
PHYS 599 (Spring 2017) 
Quantum Theory II
PHYS 472 (Spring 2017) 
Classical & Quantum Relativity
PHYS 468 (Fall 2016) 
Classical & Quantum Relativity
PHYS 568 (Fall 2016) 
Independent Study
PHYS 599 (Fall 2016)
Scholarly Contributions
Books
 Rafelski, J. (2017). Relativity Matters. Springer.
 Rafelski, J. (2016). Melting Hadrons, Boiling Quarks  From Hagedorn Temperature to UltraRelativistic HeavyIon Collisions at CERN. Springer.
 Rafelski, J. (2016). Melting Hadrons, Boiling Quarks: From Hagedorn Temperature to UltraRelativistic HeavyIon Collisions at CERN. New York: Springer Open. doi:10.1007/9783319175454More infoThe simple question—why cannot quarks be put on open display?— demonstrates that there is more to understanding the laws of physics than theclassification of the standard model particle zoo and the measurement of its manyparameters. The manifestation of all laws of physics and especially of stronginteractions require incorporation of the response of the vacuum state. This book shows how from a humble beginning 50 years ago a path to the new paradigm of strong interactions emerged, as well as how this research program found its way onto the menu of major laboratories, in particular CERN, where the quarkgluon plasma first became experimental reality.
 Kapusta, J., Muller, B., & Rafelski, J. (2003). QuarkGluon Plasma: Theoretical Foundations. Elsevier.
 Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2002). Hadrons and quark  gluon plasma. Cambridge University Press.
Chapters
 Rafelski, J. (2016). About âDistinguishable Particlesâ. In Melting Hadrons, Boiling Quarks  From Hagedorn Temperature to UltraRelativistic HeavyIon Collisions at CERN: With a Tribute to Rolf Hagedorn(pp 179182).
 Rafelski, J. (2016). Hot Quark Plasma in ISR Nuclear Collisions: January 1981. In Melting Hadrons, Boiling Quarks  From Hagedorn Temperature to UltraRelativistic HeavyIon Collisions at CERN: With a Tribute to Rolf Hagedorn(pp 375378).
 Rafelski, J. (2016). Melting Hadrons, Boiling Quarks. In Melting Hadrons, Boiling Quarks  From Hagedorn Temperature to UltraRelativistic HeavyIon Collisions at CERN: With a Tribute to Rolf Hagedorn(pp 417439).
 Rafelski, J. (2016). On the Hadronic Mass Spectrum: 2014. In Melting Hadrons, Boiling Quarks  From Hagedorn Temperature to UltraRelativistic HeavyIon Collisions at CERN: With a Tribute to Rolf Hagedorn(pp 229234).
 Rafelski, J. (2016). Possible Experiments with Heavy Ions at the PS/SPS: CERN SPC 1982. In Melting Hadrons, Boiling Quarks  From Hagedorn Temperature to UltraRelativistic HeavyIon Collisions at CERN: With a Tribute to Rolf Hagedorn(pp 379386).
 Rafelski, J. (2016). Probing QED Vacuum with Heavy Ions. In New Horizons in Fundamental Physics,(pp 211251). Springer. doi:DOI 10.1007/9783319441658_17More infoWe recall how nearly half a century ago the proposal was made to explore thestructure of the quantum vacuum using slow heavyion collisions. Pursuing thistopic we review the foundational concept of spontaneous vacuum decayaccompanied by observable positron emission in heavyion collisions anddescribe the related theoretical developments in strong fields QED.[Journal_ref: ]
 Rafelski, J. (2016). Spotlight on Rolf Hagedorn. In Melting Hadrons, Boiling Quarks  From Hagedorn Temperature to UltraRelativistic HeavyIon Collisions at CERN: With a Tribute to Rolf Hagedorn(pp 320).
 Rafelski, J. (2016). What Happened to âStrangeness in QuarkGluon Plasma: 1982â. In Melting Hadrons, Boiling Quarks  From Hagedorn Temperature to UltraRelativistic HeavyIon Collisions at CERN: With a Tribute to Rolf Hagedorn(pp 387388).
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2013). Temperature of Electron Fluctuations in an Accelerated Vacuum. In Towards Ultimate Understanding of the Universe(pp 153158). World Scientific.More infoEditor: Chen, P
 Rafelski, J., & Labun, L. (2013). Critical Acceleration and Quantum Vacuum. In Towards Ultimate Understanding of the Universe(pp 141152). World Scientific.More infoEditor: Chen, P
Journals/Publications
 BirÃ³, T., Greiner, C., MÃ¼ller, B., Rafelski, J., & StÃ¶cker, H. (2018). Topical Issue on Frontiers in Nuclear, Heavy Ion and Strong Field Physics. Eur. Phys. J., A54(2), 31.
 Rafelski, J. (2018). Measurement of the LorentzFitzGerald Body Contraction. Eur. Phys. J., A54(2), 29.
 Rafelski, J., Formanek, M., & Steinmetz, A. (2018). Relativistic Dynamics of Point Magnetic Moment. Eur. Phys. J., C78(1), 6.
 Formanek, M., Evans, S., Rafelski, J., Steinmetz, A., & Yang, C. (2018). Strong fields and neutrino magnetic moment dynamics. arXiv :1712.07698 submitted for publication.
 Koch, P., MÃ¼ller, B., & Rafelski, J. (2017). From strangeness enhancement to quarkâgluon plasma discovery. Int. J. Mod. Phys., A32(31), 1730024.
 Margaritondo, G., & Rafelski, J. (2017). The relativistic foundations of synchrotron radiation. J. Synchrotron Radiat., 24(4), 898901.
 Rafelski, J. (2017). The Mar(e)k of QGP: Strangeness. Acta Phys. Polon. Supp., B10, 867893.
 Rafelski, J., Kirsch, J., MÃ¼ller, B., Reinhardt, J., & Greiner, W. (2017). Probing QED Vacuum with Heavy Ions. FIAS Interdisc. Sci. Ser., 9783319441658, 211251.
 Labaune, C., Baccou, C., Yahia, V., Neuville, C., & Rafelski, J. (2016). Laserinitiated primary and secondary nuclear reactions in BoronNitride. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 6.
 Rafelski, J. (1977). Charting the future frontier(s) of particle production. Acta Physica Polonica B, Vol.More infoThis short note describes the long collaborative effort between Arizona andKrak\'ow, showing some of the key strangeness signatures of quarkgluon plasma.It further presents an annotated catalog of foundational questions defining theresearch frontiers which I believe can be addressed in the foreseeable futurein the context of relativistic heavy ion collision experiments. The listincludes topics that are specific to the field, and ventures towards theknowntobeunknown that may have a better chance with ions as compared toelementary interactions.[Journal_ref: Acta Physica Polonica B, Vol 47 (7) p1977 (2016)]
 Rafelski, J. (2016). CHARTING THE FUTURE FRONTIER(S) OF PARTICLE PRODUCTION. ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA B, 47(7), 19771991.
 Rafelski, J. (2016). Charting the future frontier(s) of particle production.
 Rafelski, J. (2016). Hagedorn legacy. EPJ Web Conf., 126, 03001.
 Rafelski, J. (2016). The Mar(e)k of QGP: Strangeness. arXiv:1701.00296 & Acta Physica Polonica B (Proc. Supp) 10 (3), 867893.More infoStrangeness signature of of quarkgluon plasma (QGP) is central to theexploration of baryondense matter: the search for the critical point and onsetof deconfinement. In this lecture the discovery of QGP by means of strangenessis described. Several historical figures and their roles in this quest areintroduced, and their roles delimited. The twisted path of the implementationof the statistical hadronization model is described. The reliable tool in studyof hadron production from QGP, the SHARE suite of programs, is introduced. Iexplain how and why many published results of the past decade which did notemploy SHARE are beset by computational errors. The strangeness content of alarge fireball as compared to entropy content shows in a quantitative mannerthe presence of quarkgluon plasma degrees of freedom near the chemical QGPequilibrium. A universal hadronization condition that describes key features ofall explored collision systems is presented.[Journal_ref: ]
 Rafelski, J., & Birrell, J. (2016). The hot Hagedorn Universe. EPJ Web Conf., 126, 03005.
 Birrell, J., & Rafelski, J. (2015). Proposal for Resonant Detection of Relic Massive Neutrinos. Eur. Phys. J., C75(2), 91.
 Birrell, J., & Rafelski, J. (2015). Proposal for Resonant Detection of Relic Massive Neutrinos. The European Physical Journal C, 75, 91:18.More infoWe present a novel method for detecting the relic neutrino background that takes advantage of structured quantum degeneracy to amplify the drag force from neutrinos scattering off a detector. Developing this idea, we present a characterization of the present day relic neutrino distribution in an arbitrary frame, including the influence of neutrino mass and neutrino reheating by \(e^+e^\) annihilation. We present explicitly the neutrino velocity and de Broglie wavelength distributions for the case of an Earthbound observer. Considering that relic neutrinos could exhibit quantum liquid features at the present day temperature and density, we discuss the impact of neutrino fluid correlations on the possibility of resonant detection.
 Birrell, J., & Rafelski, J. (2015). Quarkâgluon plasma as the possible source of cosmological dark radiation. Phys. Lett., B741, 7781.
 Birrell, J., & Rafelski, J. (2015). Quark–gluon plasma as the possible source of cosmological dark radiation. Physics Letters B, 741, 7781.More infoThe effective number of neutrinos, NeffNeff, obtained from CMB fluctuations accounts for all effectively massless degrees of freedom present in the Universe, including but not limited to the three known neutrinos. Using a latticeQCD derived QGP equation of state, we constrain the observed range of NeffNeff in terms of the freezeout of unknown degrees of freedom near to quark–gluon hadronization. We explore limits on the coupling of these particles, applying methods of kinetic theory, and discuss the implications of a connection between NeffNeff and the QGP transformation for laboratory studies of QGP.
 Birrell, J., Wilkening, J., & Rafelski, J. (2015). Boltzmann Equation Solver Adapted to Emergent Chemical Nonequilibrium. J. Comput. Phys., 281, 896916.
 Birrell, J., Wilkening, J., & Rafelski, J. (2015). Boltzmann equation solver adapted to emergent chemical nonequilibrium. JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS, 281, 896916. doi:http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002199911400744XMore infoWe present a novel method to solve the spatially homogeneous and isotropic relativistic Boltzmann equation. We employ a basis set of orthogonal polynomials dynamically adapted to allow for emergence of chemical nonequilibrium. Two time dependent parameters characterize the set of orthogonal polynomials, the effective temperature T(t)T(t) and phase space occupation factor ϒ(t)ϒ(t). In this first paper we address (effectively) massless fermions and derive dynamical equations for T(t)T(t) and ϒ(t)ϒ(t) such that the zeroth order term of the basis alone captures the particle number density and energy density of each particle distribution. We validate our method and illustrate the reduced computational cost and the ability to easily represent final state chemical nonequilibrium by studying a model problem that is motivated by the physics of the neutrino freezeout processes in the early Universe, where the essential physical characteristics include reheating from another disappearing particle component (e±e±annihilation).
 Birrelll, J., Yang, C., & Rafelski, J. (2015). Relic neutrino freezeout: Dependence on natural constants. Nuclear Physics B, 890, 481–517. doi:doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2014.11.020More infoAnalysis of cosmic microwave background radiation fluctuations favors an effective number of neutrinos, Nν>3Nν>3. This motivates a reinvestigation of the neutrino freezeout process. Here we characterize the dependence of NνNν on the Standard Model (SM) parameters that govern neutrino freezeout. We show that NνNν depends on a combination η of several natural constants characterizing the relative strength of weak interaction processes in the early Universe and on the Weinberg angle sin2θWsin2θW. We determine numerically the dependence Nν(η,sin2θW)Nν(η,sin2θW) and discuss these results. The extensive numerical computations are made possible by two novel numerical procedures: a spectral method Boltzmann equation solver adapted to allow for strong reheating and emergent chemical nonequilibrium, and a method to evaluate Boltzmann equation collision integrals that generates a smooth integrand.
 Kuznetsova, I., & Rafelski, J. (2009). Resonance production in heavy ion collisions: Suppression of Lambda(1520) and enhancement of Sigma(1385). PHYSICAL REVIEW C, 79(1).
 Kuznetsova, I., & Rafelski, J. (2012). Electronpositron plasma drop formed by ultraintense laser pulses. PHYSICAL REVIEW D, 85(8).
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2010). VACUUM STRUCTURE AND DARK ENERGY. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MODERN PHYSICS D, 19(14), 22992304.
 Rafelski, J. (2015). CR39 track detector calibration for H, He, and C ions from 0.10.5 MeV up to 5 MeV for laserinduced nuclear fusion product identification. Rev. Sci. Instrum, 86, 083307. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4927684More infoLaseraccelerated ion beams can be used in many applications and, especially, to initiate nuclear reactions out of thermal equilibrium. We have experimentally studied aneutronic fusion reactions induced by protons accelerated by the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism, colliding with a boron target. Such experiments require a rigorous method to identify the reaction products (alpha particles) collected in detectors among a few other ion species such as protons or carbon ions, for example. CR39 track detectors are widely used because they are mostly sensitive to ions and their efficiency is near 100%. We present a complete calibration of CR39 track detector for protons, alpha particles, and carbon ions. We give measurements of their track diameters for energy ranging from hundreds of keV to a few MeV and for etching times between 1 and 8 h. We used these results to identify alpha particles in our experiments on protonboron fusion reactions initiated by laseraccelerated protons. We show that their number clearly increases when the boron fuel is preformed in a plasma state.
 Rafelski, J. (2015). Extreme states of nuclear matter1980. EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL A, 51(9), 115.More infoThe theory of hot nuclear fireballs consisting of all possible finitesize hadronic constituents in chemical and thermal equilibrium is presented. As a complement of this hadronic gas phase characterized by maximal temperature and energy density, the quark bag description of the hadronic fireball is considered. Preliminary calculations of temperatures and mean transverse momenta of particles emitted in high multiplicity relativistic nuclear collisions together with some considerations on the observability of quark matter are offered.
 Rafelski, J. (2015). Melting Hadrons, Boiling Quarks. Eur. Phys. J., A51(9), 114.
 Rafelski, J. (2015). Melting hadrons, boiling quarks. The European Physical Journal A, 51, 114. doi:http://link.springer.com/article/10.1140%2Fepja%2Fi2015151140More infoIn the context of the Hagedorn temperature halfcentenary I describe our understanding of the hot phases of hadronic matter both below and above the Hagedorn temperature. The first part of the review addresses many frequently posed questions about properties of hadronic matter in different phases, phase transition and the exploration of quarkgluon plasma (QGP). The historical context of the discovery of QGP is shown and the role of strangeness and strange antibaryon signature of QGP illustrated. In the second part I discuss the corresponding theoretical ideas and show how experimental results can be used to describe the properties of QGP at hadronization. The material of this review is complemented by two early and unpublished reports containing the prediction of the different forms of hadron matter, and of the formation of QGP in relativistic heavy ion collisions, including the discussion of strangeness, and in particular strange antibaryon signature of QGP.
 Rafelski, J. (2015). New scheme to produce aneutronic fusion reactions by laseraccelerated ions. Laser and Particle Beams, 33, 117122. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0263034615000178More infoThe development of highintensity lasers has opened the field of nuclear reactions initiated by laseraccelerated particles. One possible application is the production of aneutronic fusion reactions for clean fusion energy production. We propose an innovative scheme based on the use of two targets and present the first results obtained with the ELFIE facility (at the LULI Laboratory) for the proton–boron11 (p–11B) fusion reaction. A proton beam, accelerated by the Target Normal Sheat Acceleration mechanism using a short laser pulse (12 J, 350 fs, 1.056 µm, 1019 W cm−2), is sent onto a boron target to initiate fusion reactions. The number of reactions is measured with particle diagnostics such as CR39 trackdetectors, active nuclear diagnostic, Thomson Parabola, magnetic spectrometer, and timeofflight detectors that collect the fusion products: the αparticles. Our experiment shows promising results for this scheme. In the present paper, we discuss its principle and advantages compared with another scheme that uses a single target and heating mechanisms directly with photons to initiate the same p–11B fusion reaction.
 Rafelski, J. (2015). Strangeness and phase changes in hot hadronic matter  1983. The European Physical Journal A, 51(9), 116.More infoTwo phases of hot hadronic matter are described with emphasis put on their distinction. Here the role of strange particles as a characteristic observable of the quarkgluon plasma phase is particularly explored.
 Rafelski, J., & Birrell, J. (2015). Dynamical Emergence of the Universe into the False Vacuum. JCAP, 1511(11), 035.
 Rafelski, J., & Birrelll, J. (2015). Dynamical emergence of the Universe into the false vacuum. Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, 2015, 11.035.More infoWe study how the hot Universe evolves and acquires the prevailing vacuum state, demonstrating that in specific conditions which are believed to apply, the Universe becomes frozen into the state with the smallest value of Higgs vacuum field v=lang hrang, even if this is not the state of lowest energy. This supports the false vacuum dark energy Λmodel. Under several likely hypotheses we determine the temperature in the evolution of the Universe at which two vacuua v1, v2 can swap between being true and false. We evaluate the dynamical surface pressure on domain walls between low and high mass vaccua due to the presence of matter and show that the low mass state remains the preferred vacuum of the Universe.
 Rafelski, J., & Petran, M. (2015). QCD phase transition studied by means of hadron production. Phys. Part. Nucl., 46(5), 748755.
 Rafelski, J., & Petran, M. (2015). QCD phase transition studied by means of hadron production. Physics of Particles and Nucle, 46, 748755.More infoWe address the hadronization process of a QGP fireball formed in relativistic heavyion collisions in the entire range of past and present heavy ion collision reaction energies. A precise method of analysis of hadron multiplicities has evolved into the “SHARE with CHARM” statistical hadronization model. Using this tool we describe successfully—over many orders of magnitude—the yield of all hadrons produced in the full range of reaction energies and centralities; exceptions are peripheral and more central collisions at low energies. The properties of the fireball final state can be understood by considering all primary hadronic particles. The dense hadron fireball created at SPS, RHIC, and LHC shows the final state differentiated solely by: i) volume changes; and ii) strangeness, (charm) flavor content. A universal hadronization pressure P = 80 ± 3 MeV/fm3 is found. The strangeness content of a large fireball as compared to entropy shows the presence of quarkgluon plasma degrees of freedom near the chemical QGP equilibrium. The 'Universal Hadronization’ condition common to SPS, RHIC, and LHC agrees with the proposed direct QGP fireball evaporation into freestreaming hadrons. Looking forward we discuss qualitatively how heavy flavor production contributes to energy stopping in the central rapidity region as function of reaction energy: the cases of LHC at full energy and future superLHC.
 Rafelski, J., Labun, L., & Birrell, J. (2013). Compact Ultradense Matter Impactors. PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, 110(11).
 Birrell, J., Wilkening, J., & Rafelski, J. (2014). Boltzmann Equation Solver Adapted to Emergent Chemical Nonequilibrium. J. Comput. Phys, 281, 896916.More infoWe present a novel method to solve the spatially homogeneous and isotropic relativistic Boltzmann equation. We employ a basis set of orthogonal polynomials dynamically adapted to allow for emergence of chemical nonequilibrium. Two time dependent parameters characterize the set of orthogonal polynomials, the effective temperature T(t) and phase space occupation factor Υ(t). In this first paper we address (effectively) massless fermions and derive dynamical equations for T(t) and Υ(t) such that the zeroth order term of the basis alone captures the particle number density and energy density of each particle distribution. We validate our method and illustrate the reduced computational cost and the ability to easily represent final state chemical nonequilibrium by studying a model problem that is motivated by the physics of the neutrino freezeout processes in the early Universe, where the essential physical characteristics include reheating from another disappearing particle component (e±annihilation).
 Birrell, J., Yang, C., & Rafelski, J. (2014). Relic Neutrino Freezeout: Dependence on Natural Constants. Nucl. Phys., B890, 481517.
 Birrell, J., Yang, C., & Rafelski, J. (2014). Relic Neutrino Freezeout: Dependence on Natural Constants. Nuclear Physics B, 890, 481517.More infoAnalysis of cosmic microwave background radiation fluctuations favors an effective number of neutrinos, Nν>3Nν>3. This motivates a reinvestigation of the neutrino freezeout process. Here we characterize the dependence of NνNν on the Standard Model (SM) parameters that govern neutrino freezeout. We show that NνNν depends on a combination η of several natural constants characterizing the relative strength of weak interaction processes in the early Universe and on the Weinberg angle sin2θWsin2θW. We determine numerically the dependence Nν(η,sin2θW)Nν(η,sin2θW) and discuss these results. The extensive numerical computations are made possible by two novel numerical procedures: a spectral method Boltzmann equation solver adapted to allow for strong reheating and emergent chemical nonequilibrium, and a method to evaluate Boltzmann equation collision integrals that generates a smooth integrand.
 Birrell, J., Yang, C., Chen, P., & Rafelski, J. (2014). Relic neutrinos: Physically consistent treatment of effective number of neutrinos and neutrino mass. Phys. Rev., D89, 023008.
 Birrell, J., Yang, C., Chen, P., & Rafelski, J. (2014). Relic neutrinos: Physically consistent treatment of effective number of neutrinos and neutrino mass. Physical Review D  Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, 89(2), 0230080102300810.More infoAbstract: We perform a model independent study of the neutrino momentum distribution at freezeout, treating the freezeout temperature as a free parameter. Our results imply that measurement of neutrino reheating, as characterized by the measurement of the effective number of neutrinos Nν, amounts to the determination of the neutrino kinetic freezeout temperature within the context of the standard model of particle physics where the number of neutrino flavors is fixed and no other massless (fractional) particles arise. At temperatures on the order of the neutrino mass, we show how cosmic background neutrino properties, i.e., energy density, pressure, and particle density, are modified in a physically consistent way as a function of neutrino mass and Nν. © 2014 American Physical Society.
 Hegelich, B. M., Mourou, G., & Rafelski, J. (2014). Probing the quantum vacuum with ultra intense laser pulses. Eur.Phys.J.ST, 223(6), 10931104.More infoThis article presents: 1) The theoretical background of strong field physics and vacuum structure and stability; 2) The instrumental developments in the area of pulse lasers and considers the physics case for ultra intense laser facilities; and 3) Discussion of the applied and fundamental uses of ultraintense lasers.
 Petran, M., Letessier, J., Rafelski, J., & Torrieri, G. (2014). SHARE with CHARM. Comput. Phys. Commun., 185, 20562079.
 Petran, M., Letessier, J., Rafelski, J., & Torrieri, G. (2014). SHARE with CHARM. Computer Physics Communications, 185, 20562079.More infoAbstract: SHARE with CHARM program (SHAREv3) implements the statistical hadronization model description of particle production in relativistic heavyion collisions. Given a set of statistical parameters, SHAREv3 program evaluates yields and therefore also ratios, and furthermore, statistical particle abundance fluctuations. The physical bulk properties of the particle source are evaluated based on all hadrons produced, including the fitted yields. The bulk properties can be prescribed as a fit input complementing and/or replacing the statistical parameters. The modifications and improvements in the SHARE suite of programs are oriented towards recent and forthcoming LHC hadron production results including charm hadrons. This SHAREv3 release incorporates all features seen previously in SHAREv1.x and v2.x and, beyond, we include a complete treatment of charm hadrons and their decays, which further cascade and feed lighter hadron yields. This article is a complete and selfcontained manual explaining and introducing both the conventional and the extended capabilities of SHARE with CHARM. We complement the particle list derived from the Particle Data Group tabulation (Beringer, 2012) composed of up, down, strange . u,d,s quarks (including resonances) with hadrons containing charm . c,c̄ quarks. We provide a table of the charm hadron decays including partial widths. The branching ratios of each charm hadron decay add to unity, which is achieved by including some charm hadron decay channels based on theoretical consideration in the absence of direct experimental information. A very successful interpretation of all available LHC results has been already obtained using this program. Program summary: . Program title: SHARE with CHARM. . Catalogue identifier: ADVD_v3_0. . Program summary URL: . http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVD_v3_0.html . . Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland. . Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, . http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html . . No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 18532. . No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 152797. . Distribution format: tar.gz. . Programming language: FORTRAN77, C++. . Computer: PC, Intel 64bit, 3 GB RAM (not hardware dependent). . Operating system: GNU Linux: Ubuntu, Debian, Fedora (not OS dependent). . RAM: 615 MB. . Classification: 11.2, 11.3. . External routines: Standard C++ library, CERNLIB library. . Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes. . Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADVD_v2_0. . Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 175 (2006) 635. . Nature of problem: . The understanding of hadron production incorporating the four . u,d,s,c quark flavors is essential for the understanding of the properties of quarkgluon plasma created in relativistic heavyion collisions in the largehadron collider (LHC) energy domain. We describe hadron production by a hot fireball within the statistical hadronization model (SHM) allowing for the chemical nonequilibrium of all quark flavors individually. By fitting particle abundances subject to bulk property constraints in the source, we find the best SHM model parameters. This approach allows the testing of physical hypotheses regarding hadron production mechanisms in relativistic heavyion collisions, physical properties of the source at hadronization and the validity of the statistical hadronization model itself. The abundance of light hadrons made of . u,d and . s constituent quarks [2] and their fluctuations [3] were the core physics contents of the prior releases SHAREv1.x and v2.x respectively. We now consider the hadronization of the heavier charm quarks, a phenomenon of relevance in the analysis of recent and forthcoming LHC results. We introduce bulk matter constraints such as a prescribed charge to baryon ratio originating in the initial state valance . u and . d quark content of colliding nuclei. More generally, all the bulk physical properties of the particle source such as energy, entropy, pressure, strangeness content and baryon number of the fireball at hadronization are evaluated and all of these can be used as fit constraints. The charm quark degree of freedom is handled as follows: given an input number of charm quark pairs at the time of charm chemical freezeout, we populate charm hadron yield according to rules of statistical hadronization for a prescribed set of parameters associated with the particle source, such as bulk matter fugacities. A separate charm hadronization temperature can be chosen and fitted, and as an option it is possible to make this temperature the same as the fitted hadronization temperature of . u,d,squarks. Charm hadron resonances decay feeding "stable" charm hadrons. These stable charm hadrons are so shortlived that within current technological detector capabilities practically all their decay products are feeding light hadron yields. These charm decay feeds are changing the abundances of produced hadrons in a pattern that differs from particle to particle. . Solution method: . SHARE with CHARM builds in its approach upon the numerical method developed for its predecessor, SHARE [2, 3] for the evaluation of the distribution of light . (u,d,s) hadrons. SHARE with CHARM distributes a prescribed number . Ncc̄ of charm . c+c̄ quarks into individual charm hadrons applying statistical hadronization rules in a newly added computation module 'CHARM' obtaining the yields evaluating appropriate series of Bessel functions. Similarly to light hadrons, the charm hadron decays are evaluated using preexistent tables derived from PDG listing [1], proceeding from the heaviest to the lightest particle. The yields of each hadron are obtained using decay branching ratio tables of the mother particle yieldwhere data was not available, an appropriate theoretical model was implemented to assure that all particles decayed with 100% probability. Each of the resultant daughter hadron contributions is added to this . u,d,s hadron yield computed independently for the related set of SHM parameters in the SHARE module. The total yield is subsequently subject to the weak decays (WD) of strange hadrons. A user generated or default WD control file defines what portion of the . u,d,s particle yield decays weakly feeding other particles in turn, and which fraction given the detection capability is observed. Once final observable hadron yields are so obtained, we compare these with the experimental data aiming in an iteration to find the best set of prescribed SHM parameters for the yield of . u,d,s hadrons observed. The CHARM module is associated with two new SHM parameters, the charm hadronization temperature . Tcharm (which can be defaulted to . T obtained for the other . u,d,s hadrons) and the total yield of . Ncc̄=c,c̄ quarks, called . Ncbc. These and all other SHM parameters are discussed in the text. . Reasons for new version: . Since the release of SHAREv1 in 2004 [2] and SHAREv2 in 2006 [3], heavyion collision experiments underwent major development in both detector technology and collision energy. The forthcoming tracker upgrade of STAR at BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the current tracking precision of ALICE at CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) require upgrades of the SHARE program described below. In the anticipation of significant charm abundance at LHC, SHARE with CHARM allows the study of all charm hadron production. Charm hadron decays are particularly important because they are a significant source of multistrange hadrons. The introduction of the charm component of the hadron spectrum into SHM is crucial for correct interpretation of particle production and QGP fireball properties at hadronization in heavyion collisions at TeV energy scale. SHARE with CHARM is an easytouse program, which offers a common framework for SHM analysis of all contemporary heavyion collision experiments for the coming years. . Summary of revisions: . The charm hadron mass spectrum and decays have been fully implemented in the provided program package. We provide a current uptodate detailed list of charm hadrons and resonances together with their numerous decay channels within the set of fully updated input files that correspond to the present PDG status [1]. Considering the enhanced tracking capabilities of LHC experiments and similar RHIC capability, the default behavior of weak decay feeddown has been updated to not accept any weak feeddown unless specified otherwise by the user. The common framework for all contemporary heavyion experiments required an update of the format of the particle list and of the content to correspond to present day PDG. SHARE with CHARM is backward compatible with the previous release, SHAREv2, in terms of calculation capabilities and use of control files. However, the SHARE user may need to update and or add individual input file command lines in order to assure that same tasks are performed, considering that defaults, e.g., characterizing weak decays, have been modified. Furthermore quite a few interface improvements have been implemented and are described in detail further in this manual. They allow considerable simplification of control files. . Running time: . © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
 PetrÃ¡Å, M., Letessier, J., Petracek, V., & Rafelski, J. (2014). Interpretation of strange hadron production at LHC. J. Phys. Conf. Ser., 509, 012018.
 PetrÃ¡Å, M., Letessier, J., PetrÃ¡Äek, V., & Rafelski, J. (2014). Charm decay as a source of multistrange hadrons. J. Phys. Conf. Ser., 509, 012063.
 Rafelski, J. (2014). Inside Story: Birth of the Hagedorn temperature. CERN Courier, 54(10), 57.
 Rafelski, J., & Birrell, J. (2014). Traveling Through the Universe: Back in Time to the QuarkGluon Plasma Era. J. Phys. Conf. Ser., 509, 012014.
 Rafelski, J., & Petran, M. (2014). Strangeness in QGP: Hadronization Pressure. Acta Phys. Polon. Supp., 7(1), 3547.
 Rafelski, J., & Petran, M. (2014). Strangeness in QGP: Hadronization Pressure. Acta Phys.Polon.B Supplement, 7(1), 3547.More infoWe review strangeness as signature of quark gluon plasma (QGP) and the hadronization process of a QGP fireball formed in relativistic heavyion collisions in the entire range of today accessible reaction energies. We discuss energy dependence of the statistical hadronization parameters within the context of fast QGP hadronization. We find that QGP breakup occurs for all energies at the universal hadronization pressure P=80±3MeV/fm3.
 Rafelski, J., & Petran, M. (2014). Universal QGP Hadronization Conditions at RHIC and LHC. EPJ Web Conf., 78, 06004.
 Birrell, J., Yang, C., Chen, P., & Rafelski, J. (2013). FUGACITY AND REHEATING OF PRIMORDIAL NEUTRINOS. MODERN PHYSICS LETTERS A, 28(40).
 Birrell, J., Yang, C., Chen, P., & Rafelski, J. (2013). Fugacity and Reheating of Primordial Neutrinos. Mod. Phys. Lett., A28, 1350188.
 Birrell, J., Yang, C., Chen, P., & Rafelski, J. (2013). Fugacity and reheating of primordial neutrinos. Modern Physics Letters A, 28(40).More infoAbstract: We clarify in a quantitative way the impact that distinct chemical T c and kinetic Tk freezeout temperatures have on the reduction of the neutrino fugacity Υν below equilibrium, i.e. Υν
 Kuznetsova, I., & Rafelski, J. (2013). Enhanced production of Delta and Sigma (1385) resonances. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 668(2), 105110.
 Labaune, C., Baccou, C., Depierreux, S., Goyon, C., Loisel, G., Yahia, V., & Rafelski, J. (2013). Fusion reactions initiated by laseraccelerated particle beams in a laserproduced plasma.
 Labaune, C., Baccou, C., Depierreux, S., Goyon, C., Loisel, G., Yahia, V., & Rafelski, J. (2013). Fusion reactions initiated by laseraccelerated particle beams in a laserproduced plasma. NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, 4.
 Labaune, C., Baccou, C., Depierreux, S., Goyon, C., Loisel, G., Yahia, V., & Rafelski, J. (2013). Fusion reactions initiated by laseraccelerated particle beams in a laserproduced plasma. Nature Communications, 4.More infoPMID: 24104859;Abstract: The advent of highintensitypulsed laser technology enables the generation of extreme states of matter under conditions that are far from thermal equilibrium. This in turn could enable different approaches to generating energy from nuclear fusion. Relaxing the equilibrium requirement could widen the range of isotopes used in fusion fuels permitting cleaner and less hazardous reactions that do not produce highenergy neutrons. Here we propose and implement a means to drive fusion reactions between protons and boron11 nuclei by colliding a laseraccelerated proton beam with a lasergenerated boron plasma. We report protonboron reaction rates that are orders of magnitude higher than those reported previously. Beyond fusion, our approach demonstrates a new means for exploring lowenergy nuclear reactions such as those that occur in astrophysical plasmas and related environments. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2013). Temperature of electron fluctuations in an accelerated vacuum. Modern Physics Letters A, 28(3).More infoAbstract: The electron vacuum fluctuations measured by (ψψ) do not vanish in an externally applied electric field ε. For an exactly constant field, that is for vacuum fluctuations in presence of a constant accelerating force, we show that (ψψ) has a Bosonlike structure with spectral state density tanh1(E/m) and temperature TM = eε/mπ = a v/π. Considering the vacuum fluctuations of 'classical' gyromagnetic ratio g = 1 particles we find Fermilike structure with the same spectral state density at a smaller temperature T1 = a v/2π which corresponds to the Unruh temperature of an accelerated observer. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2013). Top anomalous magnetic moment and the two photon decay of Higgs boson. Phys. Rev., D88, 071301.
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2013). Top anomalous magnetic moment and the twophoton decay of the Higgs boson. PHYSICAL REVIEW D, 88(7).
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2013). Top anomalous magnetic moment and the twophoton decay of the Higgs boson. Physical Review D  Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, 88(7).More infoAbstract: We compute the dependence of the Higgs to twophoton decay rate Γh→γγ on the top quark gyromagnetic factor gt in the heavy top limit and evaluate the expected change for oneloop SM correction to gt. Our results are general and allow consideration of further modifications of gt, and we predict the resultant Γh→γγ. © 2013 American Physical Society.
 Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2013). Strangeness chemical equilibration in a quarkgluon plasma. PHYSICAL REVIEW C, 75(1).
 Petran, M., & Rafelski, J. (2013). Universal hadronization condition in heavy ion collisions at $\sqrts_\mathrm{NN}= 62$ GeV and at $\sqrts_\mathrm{NN}=2.76$ TeV. Phys. Rev., C88(2), 021901.
 PetrÃ¡n, M., Letessier, J., PetrÃ¡Äek, V., & Rafelski, J. (2013). Hadron production and quarkgluon plasma hadronization in PbPb collisions at $\sqrts_{NN}=2.76$ TeV. Phys. Rev., C88(3), 034907.
 Petráň, M., & Rafelski, J. (2013). Universal hadronization condition in heavy ion collisions at √s _{NN}=62GeV and at √s_{NN}=2.76TeV. Physical Review C  Nuclear Physics, 88(2).More infoAbstract: We obtain a detailed description of all available hadron multiplicity yields in central PbPb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) measured in the rapidity interval y
 Petráň, M., Letessier, J., Petráček, V., & Rafelski, J. (2013). Hadron production and quarkgluon plasma hadronization in PbPb collisions at √s_{NN}=2.76 TeV. Physical Review C  Nuclear Physics, 88(3).More infoAbstract: We show that all central rapidity hadron yields measured in PbPb collisions at √sNN=2.76 TeV are well described by the chemical nonequilibrium statistical hadronization model (SHM), where the chemically equilibrated quarkgluon plasma source breaks up directly into hadrons. SHM parameters are obtained as a function of centrality of colliding ions, and we compare CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) results with Brookhaven National Laboratory Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) results. We predict yields of unobserved hadrons and address antimatter production. The physical properties of the quarkgluon plasma fireball particle source show universality of hadronization conditions at LHC and RHIC. © 2013 American Physical Society.
 Rafelski, J. (2013). Connecting QGPHeavy Ion Physics to the Early Universe.
 Rafelski, J. (2013). Connecting QGPHeavy Ion Physics to the Early Universe. Nuclear Physics B  Proceedings Supplements, 243244, 155162.More infoAbstract: We discuss properties and evolution of quarkgluon plasma in the early Universe and compare to laboratory heavy ion experiments. We describe how matter and antimatter emerged from a primordial soup of quarks and gluons. We focus our discussion on similarities and differences between the early Universe and the laboratory experiments. © 2013 CERN for the benefit of the authors.
 Rafelski, J., & Birrell, J. (2013). Dynamical emergence of the Universe into the false vacuum. JOURNAL OF COSMOLOGY AND ASTROPARTICLE PHYSICS.
 Rafelski, J., & Labun, L. (2013). Critical acceleration and quantum vacuum. Modern Physics Letters A, 28(3).More infoAbstract: Little is known about the physics frontier of strong acceleration; both classical and quantum physics need further development in order to be able to address this newly accessible area of physics. In this lecture we discuss what strong acceleration means, possible experiments using electronlaser collisions, and data available from ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. We review the foundations of the current understanding of charged particle dynamics in presence of critical forces and discuss the radiation reaction inconsistency in electromagnetic theory and the apparent relation with quantum physics and strong field particle production phenomena. The role of the quantum vacuum as an inertial reference frame is emphasized, as well as the absence of such a 'Machian' reference frame in the conventional classical limit of quantum field theory. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2013). Particle production in root s(NN)=2.76 TeV heavy ion collisions. PHYSICAL REVIEW C, 83(5).
 Rafelski, J., Kuznetsova, I., & Letessier, J. (2013). Strangeness at the threshold of phase change. JOURNAL OF PHYSICS GNUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS, 35(4).
 Rafelski, J., Labun, L., & Birrell, J. (2013). Compact Ultradense Matter Impactors. Phys. Rev. Lett., 110(11), 111102.
 Rafelski, J., Labun, L., & Birrell, J. (2013). Compact ultradense matter impactors. Physical Review Letters, 110(11).More infoAbstract: We study interactions of meteorlike compact ultradense objects (CUDO), having nuclear or greater density, with Earth and other rocky bodies in the Solar System as a possible source of information about novel forms of matter. We study the energy loss in CUDO puncture of the body and discuss differences between regular matter and CUDO impacts. © 2013 American Physical Society.
 Torrieri, G., & Rafelski, J. (2013). Hadron resonances and phase threshold in heavy ion collisions. PHYSICAL REVIEW C, 75(2).
 Birrell, J., & Rafelski, J. (2012). Possibility of Electroweak Phase Transition at Low Temperature.
 Birrell, J., Yang, C., Chen, P., & Rafelski, J. (2012). Relic neutrinos: Physically consistent treatment of effective number of neutrinos and neutrino mass. PHYSICAL REVIEW D, 89(2).
 Dietl, C., Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2012). Properties of Gravitationally Bound Dark Compact Ultra Dense Objects. Phys. Lett., B709, 123127.
 Dietl, C., Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2012). Properties of gravitationally bound dark compact ultra dense objects. Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and HighEnergy Physics, 709(3), 123127.More infoAbstract: We consider compact astrophysical objects formed from dark matter fermions of mass 250 GeV to 100 TeV or from massless fermions hidden by vacuum structure of similar energy scale. These objects have maximum stable masses of subplanetary scale and radii of micron to centimeter scale. We describe the surface gravity and tidal forces near these compact ultra dense objects, as pertinent to signatures of their collisions with visible matter objects. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
 Fromerth, M. J., Kuznetsova, I., Labun, L., Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2012). From QuarkGluon Universe to Neutrino Decoupling: 200 < T < 2MeV. Acta Phys. Polon., B43(12), 22612284.
 Fromerth, M. J., Kuznetsova, I., Labun, L., Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2012). From quarkgluon universe to neutrino decoupling: 200 < T < 2 MeV. Acta Physica Polonica B, 43(12), 22612283.More infoAbstract: The properties of the quark and hadron Universe are explored. Kinetic theory considerations are presented proving that hadron abundances after phase transformation from quarks to hadrons remain intact till abundances of hadrons become irrelevant. The hadronization process and the evolution of hadron yields are described in detail.
 Kuznetsova, I., & Rafelski, J. (2012). ElectronPositron Plasma Drop Formed by UltraIntense Laser Pulses. Phys. Rev., D85, 085014.
 Kuznetsova, I., & Rafelski, J. (2012). Electronpositron plasma drop formed by ultraintense laser pulses. Physical Review D  Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, 85(8).More infoAbstract: We study the initial properties and positron annihilation within a small electronpositron plasma drop formed by intense laser pulse energy. Such QED cascade generated plasma is, in general, far below the chemical (particle yield) equilibrium. We find that the available electrons and positrons equilibrate kinetically, yet despite relatively high particle density, the electronpositron annihilation is very slow, suggesting a rather long life span of the plasma drop. © 2012 American Physical Society.
 Kuznetsova, I., & Rafelski, J. (2012). Nonequilibrium heavyflavored hadron yields from chemical equilibrium strangenessrich QGP. JOURNAL OF PHYSICS GNUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS, 35(4).
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2012). Acceleration and Vacuum Temperature. Phys. Rev., D86, 041701.
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2012). Acceleration and vacuum temperature. Physical Review D  Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, 86(4).More infoAbstract: The quantum fluctuations of an "accelerated" vacuum state, that is, vacuum fluctuations in the presence of a constant electromagnetic field, can be described by the temperature T M. Considering T M for the gyromagnetic factor g=1 we show that T M(g=1)=T U, where T U is the Unruh temperature experienced by an accelerated observer. We conjecture that both particle production and nonlinear field effects inherent in the Unruh accelerated observer case are described by the case g=1 QED of strong fields. We present rates of particle production for g=0, 1, 2 and show that the case g=1 is experimentally distinguishable from g=0, 2. Therefore, either accelerated observers are distinguishable from accelerated vacuum or there is unexpected modification of the theoretical framework. © 2012 American Physical Society.
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2012). Higgs twogluon decay and the topquark chromomagnetic moment.
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2012). Nonlinear Electromagnetic Forces in Astrophysics. Acta Phys. Polon., B43(12), 22372250.
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2012). Nonlinear electromagnetic forces in astrophysics. Acta Physica Polonica B, 43(12), 22372250.More infoAbstract: Electromagnetism becomes a nonlinear theory having (effective) photon photon interactions due at least to electronpositron fluctuations in the vacuum. We discuss the consequences of the nonlinearity for the force felt by a charge probe particle, and compare the impact of EulerKockel QED effective nonlinearity to the possibility of BornInfeldtype nonlinearity.
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2012). Planetary Impacts by Clustered Quark Matter Strangelets. Acta Phys. Polon. Supp., 5, 381386.
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2012). Temperature of Electron Fluctuations in an Accelerated Vacuum.
 Miller, G. A., Thomas, A. W., Carroll, J. D., & Rafelski, J. (2012). Resolution of the proton radius puzzle via offshell form factors. AIP Conf. Proc., 1441, 150152.
 Miller, G. A., Thomas, A. W., Carroll, J. D., & Rafelski, J. (2012). Resolution of the proton radius puzzle via offshell form factors. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1441, 150152.More infoAbstract: We show that offmassshell effects arising from the internal structure of the proton provide a new proton polarization mechanism in the Lamb shift, proportional to the lepton mass to the fourth power. This effect is capable of resolving the current puzzle regarding the difference in the proton radius extracted from muonic compared with electronic hydrogen experiments. These offmassshell effects could be probed in several other experiments. A significant ambiguity appearing in dispersion relation evaluations of the proton polarizability contribution to the Lamb shift is noted. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.
 Miller, G. A., Thomas, A. W., Carroll, J. D., & Rafelski, J. (2012). What's New with the Neutron and Proton. FewBody Systems, 52(34), 357366.More infoAbstract: The existence and importance of the proton radius puzzle, observed via a Lamb shift measurement in muonic atoms, is discussed. Possible resolutions of the puzzle are discussed. Then the broader question of the meaning of the proton radius is addressed and examples of correctly defined charge densities are presented. © 2011 SpringerVerlag.
 Miller, G. A., Thomas, A. W., Carroll, J. D., & Rafelski, J. (2012). What's new with the neutron and proton. Few Body Syst., 52, 357366.
 Miller, G. A., Thomas, A., Carroll, J. D., & Rafelski, J. (2012). What's New with the Neutron and Proton. FEWBODY SYSTEMS, 52(34), 357366.
 Petran, M., Letessier, J., Petracek, V., & Rafelski, J. (2012). Strangeness Production in AuAu collisions at $\sqrts_{NN}=62.4$ GeV. Acta Phys. Polon. Supp., 5, 255262.
 Rafelski, J. (2012). Quarks in the Universe. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MODERN PHYSICS ENUCLEAR PHYSICS, 16(3), 813828.
 Rafelski, J. (2012). Strangeness and QuarkGluon Plasma. Acta Phys. Polon., B43, 829.
 Rafelski, J. (2012). Strangeness and quarkgluon plasma. Acta Physica Polonica B, 43(4), 829842.More infoAbstract: I review the foundational motivations which led us to the ultra relativistic heavy ion collision research at SPS, RHIC and now LHC: the quantum vacuum structure; the deconfined nature of the quarkgluon plasma (QGP) phase filling the Universe for the first 30 μs after the Big Bang; the origin of mass of stable matter; and the origin of flavor. The special roles of strangeness enhancement and strange antibaryon signature are highlighted. It is shown how hadron production can be used to determine the properties of QGP and how the threshold energy for QGP formation is determined.
 Rafelski, J., & Labun, L. (2012). A Cusp in QED at g=2.
 Rafelski, J., & Labun, L. (2012). Critical Acceleration and Quantum Vacuum.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2012). Critical hadronization pressure. JOURNAL OF PHYSICS GNUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS, 36(6).
 Rafelski, J., Dietl, C., & Labun, L. (2012). Compact Ultradense Objects in the Solar System. Acta Phys. Polon., B43(12), 22512260.
 Rafelski, J., Dietl, C., & Labun, L. (2012). Compact ultra dense objects in the solar system. Acta Physica Polonica B, 43(12), 22512259.More infoAbstract: We describe properties and gravitational interactions of meteormass and greater compact ultra dense objects with nuclear density or greater (CUDOs). We discuss possible enclosure of CUDOs in comets and the stability of these objects on impact with the Earth and Sun showing that the hypothesis of a CUDO core helps resolve issues challenging the understanding of a few selected cometary impacts.
 Carroll, J. D., Thomas, A. W., Miller, G. A., & Rafelski, J. (2011). Nonperturbative Analysis of the Influence of the Proton Magnetization and Charge Densities on the Hyperfine Splitting of Muonic Hydrogen.
 Carroll, J. D., Thomas, A. W., Rafelski, J., & Miller, G. A. (2011). NonPerturbative Relativistic Calculation of the Muonic Hydrogen Spectrum. Phys. Rev., A84, 012506.
 Carroll, J. D., Thomas, A. W., Rafelski, J., & Miller, G. A. (2011). Nonperturbative relativistic calculation of the muonic hydrogen spectrum. PHYSICAL REVIEW A, 84(1).
 Carroll, J. D., Thomas, A. W., Rafelski, J., & Miller, G. A. (2011). Nonperturbative relativistic calculation of the muonic hydrogen spectrum. Physical Review A  Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 84(1).More infoAbstract: We investigate the muonic hydrogen 2P3/2F=2 to 2S1/2F=1 transition through a precise, nonperturbative numerical solution of the Dirac equation including the finitesize Coulomb force and finitesize vacuum polarization. The results are compared with earlier perturbative calculations of (primarily) and experimental results recently presented by Pohl, in which this very comparison is interpreted as requiring a modification of the proton charge radius from that obtained in electron scattering and electronic hydrogen analyses. We find no significant discrepancy between the perturbative and nonperturbative calculations, and we present our results as confirmation of the perturbative methods. © 2011 American Physical Society.
 Carroll, J. D., Thomas, A. W., Rafelski, J., & Miller, G. A. (2011). Proton formfactor dependence of the finitesize correction to the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen.
 Carroll, J. D., Thomas, A. W., Rafelski, J., & Miller, G. A. (2011). The Radius of the Proton: Size Does Matter. AIP Conf. Proc., 1354, 2531.
 Carroll, J. D., Thomas, A. W., Rafelski, J., & Miller, G. A. (2011). The radius of the proton: Size does matter. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1354, 2531.More infoAbstract: The measurement by Pohl et al. [1] of the 2S1/2F=1 to 2P3/2F=2 transition in muonic hydrogen and the subsequent analysis has led to a conclusion that the rms charge radius of the proton differs from the accepted (CODATA [2]) value by approximately 4%, leading to a 4.9σ discrepancy. We investigate the muonic hydrogen spectrum relevant to this transition using boundstate QED with Dirac wavefunctions and comment on the extent to which the perturbationtheory analysis which leads to the above conclusion can be confirmed. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
 Dietl, C., Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2011). Properties of gravitationally bound dark compact ultra dense objects. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 709(3), 123127.
 Kuznetsova, I., Habs, D., & Rafelski, J. (2011). Pion and muon production in e(), e(+), gamma plasma. PHYSICAL REVIEW D, 78(1).
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2011). Pair Production from Asymmetric Headon Laser Collisions.
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2011). Spectra of Particles from LaserInduced Vacuum Decay. Phys. Rev., D84, 033003.
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2011). Spectra of particles from laserinduced vacuum decay. PHYSICAL REVIEW D, 84(3).
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2011). Spectra of particles from laserinduced vacuum decay. Physical Review D  Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, 84(3).More infoAbstract: The spectrum of electrons and positrons originating from vacuum decay occurring in the collision of two noncollinear laser pulses is obtained. It displays high energy, highly collimated particle bunches traveling in a direction separate from the laser beams. This result provides an unmistakable signature of the vacuumdecay phenomenon and could suggest a new avenue for development of high energy electron and/or positron beams. © 2011 American Physical Society.
 Miller, G. A., Thomas, A. W., Carroll, J. D., & Rafelski, J. (2011). Natural Resolution of the Proton Size Puzzle. Phys. Rev., A84, 020101.
 Miller, G. A., Thomas, A. W., Carroll, J. D., & Rafelski, J. (2011). Toward a resolution of the proton size puzzle. PHYSICAL REVIEW A, 84(2).
 Miller, G. A., Thomas, A. W., Carroll, J. D., & Rafelski, J. (2011). Toward a resolution of the proton size puzzle. Physical Review A  Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 84(2).More infoAbstract: We show that offmassshell effects arising from the internal structure of the proton provide a new proton polarization mechanism in the Lamb shift, proportional to the lepton mass to the fourth power. This effect is capable of resolving the current puzzle regarding the difference in the proton radius extracted from muonic compared with electronic hydrogen experiments. These offmassshell effects could be probed in several other experiments. A significant ambiguity appearing in dispersion relation evaluations of the proton polarizability contribution to the Lamb shift is noted. © 2011 American Physical Society.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2011). Particle Production in s_NN = 2.76 TeV Heavy Ion Collisions. Phys. Rev., C83, 054909.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2011). Particle production in √s_{NN}=2.76 TeV heavy ion collisions. Physical Review C  Nuclear Physics, 83(5).More infoAbstract: We obtain within the statistical hadronization model (SHM) the hadron yields dh/dy in heavy ion reactions at √sNN=2.76 TeV. We discuss the dependence both on hadronization temperature T and on critical hadronization pressure P. We consider observables distinguishing the hadronization models and conditions. © 2011 American Physical Society.
 Hadad, Y., Labun, L., Rafelski, J., Elkina, N., Klier, C., & Ruhl, H. (2010). Effects of RadiationReaction in Relativistic Laser Acceleration. Phys. Rev., D82, 096012.
 Hadad, Y., Labun, L., Rafelski, J., Elkina, N., Klier, C., & Ruhl, H. (2010). Effects of radiation reaction in relativistic laser acceleration. PHYSICAL REVIEW D, 82(9).
 Hadad, Y., Labun, L., Rafelski, J., Elkina, N., Klier, C., & Ruhl, H. (2010). Effects of radiation reaction in relativistic laser acceleration. Physical Review D  Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, 82(9).More infoAbstract: The goal of this paper is twofold: to explore the response of classical charges to electromagnetic force at the level of unity in natural units and to establish a criterion that determines physical parameters for which the related radiationreaction effects are detectable. In pursuit of this goal, the LandauLifshitz equation is solved analytically for an arbitrary (transverse) electromagnetic pulse. A comparative study of the radiation emission of an electron in a linearly polarized pulse for the LandauLifshitz equation and for the Lorentz force equation reveals the radiationreactiondominated regime, in which radiationreaction effects overcome the influence of the external fields. The case of a relativistic electron that is slowed down by a counterpropagating electromagnetic wave is studied in detail. We further show that when the electron experiences acceleration of order unity, the dynamics of the Lorentz force equation, the LandauLifshitz equation and the LorentzAbrahamDirac equation all result in different radiation emission that could be distinguished in experiment. Finally, our analytic and numerical results are compared with those appearing in the literature. © 2010 The American Physical Society.
 Kuznetsova, I., & Rafelski, J. (2010). Unstable Hadrons in Hot Hadron Gas in Laboratory and in the Early Universe. Phys. Rev., C82, 035203.
 Kuznetsova, I., & Rafelski, J. (2010). Unstable hadrons in hot hadron gas: In the laboratory and in the early Universe. PHYSICAL REVIEW C, 82(3).
 Kuznetsova, I., & Rafelski, J. (2010). Unstable hadrons in hot hadron gas: In the laboratory and in the early Universe. Physical Review C  Nuclear Physics, 82(3).More infoAbstract: We study kinetic master equations for chemical reactions involving the formation and the natural decay of unstable particles in a thermal bath. We consider the decay channel of one into two particles and the inverse process, fusion of two thermal particles into one. We present the master equations for the evolution of the density of the unstable particles in the early Universe. We obtain the thermal invariant reaction rate using as an input the free space (vacuum) decay time and show the medium quantum effects on π+πρ reaction relaxation time. As another laboratory example we describe the K+K process in thermal hadronic gas in heavyion collisions. A particularly interesting application of our formalism is the π0γ+γ process in the early Universe. We also explore the physics of π± and μ± freezeout in the Universe. © 2010 The American Physical Society.
 Kuznetsova, I., Habs, D., & Rafelski, J. (2010). Thermal reaction processes in a relativistic QED plasma drop. PHYSICAL REVIEW D, 81(5).
 Kuznetsova, I., Habs, D., & Rafelski, J. (2010). Thermal reaction processes in a relativistic QED plasma drop. Phys. Rev., D81, 053007.
 Kuznetsova, I., Habs, D., & Rafelski, J. (2010). Thermal reaction processes in a relativistic QED plasma drop. Physical Review D  Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, 81(5).More infoAbstract: The equilibrium size and temperature limits of thermally and chemically equilibrated e+eγ plasma drops are investigated at a given energy content. For a plasma to be equilibrated it must be opaque to electron and photon interactions. The opaqueness condition is determined by comparing plasma size with the mean free electron and photon paths. We calculate those paths using thermal Lorentzinvariant reaction rates for pair production and electron (positron) and photon scattering. The range of the corresponding plasma temperature and size is evaluated numerically. Considering the energy and size we find that the opaque and equilibrated plasma drop may be experimentally attainable. © 2010 The American Physical Society.
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2010). Dark Energy Simulacrum in Nonlinear Electrodynamics. Phys. Rev., D81, 065026.
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2010). Dark energy simulacrum in nonlinear electrodynamics. PHYSICAL REVIEW D, 81(6).
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2010). Dark energy simulacrum in nonlinear electrodynamics. Physical Review D  Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, 81(6).More infoAbstract: Quasiconstant external fields in nonlinear electromagnetism generate a global contribution proportional to gμν in the energymomentum tensor, thus a simulacrum of dark energy. To provide a thorough understanding of the origin and strength of its effects, we undertake a complete theoretical and numerical study of the energymomentum tensor Tμν for nonlinear electromagnetism. The EulerHeisenberg nonlinearity due to quantum fluctuations of spinor and scalar matter fields is considered and contrasted with the properties of classical nonlinear BornInfeld electromagnetism. We address modifications of charged particle kinematics by strong background fields. © 2010 The American Physical Society.
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2010). QED EnergyMomentum Trace as a Force in Astrophysics. Phys. Lett., B687, 133138.
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2010). QED energymomentum trace as a force in astrophysics. Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and HighEnergy Physics, 687(23), 133138.More infoAbstract: We study the properties of the trace T of the QED energymomentum tensor in the presence of quasiconstant external electromagnetic fields. We exhibit the origin of T in the quantum nonlinearity of the electromagnetic theory. We obtain the quantum vacuum fluctuationinduced interaction of a particle with the field of a strongly magnetized compact stellar object. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2010). Strong Field Physics: Probing Critical Acceleration and Inertia with Laser Pulses and QuarkGluon Plasma. Acta Phys. Polon., B41, 27632783.
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2010). Strong field physics: Probing critical acceleration and inertia with laser pulses and QuarkGluon plasma. Acta Physica Polonica B, 41(12), 27632783.More infoAbstract: Understanding physics in domains of critical (quantum unstable) fields requires investigating the classical and quantum particle dynamics at the critical acceleration, u̇ → 1 [natural units]. This regime of physics remains today experimentally practically untested. Particle and laser pulse collision experiments reaching critical acceleration are becoming feasible. Ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions breach the critical domain but are complicated by the presence of much other physics. The infamous problem of radiation reaction and the challenging environment of quantum vacuum instability arising in the high field domain signal the need for a thorough redress of the present theoretical framework.
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2010). Vacuum Structure and Dark Energy. Int. J. Mod. Phys., D19, 22992304.
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2010). Vacuum structure and dark energy. International Journal of Modern Physics D, 19(14), 22992304.More infoAbstract: We consider that the universe is trapped in an excited vacuum state and the resulting excitation energy provides the observed dark energy. We explore the conditions under which this situation can arise from physics already known. Considering the example of how macroscopic quantum electrodynamic fields alter the vacuum structure, we find that the energy scale 1 meV1 eV is particularly interesting. We discuss how dark energy of this form is accessible to laboratory experiments. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2010). Vacuumdecay time in strong external fields. PHYSICAL REVIEW D, 79(5).
 Labun, L., Hadad, Y., & Rafelski, J. (2010). Horizons of strong field physics. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1228, 3953.More infoAbstract: Discussing the limitations on the validity of classical electrodynamics, we show that present day laser pulse technology applied to headoncollisionswith relativistic electrons generates fields strong enough to permit experimentation at the limits of validity of the Lorentz force, and the development of experimental tests of Mach's principle. We also discuss more distant opportunities for exploring the nature of laws of physics and the vacuum structure. We then conclude that the predictions of quantum electrodynamics in the presence of critical fields are not completely satisfactory and argue that the study of Laser materialization into particle pairs opens a new domain of quantum electrodynamics. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.
 Petran, M., & Rafelski, J. (2010). Multistrange Particle Production and the Statistical Hadronization Model. Phys. Rev., C82, 011901.
 Petran, M., Letessier, J., Petracek, V., & Rafelski, J. (2010). Hadron production and quarkgluon plasma hadronization in PbPb collisions at root s(NN)=2.76 TeV. PHYSICAL REVIEW C, 88(3).
 Petran, M., Letessier, J., Petracek, V., & Rafelski, J. (2010). Statistical Hadronization of Multistrange Particles. Acta Phys. Polon., B41, 27852797.
 Petráñ, M., Letessier, J., Petráček, V., & Rafelski, J. (2010). Statistical hadronization of multistrange particles. Acta Physica Polonica B, 41(12), 27852797.More infoAbstract: We study multistrange hadrons produced in NA49 and STAR experiments at center of mass energies varying from √SNN = 7.61 GeV to 200 GeV. We show that the yields of Ξ, Ξ̄ and φ can help to constrain the physical conditions present in the hot dense fireball source of these multistrange hadrons created in heavy ion collision. We address the question of chemical equilibrium of individual quark flavors before and after hadronization and offer a few predictions for LHC.
 Petráň, M., & Rafelski, J. (2010). Multistrange particle production and the statistical hadronization model. Physical Review C  Nuclear Physics, 82(1).More infoAbstract: We consider the chemical freezeout of Ξ, Ξ̄, and multistrange hadrons within a statistical hadronization model inspired approach. We study particle yields across a wide range of reaction energy and centrality from NA49 at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) experiments. We constrain the physical conditions present in the fireball source of strange hadrons and anticipate results expected at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). © 2010 The American Physical Society.
 Rafelski, J. (2010). Vacuum Structure and Dark Energy. Int.J.Mod.Phys.D, 19, 22992304.More infoWe consider that the universe is trapped in an excited vacuum state and theresulting excitation energy provides the observed dark energy. We explore theconditions under which this situation can arise from physics already known.Considering the example of how macroscopic QED fields alter the vacuumstructure, we find that the energy scale 1 meV  1 eV is particularlyinteresting. We discuss how dark energy of this form is accessible tolaboratory experiments.[Journal_ref: Int.J.Mod.Phys.D19:22992304,2010]
 Rafelski, J., & Labun, L. (2010). CRITICAL ACCELERATION AND QUANTUM VACUUM. MODERN PHYSICS LETTERS A, 28(3).
 Rafelski, J., Labun, L., & Hadad, Y. (2010). Horizons of Strong Field Physics. AIP Conf. Proc., 1228, 3953.
 Birrell, J., & Rafelski, J. (2009). Quarkgluon plasma as the possible source of cosmological dark radiation. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 741, 7781.
 Kuznetsova, I., & Rafelski, J. (2009). Resonance Production in Heavy Ion Collisions: Suppression of Lambda(1520) and Enhancement of Sigma(1385). Phys. Rev., C79, 014903.
 Kuznetsova, I., & Rafelski, J. (2009). Resonance production in heavy ion collisions: Suppression of ≈(1520) and enhancement of σ(1385). Physical Review C  Nuclear Physics, 79(1).More infoAbstract: We investigate the yield of ≈(1520) resonance in heavy ion collisions within the framework of a kinetic master equation without the assumption of chemical equilibrium. We show that reactions such as ≈(1520)+a σ* can favor σ* production, thereby decreasing the ≈(1520) yield. Within the same approach we thus find a yield enhancement for σ(1385) and a yield suppression for ≈(1520). © 2009 The American Physical Society.
 Kuznetsova, I., Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2009). Resonances Do Not Equilibrate. Acta Phys. Polon., B40, 10131024.
 Kuznetsova, I., Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2009). Resonances do not equilibrate. Acta Physica Polonica B, 40(4), 10131024.More infoAbstract: We discuss, in qualitative and quantitative fashion, the yields of hadron resonances. We show that these yields, in general, are not in chemical equilibrium. We evaluate the nonequilibrium abundances in a dynamic model implementing the 1 + 2 ↔ 3 resonance formation reactions. Due to the strength of these reactions, we show the Σ(1385) enhancement, and the Λ(1520) suppression explicitly.
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2009). TEMPERATURE OF ELECTRON FLUCTUATIONS IN AN ACCELERATED VACUUM. MODERN PHYSICS LETTERS A, 28(3).
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2009). Vacuum Decay Time in Strong External Fields. Phys. Rev., D79, 057901.
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2009). Vacuumdecay time in strong external fields. Physical Review D  Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, 79(5).More infoAbstract: We consider dynamics of vacuum decay and particle production in the context of short pulse laser experiments. We identify and evaluate the invariant "materialization time," τ, the time scale for the conversion of an electromagnetic field energy into particles and compare to the laser related time scales. © 2009 The American Physical Society.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2009). Critical Hadronization Pressure. J. Phys., G36, 064017.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2009). Critical hadronization pressure. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 36(6).More infoAbstract: We discuss the bulk properties of QGP produced at the RHIC obtained at time of hadronization. We argue that hadronization of a quarkgluon plasma occurs at a critical pressure near to 82 MeV fm3, obtained for the SPS energy range. © 2009 IOP Publishing Ltd.
 Rafelski, J., Labun, L., Hadad, Y., & Chen, P. (2009). Quantum Vacuum Structure and Cosmology. eCONF, C0906083, 26.
 Steinke, S., & Rafelski, J. (2009). Quantum collective QCD string dynamics. JOURNAL OF PHYSICS GNUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS, 32(12), S455S460.
 Zayakin, A. V., & Rafelski, J. (2009). Confinement property in SU(3) gauge theory. Physical Review D  Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, 80(3).More infoAbstract: We study the confinement property of the pure SU(3) gauge theory, combining in this effort the nonperturbative gluon and ghost propagators obtained as solutions of DysonSchwinger equations with solutions of an integral ladder diagram summation type equation for the Wilson loop. We obtain the string potential and effective UV coupling. © 2009 The American Physical Society.
 Zayakin, A. V., & Rafelski, J. (2009). The Confinement Property in SU(3) Gauge Theory. Phys. Rev., D80, 034024.
 Zayakin, A. V., Khandramai, V., & Rafelski, J. (2009). Quark Condensate and Effective Action from Dyson Schwinger Equations.
 Armesto, N., Borghini, N., Jeon, S., Wiedemann, U. A., Abreu, S., Akkelin, S. V., Alam, J., Albacete, J. L., Andronic, A., Antonov, D., Arleo, F., Armesto, N., Arsene, I. C., Barnafoeldi, G. G., Barrette, J., Baeuchle, B., Becattini, F., Betz, B., Bleicher, M., , Bluhm, M., et al. (2008). Heavyion collisions at the LHCLast call for predictions. JOURNAL OF PHYSICS GNUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS, 35(5).
 Armesto, N., Borghini, N., Jeon, S., Wiedemann, U. A., Abreu, S., Akkelin, S. V., Alam, J., Albacete, J. L., Andronic, A., Antonov, D., Arleo, F., Armesto, N., Arsene, I. C., Barnaföldi, G., Barrette, J., Bäuchle, B., Becattini, F., Betz, B., Bleicher, M., , Bluhm, M., et al. (2008). Heavyion collisions at the LHC  Last call for predictions. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 35(5).More infoAbstract: This writeup is a compilation of the predictions for the forthcoming Heavy Ion Program at the Large Hadron Collider, as presented at the CERN Theory Institute 'Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC  Last Call for Predictions', held from 14th May to 10th June 2007. © 2008 IOP Publishing Ltd.
 Armesto, N., Borghini, N., Jeon, S., Wiedemann, U. A., Abreu, S., Akkelin, V., Alam, J., Albacete, J. L., Andronic, A., Antonov, D., & others, . (2008). Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC  Last Call for Predictions. J. Phys., G35, 054001.
 Kuznetsova, I., & Rafelski, J. (2008). Enhanced Production of Delta and Sigma(1385) Resonances. Phys. Lett., B668, 105110.
 Kuznetsova, I., & Rafelski, J. (2008). Enhanced production of Δ and Σ (1385) resonances. Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and HighEnergy Physics, 668(2), 105110.More infoAbstract: Yields of Δ (1230), Σ (1385) resonances produced in heavy ion collisions are studied within the framework of a kinetic master equation. The time evolution is driven by the process Δ ↔ N π, Σ (1385) ↔ Λ π. We obtain resonance yield both below and above chemical equilibrium, depending on initial hadronization condition and separation of kinetic and chemical freezeout. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 Kuznetsova, I., & Rafelski, J. (2008). NonEquilibrium Heavy Flavored Hadron Yields from Chemical Equilibrium StrangenessRich QGP. J. Phys., G35, 044043.
 Kuznetsova, I., & Rafelski, J. (2008). Nonequilibrium heavyflavored hadron yields from chemical equilibrium strangenessrich QGP. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 35(4).More infoAbstract: The yields of heavyflavored hadrons emitted from strangenessrich QGP are evaluated within the chemical nonequilibrium statistical hadronization model, conserving strangeness, charm and entropy yields at hadronization. © 2008 IOP Publishing Ltd.
 Kuznetsova, I., Habs, D., & Rafelski, J. (2008). Pion and muon production in e, e+, gamma plasma. Phys. Rev., D78, 014027.
 Kuznetsova, I., Habs, D., & Rafelski, J. (2008). Pion and muon production in e, e+, γ plasma. Physical Review D  Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, 78(1).More infoAbstract: We study production and equilibration of pions and muons in relativistic electronpositronphoton plasma at a temperature of T mμ, mπ. We argue that the observation of pions and muons can be a diagnostic tool in the study of the initial properties of such a plasma formed by means of strong laser fields. Conversely, properties of muons and pions in a thermal environment become accessible to precise experimental study. © 2008 The American Physical Society.
 Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2008). Hadron production and phase changes in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Eur. Phys. J., A35, 221242.
 Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2008). Hadron production and phase changes in relativistic heavyion collisions. EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL A, 35(2), 221242.
 Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2008). Hadron production and phase changes in relativistic heavyion collisions. The European Physical Journal A.More infoAbstract: We study soft hadron production in relativistic heavyion collisions in a wide range of reaction energy, 4.8 GeV < {Mathematical expression} < 200GeV, and make predictions about yields of particles using the statistical hadronization model. In fits to experimental data, we obtain both the statistical parameters as well as physical properties of the hadron source. We identify the properties of the fireball at the critical energy threshold, 6.26 GeV < {Mathematical expression} < 7.61GeV, marking for higher energies the hadronization of an entropyrich phase. In terms of the chemical composition, one sees a phase which at low energy is chemically undersaturated, and which turns into a chemically oversaturated state persisting up to the maximum accessible energy. Assuming that there is no change in physical mechanisms in the energy range 15 > {Mathematical expression}≥200GeV, we use continuity of particle yields and statistical parameters to predict the hadron production at {Mathematical expression} = 62.4GeV, and obtain total yields of hadrons at {Mathematical expression} = 130GeV. We consider, in depth, the pattern we uncover within the hadronization condition, and discuss possible mechanisms associated with the identified rapid change in system properties at {Mathematical expression}. We propose that the chemically oversaturated 2 + 1 flavor hadron matter system undergoes a 1storder phase transition. © 2008 Società Italiana di Fisica and SpringerVerlag.
 Petran, M., & Rafelski, J. (2008). Universal hadronization condition in heavy ion collisions at root s(NN)=62 GeV and at root s(NN)=2.76 TeV. PHYSICAL REVIEW C, 88(2).
 Rafelski, J. (2008). Strangeness Enhancement: Challenges and Successes. Eur. Phys. J. ST, 155, 139166.
 Rafelski, J. (2008). Strangeness and phase changes in hot hadronic matter1983. EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL A, 51(9).
 Rafelski, J. (2008). Strangeness enhancement. Challenges and successes. European Physical Journal: Special Topics, 155(1), 139166.More infoAbstract: Highly effective conversion of kinetic energy into abundant particle multiplicity is the remarkable feature discovered in high energy heavy ion collisions. This short and pedagogic review addresses topical issues related to the understanding of this phenomenon, originating in the creation of the deconfined quarkgluon plasma phase. I consider in depth the apparently simple, yet sometimes misunderstood, intricate issues: a) statistical hadrochemistry, chemical parameters, b) strange flavor chemical equilibration in quarkgluon plasma, and c) particle yields and sudden hadronization, in the historic perspective of work and competition with my friend József Zimányi. © EDP Sciences/Societé Italiana di Fisica/SpringerVerlag 2008.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2008). Particle Production and Deconfinement Threshold. PoS, CONFINEMENT8, 111.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2008). Particle production and deconfinement threshold. 8th Conference Quark Confinement and the Hadron Spectrum.More infoAbstract: We present a detailed analysis of the NA49 experimental particle yield results, and discuss the physical properties of the particle source. We explain in depth how our analysis differs from the work of other groups, what advance this implies in terms of our understanding, and what new physics about the deconfined particle source this allows us to recognize. We answer several frequently asked questions, presenting a transcript of a discussion regarding our data analysis. We show that the final NA49 data at 40, 80, 158 AGeV lead to a remarkably constant extensive thermal chemicalfreezeout properties of the fireball. We discuss briefly the importance of thermal hadronization pressure.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2008). Strangeness enhancement at LHC. J. Phys., G35, 044042.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2008). Strangeness enhancement at LHC. JOURNAL OF PHYSICS GNUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS, 35(4), 044042.More infoWe study production of strangeness in the hot QGP fireball under conditions achieved at LHC, and use these results to obtain soft (strange) hadron multiplicities. We compare the chemical equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions and identify characteristic experimental observables.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2008). Strangeness enhancement at LHC. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 35(4).More infoAbstract: We study production of strangeness in the hot QGP fireball under conditions achieved at LHC, and use these results to obtain soft (strange) hadron multiplicities. We compare the chemical equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions and identify characteristic experimental observables. © 2008 IOP Publishing Ltd.
 Rafelski, J., Kuznetsova, I., & Letessier, J. (2008). Strangeness and threshold of phase changes. J. Phys., G35, 044011.
 Rafelski, J., Kuznetsova, I., & Letessier, J. (2008). Strangeness at the threshold of phase change. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 35(4).More infoAbstract: We explore entropy and strangeness as the signature of quarkgluon plasma (QGP) for the top AGS and the energy scan at SPS. We find that the hadronization dynamics changes between 20 and 30 A GeV projectile energy. The highenergy results are consistent with the QGP. © 2008 IOP Publishing Ltd.
 Torrieri, G., Jeon, S., & Rafelski, J. (2008). A statistical model analysis of yields and fluctuations in 200 GeV AuAu collisions. NUKLEONIKA, 51, S99S103.
 Zayakin, A. V., & Rafelski, J. (2008). Nonlocal Gluon Condensate from the DysonSchwinger Equations.
 Bi, P., & Rafelski, J. (2007). Delta33 medium mass modification and pion spectra. Eur. Phys. J., A32, 267272.
 Birrell, J., Yang, C. T., & Rafelski, J. (2007). Relic neutrino freezeout: Dependence on natural constants. NUCLEAR PHYSICS B, 890, 481517.
 Kuznetsova, I., & Rafelski, J. (2007). Heavy flavor hadrons in statistical hadronization of strangenessrich QGP. EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL C, 51(1), 113133.
 Kuznetsova, I., & Rafelski, J. (2007). Heavy flavor hadrons in statistical hadronization of strangenessrich QGP. Eur. Phys. J., C51, 113133.
 Kuznetsova, I., & Rafelski, J. (2007). Heavy flavor hadrons in statistical hadronization of strangenessrich QGP. European Physical Journal C, 51(1), 113133.More infoAbstract: We study b and c quark hadronization from QGP. We obtain the yields of charm and bottom flavored hadrons within the statistical hadronization model. The important novel feature of this study is that we take into account the high strangeness and entropy content of QGP, conserving the strangeness and entropy yields at hadronization. © SpringerVerlag / Società Italiana di Fisica 2007.
 Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2007). Strangeness chemical equilibration in QGP at RHIC and CERN LHC. Phys. Rev., C75, 014905.
 Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2007). Strangeness chemical equilibration in a quarkgluon plasma. Physical Review C  Nuclear Physics, 75(1).More infoAbstract: We study, in the dynamically evolving quarkgluon plasma (QGP) fireball formed in relativistic heavy ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the growth of strangeness yield toward and beyond the chemical equilibrium. We account for the contribution of the direct strangeness production and evaluate the thermalQCD strangeness production mechanisms. The specific yield of strangeness per entropy, s/S, is the primary target variable. We explore the effect of collision impact parameter, i.e., fireball size, on kinetic strangeness chemical equilibration in QGP. Insights gained in studying the RHIC data with regard to the dynamics of the fireball are applied to the study of strangeness production at the LHC. We use these results and consider the strange hadron relative particle yields at RHIC and LHC in a systematic fashion. We consider both the dependence on s/S and the direct dependence on the participant number. © 2007 The American Physical Society.
 PinZhen, B., & Rafelski, J. (2007). Δ_{33}medium mass modification and pion spectra. European Physical Journal A, 32(3), 267272.More infoAbstract: We study the π± spectra obtained in 2, 4, 6 and 8A GeV Au  Au collisions within the thermal model. We find that the main features of the data can be well described after we include the pions from the decay of the Δ resonance with medium mass modification. © Società Italiana di Fisica and SpringerVerlag 2007.
 Rafelski, J. (2007). Quarks in the universe. Int.J.Mod.Phys.E, 16, 813828.More infoMatter in its present form was formed when our Universe emerged from the quarkgluon phase (QGP) at about 30mus into itsevolution. To explore this early period in the laboratory, we study highlyexcited matter formed in relativistic heavy ion collision experiments: heavynuclei crash into each other, and form compressed and energetically excitednuclear matter, resembling in its key features the stuff which filled the earlyUniverse. In these experiments we further explore the physics of the vacuumstructure of strongly interacting gauge theory, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD).The common beginning for both, heavy ion collisions, and vacuum structureinvestigations, is the physics of the quantum electrodynamic (QED) vacuum inthe presence of the supercritical external field that is formed when two highlycharged heavy ions are brought together near to the Coulomb barrier in aconsiderably lower reaction energy collision.[Journal_ref: Int.J.Mod.Phys.E16:813828,2007]
 Rafelski, J. (2007). Quarks in the universe. International Journal of Modern Physics E, 16(3), 813828.
 Torrieri, G., & Rafelski, J. (2007). Hadron Resonances and Phase Threshold in Heavy Ion Collisions. Phys. Rev., C75, 024902.
 Torrieri, G., & Rafelski, J. (2007). Hadron resonances and phase threshold in heavy ion collisions. Physical Review C  Nuclear Physics, 75(2).More infoAbstract: We show that a measurement of the reaction energy (s) dependence of relative hadron resonance yields in heavy ion collisions can be used to study the phase structure of the dense strongly interacting matter created in these collisions and investigate the origin of the trends observed in the excitation functions of certain soft hadronic observables. We show that the presence of chemical nonequilibrium in light quark abundance imparts a characteristic signature on the energy dependence of resonance yields that differs considerably from what is expected in the equilibrium picture. © 2007 The American Physical Society.
 Torrieri, G., Jeon, S., & Rafelski, J. (2007). Particle yield fluctuations and chemical nonequilibrium in AuAu collisions at root(NN)NS=100 GeV. PHYSICAL REVIEW C, 74(2).
 Alessandro, B., Antinori, F., Belikov, J. A., Blume, C., Dainese, A., Foka, P., Giubellino, P., Hippolyte, B., Kuhn, C., Martinez, G., Monteno, M., Morsch, A., Nayak, T. K., Nystrand, J., Noriega, M. L., Paic, G., Pluta, J., Ramello, L., Revol, J., , Safarik, K., et al. (2006). ALICE: Physics Performance Report, Volume II. JOURNAL OF PHYSICS GNUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS, 32(10), 12952040.
 Barish, K., Huang, H. Z., Kapusta, J., Odyniec, G., Rafelski, J., & Whitten Jr., C. A. (2006). SQM2006. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 32(12).
 Bialas, A., & Rafelski, J. (2006). Balance of baryon number in the quark coalescence model. Phys. Lett., B633, 488491.
 Bialas, A., & Rafelski, J. (2006). Balance of baryon number in the quark coalescence model. Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and HighEnergy Physics, 633(45), 488491.More infoAbstract: The charge and baryon balance functions are studied in the coalescence hadronization mechanism of quarkgluon plasma. Assuming that in the plasma phase the qq̄ pairs form uncorrelated clusters whose decay is also uncorrelated, one can understand the observed small width of the charge balance function in the Gaussian approximation. The coalescence model predicts even smaller width of the baryonantibaryon balance function: σBB̄/σ+=2/3. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 Cortese, P., Dellacasa, G., Ramello, L., Sitta, M., Ahmad, N., Ahmad, S., Ahmad, T., Bari, W., Irfan, M., Zafar, M., Botje, M., Kuijer, P. G., Snellings, R., Belogianni, A., Christakoglou, P., Ganoti, P., Petridis, A., Roukoutakis, F., SpyropoulouStassinaki, M., , Vassiliou, M., et al. (2006). ALICE: Physics performance report, volume II. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 32(10).More infoAbstract: ALICE is a generalpurpose heavyion experiment designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quarkgluon plasma in nucleusnucleus collisions at the LHC. It currently involves more than 900 physicists and senior engineers, from both the nuclear and highenergy physics sectors, from over 90 institutions in about 30 countries. The ALICE detector is designed to cope with the highest particle multiplicities above those anticipated for PbPb collisions (dNch/dy up to 8000) and it will be operational at the startup of the LHC. In addition to heavy systems, the ALICE Collaboration will study collisions of lowermass ions, which are a means of varying the energy density, and protons (both pp and pA), which primarily provide reference data for the nucleusnucleus collisions. In addition, the pp data will allow for a number of genuine pp physics studies. The detailed design of the different detector systems has been laid down in a number of Technical Design Reports issued between mid1998 and the end of 2004. The experiment is currently under construction and will be ready for data taking with both proton and heavyion beams at the startup of the LHC. Since the comprehensive information on detector and physics performance was last published in the ALICE Technical Proposal in 1996, the detector, as well as simulation, reconstruction and analysis software have undergone significant development. The Physics Performance Report (PPR) provides an updated and comprehensive summary of the performance of the various ALICE subsystems, including updates to the Technical Design Reports, as appropriate. The PPR is divided into two volumes. Volume I, published in 2004 (CERN/LHCC 2003049, ALICE Collaboration 2004 J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 30 15171763), contains in four chapters a short theoretical overview and an extensive reference list concerning the physics topics of interest to ALICE, the experimental conditions at the LHC, a short summary and update of the subsystem designs, and a description of the offline framework and Monte Carlo event generators. The present volume, Volume II, contains the majority of the information relevant to the physics performance in protonproton, protonnucleus, and nucleusnucleus collisions. Following an introductory overview, Chapter 5 describes the combined detector performance and the event reconstruction procedures, based on detailed simulations of the individual subsystems. Chapter 6 describes the analysis and physics reach for a representative sample of physics observables, from global event characteristics to hard processes. © 2006 IOP Publishing Ltd.
 Fabjan, C. W., & others, . (2006). ALICE: Physics performance report, volume II. J. Phys., G32, 12952040.
 Kuznetsova, I., & Rafelski, J. (2006). Charmed hadrons from strangenessrich QGP. J. Phys., G32, S499S504.
 Kuznetsova, I., & Rafelski, J. (2006). Charmed hadrons from strangenessrich QGP. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 32(12).More infoAbstract: The yields of charmed hadrons emitted by strangenessrich QGP are evaluated within the chemical nonequilibrium statistical hadronization model, conserving strangeness, charm and entropy yields at hadronization. © 2006 IOP Publishing Ltd.
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2006). Acceleration and vacuum temperature. PHYSICAL REVIEW D, 86(4).
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2006). QED energymomentum trace as a force in astrophysics. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 687(23), 133138.
 Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2006). Centrality dependence of strangeness and (anti)hyperon production at RHIC. Phys. Rev., C73, 014902.
 Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2006). Centrality dependence of strangeness and (anti)hyperon production at sNN=200 GeV. Physical Review C  Nuclear Physics, 73(1).More infoAbstract: We evaluate strangeness produced in AuAu interactions at sNN=200 GeV, as a function of reaction participant number A, and obtain the relative strange quark content at hadronization. Strange baryon and antibaryon rapidity density yields are studied relative to, and as function of, participant number and produced hadron yields. © 2006 The American Physical Society.
 Petran, M., & Rafelski, J. (2006). Multistrange particle production and the statistical hadronization model. PHYSICAL REVIEW C, 82(1).
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2006). Hadronization of expanding QGP. Eur. Phys. J., A29, 107111.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2006). Hadronization of expanding QGP. European Physical Journal A, 29(1), 107111.More infoAbstract: We discuss how the dynamics of an exploding hot fireball of quarkgluon matter impacts the actual phase transition conditions between the deconfined and confined state of matter. We survey the chemical conditions prevailing at hadronization.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2006). Soft hadron ratios at the LHC. Eur. Phys. J., C45, 6172.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2006). Soft hadron ratios at the LHC. European Physical Journal C, 45(1), 6172.More infoAbstract: High precision soft hadron abundance data produced in relativistic nuclear collisions at LHC at √snn ≤ 5500$ GeV will become available beginning in 2007/8. We explore, within the statistical hadronization model, how these results can help us understand the properties of the deconfined quarkgluon phase at its breakup. We make assumptions about the physical properties of the fireball and obtain particle production predictions. Then, we develop a strategy to measure parameters of interest, such as strangeness occupancy γs, chemical potentials μ B and μ S.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2006). Status of StrangenessFlavor Signature of QGP. Acta Phys. Polon., B37, 33153342.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2006). Status of strangenessflavor signature of QGP. Acta Physica Polonica B, 37(12), 33153341.More infoAbstract: Is the new state of matter formed in relativistic heavy ion collisions the deconfined quarkgluon plasma? We survey the status of several strange hadron observables and discuss how these measurements help understand the dense hadronic matter.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2006). Strangeness and the discovery of quarkgluon plasma. J. Phys. Conf. Ser., 50, 176191.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2006). Strangeness and the discovery of quarkgluon plasma. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 50(1), 176191.More infoAbstract: Strangeness flavor yield s and the entropy yield Sare the observables of the deconfined quarkgluon state of matter which can be studied in the entire available experimental energy range at AGS, SPS, RHIC, and, in near future, at the LHC energy range. We present here a comprehensive analysis of strange, soft hadron production as function of energy and reaction volume. We discuss the physical properties of the final state and argue how evidence about the primordial QGP emerges. © 2006 IOP Publishing Ltd.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2006). Strangeness and thresholds of phase changes in relativistic heavy ion collisions. NUCLEAR PHYSICS BPROCEEDINGS SUPPLEMENTS, 161, 200209.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2006). Strangeness and thresholds of phase changes in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Nucl. Phys. Proc. Suppl., 161, 200209.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2006). Strangeness and thresholds of phase changes in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Nuclear Physics B  Proceedings Supplements, 161(SPEC. ISS.), 200209.More infoAbstract: We discuss how the dynamics of the evolving hot fireball of quarkgluon matter impacts phase transition between the deconfined and confined state of matter. The rapid expansion of the fireball of deconfined matter created in heavy ion collisions facilitates formation of an oversaturated strange quark phase space. The related excess abundance of strangeness is compensating the suppression of this semiheavy quark yield by its quark mass. In addition, the dynamical expansion of colored quanta pushes against the vacuum structure, with a resulting supercooling of the transition temperature. We address the status of the search for the phase boundary as function of reaction energy and collision centrality and show evidence for a change in reaction mechanism at sufficiently low energies. The phase diagram derived from the study of hadron production conditions shows two boundaries, one corresponding to the expected transition between confined and deconfined matter, with a downward temperature shift, and the other a high quark density hadronization which appears to involve heavy effective quarks, at relatively large temperatures. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 Steinke, S., & Rafelski, J. (2006). Quantum collective QCD string dynamics. J. Phys., G32, S455S460.
 Steinke, S., & Rafelski, J. (2006). Quantum collective QCD string dynamics. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 32(12).More infoAbstract: The string breaking model of particle production is extended in order to help explain the transverse momentum distribution in elementary collisions. Inspired by an idea of Bialas, we treat the string using a collective coordinate approach. This leads to a chromoelectric field strength which fluctuates, and in turn implies that quarks are produced according to a thermal distribution. © 2006 IOP Publishing Ltd.
 Torrieri, G., Jeon, S., & Rafelski, J. (2006). A Statistical model analysis of yields and fluctuations in 200 GeV AuAu collisions. Nucleonics, 51, 99103.
 Torrieri, G., Jeon, S., & Rafelski, J. (2006). A statistical model analysis of yields and fluctuations in 200 GeV AuAu collisions. Nukleonika, 51(SUPPL. 3), S99S103.More infoAbstract: We show that the simultaneous measurement of yields and fluctuations is capable of falsifying and constraining the statistical hadronization model. We show how such a measurement can test for chemical nonequilibrium, and distinguish between a high temperature chemically equilibrated freezeout from a supercooled freezeout with an oversaturated phase space. We perform a fit, and show that both yields and fluctuations measured at RHIC 200 GeV can be accounted for within the second scenario, with both the light and strange quark phase space saturated significantly above detailed balance. We point to the simultaneous fit of the K/π fluctuation and the K*/K ratio as evidence that the effect of hadronic reinteractions after freezeout is small.
 Torrieri, G., Jeon, S., & Rafelski, J. (2006). Constraining freezeout with yields and fluctuations. Rom. Rep. Phys., 58, 031036.
 Torrieri, G., Jeon, S., & Rafelski, J. (2006). Particle multiplicities and fluctuations in 200 GeV AuAu collisions. AIP Conference Proceedings, 828, 5561.More infoAbstract: We use the statistical hadronization model (SHM) to describe hadron multiplicity yields and fluctuations. We consider 200 GeV AuAu collisions, and show that both event averaged yields of stable particles and resonances, and eventbyevent fluctuation of the K/π ratio can be described within the SHM using the same set of thermal parameters, provided that the phase space occupancy parameter value is significantly above chemical equilibrium, and the freezeout temperature is ∼ 140 MeV. We present predictions that allow to test the consistency of our results. © 2006 American Institute of Physics.
 Torrieri, G., Jeon, S., & Rafelski, J. (2006). Particle multiplicities and fluctuations in 200GeV AuAu collisions. AIP Conf. Proc., 828, 5561.
 Torrieri, G., Jeon, S., & Rafelski, J. (2006). Particle yield fluctuations and chemical nonequilibrium at RHIC. Phys. Rev., C74, 024901.
 Torrieri, G., Jeon, S., & Rafelski, J. (2006). Particle yield fluctuations and chemical nonequilibrium in AuAu collisions at sNN=200 GeV. Physical Review C  Nuclear Physics, 74(2).More infoAbstract: We study charge fluctuations within the statistical hadronization model. Considering both the particle yield ratios and the charge fluctuations we show that it is possible to differentiate between chemical equilibrium and nonequilibrium freezeout conditions. As an example of the procedure we show quantitatively how the relative yield ratio Λ/K together with the normalized net charge fluctuation v(Q)= (ΔQ)2/Nch constrain the chemical conditions at freezeout. We also discuss the influence of the limited detector acceptance on fluctuation measurements, and show how this can be accounted for within a quantitative analysis. © 2006 The American Physical Society.
 Torrieri, G., Jeon, S., Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2006). SHAREv2: Fluctuations and a comprehensive treatment of decay feeddown. Comput. Phys. Commun., 175, 635649.
 Torrieri, G., Jeon, S., Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2006). SHAREv2: fluctuations and a comprehensive treatment of decay feeddown. COMPUTER PHYSICS COMMUNICATIONS, 175(10), 635649.
 Torrieri, G., Jeon, S., Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2006). SHAREv2: fluctuations and a comprehensive treatment of decay feeddown. Computer Physics Communications, 175(10), 635649.More infoAbstract: This the user's manual for SHARE version 2. SHARE [G. Torrieri, S. Steinke, W. Broniowski, W. Florkowski, J. Letessier, J. Rafelski, Comput. Phys. Comm. 167 (2005) 229] (Statistical Hadronization with Resonances) is a collection of programs designed for the statistical analysis of particle production in relativistic heavyion collisions. While the structure of the program remains similar to v1.x, v2 provides several new features such as evaluation of statistical fluctuations of particle yields, and a greater versatility, in particular regarding decay feeddown and input/output structure. This article describes all the new features, with emphasis on statistical fluctuations. Program summary: Title of program:SHAREv2. Catalogue identifier:ADVD_v2_0. Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVD_v2_0. Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland. Computer:PC, Pentium III, 512 MB RAM not hardware dependent. Operating system:Linux: RedHat 6.1, 7.2, FEDORA, etc. not system dependent. Programming language:FORTRAN77. Size of the package:167 KB directory, without libraries (see http://wwwasdoc.web.cern.ch/wwwasdoc/minuit/minmain.html, http://wwwasd.web.cern.ch/wwwasd/cernlib.html for details on library requirements). Number of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:26 101. Number of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:170 346. Distribution format:tar.gzip file. Computer:Any computer with an f77 compiler. Nature of the physical problem:Eventbyevent fluctuations have been recognized to be the physical observable capable to constrain particle production models. Therefore, consideration of eventbyevent fluctuations is required for a decisive falsification or constraining of (variants of) particle production models based on (grand, micro) canonical statistical mechanics phase space, the so called statistical hadronization models (SHM). As in the case of particle yields, to properly compare model calculations to data it is necessary to consistently take into account resonance decays. However, eventbyevent fluctuations are more sensitive than particle yields to experimental acceptance issues, and a range of techniques needs to be implemented to extract 'physical' fluctuations from an experimental eventbyevent measurement. Method of solving the problem:The techniques used within the SHARE suite of programs [G. Torrieri, S. Steinke, W. Broniowski, W. Florkowski, J. Letessier, J. Rafelski, Comput. Phys. Comm. 167 (2005) 229; SHAREv1] are updated and extended to fluctuations. A full particle datatable, decay tree, and set of experimental feeddown coefficients are provided. Unlike SHAREv1.x, experimental acceptance feeddown coefficients can be entered for any resonance decay. SHAREv2 can calculate yields, fluctuations, and bulk properties of the fireball from provided thermal parameters; alternatively, parameters can be obtained from fits to experimental data, via the MINUIT fitting algorithm [F. James, M. Roos, Comput. Phys. Comm. 10 (1975) 343]. Fits can also be analyzed for significance, parameter and data point sensitivity. Averages and fluctuations at freezeout of both the stable particles and the hadronic resonances are set according to a statistical prescription, calculated via a series of Bessel functions, using CERN library programs. We also have the option of including finite particle widths of the resonances. A χ2 minimization algorithm, also from the CERN library programs, is used to perform and analyze the fit. Please see SHAREv1 for more details on these. Purpose:The vast amount of high quality soft hadron production data, from experiments running at the SPS, RHIC, in past at the AGS, and in the near future at the LHC, offers the opportunity for statistical particle production model falsification. This task has turned out to be difficult when considering solely particle yields addressed in the context of SHAREv1.x. For this reason physical conditions at freezeout remain contested. Inclusion in the analysis of eventbyevent fluctuations appears to resolve this issue. Similarly, a thorough analysis including both fluctuations and average multiplicities gives a way to explore the presence and strength of interactions following hadronization (when hadrons form), ending with thermal freezeout (when all interactions cease). SHAREv2 with fluctuations will also help determine which statistical ensemble (if any), e.g., canonical or grandcanonical, is more physically appropriate for analyzing a given system. Together with resonances, fluctuations can also be used for a direct estimate of the extent the system reinteracts between chemical and thermal freezeout. We hope and expect that SHAREv2 will contribute to decide if any of the statistical hadronization model variants has a genuine physical connection to hadron particle production. Computation time survey:We encounter, in the FORTRAN version computation, times up to seconds for evaluation of particle yields. These rise by up to a factor of 300 in the process of minimization and a further factor of a few when χ2 / NDoF profiles and contours with chemical nonequilibrium are requested. Summary of new features (w.r.t. SHAREv1.x): Fluctuations:In addition to particle yields, ratios and bulk quantities SHAREv2 can calculate, fit and analyze statistical fluctuations of particles and particle ratios. Decays:SHAREv2 has the flexibility to account for any experimental method of allowing for decay feeddowns to the particle yields. Charm flavor:Charmed particles have been added to the decay tree, allowing as an option study of statistical hadronization of J / ψ, χc, Dc, etc. Quark chemistry:Chemical nonequilibrium yields for both u and d flavors, as opposed to generically light quarks q, are considered; ηη′ mixing, etc., are properly dealt with, and chemical nonequilibrium can be studied for each flavor separately. Misc:Many new commands and features have been introduced and added to the basic user interface. For example, it is possible to study combinations of particles and their ratios. It is also possible to combine all the input files into one file. SHARE compatibility and manual:This writeup is an update and extension of SHAREv1. The user should consult SHAREv1 regarding the principles of user interface and for all particle yield related physics and program instructions, other than the parameter additions and minor changes described here. SHAREv2 is downward compatible for the changes of the user interface, offering the user of SHAREv1 a computer generated revised input files compatible with SHAREv2. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
 Huang, H. Z., & Rafelski, J. (2005). Hadronization and quark probes of deconfinement at RHIC. AIP Conf. Proc., 756, 210227.
 Huang, H. Z., & Rafelski, J. (2005). Hadronization and quark probes of deconfinement at RHIC. AIP Conference Proceedings, 756, 210227.More infoAbstract: We discuss experimental features of identified particle production from nucleusnucleus collisions. These features reflect hadronization from a deconfined partonic matter whose particle formation scheme is distinctly different from fragmentation phenomenology in elementary collisions. Multiparton dynamics, such as quark coalescences or recombinations, appear to be essential to explain the experimental measurements at the intermediate transverse momentum of 25 GeV/c. Constituent quarks seem to be the dominant degrees of freedom at hadronization. Heavy quark production should help quantify deconfined matter properties. © 2005 American Institute of Physics.
 Rafelski, J., Letessier, J., & Torrieri, G. (2005). Centrality dependence of bulk fireball properties at RHIC. Phys. Rev., C72, 024905.
 Rafelski, J., Letessier, J., & Torrieri, G. (2005). Centrality dependence of bulk fireball properties in root s(NN)=200 GeVAuAu collisions. PHYSICAL REVIEW C, 72(2).
 Rafelski, J., Letessier, J., & Torrieri, G. (2005). Centrality dependence of bulk fireball properties in sNN=200GeV AuAu collisions. Physical Review C  Nuclear Physics, 72(2).More infoAbstract: We explore the centrality dependence of the properties of the dense hadronic matter created in sNN=200 GeV AuAu collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Using the statistical hadronization model, we fit particle yields known for 11 centrality bins. We present the resulting model parameters, rapidity yields of physical quantities, and the physical properties of bulk matter at hadronization as function of centrality. We discuss the production of strangeness and entropy. © 2005 The American Physical Society.
 Torrieri, G., & Rafelski, J. (2005). Multiplicities and bulk thermodynamic quantities at s(NN)**(1/2) = 130GeV with SHARE. J. Phys. Conf. Ser., 5, 246.
 Torrieri, G., Steinke, S., Broniowski, W., Florkowski, W., Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2005). SHARE: Statistical hadronization with resonances. COMPUTER PHYSICS COMMUNICATIONS, 167(3), 229251.
 Torrieri, G., Steinke, S., Broniowski, W., Florkowski, W., Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2005). SHARE: Statistical hadronization with resonances. Comput. Phys. Commun., 167, 229251.
 Torrieri, G., Steinke, S., Broniowski, W., Florkowski, W., Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2005). SHARE: Statistical hadronization with resonances. Computer Physics Communications, 167(3), 229251.More infoAbstract: SHARE is a collection of programs designed for the statistical analysis of particle production in relativistic heavyion collisions. With the physical input of intensive statistical parameters, it generates the ratios of particle abundances. The program includes cascade decays of all confirmed resonances from the Particle Data Tables. The complete treatment of these resonances has been known to be a crucial factor behind the success of the statistical approach. An optional feature implemented is the BreitWigner distribution for strong resonances. An interface for fitting the parameters of the model to the experimental data is provided.
 Letessier, J., Rafelski, J., & Torrieri, G. (2004). Deconfinement energy threshold: Analysis of hadron yields at 11.6A GeV.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2004). Strangeness and quark gluon plasma. J. Phys., G30, S1S28.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2004). Strangeness and quarkgluon plasma. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 30(1), S1S28.More infoAbstract: A brief summary of strangeness milestones is followed by a chemical nonequilibrium statistical hadronization analysis of strangeness results at SPS and RHIC. Strange particle production in A A interactions at √S NN ≥ 8.6 GeV can be understood consistently as originating from the deconfmed quarkgluon plasma (QGP) in a sudden hadronization process. Onset of QGP formation as function of energy is placed in the beam energy interval 1030 A GeV/c. Strangeness anomalies at LHC are described.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2004). Strangeness excitation function in heavy ion collisions. AIP Conf. Proc., 739, 216222.
 Sherman, T. J., & Rafelski, J. (2004). Generalization of Boltzmann equilibration dynamics. Lect. Notes Phys., 633, 377384.
 Torrieri, G., & Rafelski, J. (2004). A Comparison of statistical hadronization models. J. Phys., G30, S557S564.
 Torrieri, G., & Rafelski, J. (2004). A comparison of statistical hadronization models. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 30(1), S557S564.More infoAbstract: We investigate the sensitivity of fits of hadron spectra produced in heavyion collisions to the choice of statistical hadronization model. We start by giving an overview of statistical model ambiguities, and what they tell us about freezeout dynamics. We then use Monte Carlo generated data to determine sensitivity to model choice. We fit the statistical hadronization models under consideration to RHIC data, and find that a comparison χ2 fits can shed light on some presently contentious questions.
 Torrieri, G., & Rafelski, J. (2004). Hadron resonance probes of QGP. Nukleonika, 49(SUPPL.2), S109S114.More infoAbstract: We discuss the indirect and direct role of the shortlived resonances as probes of QGP freezeout process. The indirect effect is the distortion of stable single particle yields and spectra by contributions of decaying resonances, which alter significantly the parameters obtained in fits to experimental data. We then discuss the direct observation of shortlived resonances as a probe of posthadronization dynamics allowing to distinguish between different hadronization models.
 Torrieri, G., & Rafelski, J. (2004). Hadron resonance probes of QGP. Nukleonika, 49(suppl.2), s109s114.
 Torrieri, G., Letessier, J., Rafelski, J., & Steinke, S. (2004). Statistical hadronization with resonances. Acta Phys. Polon., B35, 29112927.
 Torrieri, G., Letessier, J., Rafelski, J., & Steinke, S. (2004). Statistical hadronization with resonances. Acta Physica Polonica B, 35(12), 29112927.More infoAbstract: We introduce the equilibrium and nonequilibrium statistical hadronization picture of particle production in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. We describe the related physical reaction scenarios, and show how these can lead to quark pair yield nonequilibrium. Using the SHARE1.2 program suite we quantitatively model particle yields and ratios for RHIC130 run. We study how experimental particle ratios can differentiate between model scenarios, and discuss in depth the importance of hadronic resonances in understanding of hadron production processes.
 Fromerth, M. J., & Rafelski, J. (2003). Limit of quarkantiquark mass difference from the neutral kaon system. Acta Physica Polonica B, 34(8), 41514155.More infoAbstract: We quantify the limits on quarkantiquark mass differences imposed by the neutral kaon mass system. In particular, we find that an upper limit to the mass difference of 103 eV exists if mass differences across quark flavors are uncorrelated. In the upcoming antihydrogen experiments this limit on quark mass difference would allow a measurement of electronpositron mass difference up to a relative precision level of 1015.
 Fromerth, M. J., & Rafelski, J. (2003). Limit on CPT violating quark antiquark mass difference from the neutral kaon system. Acta Phys. Polon., B34, 41514156.
 Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2003). QCD equations of state and the QGP liquid model. Phys. Rev., C67, 031902.
 Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2003). QCD equations of state and the quarkgluon plasma liquid model. PHYSICAL REVIEW C, 67(3).
 Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2003). QCD equations of state and the quarkgluon plasma liquid model. Physical Review C  Nuclear Physics, 67(3), 319021319024.More infoAbstract: Recent advances in the study of equations of state of thermal lattice quantum chromodynamics obtained at nonzero baryon density allow validation of the quarkgluon plasma (QGP) liquid model equations of state (EOS). We study here the properties of the QGPEOS near to the phase transformation boundary at finite baryon density and show a close agreement with the lattice results.
 Letessier, J., Torrieri, G., Steinke, S., & Rafelski, J. (2003). Strange pentaquark hadrons in statistical hadronization. PHYSICAL REVIEW C, 68(6).
 Letessier, J., Torrieri, G., Steinke, S., & Rafelski, J. (2003). Strange pentaquark hadrons in statistical hadronization. Phys. Rev., C68, 061901.
 Letessier, J., Torrieri, G., Steinke, S., & Rafelski, J. (2003). Strange pentaquark hadrons in statistical hadronization. Physical Review C  Nuclear Physics, 68(6), 619011619014.More infoAbstract: We study, within the statistical hadronization model, the influence of narrow strangeness carrying baryon resonances (pentaquarks) on the understanding of particle production in relativistic heavy ion collisions. There is a great variation of expected yields as a function of heavy ion collision energy due to rapidly evolving chemical conditions at particle chemical freezeout. At relatively low collision energies, these new states lead to improvement of statistical hadronization fits.
 Rafelski, J., & Ericson, T. (2003). The tale of the Hagedorn temperature. CERN Cour., 43N7, 3033.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2003). Strangeness and statistical hadronization: How to study quark gluon plasma. Acta Phys. Polon., B34, 57915824.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2003). Strangeness and statistical hadronization: How to study quarkgluon plasma. Acta Physica Polonica B, 34(12), 57915823.More infoAbstract: Statistical hadronization is presented as mechanism for (strange) particle production from a deconfined quarkgluon plasma (QGP) fireball. We first consider hadronic resonance production at RHIC as a test of the model. We present in detail how the hadrochemistry determines particle multiplicitties and in case of sudden hadronization allows investigation of QGP properties. A comparative study of strange hadron production at SPS and RHIC is presented. The energy dependence of physical observables shows regularities and a potential discontinuity in the low RHIC range, when comparing these different energy domains. Considering the energy scan program at CERNSPS we show that the K+/π+ discontinuity is a baryon density effect.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2003). Testing limits of statistical hadronization. NUCLEAR PHYSICS A, 715, 98C107C.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2003). Testing limits of statistical hadronization. Nucl. Phys., A715, 98107.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2003). Testing limits of statistical hadronization. Nuclear Physics A, 715, 98c107c.More infoAbstract: Much of the energy of the nuclei colliding at RHIC or SPS is converted into final state hadronic particles. About a quarter of this energy is in baryons and antibaryons. There are nearly 10 strange quark pairs per central rapidity participant. Do we really understand the hadronic particle yields? Do we need to introduce postFermimodel ideas such as chemical nonequilibrium in order to understand how a deconfined state hadronizes? © 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
 Torrieri, G., & Rafelski, J. (2003). Statistical hadronization probed by resonances. Phys. Rev., C68, 034912.
 Torrieri, G., & Rafelski, J. (2003). Statistical hadronization probed by resonances. Physical Review C  Nuclear Physics, 68(3), 3491213491210.More infoAbstract: We study to what extent a measurement of the m⊥ spectra for hadrons and their resonances can resolve ambiguities in the statistical model description of particle production. We describe in a quantitative analysis how physical assumptions about the freezeout geometry and dynamics influence the particle spectra. Considering ratios of m⊥ distribution of resonanceparticle ratios (such as K*/K, Σ*/λ, η′/η) we observe significant sensitivity to fireball freezeout geometry and flow dynamics.
 Fromerth, M. J., & Rafelski, J. (2002). Hadronization of the quark Universe.
 Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2002). Rapidity particle spectra in sudden hadronization of QGP. J. Phys., G28, 183188.
 Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2002). Rapidity particle spectra in sudden hadronization of QGP. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 28(1), 183187.More infoAbstract: We show that the remaining internal longitudinal flow of colliding quarks in nuclei offers a natural explanation for the diversity of rapidity spectral shapes observed in PbPb 158A GeV nuclear collisions. Thus QGP sudden hadronization reaction picture is a suitable approach to explain the rapidity spectra of hadrons produced.
 Markert, C., Torrieri, G., & Rafelski, J. (2002). Strange Hadron Resonances: FreezeâOut Probes in HeavyâIon Collisions. AIP Conf. Proc., 631, 533552.
 McGuire, P. C., Bohr, H., Clark, J. W., Haschke, R., Pershing, C. L., & Rafelski, J. (2002). Threshold disorder as a source of diverse and complex behavior in random nets. Neural Networks, 15(10), 12431258.More infoPMID: 12425441;Abstract: We study the diversity of complex spatiotemporal patterns in the behavior of random synchronous asymmetric neural networks (RSANNs). Special attention is given to the impact of disordered threshold values on limitcycle diversity and limitcycle complexity in RSANNs which have 'normal' thresholds by default. Surprisingly, RSANNs exhibit only a small repertoire of rather complex limitcycle patterns when all parameters are fixed. This repertoire of complex patterns is also rather stable with respect to small parameter changes. These two unexpected results may generalize to the study of other complex systems. In order to reach beyond this seemingly disabling 'stable and small' aspect of the limitcycle repertoire of RSANNs, we have found that if an RSANN has threshold disorder above a critical level, then there is a rapid increase of the size of the repertoire of patterns. The repertoire size initially follows a powerlaw function of the magnitude of the threshold disorder. As the disorder increases further, the limitcycle patterns themselves become simpler until at a second critical level most of the limit cycles become simple fixed points. Nonetheless, for moderate changes in the threshold parameters, RSANNs are found to display specific features of behavior desired for rapidly responding processing systems: accessibility to a large set of complex patterns. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
 Rafelski, J. (2002). Strangeness, equilibration, hadronization. J. Phys., G28, 18331840.
 Rafelski, J. (2002). Strangeness, equilibration, hadronization. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 28(7), 18331840.More infoAbstract: In these remarks I explain the motivation which leads us to consider chemical nonequilibrium processes in flavour equilibration and in statistical hadroniziation of quarkgluon plasma (QGP). Statistical hadronization allowing for chemical nonequilibrium is introduced. The results of fits to RHIC130 results, including multistrange hadrons, are shown to agree only with the model of an exploding QGP fireball.
 Rafelski, J. (2002). Variation of fine structure constant from nonuniversal gravity.
 Rafelski, J. ., Rafelski, J., McGuire, P. C., Bohr, H., Clark, J. W., Haschke, R., & Pershing, C. L. (2002). Threshold disorder as a source of diverse and complex behavior in random nets. Neural networks : the official journal of the International Neural Network Society, 15(10).More infoWe study the diversity of complex spatiotemporal patterns in the behavior of random synchronous asymmetric neural networks (RSANNs). Special attention is given to the impact of disordered threshold values on limitcycle diversity and limitcycle complexity in RSANNs which have 'normal' thresholds by default. Surprisingly, RSANNs exhibit only a small repertoire of rather complex limitcycle patterns when all parameters are fixed. This repertoire of complex patterns is also rather stable with respect to small parameter changes. These two unexpected results may generalize to the study of other complex systems. In order to reach beyond this seemingly disabling 'stable and small' aspect of the limitcycle repertoire of RSANNs, we have found that if an RSANN has threshold disorder above a critical level, then there is a rapid increase of the size of the repertoire of patterns. The repertoire size initially follows a powerlaw function of the magnitude of the threshold disorder. As the disorder increases further, the limitcycle patterns themselves become simpler until at a second critical level most of the limit cycles become simple fixed points. Nonetheless, for moderate changes in the threshold parameters, RSANNs are found to display specific features of behavior desired for rapidly responding processing systems: accessibility to a large set of complex patterns.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2002). Importance of reaction volume in hadronic collisions: Canonical enhancement. J. Phys., G28, 18191832.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2002). Importance of reaction volume in hadronic collisions: Canonical enhancement. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 28(7), 18191832.More infoAbstract: We study the canonical flavour enhancement arising from exact conservation of strangeness and charm flavour. Both the theoretical motivation, and the practical consequences are explored. We argue using qualitative theoretical arguments and quantitative evaluation, that this proposal to reevaluate strangeness signature of quarkgluon plasma is not able to explain the majority of available experimental results.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2002). Nonâequilibrium Hadrochemistry in QGP Hadronization. AIP Conf. Proc., 631, 460489.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2002). QuarkâGluon Plasma, and Strangeness. AIP Conf. Proc., 631, 142167.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2002). Strangeness and statistical QCD. Nucl. Phys., A702, 304325.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2002). Strangeness and statistical QCD. Nuclear Physics A, 702(14), 304c325c.More infoAbstract: We discuss properties of statistical QCD relevant in Fermi phase space model analysis of hadron production experimental data. We argue that the analysis results interpreted using established statistical QCD properties are demonstrating formation of the color deconfined state of matter in relativistic heavy ion collisions at highest CERNSPS energies and at BNLRHIC, comprising deconfined matter composed of nearly massless quarks and gluons, in statistical equilibrium.
 Rafelski, J., Letessier, J., & Torrieri, G. (2002). Erratum: Strange hadrons and their resonances: A diagnostic tool of quarkgluon plasma freezeout dynamics (Physical Review C (2001) 64 (054907)). Physical Review C  Nuclear Physics, 65(6), 699021.
 Rafelski, J., Letessier, J., & Torrieri, G. (2002). Strange hadrons and their resonances: A diagnostic tool of quarkgluon plasma freezeout dynamics (vol C 64, art no 054907, 2001). PHYSICAL REVIEW C, 65(6).
 Thews, R. L., & Rafelski, J. (2002). J/Psi production at RHIC in a QGP. Nuclear Physics A, 698(14), 575c578c.
 Torrieri, G., & Rafelski, J. (2002). Strange hadron resonances and QGP freezeout. JOURNAL OF PHYSICS GNUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS, 28(7), 19111919.
 Torrieri, G., & Rafelski, J. (2002). Strange hadron resonances and QGP freezeout. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 28(7), 19111919.More infoAbstract: We describe how the abundance and distribution of hyperon resonances can be used to probe freezeout conditions. We demonstrate that resonance yields allow us to measure the time scales of chemical and thermal freezeouts. This should permit a direct differentiation between the explosive, sudden and staged adiabatic freezeout scenarios. We then discuss the meaning of recent experimental results and suggest further measurements.
 Torrieri, G., & Rafelski, J. (2002). Strange hadron resonances and QGP freezeout. J. Phys., G28, 19111920.
 Danos, M., & Rafelski, J. (2001). BaryonRich QuarkGluon Plasma in Nuclear Collisions. Acta Physica Hungarica New Series Heavy Ion Physics, 14(14), 97120.More infoAbstract: The maximum achievable temperature (energy density) and minimum kinetic energy required for the formation of a baryonrich quarkgluon plasma formed at central rapidity in small impact parameter nuclear collisions is estimated. A possible mechanism leading to the pileup of matter is introduced. Plasma formation is expected to appear at about 15 GeV/Nucleon uranium beam energy on a stationary target or 2.7 GeV/Nucleon in colliding beams.
 Elze, H. T., Rafelski, J., & Turko, L. (2001). Entropy production in relativistic hydrodynamics. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 506(12), 123130.
 Elze, H. T., Rafelski, J., & Turko, L. (2001). Entropy production in relativistic hydrodynamics. Phys. Lett., B506, 123130.
 Elze, H., Rafelski, J., & Turko, L. (2001). Entropy production in relativistic hydrodynamics. Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and HighEnergy Physics, 506(12), 123130.More infoAbstract: The entropy production occurring in relativistic hydrodynamical systems such as the quark  gluon plasma (QGP) formed in highenergy nuclear collisions is explored. We study mechanisms which change the composition of the fluid, i.e., particle production and/or chemical reactions, along with chemo and thermodiffusion. These effects complement the conventional dissipative effects of shear viscosity, bulk viscosity, and heat conductivity. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.
 Fatuzzo, M., Melia, F., & Rafelski, J. (2001). Electronpositron annihilation radiation from sagittarius a east at the galactic center. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 549(1 PART 1), 293302.More infoAbstract: Maps of the Galactic electronpositron annihilation radiation show evidence for three distinct and significant features: (1) a central bulge source, (2) emission in the Galactic plane, and (3) an enhancement of emission at positive latitudes above the Galactic center. In this paper, we explore the possibility that Sgr A East, a very prominent radio structure surrounding the Galactic nucleus, may be a significant contributor to the central bulge feature. The motivation for doing so stems from a recently proposed link between this radio object and the EGRET γray source 2EG J17462852. If this association is correct, then Sgr A East is also expected to be a source of copious positron production. The results presented here show that indeed Sgr A East must have produced a numerically significant population of positrons, but also that most of them have not yet had sufficient time to thermalize and annihilate. As such, Sgr A East by itself does not appear to be the dominant current source of annihilation radiation, but it will be when the positrons have cooled sufficiently and they have become thermalized. This raises the interesting possibility that the bulge component may be a result of the relics of earlier explosive events like the one that produced Sgr A East.
 Letessier, J., Torrieri, G., Hamieh, S., & Rafelski, J. (2001). Quarkgluon plasma fireball explosion. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 27(3), 427437.More infoAbstract: We identify the major physics milestones in the development of strange hadrons as an observable for both the formation of a quarkgluon plasma (QGP), and of the ensuing explosive disintegration of a deconfined matter fireball formed in relativistic heavyion collisions at 16020 A GeV. We describe the physical properties of the QGP phase and show agreement with the expectations based on an analysis of hadron abundances. We then also demonstrate that the m⊥ shape of hadron spectra is in qualitative agreement with the sudden breakup of a supercooled QGP fireball.
 Rafelski, J. (2001). On the strangequarkgluon plasma front line. J. Phys., G27, 723726.
 Rafelski, J. (2001). On the strangequarkgluon plasma front line. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 27(3), 723726.More infoAbstract: The issue for me here is why has everybody been so quiet at this 'Strangeness in Quark Matter' meeting about the most significant recent event in our field, which is the CERN announcement of February 2000. Let me try to answer this question.
 Rafelski, J., Letessier, J., & Torrieri, G. (2001). Strange hadrons and their resonances: A Diagnostic tool of QGP freezeout dynamics. Phys. Rev., C64, 054907.
 Rafelski, J., Letessier, J., & Torrieri, G. (2001). Strange hadrons and their resonances: A diagnostic tool of quarkgluon plasma freezeout dynamics. PHYSICAL REVIEW C, 64(5).
 Rafelski, J., Letessier, J., & Torrieri, G. (2001). Strange hadrons and their resonances: A diagnostic tool of quarkgluon plasma freezeout dynamics. Physical Review C  Nuclear Physics, 64(5), 549071549077.More infoAbstract: We update our chemical analysis of (strange) hadrons produced at the SPS in PbPb collisions at 158A GeV and discuss chemical analysis of RHIC results. We report that the shape of (anti)hyperon m⊥ spectra in a thermal freezeout analysis leads to freezeout conditions found in chemical analysis, implying sudden strangehyperon production. We discuss how a combined analysis of several strangehadron resonances of differing lifespan can be used to understand the dynamical process present during chemical and thermal freezeouts. In medium resonance quenching is considered.
 Schroedter, M., Thews, R. L., & Rafelski, J. (2001). Charm production in the hotglue scenario. J. Phys., G27, 691694.
 Schroedter, M., Thews, R. L., & Rafelski, J. (2001). Charm production in the hotglue scenario. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 27(3), 691694.More infoAbstract: Charm production by gluons and light quarks not in chemical equilibrium (the hotglue scenario) is explored in a onedimensional Bjorkentype expansion. The quarkgluon plasma background evolves according to chemical kinetic equations that include gluon fragmentation and light quark production. The momentum distributions of all particles are assumed to be Bose/Fermi. The parameter space is constrained through the initial energy density and the final state entropy. It is found that initial hard processes contribute far more to the final state charm abundance than in plasma production.
 Thews, R. L., Schroedter, M., & Rafelski, J. (2001). Enhanced J/psi production in deconfined quark matter. PHYSICAL REVIEW C, 63(5).
 Thews, R. L., Schroedter, M., & Rafelski, J. (2001). Enhanced J/ψ production in deconfined quark matter. Physical Review C  Nuclear Physics, 63(5), 549051549055.More infoAbstract: In high energy heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, each central event will contain multiple pairs of heavy quarks. If a region of deconfined quarks and gluons is formed, a mechanism for additional formation of heavy quarkonium bound states will be activated. This is a result of the mobility of heavy quarks in the deconfined region, such that bound states can be formed from a quark and an antiquark that were originally produced in separate incoherent interactions. Model estimates of this effect for J/ψ production at RHIC indicate that significant enhancements are to be expected. Experimental observation of such enhanced production would provide evidence for deconfinement unlikely to be compatible with competing scenarios.
 Thews, R. L., Schroedter, M., & Rafelski, J. (2001). Formation of quarkonium states at RHIC. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 27(3), 715722.More infoAbstract: At RHIC the cross section for cc production will be large enough such that approximately ten pairs will be produced in each central collision. If a region of deconfined quarks and gluons is subsequently formed, one would expect that the mobility of the charm quarks will enable them to form J/ψ through 'offdiagonal' combinations, involving a quark and an antiquark which were originally produced in separate incoherent interactions. We present model estimates of this effect, which indicate that the signal for deconfinement at RHIC may possibly be J/ψ enhancement rather than suppression.
 Torrieri, G., & Rafelski, J. (2001). Search for QGP and thermal freezeout of strange hadrons. NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSICS, 3, 1211217.
 Torrieri, G., & Rafelski, J. (2001). Search for QGP and thermal freezeout of strange hadrons. New Journal of Physics, 3, 12.112.17.More infoAbstract: After reviewing the observables of QGP we perform an analysis of m⊥ spectra of strange hadrons measured as function of centrality in 156 A GeV PbPb interactions. We show that there is a good agreement between the chemical and thermal freezeout conditions, providing additional evidence for the formation and sudden disintegration of a supercooled QGP fireball.
 Torrieri, G., & Rafelski, J. (2001). Strange hadron resonances as a signature of freezeout dynamics. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 509(34), 239245.
 Torrieri, G., & Rafelski, J. (2001). Strange hadron resonances as a signature of freezeout dynamics. Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and HighEnergy Physics, 509(34), 239245.More infoAbstract: We study the production and the observability of Λ*(1520), Κ*0(892), and Σ*(1385), strange hadron resonances as function of the freezeout conditions within the statistical model of hadron production. We obtain an estimate of how many decay products are rescattered in evolution towards thermal freezeout following chemical freezeout, and find that the resonance decay signal is strong enough to be detected. We show how a combined analysis of at least two resonances can be used to understand the chemical freezeout temperature, and the time between chemical and thermal freezeouts. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.
 Torrieri, G., & Rafelski, J. (2001). Strange hadron resonances as a signature of freezeout dynamics. Phys. Lett., B509, 239245.
 Turko, L., & Rafelski, J. (2001). Dynamics of multiparticle systems with nonabelian symmetry. European Physical Journal C, 18(3), 587592.More infoAbstract: We consider the dynamics governing the evolution of a many body system constrained by a nonabelian local symmetry. We obtain explicit forms of the global macroscopic condition assuring that at the microscopic level the evolution respects the overall symmetry constraint. We demonstrate the constraint mechanisms for the case of SU (2) system comprising particles in fundamental, and adjoint representations ('nucleons' and 'pions').
 Hamieh, S., Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2000). Quarkgluon plasma fireball. Physical Review C  Nuclear Physics, 62(6), 6490116490110.More infoAbstract: Lattice quantum chromodynamics results provide an opportunity to model, and extrapolate to finite baryon density, the properties of the quarkgluon plasma (QGP). Upon fixing the scale of the thermal coupling constant and vacuum energy to the lattice data, the properties of resulting QGP equations of state (EoS) are developed. We show that the physical properties of the dense matter fireball formed in heavy ion collision experiments at CERNSPS are well described by the QGPEoS we presented. We also estimate the properties of the fireball formed in early stages of nuclear collision, and argue that QGP formation must be expected down to 4OA GeV in central PbPb interactions.
 Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2000). Observing quarkgluon plasma with strange hadrons. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MODERN PHYSICS ENUCLEAR PHYSICS, 9(2), 107147.
 Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2000). Observing quarkgluon plasma with strange hadrons. International Journal of Modern Physics E, 9(2), 107147.More infoAbstract: We review the methods and results obtained in an analysis of the experimental heavy ion collision research program at nuclear beam energy of 160200 A GeV. We study strange, and more generally, hadronic particle production experimental data. We discuss present expectations concerning how these observables will perform at other collision energies. We also present the dynamical theory of strangeness production and apply it to show that it agrees with available experimental results. We describe strange hadron production from the baryonpoor quarkgluon phase formed at much higher reaction energies, where the abundance of strange baryons and antibaryons exceeds that of nonstrange baryons and antibaryons.
 Letessier, J., Tounsi, A., & Rafelski, J. (2000). Lowm⊥ π^{+}π^{} asymmetry enhancement from hadronization of QGP. Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and HighEnergy Physics, 475(34), 213219.More infoAbstract: We show that in sudden hadronization of QGP a nonequilibrium value of the pion phase space occupancy parameter γq> 1 is expected in order to accommodate the entropy excess in QGP and the process of gluon fragmentation. When γq is near to its maximum allowed value, pion overabundance is shown to arise at low m⊥, where the charged pion asymmetry is also amplified. These effects are considered and we show that their magnitude suffices to explain pertinent experimental data obtained in 160200 A GeV Pb and S induced reactions. © 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.
 Quercigh, E., & Rafelski, J. (2000). A strange quark plasma. Physics World, 13(10), 3742.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2000). Sudden hadronization in relativistic nuclear collisions. PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, 85(22), 46954698.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2000). Sudden hadronization in relativistic nuclear collisions. Physical Review Letters, 85(22), 46954698.More infoAbstract: A constraint that relates the physical and statistical properties of the hadronic fireball at the point of sudden breakup was introduced. The constraint was shown to be consistent with analysis results obtained considering the experimental particle production data for PbPb collisions at 158A GeV.
 Schroedter, M., Thews, R. L., & Rafelski, J. (2000). Bcmeson production in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions. PHYSICAL REVIEW C, 62(2).
 Schroedter, M., Thews, R. L., & Rafelski, J. (2000). B_{c}meson production in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions. Physical Review C  Nuclear Physics, 62(2), 249051249058.More infoAbstract: We study quantitatively the formation and evolution of b̄c, bc̄ bound states in a spacetime domain of deconfined quarks and gluons (quarkgluon plasma, QGP). At the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), one expects for the first time that typical central collisions will result in multiple pairs of heavy (in this case charmed) quarks. This provides a new mechanism for the formation of heavy quarkonia which depends on the properties of the deconfined region. We find typical enhancements of about 500fold for the b̄c, bc̄ production yields over expectations from the elementary coherent hadronic Bcmeson production scenario. The final population of bound states may serve as a probe of the plasma phase parameters.
 Walton, D. B., & Rafelski, J. (2000). Equilibrium Distribution of Heavy Quarks in FokkerPlanck Dynamics. Physical Review Letters, 84(1), 3134.More infoAbstract: We obtain an explicit generalization, within FokkerPlanck dynamics, of Einstein's relation between drag, diffusion, and the equilibrium distribution for a spatially homogeneous system, considering both the transverse and longitudinal diffusion for dimension n > I. We provide a complete characterization of the equilibrium distribution in terms of the drag and diffusion transport coefficients. We apply this analysis to charm quark dynamics in a thermal quarkgluon plasma for the case of collisional equilibration.
 Walton, D. B., & Rafelski, J. (2000). Equilibrium distribution of heavy quarks in FokkerPlanck dynamics. PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, 84(1), 3134.
 Bass, S. A., Bleicher, M., Cassing, W., Dumitru, A., Drescher, H. J., Eskola, K. J., Gyulassy, M., Kharzeev, D., Kovchegov, Y. V., Lin, Z., Molnar, D., Ollitrault, J. Y., Pratt, S., Schlei, B. R., Sorge, H., Rafelski, J., Rapp, R., Rischke, D. H., Schaffner, J. B., , Snigirev, A. M., et al. (1999). Last call for RHIC predictions. NUCLEAR PHYSICS A, 661, 205C260C.
 Bass, S. A., Bleicher, M., Cassing, W., Dumitru, A., Drescher, H. J., Eskola, K. J., Gyulassy, M., Kharzeev, D., Kovchegov, Y. V., Lin, Z., Molnar, D., Ollitrault, J. Y., Pratt, S., Schlei, B. R., Sorge, H., Rafelski, J., Rapp, R., Rischke, D. H., Schaffner, J. B., , Snigirev, A. M., et al. (1999). Last call for RHIC predictions. Nuclear Physics A, 661(14), 205c260c.
 Elze, H. T., Hama, Y., Kodama, T., Makler, M., & Rafelski, J. (1999). Variational principle for relativistic fluid dynamics. JOURNAL OF PHYSICS GNUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS, 25(9), 19351957.
 Elze, H., Hama, Y., Kodama, T., Makler, M., & Rafelski, J. (1999). Variational principle for relativistic fluid dynamics. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 25(9), 19351957.More infoAbstract: The variational principle for the special and general relativistic hydrodynamics is discussed in view of its application to obtain approximate solutions to these problems. We show that effective Lagrangians can be obtained for suitable ansatze for the dynamical variables such as the density profile of the system. As an example, the relativistic version of spherical droplet motion (RayleighPlesset equation) is derived from a simple Lagrangian. For the general relativistic case the most general Lagrangian for spherically symmetric systems is given.
 Kodama, T., Elze, H., Hama, Y., Makler, M., & Rafelski, J. (1999). Variational principle for relativistic fluid dynamics. Acta Physica Hungarica New Series Heavy Ion Physics, 10(23), 275285.More infoAbstract: Variational principles for special and general relativistic hydrodynamics are discussed with a view to their application to obtain approximate solutions to these problems. We show that effective Lagrangians can be obtained for a suitable ansatz for the dynamical variables such as the density profile of the system. As an example, the relativistic version of spherical droplet motion (RayleighPlesset equation) is derived from a simple Lagrangian. For the general relativistic case the most general Lagrangian for spherically symmetric systems is given.
 Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (1999). Chemical nonequilibrium and deconfinement in 200A GeV sulphur induced reactions. PHYSICAL REVIEW C, 59(2), 947954.
 Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (1999). Chemical nonequilibrium and deconfinement in 200A GeV sulphur induced reactions. Physical Review C  Nuclear Physics, 59(2), 947954.More infoAbstract: We interpret hadronic particle abundances produced in SAu/W/Pb 200A GeV reactions in terms of the final state hadronic phase space model and determine by a data fit of the chemical hadron freezeout parameters. Allowing for the flavor abundance nonequilibrium a highly significant fit to experimental particle abundance data emerges, which supports the possibility of strangeness distillation. We find under different strategies stable values for freezeout temperature Tf=143±3 MeV, baryochemical potential μB=173 ±6 MeV, ratio of strangeness (γs) and light quark (γq) phase space occupancies γs/γq=0.60±0.02, and γq=1.22±0.05 without accounting for collective expansion (radial flow). When introducing flow effects which allow a consistent description of the transverse mass particle spectra, yielding ῡc=0.49±0.01 c, we find γs/γq=0.69±0.03, γq=1.41±0.08. The strange quark fugacity is fitted at λs=1.00±0.02 suggesting chemical freezeout directly from the deconfined phase.
 Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (1999). Chemical nonequilibrium in highenergy nuclear collisions. JOURNAL OF PHYSICS GNUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS, 25(2), 295309.
 Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (1999). Chemical nonequilibrium in highenergy nuclear collisions. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 25(2), 295309.More infoAbstract: Strange particles produced in SAu/W/Pb 200 A GeV and PbPb 158 A GeV reactions are described invoking final hadronic phase space in thermal equilibrium, but allowing chemical nonequilibrium. Several sets of statistical freezeout parameters are obtained for each system, invoking different models of dense matter. We show that only when allowing for strange and nonstrange flavour abundance nonequilibrium, a statistically significant description of the experimental results is obtained. Physical properties of the fireball at chemical freezeout condition are evaluated and considerable universality of hadron freezeout between the two different collision systems is established. The relevance of the Coulomb effect in the highly charged PbPb fireballs for the chemical analysis are discussed. The influence of explosive collective matter flow is also described.
 Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (1999). Quarkgluon plasma in PBPB 158 a GEV collisions: Evidence from strange particle abundances and the coulomb effect. Acta Physica Polonica B, 30(1), 153168.More infoAbstract: The hadronic particle production data from relativistic nuclear PbPb 158 A GeV collisions are successfully described within the chemical nonequilibrium model, provided that the analysis treats Ω and Ω̄ abundances with care. We further show that there is a subtle influence of the Coulomb potential on strange quarks in quark matter which is also seen in our data analysis, and this Coulomb effect confirms the finding made by chemical analysis in the SAu/W/Pb 200 A GeV collisions that the hadron particle source is deconfined with respect to strange quark propagation. Physical freezeout conditions (pressure, specific energy, entropy, and strangeness) are evaluated and considerable universality of hadron freezeout between the two different collision systems is established.
 Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (1999). Strange particle chemical freezeout. Nuclear Physics A, 661(14), 497c501c.More infoAbstract: In an analysis of hadron abundances and spectra we determine the properties of a disintegrating, hadron evaporating, deconfined quarkgluon plasma phase fireball for the case of nuclear collisions at 158200A GeV. We argue that there is convincing evidence for the direct evaporation of hadrons from the quarkgluon plasma.
 Rafelski, J. (1999). Quo vadis strangeness?. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 25(2), 451468.More infoAbstract: The study of strange and also charmed hadronic particle production in nuclear relativistic collisions offers an opportunity to explore the physical properties of the deconfined quarkgluon phase. We survey the recent accomplishments and the future directions of this research programme.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (1999). Diagnosis of QGP with strange hadrons. Acta Physica Polonica B, 30(12), 35593583.More infoAbstract: We review the current status of strangeness as signature of the formation and dissociation of the deconfined QGP at the SPS energy scale, and present the status of our considerations for RHIC energies. By analyzing, within the framework of a Fermi statistical model, the hadron abundance and spectra, the properties of a disintegrating, hadron evaporating, deconfined QGP fireball are determined and can be compared with theory for the energy range 160200.A GeV on fixed target. We discuss in more detail our finding that the pion yields occur near to pion condensation condition. Dynamical models of chemical strangeness equilibration are developed and applied to obtain strangeness production in a QGP phase at conditions found at SPS and expected at RHIC. The sudden QGP break up model that works for the SPS data implies at RHIC dominance of both baryon, and antibaryon, abundances by the strange baryon and antibaryon yields.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (1999). Expected production of strange baryons and antibaryons in baryonpoor QGP. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 469(14), 1218.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (1999). Expected production of strange baryons and antibaryons in baryonpoor QGP. Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and HighEnergy Physics, 469(14), 1218.More infoAbstract: In a dynamical model of QGP at RHIC we obtain the temporal evolution of strange phase space occupancy at conditions expected to occur in 100 + 100 A GeV nuclear collisions. We show that the sudden QGP break up model developed to describe the SPS experimental results implies dominance of both baryon and antibaryon abundances by the strange baryon and antibaryon yields. © 1999 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
 Rafelski, J., & Müller, B. (1999). Quarks unleashed at low energy. Physics World, 12(3), 2324.
 Thews, R., Schroedter, M., & Rafelski, J. (1999). B_{c} production at RHIC as a signal for deconfinement. Acta Physica Polonica B, 30(12), 36373646.More infoAbstract: The Bc meson is the bound state of bc̄ (or b̄c) whose recent detection is the first step toward completion of the spectroscopy of heavy quark mesonic states. The bc states have properties that conveniently fill the gap between the J/ψ and the γ states. Thus it is probable that at RHIC the Bc mesons will serve as a probe of deconfined matter. We find that significant differences arise for Bc formation in deconfined and confined matter. Our initial calculations suggest that: (a) The rates of normal hadronic production mechanisms at RHIC energies are not sufficient to produce a detectable number of Bc mesons. (b) If a region of deconfined quarks and gluons is formed, the production (and survival) rate can be enhanced by several orders of magnitude. (c) The observation of Bc mesons at RHIC would signal a source of deconfined charmed quarks, and the rate of Bc production will be a measure of the initial density and temperature of that source.
 CougoPinto, M., Farina, C., Tort, A., & Rafelski, J. (1998). Magnetic permeability in constrained fermionic vacuum. Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and HighEnergy Physics, 434(34), 388395.More infoAbstract: We obtain using Schwinger's proper time approach the CasimirEulerHeisenberg effective action of fermion fluctuations for the case of an applied magnetic field. We implement here the compactification of one space dimension into a circle through antiperiodic boundary condition. Aside of higher order nonlinear field effects we identify a novel contribution to the vacuum permeability. These contributions are exceedingly small for normal electromagnetism due to the smallness of the electron Compton wavelength compared to the size of the compactified dimension, if we take the latter as the typical size of laboratory cavities, but their presence is thought provoking, also considering the context of strong interactions. © 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
 Elze, H., Kodama, T., & Rafelski, J. (1998). Sound of sonoluminescence. Physical Review E  Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics, 57(4), 41704185.More infoAbstract: We consider an air bubble in water under conditions of singlebubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) and evaluate the emitted sound field nonperturbatively for subsonic gasliquid interface motion. Sound emission being the dominant damping mechanism, we also implement the nonperturbative sound damping in the RayleighPlesset equation for the interface motion. We evaluate numerically the sound pulse emitted during bubble collapse and compare the nonperturbative and perturbative results, showing that the usual perturbative description leads to an overestimate of the maximal surface velocity and maximal sound pressure. The radius vs time relation for a full SBSL cycle remains deceptively unaffected.
 Rafelski, J. (1998). Melting the vacuum. Physics World, 11(2), 2930.
 Kodama, T., Elze, H., Rafelski, J., & Scott, I. (1997). Variational Approach to Hydrodynamics: Application to the Sonoluminescence Gas Bubble. Acta Physica Hungarica New Series Heavy Ion Physics, 5(4), 343356.More infoAbstract: We develop a variational approximation allowing to study under realistic physical conditions the interior dynamics of cavitating gas bubbles in liquids. We discuss in some detail the intricacy of the gas bubble dynamics related to the small size of the system. We also show how to formulate the problem in the framework of the energy equation for nonadiabatic processes.
 Letessier, J., Rafelski, J., & Tounsi, A. (1997). QGP formation and strange antibaryons. Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and HighEnergy Physics, 390(14), 363369.More infoAbstract: We explore, as function of the collision energy and stopping in relativistic nuclear collisions, the production yields of strange antibaryons, assuming formation of a deconfined thermal quarkgluon plasma (QGP) fireball which undergoes a sudden hadronisation. Aside of assumptions related to this reaction picture and QCD properties at this energy scale, our work does not contain (fitted) parameters.
 Letessier, J., Rafelski, J., & Tounsi, A. (1997). Strangeness in PbPb collisions at 158 A GeV. Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and HighEnergy Physics, 410(24), 315322.More infoAbstract: We study relative strange particle abundances measured in PbPb 158 A GeV interactions. The thermal and chemical source parameters of these particles are determined under reaction scenario hypothesis invoking confined and deconfined hadronic matter. © 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.
 Rafelski, J., Letessier, J., & Tounsi, A. (1997). Hadronic signatures of deconfinement in relativistic nuclear collisions. Acta Physica Polonica B, 28(12), 28412872.More infoAbstract: We describe the remarkable accomplishments of the current heavy ion PbPb collision experiments involving strange particle production, carried out at 158A GeV at CERNSPS. Together with earlier 200A GeV Sinduced reactions, these results imply that, at central rapidity, a novel mechanism of strangeness production arises, accompanied by excess entropy formation. We argue that: • these results are consistent with the formation of a spacetime localized, highly excited, dense state of matter; • the freezeout properties of strange hadrons are suggestive of the formation of a colordeconfined, thermally and nearly chemically equilibrated phase, which provides at present the only comprehensive framework to describe all experimental data; • the matter fireball is undergoing a transverse expansion with nearly the velocity of sound of relativistic matter; longitudinal expansion is not in the scaling regime. We present a first analysis of the recent PbPb results and discuss several alternative reaction scenarios. We evaluate quantitatively strangeness production in the deconfined quarkgluon phase and obtain yields in agreement with the experimental observations made in 200A GeV SW and 158A GeV PbPb interactions. We also present a qualitative discussion of J/ψ results consistent with our understanding of strange particle results.
 Letessier, J., Rafelski, J., & Tounsi, A. (1996). Impact of QCD and QGP properties on strangeness production. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 389(3), 586594.
 Letessier, J., Rafelski, J., & Tounsi, A. (1996). Impact of QCD and QGP properties on strangeness production. Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and HighEnergy Physics, 389(3), 586594.More infoAbstract: Employing running QCD renormalization group parameters αs(μ) and ms(μ) we obtain strangeness production yields in the deconfined quarkgluon plasma (QGP) phase. We model a dynamically evolving QGP fireball as could be formed in relativistic nuclear collisions and obtain the total strangeness per baryon yield as function of energy and impact parameter. We also study strangeness phase space occupancy varying the hadronization and freezeout conditions of the expanding QGP fireball.
 Rafelski, J., Letessier, J., & Tounsi, A. (1996). Strange particles from dense hadronic matter. ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA B, 27(5), 10371140.
 Rafelski, J., Letessier, J., & Tounsi, A. (1996). Strange particles from dense hadronic matter. Acta Physica Polonica B, 27(5), 10371140.More infoAbstract: After a brief survey of the remarkable accomplishments of the current heavy ion collision experiments up to 200A GeV, we address in depth the role of strange particle production in the search for new phases of matter in these collisions. In particular, we show that the observed enhancement pattern of otherwise rarely produced multistrange antibaryons can be consistently explained assuming color deconfinement in a localized, rapidly disintegrating hadronic source. We develop the theoretical description of this source, and in particular study QCD based processes of strangeness production in the deconfined, thermal quarkgluon plasma phase, allowing for approach to chemical equilibrium and dynamical evolution. We also address thermal charm production. Using a rapid hadronization model we obtain final state particle yields, providing detailed theoretical predictions about strange particle spectra and yields as functions of heavy ion energy. Our presentation is comprehensive and selfcontained: we introduce the procedures used in data interpretation in considerable detail, discuss the particular importance of selected experimental results, and show how they impact the theoretical developments.
 Rafelski, J., Letessier, J., & Tounsi, A. (1996). Thermal strangeness and charm in QGP. Acta Physica Hungarica New Series Heavy Ion Physics, 4(14), 181192.More infoAbstract: Using QCD methods we reevaluate strangeness and charm production in a thermal QGP fireball. QCD renormalization group is employed to evaluate running of the parameters αs(μ) and ms(μ). We resum evenαs Feynman diagrams involving two particles in initial and final states. We obtain thermal relaxation times in a simple dynamical description of the fireball and we use these results to study two generic strangeness observables as function of collision energy: specific (per baryon) strangeness yield (s̄)/B, and phase space occupancy γs. From these two quantities, knowing the hadronization process in rough detail, we obtain the final state strange particle abundances. © 1996 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.
 LETESSIER, J., TOUNSI, A., HEINZ, U., SOLLFRANK, J., & RAFELSKI, J. (1995). STRANGENESS CONSERVATION IN HOT NUCLEAR FIREBALLS. PHYSICAL REVIEW D, 51(7), 34083435.
 Letessier, J., Rafelski, J., & Tounsi, A. (1995). Strange antibaryons from QGP. Nuclear Physics, Section A, 590(12), 613616.More infoAbstract: We study as function of the collision energy and stopping the thermal conditions reached in a quarkgluon plasma fireball formed in a relativistic heavy ion collision. We explore strange particle yields for the current round of PbPb and AuAu experiments. © 1995.
 Letessier, J., Tounsi, A., Heinz, U., Sollfrank, J., & Rafelski, J. (1995). Strangeness conservation in hot nuclear fireballs. Physical Review D, 51(7), 34083435.More infoAbstract: Within a thermal model generalized to allow for nonequilibrium strange particle abundances we study how the constraint that the balance of strangeness in a fireball is (nearly) zero impacts the allowable thermal fireball parameters. Using the latest data of the CERNWA85 experiment for the case of 200A GeV SA (A∼200) collisions we extract the values of the thermal parameters considering in detail the impact of hadronic resonance decays on the abundances and spectral form of strange baryons and antibaryons. Given these results and invoking further the observed charged particle multiplicities we are able to consider the (specific) entropy content of the fireball in order to understand the nature of the disagreement of the hadronic gas picture of the fireball with the experimental data. © 1995 The American Physical Society.
 Shin, G. R., & Rafelski, J. (1995). Relativistic Transport Equations for Electromagnetic, Scalar, and Pseudoscalar Potentials. Annals of Physics, 243(1), 6575.More infoAbstract: We propose a particular form of relativistic transport equations arising from the classical limit of singletime Wigner function for Dirac particles evolving in the presence of scalar, pseudoscalar, and electromagnetic fields. These relativistic Vlasovtype equations for the particle and the antiparticle sector of the Fock space can be also obtained assuming the validity of the Liouville′s equation given a suitable classical Hamiltonian and the associated force. © 1995 Academic Press. All rights reserved.
 LETESSIER, J., RAFELSKI, J., & TOUNSI, A. (1994). GLUON PRODUCTION, COOLING, AND ENTROPY IN NUCLEAR COLLISIONS. PHYSICAL REVIEW C, 50(1), 406409.
 LETESSIER, J., RAFELSKI, J., & TOUNSI, A. (1994). STRANGE PARTICLE ABUNDANCE IN QGP FORMED IN 200 GEVA NUCLEAR COLLISIONS. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 323(34), 393400.
 LETESSIER, J., RAFELSKI, J., & TOUNSI, A. (1994). STRANGE PARTICLE FREEZEOUT. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 321(4), 394399.
 LETESSIER, J., RAFELSKI, J., & TOUNSI, A. (1994). STRANGENESS AND PARTICLE FREEZEOUT IN NUCLEAR COLLISIONS AT 14.6 GEV A. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 328(34), 499505.
 Letessier, J., Rafelski, J., & Tounsi, A. (1994). Formation and evolution of the quarkgluon plasma. Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and HighEnergy Physics, 333(34), 484493.More infoAbstract: Imposing an equilibrium between the thermal pressure of deconfined quarks and gluons and the dynamical compression pressure exercised by inflowing nuclear matter, we study the initial thermal conditions reached in a quarkgluon plasma fireball formed in a relativistic heavy ion collision. We show that entropy is produced primarily in the preequilibrium stage of the reaction. We test our approach, comparing our results with the S→W/Pb collision results at 200 GeV A and find a surprising degree of agreement assuming about 50% stopping. We apply our method to a determination of the conditions in collisions of Au→Au at 11 GeV A and Pb→Pb at 157 GeV A, assuming full stopping of momentum, energy and baryon number. Our detailed results directly determine the spectral shape and abundance of (strange) hadrons and electromagnetic probes (photons, dileptons) produced in the collision, and we explore specific experimental consequences.
 Letessier, J., Rafelski, J., & Tounsi, A. (1994). Gluon production, cooling, and entropy in nuclear collisions. Physical Review C, 50(1), 406409.More infoAbstract: We study the cooling (heating) of a glueparton gas due to production (destruction) of particles and determine the associated evolution of entropy. We incorporate sharing of the system energy among a changing number of particles. We find that the entropy of an evolving glueparton gas hardly changes, once the initial thermalized state has been formed, despite a significant change in particle number and temperature. © 1994 The American Physical Society.
 Letessier, J., Rafelski, J., & Tounsi, A. (1994). Strange particle abundance in QGP formed in 200 GeV a nuclear collisions. Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and HighEnergy Physics, 323(34), 393400.More infoAbstract: We investigate the relative abundance of strange particles produced in nuclear collisions at the SPS energies (∼ 9 GeV A in CM frame) assuming that the central reaction fireball consists of quarkgluon plasma. We show that the total strangeness yield observed in Sulphur induced reactions is compatible with this picture.
 Letessier, J., Rafelski, J., & Tounsi, A. (1994). Strange particle freezeout. Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and HighEnergy Physics, 321(4), 394399.More infoAbstract: We reconsider thermal conditions of the central fireball presumed to be the source of abundantly produced strange (anti) baryons in S → W collisions at 200 GeV A. We show that it is possible to completely fix the freezeout temperature of strange particles in terms of the central rapidity kaon to Lambda particle abundance ratio at fixed, high transverse mass using a nonequilibrium hadronization model and the measured quark fugacities.
 Letessier, J., Rafelski, J., & Tounsi, A. (1994). Strangeness and particle freezeout in nuclear collisions at 14.6 GeV A. Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and HighEnergy Physics, 328(34), 499505.More infoAbstract: We study the chemical conditions at freezeout associated with the production of strangeparticles in SiAu collisions at 14.6 GeV A. We obtain freezeout chemical potentials and temperature, and determine the entropy as well as the final particle abundance. We also consider in detail the alternative evolution scenarios involving the hadronic gas and the deconfined phase.
 Rafelski, J., & Danos, M. (1994). Strangeness flow difference in nuclear collisions at 15A and 200A GeV. Physical Review C, 50(3), 16841687.More infoAbstract: We show existence of an important difference between strangeparticle production in SiAu collisions at 15A GeV (AGS) and in SA collisions at 200A GeV (CERN), with A=32 and A=0 (200). © 1994 The American Physical Society.
 SOLLFRANK, J., GAZDZICKI, M., HEINZ, U., & RAFELSKI, J. (1994). CHEMICAL FREEZEOUT CONDITIONS IN CENTRAL SS COLLISIONS AT 200A GEV. ZEITSCHRIFT FUR PHYSIK CPARTICLES AND FIELDS, 61(4), 659665.
 Sollfrank, J., Gaździcki, M., Heinz, U., & Rafelski, J. (1994). Chemical freezeout conditions in central SS collisions at 200 A GeV. Zeitschrift für Physik C Particles and Fields, 61(4), 659665.More infoAbstract: We determine the chemical freezeout parameters of hadronic matter formed in central SS collisions at 200 A GeV, analyzing data from the NA35 collaboration at CERN. In particular we study the quark (baryon number) and strange quark fugacities, as well as the strange quark phasespace occupancy and the freezeout temperature. The strange quark chemical potential is found to be consistent with zero, and the strange quark abundance is found to be saturated as would be expected for the deconfined phase. We study the stability of our results against variations in the analysis procedure and with respect to a restriction of the data to the central rapidity region. The same analysis applied to nucleonnucleon data yields significantly different freezeout parameters, in particular regarding the degree of strangeness saturation. © 1994 SpringerVerlag.
 BiałynickiBirula, I., Davis, E. D., & Rafelski, J. (1993). Evolution modes of the vacuum Wigner function in strongfield QED. Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and HighEnergy Physics, 311(14), 329338.More infoAbstract: The physical content of a noncovariant quantumfield theoretic transport formalism for strongfield QED is addressed within an integral formulation of the evolution equations which highlights the relation to acoustic and Zitterbewegung modes of the fieldfree limit. Through the computation within this framework of the electric susceptibility of the vacuum at the oneloop level, it is established that the offshell behaviour of the electronpositron field is correctly incorporated. The Zitterbewegung mode is seen to be solely responsible at the oneloop level for vacuum polarization. Implications for the full renormalisation of the theory are taken up.
 LETESSIER, J., TOUNSI, A., HEINZ, U., SOLLFRANK, J., & RAFELSKI, J. (1993). EVIDENCE FOR A PHASE WITH HIGH SPECIFIC ENTROPY IN NUCLEAR COLLISIONS. PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, 70(23), 35303533.
 Letessier, J., Tounsi, A., Heinz, U., Sollfrank, J., & Rafelski, J. (1993). Evidence for a phase with high specifie entropy in nuclear collisions. Physical Review Letters, 70(23), 35303533.More infoAbstract: We determine the entropyperbaryon content of the central reaction region in terms of the charged particle multiplicity. We study the consistency of our findings with recent data on strange antibaryon production at 200A GeV in SA collisions (A ∼200) assuming formation of a central fireball. Hadron gas models which do not invoke strong medium modifications of hadron masses do not provide enough entropy and are inconsistent with the combined experimental results. In contrast the quarkgluon plasma hypothesis explains them naturally.
 Shin, G. R., & Rafelski, J. (1993). Relativistic classical limit of quantum theory. Physical Review A, 48(3), 18691874.More infoAbstract: We study the classical limit of the equaltime relativistic quantum transport theory. We discuss in qualitative terms the need to fold first the Wigner function with a coarsegraining function. Only then does the singularity at Latin small letter h with stroke→0 seem to be manageable. In the limit Latin small letter h with stroke→0, we obtain the relativistic Vlasov equations for the particle and the antiparticle sector of the Fock space. Similarly, we address the evolution equations of the spin and the magneticmoment density. © 1993 The American Physical Society.
 Elze, H., & Rafelski, J. (1992). Collective Higgs production in highenergy heavyion collisions. Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and HighEnergy Physics, 276(4), 501510.More infoAbstract: In heavyion collisions involving the formation of highenergydensity forms of nuclear matter (QGP) the rapid change of the scalar matter density 〈Ψ̄Ψ〈 leads to collective and often subthreshold Higgs production. We calculate the rapidity spectra of such Higgs particles qualitatively in the Bjorken collision scenario and, for comparison, in the model of a spherically expanding fireball and consider various options for experiments.
 Elze, H., & Rafelski, J. (1992). Collective hadronic Higgs production in heavyion collisions. Nuclear Physics, Section A, 544(12), 585590.More infoAbstract: We study collective and subthreshold Higgs production due to the formation of high energy density matter (QGP) associated with a rapid change of the scalar density 〈ππ〉. The rapidity spectra of Higgs particles are discussed in the Bjorken collision scenario and for a spherically expanding fireball. We briefly consider options for experiments. © 1992.
 LETESSIER, J., TOUNSI, A., & RAFELSKI, J. (1992). HOT HADRONIC MATTER AND STRANGE ANTIBARYONS. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 292(34), 417423.
 Letessier, J., Tounsi, A., & Rafelski, J. (1992). Hot hadronic matter and strange antibaryons. Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and HighEnergy Physics, 292(34), 417423.More infoAbstract: We demonstrate that both quarkgluon plasma (QGP) and hadronic gas (HG) models of the central fireball created in S → W collisions at 200A GeV are possible sources of the recently observed strange (anti)baryons. From the theoretical point of view, the HG interpretation we attempt remains more obscure because of the high fireball temperature required. The thermal properties of the fireball as determined by the particle ratios are natural for the QGP state. We show that the total particle multiplicity emerging from the central rapidity region allows to distinguish between the two scenarios.
 Rafelski, J. (1992). STRANGE AND HOT MATTER. NUCLEAR PHYSICS A, 544(12), C279C292.
 Rafelski, J. (1992). Strange and hot matter. Nuclear Physics, Section A, 544(12), 279292.More infoAbstract: I consider the strangeness degree of freedom in hot nuclear matter and its significance for the observation and identification of a quarkgluon plasma. Particular attention is given to the interpretation of new and intriguing results on strange antibaryon production. © 1992.
 Rafelski, J., Rafelski, H., & Danos, M. (1992). Strange fireballs. Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and HighEnergy Physics, 294(1), 131138.More infoAbstract: The features of strange particle spectra originating in a fireball at central rapidity having local kinetic equilibrium are studied in detail. A comparison with recently presented experimental data suggests that the origin of the abundantly produced strange particles is a rapidly disintegrating central fireball. Critical characteristic features of the spectra, such as the shapes of rapidity distributions and the relation between the intrinsic temperature of the fireball and the observed experimental slopes of transverse mass spectra are discussed including the dependence on the experimental cuts.
 Shin, G. R., BialynickiBirula, I., & Rafelski, J. (1992). Wigner function of relativistic spin1/2 particles. Physical Review A, 46(1), 645647.More infoAbstract: Using the recently developed relativistic Wigner formulation for the density matrix of spin1/2 particles, we study the =1/2+ Coulomblike and cavity relativistic states. One of our objectives is to understand the sharing of the total angular momentum of a quantum state between the spin and rotational degrees of freedom, arising due to the spinorbit coupling. Another is to demonstrate that the 4×4matrix Wigner function is the appropriate generalization from the 2×2 form of the nonrelativistic theory. © 1992 The American Physical Society.
 BI, P. Z., & RAFELSKI, J. (1991). DECAY OF PHI IN HOT MATTER. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 262(4), 485491.
 BIALYNICKIBIRULA, I., GORNICKI, P., & RAFELSKI, J. (1991). PHASESPACE STRUCTURE OF THE DIRAC VACUUM. PHYSICAL REVIEW D, 44(6), 18251835.
 Bi, P., & Rafelski, J. (1991). Decay of φ in hot matter. Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and HighEnergy Physics, 262(4), 485491.More infoAbstract: We investigate how the presence of hadronic matter affects the width and the decay pattern of φ as a function of temperature and density and what this means qualitatively for the experiments studying φ production in relativistic nuclear collisions. We determine quantitatively in two models how the natural hadronic width of φ increases in a hot hadronic gas.
 BialynickiBirula, I., Garnicki, P., & Rafelski, J. (1991). Phasespace structure of the Dirac vacuum. Physical Review D, 44(6), 18251835.More infoAbstract: We study the phasespace correlation function for the Dirac vacuum in the presence of simple field configurations. Our formalism rests on the Wigner transform of the DiracHeisenberg correlation function of the Dirac field coupled to the electromagnetic field. A selfconsistent set of equations obeyed by the 16 components of the phasespace correlation function and by the electric and magnetic field is derived. Our approach is manifestly gauge invariant. A closed system of integrodifferential equations is obtained neglecting the quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field as should be appropriate for strong fields. These equations are an extension of the Vlasov equations used in the description of plasma. Our first applications address the production of particles in strong external fields. We set a framework for the inclusion of the back reaction of produced particles and for the description of the local changes of the vacuum state. © 1991 The American Physical Society.
 EGGERS, H. C., & RAFELSKI, J. (1991). STRANGENESS AND QUARK GLUON PLASMA  ASPECTS OF THEORY AND EXPERIMENT. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MODERN PHYSICS A, 6(7), 10671113.
 Gajda, M., & Rafelski, J. (1991). Jovian limits on conventional cold fusion. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 17(5), 653661.More infoAbstract: The authors evaluate the fusion rates occurring naturally and according to conventional wisdom in the planet Jupiter. In particular they consider if any significant part of Jupiter's excess heat could be due to fusion, and if significant limits arise for terrestrial cold fusion experiments.
 McGuire, P. C., Littlewort, G. C., & Rafelski, J. (1991). Brainwashing random asymmetric "neural" networks. Physics Letters A, 160(3), 255260.More infoAbstract: An algorithm for synaptic modification (plasticity) is described by which a recurrently connected network of neuronlike units can organize itself to produce a sequence of activation states that does not repeat itself for a very long time. During the selforganization stage, the connections between the units undergo nonHebbian modifications, which tend to decorrelate the activity of the units, thereby lengthening the period of the cyclic modes inherent in the network. It is shown that the peridiodicity of the activity rises exponentially with the amount of exposure to this plasticity algorithm. Threshold is also a critical parameter in determining cycle lengths, as is the rate of decay of the fields that accumulate at silent units. © 1991.
 RAFELSKI, H. E., HARLEY, D., SHIN, G. R., & RAFELSKI, J. (1991). COLD FUSION  MUONCATALYZED FUSION. JOURNAL OF PHYSICS BATOMIC MOLECULAR AND OPTICAL PHYSICS, 24(7), 14691516.
 Rafelski, H. E., Harley, D., Shin, G. R., & Rafelski, J. (1991). Cold fusion: Muoncatalysed fusion. Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, 24(7), 14691516.More infoAbstract: The authors put into perspective and further develop their recent work in muon catalysed fusion, with the objective of identifying the key physical processes in the t(d,n) alpha fusion cycle relevant to energy related applications. They begin by discussing the fusion cycle and point out the importance of direct nuclear reactions in the catalysed fusion processes. This is followed by an indepth discussion of the muon loss reaction by attachment to the fusion alpha particle. Finally, the authors examine some special topics that have attracted the attention of workers in the muoncatalysed fusion (MuCF) community, such as energy efficient production of muons and proposals for MuCF reactors, the potential of Z>1 fusion, and other recently discussed forms of cold fusion. © 1991 IOP Publishing Ltd.
 Rafelski, J. (1991). STRANGE ANTIBARYONS FROM QUARKGLUON PLASMA. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 262(23), 333340.
 Rafelski, J. (1991). Strange antibaryons from quarkgluon plasma. Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and HighEnergy Physics, 262(23), 333340.More infoAbstract: Experimental results on strange antibaryon production in nuclear S→W collisions at 200 A GeV are described in terms of a simple model of an explosively disintegrating quarklepton plasma (QGP). The importance of the strange antibaryon signal for the identification of the QGP state and for the diagnosis of its properties is demonstrated.
 Rafelski, J., & Rafelski, H. E. (1991). MuonCatalyzed Fusion. Advances in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, 29(C), 177215.
 Sawicki, M., Gajda, M., Harley, D., & Rafelski, J. (1991). Reactions of charged massive particles in a deuterium environment. Physical Review A, 44(7), 43454352.More infoAbstract: We consider paths to the observation of the ultraheavy, negatively charged particle, a possible remnant from the early Universe. In particular, we study the reactions in a deuterium environment. © 1991 The American Physical Society.
 Shin, G. R., & Rafelski, J. (1991). Muons after dt fusion. Physical Review A, 43(1), 601602.More infoAbstract: We consider the forces acting on the muon following the dt fusion and show that it is improper to neglect the Coulomb interaction. We further show that the muon separation from the particle is large at the time both interact with matter. This invalidates the assumption of pointlike source for transport studies of the muon evolution. We conclude, therefore, that the comment made by Jändel is physically incorrect. © 1991 The American Physical Society.
 Harley, D., Muller, B., & Rafelski, J. (1990). Muon catalysed fusion of nuclei with Z>1. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 16(2), 281294.More infoAbstract: The authors investigate the processes involved in muon catalysis of hydrogen isotopes with light nuclei Z>1, with the objective of identifying systems in which at least one fusion per muon is possible. They systematically explore all nuclear systems and identify those having the potential to lead to fast fusion rates despite the high Coulomb barrier. They consider in some detail the tunnelling through this barrier as well as the internal conversion of the muon. Furthermore they establish, in qualitative terms, the necessary conditions for muomolecular rates in collisions of muonic atoms of hydrogen isotopes with small concentrations of light elements.
 Harley, D., Müller, B., & Rafelski, J. (1990). Time independent description of the t(d, n)α fusion reaction in the presence of a muon. Zeitschrift für Physik A Atomic Nuclei, 336(3), 303312.More infoAbstract: We describe the (α n μ)(d t μ) continuum above and below the d+(t μ)1s threshold using the Rmatrix formalism. The continuum is explicitly constructed in an adiabatic approximation, and the asymptotic phase shifts and amplitudes in all channels are obtained. The energy eigenstates are used to compute the fusion reaction cross section for inflight d+(t μ) fusion, and fusion reaction rates involving transitions from the d+(t μ)1s continuum to be below threshold continuum states. © 1990 SpringerVerlag.
 Harley, D., Soff, G., & Rafelski, J. (1990). Localized Higgsfermion states. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 16(10), L207L212.More infoAbstract: The authors obtain spherically symmetric classical solutions to the strongly coupled Higgsfermion fields in the electroweak SU(2) L*U(1)Y standard model. They find that there exists an upper limit on the physical mass of fermions due to the nonperturbative distortion of the Higgs vacuum in the vicinity of localized fermion solutions. For a reasonable range of Higgs masses, the upper limit on the fermion mass is of the order of 2 TeV.
 Jones, S. E., Palmer, E. P., Czirr, J. B., Decker, D. L., Jensen, G. L., Thorne, J. M., Taylor, S. F., & Rafelski, J. (1990). Anomalous nuclear reactions in condensed matter. Recent results and open questions. Journal of Fusion Energy, 9(2), 199208.More infoAbstract: We have observed clear signatures for neutron emission during deuteron infusion into metals, implying the occurence of nuclear fusion in condensed matter near room temperature. The lowlevel nuclear phenomenon has been demonstrated in collaborative experiments at Brigham Young University, at the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, and at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. We have shown that neutron emission can be induced in metals using both electrochemical and variational temperature/pressure means to generate nonequilibrium conditions. Observed average neutron emission rates are approximately 0.040.4 n°/s. Current efforts focus on trying to understand and control the phenomenon. In particular, we wish to understand the correlation of neutron yields with parameters such as hydrogen/metal ion ratio, pressure (induced, for example, by electrical field or gas pressure or mechanical pressure), temperature variation, hydride phase changes, and surface conditions, e.g., a palladium coating on titanium. We want to know if fusion arises due to the close proximity of the deuterons in the lattice (piezonuclear fusion), or possibly from 'microscopic hot fusion' accompanying strong electric fields at propagating cracks in the hydride. The latter interpretation would imply neutron emission in bursts. Our experiments show clear evidence for emission of approximately 102 neutrons in bursts lasting < 128 μs, although random neutronsingles emissions were also observed. Experiments now underway to compare the dd, and pd, and dt reaction rates will be important to a consistent description of the new phenomenon. Careful scrutiny of this effect could increase our understanding of heat, helium3, and tritium production in the earth, other planets, and even the stars.
 Rafelski, J., Sawicki, M., Gajda, M., & Harley, D. (1990). How cold fusion can be catalyzed. Fusion Technology, 18(1), 136142.More infoAbstract: A yet undiscovered ultraheavy, negatively charged particle X, a remnant from the early Universe, could be the origin of diverse cold fusion phenomena. The possibility that the random fusion neutrons reported by Jones et al. in association with electrolysis of heavy water may be caused by inflight Xinduced reactions is considered in detail. The catalysis of other cold fusion phenomena such as heat production without penetrating radiation, or tritium production without production of neutrons, is also discussed.
 Sawicki, M., & Rafelski, J. (1990). Attenuation of the flux of neutrachamps in the Earth's atmospherea parametric study. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 16(9), L197L205.More infoAbstract: The authors estimate the attenuation of the flux of neutrachamps as they propagate through the Earth's atmosphere and discuss the possibility that they will reach the surface of the Earth.
 Shin, G. R., & Rafelski, J. (1990). Muons after dt fusion. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, 16(9), L187L195.More infoAbstract: The authors obtain and evolve in time the Wigner phase space distribution of the muon emerging from the catalysed (dt) fusion. The energy spectrum is calculated as function of time until the final amplitude at time= infinity is reached. In particular, the muon phase space distribution is allowed to evolve under the influence of the fusion alpha particle. They find that the sticking amplitude is built up over rather large distances and that post fusion alpha  mu hydrogen interactions are of importance.
 Shin, G. R., & Rafelski, J. (1990). Pion production for MuCF. Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, A, 287(3), 565569.More infoAbstract: We suggest a novel scheme for energy efficient, copious negative pion production: a stored proton beam collides with a thin metallic target producing primary π and other shower particles. These high energetic secondaries produce further π in external secondary targets. Estimations on energy cost per primary negative pion production for this scheme are given for proton beams and various targets. The secondary particle distributions according to momentum and angle are obtained with Monte Carlo simulation. The secondary neutron, proton and π+ efficiencies to produce negative pions are given. We find that a π may be produced at a cost of 2.7 GeV in beam kinetic energy at Pp ≈ 4.8 GeV/c using Be targets. © 1990.
 JONES, S. E., PALMER, E. P., CZIRR, J. B., DECKER, D. L., JENSEN, G. L., THORNE, J. M., TAYLOR, S. F., & RAFELSKI, J. (1989). OBSERVATION OF COLD NUCLEARFUSION IN CONDENSED MATTER. NATURE, 338(6218), 737740.
 Jones, S. E., Palmer, E. P., Czirr, J. B., Decker, D. L., Jensen, G. L., Thorne, J. M., Taylor, S. F., & Rafelski, J. (1989). Observation of cold nuclear fusion in condensed matter. Nature, 338(6218), 737740.More infoAbstract: When a current is passed through palladium or titanium electrodes immersed in an electrolyte of deuterated water and various metal salts, a small but significant flux of neutrons is detected. Fusion of deuterons within the metal lattice may be the explanation. © 1989 Nature Publishing Group.
 Mrawczyński, S., & Rafelski, J. (1989). Parton bremsstrahlung as a mechanism of energy deposition in highenergy hadronnucleus and nucleusnucleus collisions. Physical Review C, 40(2), 10771080.More infoAbstract: On the basis of perturbative quantum chromodynamics, we consider the bremsstrahlung energy losses of partons traversing parton matter using the wellknown quantum electrodynamical formulas. We find the transport equation describing the energy distribution of partons as a function of thickness of a target. The equation is solved numerically and we briefly discuss the relevance of our results for hadronnucleus and nucleusnucleus collisions at high energies. © 1989 The American Physical Society.
 M̈ller, B., Rafelski, H. E., & Rafelski, J. (1989). Muon spectrum and convoy effects after muoncatalyzed fusion. Physical Review A, 40(5), 28392842.More infoAbstract: We study finalstate interactions of the muon after muoncatalyzed DT fusion reaction with the ± particle and with target matter. The yield of convoy muons, traveling with the ± particle but remaining unbound is calculated. Energy loss in the dense target may lead to capture of a fraction of these muons into outer shells of the ± particle. We show that the final capture probability can be strongly density dependent. © 1989 The American Physical Society.
 RAFELSKI, H. E., MULLER, B., RAFELSKI, J., TRAUTMANN, D., & VIOLLIER, R. D. (1989). MUON REACTIVATION IN MUONCATALYZED DT FUSION. PROGRESS IN PARTICLE AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS, 22, 279338.
 Rafelski, H. E., Müller, B., Rafelski, J., Trautmann, D., & Viollier, R. D. (1989). Muon reactivation in muoncatalyzed DT fusion. Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, 22(C), 279338.More infoAbstract: We comprehensively reanalyze and search for the density dependence of the effective muon alpha sticking fraction ωsff observed experimentally in muon catalyzed deuteriumtritium fusion. In our work particular emphasis has been put on the density dependent dense hydrogen stopping power. The main technical details and improvements in this work are: The (αμ)+ 2s and 2p states are treated independently and are assigned individual reaction rates. The essential muonic excitation rates have been recalculated taking into account finite nuclear mass effects. The stopping power for a charged projectile in liquid heavy hydrogen is modified to account for dynamic screening effects and a density dependent effective ionization potential. It is shown that the medium dependent stopping power for the (αμ)+ ion is the crucial factor controlling the density dependence of the effective sticking fraction. It is also pointed out that the muonic helium Kα Xray yield and the sticking fraction at high density can not be simultaneously brought into agreement with the experimental results without invoking novel mechanisms suppressing Stark mixing in the (Heμ) Lshell. © 1989.
 Soff, G., & Rafelski, J. (1989). Radiative muon capture in light atoms. Zeitschrift für Physik D Atoms, Molecules and Clusters, 14(3), 187190.More infoAbstract: Total cross sections for radiative muon capture into inner shells of light atoms are evaluated. © 1989 SpringerVerlag.
 Jandel, M., Danos, M., & Rafelski, J. (1988). Active target production of muons for muoncatalyzed fusion. Physical Review C, 37(1), 403406.More infoAbstract: Using a Monte Carlo method, we study the energy efficiency of muon production by a highenergy beam of deuterons, i.e., protons and neutrons, injected into infinite deuteriumtritium targets. We present detailed results for the dependence on target density and beam energy. The key role of secondary (shower) production of muons is demonstrated. Constraints on the possibility of muon catalyzed fusion power reactors are established. © 1988 The American Physical Society.
 Rafelski, J. (1988). QUARKGLUON PLASMA IN 4 GEV/C ANTIPROTON ANNIHILATIONS ON NUCLEI. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 207(4), 371376.
 Rafelski, J. (1988). Quarkgluon plasma in 4 GeV/c antiproton annihilations on nuclei. Physics Letters B, 207(4), 371376.More infoAbstract: Recent data on strange particle production in 4 GeV/c antiproton annihilations on Ta can be successfully interpreted if quarkgluon plasma formation is assumed along with a simple reaction model in which antiprotons deposit energy in the forward cone of nuclear matter within the target nucleus. The observed spectra and total abundances of lambdas and kaons are consistent with the hypothesis that (super cooled) quark matter phase has been formed at a rather modest temperature T≲60 MeV. The spectra can then be successfully interpreted both with reference to their form and relative abundance. © 1988.
 Rafelski, J., & Schnabel, A. (1988). Quarkgluon plasma in nuclear collisions at 200 GeV/A. Physics Letters B, 207(1), 610.More infoAbstract: Assuming complete inelasticity of nuclear collisions at 200 GeV/A we consider the properties of the arising high temperature and density nuclear matter fireball. Pion multiplicity and particle rapidity distribution can be estimated and correlated with other properties of the fireball. Consistency of the fireball reaction picture with the quarkgluon plasma structure is shown. © 1988.
 Danos, M., M̈ller, B., & Rafelski, J. (1987). Comment on Muonalphaparticle sticking probability in muoncatalyzed fusion. Physical Review A, 35(6), 27412743.More infoAbstract: Céperley and Alder recently reported [Phys. Rev. A 31, 1999 (1985)] a calculation of the muon sticking probability using threebody Coulomb wave functions of the dt muomolecule. We comment here that such calculations require in addition the incorporation of the interplay of the nuclear reaction dynamics with the Coulomb problem. © 1987 The American Physical Society.
 Jacob, M., & Rafelski, J. (1987). Longitudinal Λ polarization, Ξ abundance and quarkgluon plasma formation. Physics Letters B, 190(12), 173176.More infoAbstract: The relatively large abundance of Ξ expected to be a peculiar feature for the quarkgluon plasma formed in relativistic nuclear collisions can be readily observed by measuring the longitudinal polarization of Λ into which Ξ cascades.This characteristics Ξsignature of the quarkgluon plasma is discussed. © 1987.
 Nakano, K., & Rafelski, J. (1987). Conventional nuclear European Muon Collaboration effect in deep inelastic leptonnucleus scattering. Physical Review C, 36(4), 14971503.More infoAbstract: The influence of the conventional nuclear structure on the European Muon Collaboration effect is critically reviewed. The ratio of deep inelastic lepton nucleon to lepton nucleus cross sections is shown to be sensitively dependent on the proper kinematics of the Fermi motion and the careful treatment of the binding effect of nucleons in nuclei. We systematically consider the example Ca40 at Q2=20 (GeV/c)2. © 1987 The American Physical Society.
 RAFELSKI, J., & DANOS, M. (1987). POSSIBLE SIGNATURE FOR AND EARLY HADRONIZATION MECHANISMS OF QUARKGLUON PLASMA. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 192(34), 432436.
 RAFELSKI, J., & JONES, S. E. (1987). COLD NUCLEARFUSION. SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, 257(1), 84&.
 Rafelski, J. (1987). REDISTRIBUTION OF STRANGENESS BETWEEN QUARK GLUON PLASMA AND HADRONIC GAS. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 190(12), 167172.
 Rafelski, J. (1987). Redistribution of strangeness between quarkgluon plasma and hadronic gas. Physics Letters B, 190(12), 167172.More infoAbstract: In a baryonrich hadronic gas squarks, unlike antistrange quarks, can be found in baryonic degrees of freedom. This abundance asymmetry induces an associated asymmetry in the otherwise symmetric quarkgluon plasma section of the fireball volume. The magnitude of this effect is established as a function of thermodynamic variables and experimental consequences are explored. © 1987.
 Rafelski, J., & Danos, M. (1987). Possible signature for and early hadronization mechanisms of quarkgluon plasma. Physics Letters B, 192(34), 432436.More infoAbstract: We consider the ratio of particle abundances radiated from quarkgluon plasma above mean thermal energy and point out signigicant differences expected as compared with global particle yields. Two microscopic processes leading to medium to high E⊥ abundances are quantitatively considered and the means of determining the plasma baryochemical potential are discussed. Strong anomalies in strange antibaryon spectra are found, characteristic of the formation of quarkgluon plasma. © 1987.
 Rafelski, J., & Jones, S. E. (1987). COLD NUCLEAR FUSION.. Scientific American, 257(1), 8489.More infoAbstract: The electronlike particles called muons can catalyze nuclear fusion reactions, eliminating the need for powerful lasers or hightemperature plasmas. The process may one day become a commercial energy source.
 Tupper, G., Danos, M., Müller, B., & Rafelski, J. (1987). On the detection of cosmicbackground neutrinos by acoustic phonon scattering. Physical Review D, 35(1), 394396.More infoAbstract: We examine the possible detection of cosmicbackground neutrinos by coherent neutrinophonon scattering. Our conclusion is that at least for simple detector schemes the reaction rate is unobservably small. © 1987 The American Physical Society.
 Bondorf, J., Garrett, J. D., Gregoire, C., Gutbrod, H., Morrison, G. C., Nagamiya, S., & Rafelski, J. (1986). Conference panel. Nuclear Physics, Section A, 447(C), 655700.
 Clark, J. W., Cleymans, J., & Rafelski, J. (1986). Clustered quark matter. Physical Review C, 33(2), 703708.More infoAbstract: In cold quark matter, quantum chromodynamic binding effects can favor clustering of three quarks into nucleonlike clusters. An equation of state of clustered quark matter is derived. It is estimated that the adiabatic transformation of nuclear matter to clustered quark matter sets in at about 1 baryon/fm3, while at the minimum of the energy per baryon the excitation energy relative to ordinary nuclear matter is only 200 MeV/b. © 1986 The American Physical Society.
 Danos, M., M̈ller, B., & Rafelski, J. (1986). Detuning reduction of muon sticking in resonant muoncatalyzed dt fusion. Physical Review A, 34(5), 36423645.More infoAbstract: The nuclear fusion reaction in the (dt)+ molecule is affected by the presence of the muon in the relatively loosely bound mesomolecular orbit. Due to the sharing of the available energy between the muon and the nuclei in the final state, a muon attached to the recoiling particle reduces the energy available to the nuclear fusion reaction by about 9050 keV and thus detunes the resonant dt reaction amplitude by an important factor. © 1986 The American Physical Society.
 KOCH, P., MULLER, B., & RAFELSKI, J. (1986). STRANGENESS IN RELATIVISTIC HEAVYION COLLISIONS. PHYSICS REPORTSREVIEW SECTION OF PHYSICS LETTERS, 142(4), 167262.
 KOCH, P., MULLER, B., & RAFELSKI, J. (1986). STRANGENESS PRODUCTION AND EVOLUTION IN QUARK GLUON PLASMA. ZEITSCHRIFT FUR PHYSIK AHADRONS AND NUCLEI, 324(4), 453463.
 Koch, P., Müller, B., & Rafelski, J. (1986). Strangeness in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Physics Reports, 142(4), 167262.More infoAbstract: Abundances of strange antibaryons formed in nuclear collisions at above 10 GeV/A are considered as a most accessible diagnostic tool for the study of the possible formation and physical properties of the quarkgluon plasma phase of hadronic matter. In this report we describe the current status and develop a dynamical approach in order to describe strange particle formation in nuclear collisions at high energy. © 1986.
 Koch, P., Müller, B., & Rafelski, J. (1986). Strangeness production and evolution in quark gluon plasma. Zeitschrift für Physik A Atomic Nuclei, 324(4), 453463.More infoAbstract: The formation and evolution of strange quarks in quark gluon plasma is studied assuming perturbative QCD and qualitative models of plasma phase expansion. Chemical equilibrium abundance characteristic of the hottest and densest phase of nuclear collisions is proven to survive the process of expansion and cooling of the plasma. © 1986 SpringerVerlag.
 Müller, B., & Rafelski, J. (1986). Production of light pseudoscalar particles in heavyion collisions. Physical Review D, 34(9), 28962899.More infoAbstract: We calculate the cross section for the production of a hypothetical light neutral pseudoscalar particle in heavyion collisions due to the twophoton process. For an inverse coupling strength f in the 100GeV range we predict a cross section of 1014 fm2 for production of a particle with 1.5MeV mass. For the maximal allowed coupling f=5 MeV and an effective reduction of the particle mass due to binding the cross section may reach in to the b range. © 1986 The American Physical Society.
 Rafelski, J. (1986). CORRECTION. PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, 56(21), 23342334.
 Rafelski, J., & Mller, B. (1986). Erratum:Strangeness Production in the QuarkGluon Plasma (Physical Review Letters). Physical Review Letters, 56(21), 2334.
 STAADT, G., GREINER, W., & RAFELSKI, J. (1986). PHOTONS FROM STRANGEQUARK ANNIHILATION IN A QUARKGLUON PLASMA. PHYSICAL REVIEW D, 33(1), 6671.
 Staadt, G., Greiner, W., & Rafelski, J. (1986). Photons from strangequark annihilation in a quarkgluon plasma. Physical Review D, 33(1), 6671.More infoAbstract: We compute the energy spectrum of photons which originate from the quarkannihilation process ssg in quarkgluon plasma. The spectrum peaks at an energy Ema x2ms 400 MeV in the rest frame of the plasma. We expect one photon from the above process in the energy range of 2ms 0.25ms per hundred quarkgluon plasmas of a size R=3 fm and a lifetime 6 fm/c formed in nuclear collisions. © 1986 The American Physical Society.
 CLARK, J. W., RAFELSKI, J., & WINSTON, J. V. (1985). BRAIN WITHOUT MIND  COMPUTERSIMULATION OF NEURAL NETWORKS WITH MODIFIABLE NEURONAL INTERACTIONS. PHYSICS REPORTSREVIEW SECTION OF PHYSICS LETTERS, 123(4), 215273.
 Clark, J. W., Rafelski, J., & Winston, J. V. (1985). Brain without mind: Computer simulation of neural networks with modifiable neuronal interactions. Physics Reports, 123(4), 215273.More infoAbstract: Aspects of brain function are examined in terms of a nonlinear dynamical system of highly interconnected neuronlike binary decision elements. The model neurons operate synchronously in discrete time, according to deterministic or probabilistic equations of motion. Plasticity of the nervous system, which underlies such cognitive collective phenomena as adaptive development, learning, and memory, is represented by temporal modification of interneuronal connection strengths depending on momentary or recent neural activity. A formal basis is presented for the construction of local plasticity algorithms, or connectionmodification routines, spanning a large class. To build an intuitive understanding of the behavior of discretetime network models, extensive computer simulations have been carried out (a) for nets with fixed, quasirandom connectivity and (b) for nets with connections that evolve under one or another choice of plasticity algorithm. From the former experiments, insights are gained concerning the spontaneous emergence of order in the form of cyclic modes of neuronal activity. In the course of the latter experiments, a simple plasticity routine ("brainwashing," or "antilearning") was identified which, applied to nets with initially quasirandom connectivity, creates model networks which provide more felicitous starting points for computer experiments on the engramming of contentaddressable memories and on learning more generally. The potential relevance of this algorithm to developmental neurobiology and to sleep states is discussed. The model considered is at the same time a synthesis of earlier synchronous neuralnetwork models and an elaboration upon them; accordingly, the present article offers both a focused review of the dynamical properties of such systems and a selection of new findings derived from computer simulation. © 1985.
 DERRETH, C., GREINER, W., ELZE, H. T., & RAFELSKI, J. (1985). STRANGENESS ABUNDANCES IN PBARNUCLEUS ANNIHILATIONS. PHYSICAL REVIEW C, 31(4), 13601364.
 Derreth, C., Greiner, W., Elze, H., & Rafelski, J. (1985). Strangeness abundances in p»nucleus annihilations. Physical Review C, 31(4), 13601364.More infoAbstract: Strange particle abundances in small volumes of hot hadronic gas are determined in the canonical ensemble with exact strangeness and baryon number conservation. Substantial density and baryon number dependence is found. A p»d experiment is examined and applications to p»nucleus annihilations are considered. © 1985 The American Physical Society.
 GLENDENNING, N. K., & RAFELSKI, J. (1985). KAONS AND QUARKGLUON PLASMA. PHYSICAL REVIEW C, 31(3), 823827.
 Glendenning, N. K., & Rafelski, J. (1985). Kaons and quarkgluon plasma. Physical Review C, 31(3), 823827.More infoAbstract: The relative multiplicity abundance K+/π+ and K+/p+ arising in quarkgluon plasma formed in high energy nuclear collisions is determined. It is shown how these ratios assist in discriminating between various reaction channels. © 1985 The American Physical Society.
 KOCH, P., & RAFELSKI, J. (1985). TIME EVOLUTION OF STRANGEPARTICLE DENSITIES IN HOT HADRONIC MATTER. NUCLEAR PHYSICS A, 444(4), 678691.
 Kauffmann, S. K., & Rafelski, J. (1985). Resonantexchange mechanism: Limitations to its effectiveness. Physical Review D, 31(5), 11491150.More infoAbstract: We reexamine the conditions under which the resonantexchange mechanism proposed by Watson can be expected to lead to a firstorder rate for the neutrinomediated transmutation of H3 and He3 atoms into each other. In the course of this, we are able to formulate rather general criteria for when such ''fragile'' firstorder resonance rates, in fact, deteriorate into more familiar secondorder ones. © 1985 The American Physical Society.
 Koch, P., & Rafelski, J. (1985). Time evolution of strangeparticle densities in hot hadronic matter. Nuclear Physics, Section A, 444(4), 678691.More infoAbstract: The kinetic equations for production in hot nuclear matter of rare, strange antibaryons are studied numerically. Strange antibaryons are confirmed as viable characteristic signatures of the quarkgluon plasma. We find four orders of magnitude enhancement in the abundance of Ω multiplystrange antibaryons. Strange antibaryon production in the hadronic gas phase is shown to have a relatively slow characteristic time constant of ∼ 1021 sec to be compared with the 100 times faster equilibration in quarkgluon plasma. © 1985.
 RAFELSKI, J., & MULLER, B. (1985). MUON STICKING IN MUON CATALYZED DOORWAY DT FUSION. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 164(46), 223227.
 Rafelski, J. (1985). APPARENT MUON LOSS IN MUON CATALYZED FUSION.. Fusion Technology, 8(3), 27272730.More infoAbstract: Muon loss to side cycles of muon catalyzed fusion is discussed in a schematic model. Experimentally extracted values for permanent muon loss probability ('muon sticking') depend on the presence of cycles terminating by formation of unobservable lowenergy neutrons.
 Rafelski, J., & Müller, B. (1985). Muon sticking in muon catalysed doorway DT fusion. Physics Letters B, 164(46), 223227.More infoAbstract: Loss of muons due to capture (sticking) by the αparticle formed in a muon catalysed DT fusion process driven by the intermediate nuclear resonant state in 5He( 3 2+) is investigated. Depending on the properties of the resonant doorway state, the muon sticking probability can be somewhat greater or significantly smaller than the value ≲1% obtained under the hypothesis that the nuclear DT interaction is independent of relative momentum. © 1985.
 AERTS, A., & RAFELSKI, J. (1984). QCD, BAGS, AND HADRON MASSES. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 148(45), 337342.
 Aerts, A. T., & Rafelski, J. (1984). QCD, bags, and hadron masses. Physics Letters B, 148(45), 337342.More infoAbstract: Hadronic mass spectra are systematically fitted to a QCD and bag motivated expression in which the quark interaction matrix elements are allowed to assume best values. A statistically significant fit is found with B 1 4 ≈ 170 MeV. The inclusion of surface energy σ has been studied and we have found a second, equally significant fit with B 1 4 ≈ 210 MeV and σ ≈ 40 MeV/fm2. However, the corresponding hadrons are unacceptably small, i.e. R ≈ 0.5 fm. Selected strange multiquark states are recomputed and found to have generally a higher mass than currently believed. © 1984.
 Clark, J. W., Winston, J. V., & Rafelski, J. (1984). Selforganization of neural networks. Physics Letters A, 102(4), 207211.More infoAbstract: The plastic development of a neuralnetwork model operating autonomously in discrete time is described by the temporal modification of interneuronal coupling strengths according to momentary neural activity. A simple algorithm ("brainwashing") is found which, applied to nets with initially quasirandom connectivity, leads to model networks with properties conductive to the simulation of memory and learning phenomena. © 1984.
 ELZE, H. T., GREINER, W., & RAFELSKI, J. (1984). COLOR DEGREES OF FREEDOM IN A QUARK GLUE PLASMA AT FINITE BARYON DENSITY. ZEITSCHRIFT FUR PHYSIK CPARTICLES AND FIELDS, 24(34), 361365.
 Elze, H., Greiner, W., & Rafelski, J. (1984). Color degrees of freedom in a quarkglue plasma at finite baryon density. Zeitschrift für Physik C: Particles and Fields, 24(3), 361365.More infoAbstract: We derive the colorsinglet partition function for a quarkglue plasma with finite quark (baryon number) density by a projection method. Due to colorlessness there is a gradual "freezing" (reduction) of internal degrees of freedom as compared to the StefanBoltzmann limit. We find here that this nonperturbative effect is reduced by a finite quark density. A relation between the requirement of colorlessness of all physical states and QCD is proposed. © 1984 SpringerVerlag.
 Greiner, W., Koch, P., & Rafelski, J. (1984). Strange particle production in pp and pN reactions. Physics Letters B, 145(12), 142146.More infoAbstract: A statistical model of particle production valid for a wide range of Feynman x is developed and applied to describe strange particle production in hadronic collisions. Predictions of relative abundances of multiply strange hadrons are made which compare well with the available fragmentary data. © 1984.
 KARL, G., MILLER, G. A., & RAFELSKI, J. (1984). NUCLEON MAGNETICMOMENTS IN NUCLEI AND QUARK DEGREES OF FREEDOM. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 143(46), 326328.
 Karl, G., Miller, G. A., & Rafelski, J. (1984). Nucleon magnetic moments in nuclei and quark degrees of freedom. Physics Letters B, 143(46), 326328.More infoAbstract: We discuss the values of the magnetic moments of nucleons when inside a nucleus and present evidence that shows these moments to be larger than in free space. We present a possible theoretical explanation in the special case of the trinucleon system in terms of the quark structure of nucleons. © 1984.
 Kauffmann, S. K., & Rafelski, J. (1984). Analytic study of a sequence of path integral approximations for simple quantum systems at low temperature. Zeitschrift für Physik C Particles and Fields, 24(2), 157162.More infoAbstract: The sequence of FeynmanTrotter approximations to the thermal Feynman path integral for the simple harmonic oscillator is obtained in an easily analyzable closed form. While it converges pointwise at every nonzero temperature to the quantum thermal propagator, the sequence manifests a highly nonuniform behaviour in the zero temperature limitevery one of its elements tends toward the classical ground state (static equilibrium). For high order elements of the sequence, there is an abrupt "collapse" from the quantum to the classical ground state with falling temperature, a phenomenon which bears a possibly misleading resemblance to a phase transition. It is shown that FeynmanTrotter sequences for many simple systems other than the harmonic oscillator also have all their elements tending to the classical static equilibrium state in the zero temperature limit. © 1984 SpringerVerlag.
 Rafelski, J. (1984). STRANGENESS PRODUCTION IN THE QUARK GLUON PLASMA. NUCLEAR PHYSICS A, 418(APR), C215C235.
 Rafelski, J. (1984). Strangeness production in the quark gluon plasma. Nuclear Physics, Section A, 418(C), 215235.More infoAbstract: It is shown that perturbative QCD predicts abundant strange quark production in the plasma created in high energy nuclear collisions. Considering further the strange particle production in the hadronic gas phase, I show that the strangeness abundance in the plasma is 1050 times higher as compared with the gas phase in similar thermodynamic conditions. Possible experiments leading to the identification of the plasma phase are described. © 1984.
 DANOS, M., & RAFELSKI, J. (1983). PARTICLE RADIATION BY HOT QUARKGLUON PLASMA. PHYSICAL REVIEW D, 27(3), 671674.
 Danos, M., & Rafelski, J. (1983). Particle radiation by hot quarkgluon plasma. Physical Review D, 27(3), 671674.More infoAbstract: Highly excited hadronic matter consisting of quarks and gluons radiates an important fraction of its excitation energy by hadron emission. This relieves the surface pressure and reduces the importance of the expansion to the cooling of the plasma. Qualitative model calculations are presented. © 1983 The American Physical Society.
 ELZE, H. T., GREINER, W., & RAFELSKI, J. (1983). ON THE COLORSINGLET QUARKGLUE PLASMA. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 124(6), 515519.
 Elze, H., Greiner, W., & Rafelski, J. (1983). On the colorsinglet quarkglue plasma. Physics Letters B, 124(6), 515519.More infoAbstract: The assumed colorsinglet character of physical states is treated exactly in a canonical partition function for the quarkglue plasma in a finite volume. It is shown that this nonperturbative effect leads to a gradual "freezing" of internal degrees of freedom as compared to the StephanBoltzmann limit. © 1983.
 KOCH, P., RAFELSKI, J., & GREINER, W. (1983). STRANGE HADRONS IN HOT NUCLEARMATTER. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 123(34), 151154.
 Koch, P., Rafelski, J., & Greiner, W. (1983). Strange hadrons in hot nuclear matter. Physics Letters B, 123(34), 151154.More infoAbstract: We compute relative abundances of strange hadronic particles produced in highly excited nuclear matter as functions of temperature and baryochemical potential. Quantitative predictions are made for the particle multiplicity ratios: 〈nK+〉/〈nK〉, 〈nK+〉/〈nΛ〉, 〈nK〉/ 〈nΛ〉, 〈nΛ〉/〈nΛ〉 Possible measurements of baryochemical potential is described. Our results are quantitatively compatible with present experimental data obtained in nuclear collisions. © 1983.
 Schäfer, A., Rafelski, J., & Greiner, W. (1983). A fivedimensional Diractheory and its relation to nonlocal theories in four dimensions. Annals of Physics, 147(2), 445459.More infoAbstract: A generalization of the Diractheory to one time and four spacelike coordinates is discussed. The consequences of discretizing the fifth dimension are studied and a relationship with nonlocal four dimensional fieldtheory is found. © 1983.
 Hagedorn, R., & Rafelski, J. (1982). Analytic structure and explicit solution of an important implicit equation. Communications in Mathematical Physics, 83(4), 563578.More infoAbstract: The equation z=2 G(z)exp G(z)+1 (and similar ones obtained from it by substitutions) appears in connection with a variety of problems ranging from pure mathematics (combinatorics; some first order, nonlinear differential equations) over statistical thermodynamics to renormalization theory. It is therefore of interest to solve this equation for G(z) explicitly. It turns out, after study of the complex structure of the z and G planes, that an explicit integral representation of G(z) can be given, which may be directly used for numerical calculations of high precision. © 1982 SpringerVerlag.
 MULLER, B., & RAFELSKI, J. (1982). ROLE OF INTERNAL SYMMETRY IN PPBAR ANNIHILATION. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 116(4), 274278.
 Müller, B., & Rafelski, J. (1982). Role of internal symmetry in pp annihilation. Physics Letters B, 116(4), 274278.More infoAbstract: Internal symmetry influences the form of quantum spectra as well as the abundance of particles emitted by a thermal source. Isospin conservation in protonantiproton annihilation is used to quantitatively illustrate the influence of these phenomena on mean pion multiplicities and the apparent primary pion temperature parameter. © 1982.
 M̈ller, B., & Rafelski, J. (1982). Selfconsistent gluon screening of a strong SU(2) source. Physical Review D, 25(2), 566572.More infoAbstract: We construct a variational condensate ground state for the SU(2) gauge field in the presence of an external source and present the numerical solution for a particular example. © 1982 The American Physical Society.
 RAFELSKI, J., & MULLER, B. (1982). STRANGENESS PRODUCTION IN THE QUARKGLUON PLASMA. PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, 48(16), 10661069.
 Rafelski, J. (1982). Extreme states of nuclear matter. Nuclear Physics, Section A, 374(C), 489502.More infoAbstract: A theoretical description of highly excited nuclear matter is presented. Two physically different domains are treated: the hadronic gas phase in which individual nucleons and mesons coexist as separate entities,and that consisting of one large hadronic cluster of quarks and gluons. Possible characteristic observable phenomena of the quark plasma are considered. © 1982.
 Rafelski, J., & Müller, B. (1982). Strangeness production in the quarkgluon plasma. Physical Review Letters, 48(16), 10661069.More infoAbstract: Rates are calculated for the processes gg→ss̄ and uū,dd̄→ss̄ in highly excited quarkgluon plasma. For temperature T>~160 MeV the strangeness abundance saturates during the lifetime (∼1023 sec) of the plasma created in highenergy nuclear collisions. The chemical equilibration time for gluons and light quarks is found to be less than 1024 sec. © 1982 The American Physical Society.
 Klein, A., Rafelski, H., & Rafelski, J. (1981). IBM hamiltonian, Bohr collective hamiltonian and classical limit for an exactly soluble model with the symmetry of O(5). Nuclear Physics, Section A, 355(1), 189206.More infoAbstract: Interacting boson model (IBM), Bohr collective hamiltonian and adiabatic collective model descriptions are derived from a shell model (describing pairing plus twodimensional quadrupolequadrupole interactions) with the symmetry of the Lie algebra O(5). The tools utilized for these purposes are three boson mappings from the fermion pair space, two exact and one approximate. Adiabatic descriptions are derived by two distinct methods. The extension of the methods of this paper to more realistic models is outlined. © 1981.
 MULLER, B., & RAFELSKI, J. (1981). TEMPERATUREDEPENDENCE OF THE BAG CONSTANT AND THE EFFECTIVE LAGRANGIAN FOR GAUGEFIELDS AT FINITE TEMPERATURES. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 101(12), 111118.
 Müller, B., & Rafelski, J. (1981). Temperature dependence of the bag constant and the effective lagrangian for gauge fields at finite temperatures. Physics Letters B, 101(12), 111118.More infoAbstract: We calculate the free energy for a gauge field at finite temperature in the presence of a constant gauge magnetic field in the oneloop approximation, omitting unstable modes. The effect of finite temperature on the approximate "true" Savvidy ground state of QCD is derived. A phase transition to the perturbative ground state at Tcr=1.5Bs 1 4 ≈210 MeV is found. © 1981.
 Rafelski, J., & Gross, E. K. (1981). Rebuttal to the "comment on Electromagnetic potential in ThomasFermiDirac atoms". Physical Review A, 23(4), 2087.More infoAbstract: The cancellation of the exchange and relativistic corrections to the energies of inner shells in heavy atoms is discussed. © 1981 The American Physical Society.
 Schmidt, G., Elze, H., & Rafelski, J. (1981). Mass limits for nondegenerate white dwarfs. Nuclear Physics, Section A, 364(23), 527532.More infoAbstract: We obtain the dependence of the upper mass limit of white dwarf stars on the specific entropy per electron. For nondegenerate stars significantly larger masses are found. Stellar collapse as an entropyproducing process can therefore have a selfstabilizing influence on the stellar evolution. © 1981.
 ELZE, H. T., GREINER, W., & RAFELSKI, J. (1980). THE RELATIVISTIC IDEAL FERMI GAS REVISITED. JOURNAL OF PHYSICS GNUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS, 6(9), L149L153.
 Elze, H. ., Greiner, W., & Rafelski, J. (1980). The relativistic ideal Fermi gas revisited. Journal of Physics G: Nuclear Physics, 6(9), L149L153.More infoAbstract: The thermodynamic potential of the ideal Fermi gas is evaluated analytically for arbitrary temperatures and chemical potentials in the case that the latter is much larger than the rest mass of the particles. This is achieved by allowing for the necessary particleantiparticle chemical equilibrium. As a first application the authors consider the properties of hot quark matter in a giant MIT bag.
 HAGEDORN, R., & RAFELSKI, J. (1980). HOT HADRONIC MATTER AND NUCLEAR COLLISIONS. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 97(1), 136142.
 RAFELSKI, J., & DANOS, M. (1980). THE IMPORTANCE OF THE REACTION VOLUME IN HADRONIC COLLISIONS. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 97(2), 279282.
 Rafelski, J. (1980). PBAR ANNIHILATION ON HEAVYNUCLEI. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 91(2), 281284.
 Rafelski, J. (1980). p annihilation on heavy nuclei. Physics Letters B, 91(2), 281284.More infoAbstract: In order to study the properties of nuclear matter at high temperature and/or density, a substantial amount of energy has to be delivered to a heavy nucleus. In this paper we propose employing the annihilation of antiprotons at LEAR momenta of 0.51.5 GeV/c on heavy nuclei; a qualitative discussion of possible interesting reaction channels is presented. © 1980.
 Rafelski, J., & Danos, M. (1980). The importance of the reaction volume in hadronic collisions. Physics Letters B, 97(2), 279282.More infoAbstract: The pair production in the thermodynamic model is shown to depend sensitively on the (hadronic) reaction volume. Strangeness production in nucleusnucleus collisions is treated as an example. © 1980.
 Danos, M., & Rafelski, J. (1979). S{cyrillic}i{cyrillic}n{cyrillic}g{cyrillic}u{cyrillic}l{cyrillic}ya{cyrillic}r{cyrillic}n{cyrillic}o{cyrillic}s{cyrillic}t{cyrillic}i{cyrillic} v{cyrillic} k{cyrillic}v{cyrillic}a{cyrillic}n{cyrillic}t{cyrillic}o{cyrillic}v{cyrillic}o{cyrillic}i{cyrillic, short} t{cyrillic}ye{cyrillic}o{cyrillic}r{cyrillic}i{cyrillic}i{cyrillic} p{cyrillic}o{cyrillic}l{cyrillic}ya{cyrillic}. Il Nuovo Cimento A, 49(3), 326367.More infoAbstract: The shortrange behaviour of certain Feynman integrals reveals mathematical properties which are not those of either functions or distributionsthey contain terms which are more singular than distributions and possess inherent ambiguities. Two classes of singularities exist: To the first one belong all those singularities which have a physical meaning in the sense that in a convergent (regularized) quantum field theory they contribute to observable quantities, frequently as renormalization constants. Most of the singularities of the second, the spurious type, violate the symmetries of the Lagrangian. We demonstrate that they are associated with certain mathematical difficulties of unregularized theories. Much of our analysis deals with the isolation of singularities of this type and with the study of the properties of the singular products of distribution. We argue that the fourdimensional integration leading to the Smatrix in the perturbation expansion must be carried out over an open domain which leaves out the contributions from singularities of the contact type, that is terms proportional to δ4xy. © 1979 Società Italiana di Fisica.
 Gross, E. K., & Rafelski, J. (1979). Electromagnetic potential in ThomasFermiDirac atoms. Physical Review A, 20(1), 4447.More infoAbstract: The authors discuss the relativistic ThomasFermi model for atoms and derive a relativistic extension of the Dirac exchange term. As a result of this model the mutual cancellation of the exchange and relativistic corrections to the energies of innershell electrons in heavy atoms (Z>50) is demonstrated. © 1979 The American Physical Society.
 Bell, J., Davis, A., & Rafelski, J. (1978). Partons of a spherical box. Physics Letters B, 78(1), 6770.More infoAbstract: Calculation of parton distributions in the "cavity approximation" to the MIT bag model gives a divergent sum of positive terms. This suggests that Bjorken scaling does not hold for the deep inelastic scattering does not hold for the deep inelastic scattering in this version of the model. © 1978.
 Danos, M., & Rafelski, J. (1978). Higherorder effects in Fermitype charged current theory of weak interactions: Semileptonic neutral currents. Physics Letters B, 73(3), 313316.More infoAbstract: In a convergent field theory rescattering graphs lead to neutralcurrent effects of the observed magnitude if the effective cutoff momentum is ∼G 1 2 ≈ 300 GeV. A perturbation expansion is justified owing to the value f=0.18 of the resulting expansion parameter. © 1978.
 Klein, A., & Rafelski, J. (1978). Bose condensation in supercritical external fields charged condensates. Zeitschrift für Physik A Atoms and Nuclei, 284(1), 7181.More infoAbstract: This paper extends a previous one which was applicable only to short range interactions. We study the relativistic field theory of a charged spinzero boson field in the presence of the Coulomb field of a prescribed (nuclear) charge distribution. It is shown that for a sufficiently intense field the ground state is unstable against the formation of a BoseEinstein condensate of negatively charged bosons, positively charged bosons escaping the system. When the effects of weak interaction are included, the instability occurs in a weaker field and positrons are emitted. A consistent quantum theory is formulated after the Coulomb interaction of the bosons is included. Properties of the condensate are examined in the limit of large condensate density, in a mean field approximation, which is also studied numerically. Possible implications concerning the existence of abnormally bound nuclei are presented. © 1978 SpringerVerlag.
 RAFELSKI, J., FULCHER, L. P., & KLEIN, A. (1978). FERMIONS AND BOSONS INTERACTING WITH ARBITRARILY STRONG EXTERNAL FIELDS. PHYSICS REPORTSREVIEW SECTION OF PHYSICS LETTERS, 38(5), 227361.
 RAFELSKI, J., MULLER, B., & GREINER, W. (1978). SPONTANEOUS VACUUM DECAY OF SUPERCRITICAL NUCLEAR COMPOSITES. ZEITSCHRIFT FUR PHYSIK AHADRONS AND NUCLEI, 285(1), 4952.
 Rafelski, J. (1978). Supercritical fields and dynamic confinement. Physics Letters B, 79(45), 419422.More infoAbstract: The mechanism leading to the dynamic confinement of heavy fermions for strong coupling constants in quantum electrodynamics of two charged light and heavy fermion fields is described. © 1978.
 Rafelski, J., Fulcher, L. P., & Klein, A. (1978). Fermions and bosons interacting with arbitrarily strong external fields. Physics Reports, 38(5), 227361.More infoAbstract: The question, "What happens to the electron orbitals as the charge of the nucleus is increased without bounds?" has inspired much of the interest in the description of particles bound strongly by external fields. Interest in this problem and in the related Klein paradox extends back nearly to the beginnings of relativistic quantum mechanics. However, the correct interpretation of the theory for overcritical potentials, where the parts of the complete set of single particle solutions associated with particles and antiparticles are no longer distinct, was given only recently. The understanding of the spectrum of the Dirac and KleinGordon equations is essential in order to obtain an appropriate physical description with quantum field theory. The strong binding by more than twice the rest mass of the particles in overcritical external potentials leads to qualitatively new effects. In the case of fermions we find spontaneous positron emission accompanied by creation of a charged lowest energy state, i.e. a charged vacuum. The number of positrons produced spontaneously is limited by the Pauli exclusion principle. For bosons we find that depending on the character of the external potential, either neutral or charged Bose condensates develop. While the questions associated with the meson fields seem academic at the moment, the effects attributed to the fermion field stand a good chance of being tested in an experiment in the near future. It is expected that in heavy ion collisions such as uranium on uranium near the Coulomb barrier overcritical electromagnetic fields will be created. © 1978.
 Rafelski, J., Müller, B., & Greiner, W. (1978). Spontaneous vacuum decay of supercritical nuclear composites. Zeitschrift für Physik A, 285(1), 4952.More infoAbstract: We show that in deep inelastic heavy ion collisions with Z1+Z2> 173 the spontaneous decay of the neutral vacuum by emission of positrons may be isolated from other competing positron producing processes. From the details of the spontaneous positron spectrum information about the nature (lifetime, shape and angular momentum) of the composite nuclear system may be derived. © 1978 SpringerVerlag.
 SOFF, G., REINHARDT, J., BETZ, W., & RAFELSKI, J. (1978). SYSTEMATIC INVESTIGATIONS OF BINDINGENERGIES OF INNERSHELL ELECTRONS IN SUPERHEAVY QUASIMOLECULES. PHYSICA SCRIPTA, 17(4), 417419.
 BOGUTA, J., & RAFELSKI, J. (1977). THOMASFERMI MODEL OF FINITE NUCLEI. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 71(1), 2226.
 Boguta, J., & Rafelski, J. (1977). Thomas Fermi model of finite nuclei. Physics Letters B, 71(1), 2226.More infoAbstract: A relativistic ThomasFermi model of finite nuclei is considered. The effective nuclear interaction is mediated by exchanges of isoscalar scalar and vector mesons. We include also a selfinteraction of the scalar meson field and the Coulomb repulsion of the protons. The parameters of the model are constrained by the average nuclear properties. The Thomasfermi equations are solved numerically for finite, stable nuclei. The particular case of 20882Pb is considered in more detail. © 1977.
 Danos, M., & Rafelski, J. (1977). Some consequences of fermitype theory of weak interactions. Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento Series 2, 19(9), 339343.
 MULLER, B., GREINER, W., & RAFELSKI, J. (1977). INTERPRETATION OF EXTERNAL FIELDS AS TEMPERATURE. PHYSICS LETTERS A, 63(3), 181183.
 Müller, B., Greiner, W., & Rafelski, J. (1977). Interpretation of external fields as temperature. Physics Letters A, 63(3), 181183.More infoAbstract: We show that average excitation of the vacuum state in the presence of an external electric field can be described by an effective temperature kT = eE (2πm). We present a qualitative generalization of our result to other interactions. Some phenomenological implications concerning matter at low temperatures in strong electric fields (105 V/cm) are offered. © 1977.
 Rafelski, J. (1977). Soliton solutions of a selfinteracting dirac field in three space dimensions. Physics Letters B, 66(3), 262266.More infoAbstract: An (attractive) selfinteraction of the Dirac field is considered in three space dimensions. A virial theorem for the kinetic energy of the field is derived. The properties of the classical fields are studied and soliton solutions developed numerically. The relevance of these solutions to the construction of quark bag models without gluons is discussed. © 1977.
 Rafelski, J. (1977). VIRIAL THEOREM AND STABILITY OF LOCALIZED SOLUTIONS OF RELATIVISTIC CLASSICAL INTERACTING FIELDS. PHYSICAL REVIEW D, 16(6), 18901899.
 Rafelski, J. (1977). Virial theorem and stability of localized solutions of relativistic classical interacting fields. Physical Review D, 16(6), 18901899.More infoAbstract: The properties of classical meson fields interacting with the Dirac field are considered in more detail analytically. We obtain a virial relation between the kinetic and potential energy of the interacting Dirac field. The stability of the classical solutions of the coupled fields constrained to the lowest particle solution of the Dirac equation in three space dimensions is investigated. A criterion allowing the determination of stability of Abelian meson fields in interaction with the Dirac field is given. © 1977 The American Physical Society.
 RAFELSKI, J., & MULLER, B. (1976). CRITICAL DISTANCE IN COLLISIONS OF HEAVYIONS. PHYSICS LETTERS B, 65(3), 205208.
 RAFELSKI, J., & MULLER, B. (1976). MAGNETIC SPLITTING OF QUASIMOLECULAR ELECTRONIC STATES IN STRONG FIELDS. PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, 36(10), 517520.
 Rafelski, J. (1976). Selfconsistent quark bag in three space dimensions. Physical Review D, 14(9), 23582361.More infoAbstract: A schematic model of a quark bag with scalar gluons is considered quantitatively in three space dimensions. Stable spherically symmetric solutions of cnumber selfconsistent bag equations are obtained numerically. The structure constants of hadrons are calculated as functions of the coupling constant and the gluon mass. Good agreement of absolute values of the proton magnetic moment and the bag mass with experiment is found. © 1976 The American Physical Society.
 Rafelski, J. (1976). Soliton solutions in threespace dimensions. Scalar field in interaction with the dirac field. Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento Series 2, 17(17), 575581.
 Rafelski, J. (1976). Vacuum polarization and molecularpotential effects in heavyion scattering. Physical Review C, 13(5), 20862088.More infoAbstract: The corrections to the heavyion scattering cross sections due to the presence of perturbing vacuum polarization and molecular potentials are evaluated. We find effects on the cross section up to 0.7% in O16 with Pb208 collisions due to vacuum polarization and up to 2.6% in U with Th collisions due to molecular and vacuum polarization corrections. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Calculations of modifications of elastic heavyion σ(θ) due to vacuum polarization and molecular potentials. © 1976 The American Physical Society.
 Rafelski, J., & Müller, B. (1976). The critical distance in collisions of heavy ions. Physics Letters B, 65(3), 205208.More infoAbstract: There is a large discrepancy in published values of the critical distance in heavyion collisions. We have recalculated the critical distance by a more accurate method for symmetric collisions of point nuclei as a function of Z. The reasons for the discrepancy are discussed. © 1976.
 Rafelski, J., & Müller, B. (1976). Vector coupling and bound states of fermions in three space dimensions. Physical Review D, 14(12), 35323535.More infoAbstract: The behavior of fermions interacting via vector gluons in the strongcoupling limit is investigated. A suitable coupling between the Dirac and the vectorgluon field gives rise to boundstate solutions. The coherent field approximation is employed to find the boundstate masses, which are further discussed by analytical and numerical methods and are found to be positivedefinite in the example considered numerically. © 1976 The American Physical Society.
 Rafelski, J., & M̈ller, B. (1976). Magnetic splitting of quasimolecular electronic states in strong fields. Physical Review Letters, 36(10), 517520.More infoAbstract: The heavyion motion in subCoulomb collisions generates extreme magnetic fields. The hyperfine splitting of the spin quasimolecular electronic states in U + U is found to reach 10% of the molecular binding energy (100 keV). Also Pb+Pb and Xe+Xe collisions are considered. © 1976 The American Physical Society.
 KLEIN, A., & RAFELSKI, J. (1975). BOSE CONDENSATION IN SUPERCRITICAL EXTERNAL FIELDS. PHYSICAL REVIEW D, 11(2), 300311.
 Klein, A., & Rafelski, J. (1975). Bose condensation in supercritical external fields. Physical Review D, 11(2), 300311.More infoAbstract: We study the relativistic field theory of a charged spinzero boson field in the presence of an external field, such as the Coulomb field of a prescribed charge distribution. It is shown that for a sufficiently intense field the ground state is unstable against the formation of a BoseEinstein condensate of charged boson pairs. A consistent quantum theory can be formulated when known nonlinear couplings such as the Coulomb interactions of the bosons are properly included in the Hamiltonian. Speculations are offered concerning the possible stability of nuclei with charge number Z103. © 1975 The American Physical Society.
 Klein, A., & Rafelski, J. (1975). Comments on "Bose condensation in supercritical external fields". Physical Review D, 12(4), 11941195.More infoAbstract: We agree that our previous analysis does not apply to a spinless particle in an external Coulomb field. We explain why it continues to apply in toto for a spinless particle in a shortrange external field. We describe in qualitative terms the correct quantization for the Coulomb case, which has not previously appeared in the literature. © 1975 The American Physical Society.
 MULLER, B., & RAFELSKI, J. (1975). STABILIZATION OF CHARGED VACUUM CREATED BY VERY STRONG ELECTRICAL FIELDS IN NUCLEARMATTER. PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, 34(6), 349352.
 Müller, B., & Rafelski, J. (1975). Stabilization of the charged vacuum created by very strong electrical fields in nuclear matter. Physical Review Letters, 34(6), 349352.More infoAbstract: The expectation value of electrical charge in charged vacuum is calculated utilizing the ThomasFermi model. We find almost complete screening of the nuclear charge. For any given nuclear density there is an upper bound for the electrical potential. For normal nuclear densities this value is  250 MeV. This suggests that the vacuum is stable against spontaneous formation of heavy, charged particles. © 1975 The American Physical Society.
 DANOS, M., GREINER, W., & RAFELSKI, J. (1974). FIELDS NONLOCAL IN CLIFFORD SPACE .1. CLASSICAL GAUGEINVARIANT NONLINEAR FIELDTHEORY. PHYSICAL REVIEW D, 6(12), 34763491.
 Danos, M., & Rafelski, J. (1974). Gauge invariance of the vacuum polarization in quantum electrodynamics. Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento, 10(3), 106110.
 Klein, A., & Rafelski, J. (1974). On contributions to the pionnucleus optical potential nonlinear in nuclear density: The EricsonEricson LorentzLorentz correction. Physics Letters B, 49(4), 318322.More infoAbstract: A welldefined set of higher order corrections to the lowest order pionnucleus optical potential is examined within the framework of manybody theory for an infinite nuclear medium. The connection between the pion selfenergy operators and multiple scattering formalisms is thereby indicated and a deriviation of the EELL effect given. © 1974.
 MULLER, B., GREINER, W., PEITZ, H., & RAFELSKI, J. (1974). SOLUTION OF DIRAC EQUATION FOR STRONG EXTERNAL FIELDS. PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, 28(19), 1235&.
 MULLER, B., RAFELSKI, J., & GREINER, W. (1974). AUTOIONIZATION OF POSITRONS IN HEAVYION COLLISIONS. ZEITSCHRIFT FUR PHYSIK, 257(3), 183211.
 Mueller, B., Rafelski, J., & Greiner, W. (1974). Solution of the Dirac equation with two Coulomb centres. NUKLEONIKA, 19(78), 741746.
 PEITZ, H., MULLER, B., RAFELSKI, J., & GREINER, W. (1974). AUTOIONIZATION SPECTRA OF POSITRONS IN HEAVYION COLLISIONS. LETTERE AL NUOVO CIMENTO, 8(1), 3742.
 RAFELSKI, J., FULCHER, L., & GREINER, W. (1974). A CONDITION FOR VANISHING ELECTROMAGNETIC SELFSTRESS IN NONLINEAR CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS. NUOVO CIMENTO DELLA SOCIETA ITALIANA DI FISICA B, B 7(1), 137+.
 RAFELSKI, J., FULCHER, L., & GREINER, W. (1974). SUPERHEAVY ELEMENTS AND AN UPPER LIMIT TO ELECTRIC FIELD STRENGTH. PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, 27(14), 958&.
 Rafelski, J., & Klein, A. (1974). Possible measurement of the vacuum polarization in heavyion scattering. Physical Review C, 9(5), 17561759.More infoAbstract: A measurement of the vacuum polarization potential in nonrelativistic elastic heavyion scattering is suggested. We find that in a typical sub Coulomb barrier event enough momentum is transferred from the projectile to the target nucleus to make the highq2 behavior of the photon propagator observable. The elastic cross section is increased in a typical case by 2.5% above the Rutherford value. Only relative measurements are needed. [NUCLEAR REACTIONS Pb208(O16, O16). Calculated vacuum polarization effect, subCoulomb, DWBA.] © 1974 The American Physical Society.
 Rafelski, J., Mueller, B., & Greiner, W. (1974). The charged vacuum in overcritical fields. NUKLEONIKA, 19(78), 747765.
 Rafelski, J., Müller, B., & Greiner, W. (1974). The charged vacuum in overcritical fields. Nuclear Physics, Section B, 68(2), 585604.More infoAbstract: The concept of overcritical fields, i.e. fields in which spontaneous, energyless electronposition pair creation may occur, is discussed. It is shown that only a charged vacuum can be a stable ground state of the overcritical field. The timedependent treatment confirms previous results for the cross sections for the autoionizing positrons. The questions in connection with the classical Dirac wave functions in overcritical fields are extensively discussed in the frame of the selfconsistent formulation of QED including the effects of vacuum polarization and selfenergy. © 1974.
 Rafelski, J., Müller, B., Soff, G., & Greiner, W. (1974). Critical discussion of the vacuum polarization measurements in muonic atoms. Annals of Physics, 88(2), 419453.More infoAbstract: Recent disagreement between theoretical and experimental values of transition energies for outer states in muonic atoms is discussed in the range of 150440 keV. A brief review of the present status of calculation of the theoretical contributions is given. A rigorous theoretical framework for the electronmuon system is considered. A set of selfconsistent equations is derived. Several mechanisms for the explanation of the discrepancy are discussed. No explanation within the frame of standard quantum electrodynamics is found. © 1974.
 DANOS, M., & RAFELSKI, J. (1973). GAUGEINVARIANCE OF VACUUM POLARIZATION IN QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS. LETTERE AL NUOVO CIMENTO, 10(3), 106110.
 Danos, M., Greiner, W., & Rafelski, J. (1973). Fields nonlocal in clifford space  II. Quantum theory of interacting fields. Zeitschrift für Physik, 258(2), 147162.More infoAbstract: A previously proposed field theory is quantized. The theory contains a parameter having the character of an elementary length. We fix the value of this parameter by scaling it to the weak interaction strength. It is shown that this way negative metric states are confined to a region of the order 1015 cm. The resulting quantum theory of interacting fields is Lorentz and gauge invariant, has a unitary Smatrix, and is convergent. © 1973 SpringerVerlag.
 Kuznetsova, I., & Rafelski, J. (1973). Charmed hadrons from strangenessrich QGP. JOURNAL OF PHYSICS GNUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS, 32(12), S499S504.
 MULLER, B., RAFELSKI, J., & GREINER, W. (1973). ELECTRON SHELLS IN OVERCRITICAL EXTERNAL FIELDS. ZEITSCHRIFT FUR PHYSIK, 257(1), 6277.
 MULLER, B., RAFELSKI, J., & GREINER, W. (1973). ELECTRON WAVEFUNCTIONS IN OVERCRITICAL ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIALS. NUOVO CIMENTO DELLA SOCIETA ITALIANA DI FISICA ANUCLEI PARTICLES AND FIELDS, A 18(3), 551557.
 MULLER, B., RAFELSKI, J., & GREINER, W. (1973). SOLUTION OF DIRAC EQUATION WITH 2 COULOMB CENTERS. PHYSICS LETTERS B, B 47(1), 57.
 Müller, B., Rafelski, J., & Greiner, W. (1973). Electron wave functions in overcritical electrostatic potentials. Il Nuovo Cimento A Series 11, 18(3), 551573.More infoAbstract: The mathematical properties of the solutions of the Dirac equation in overcritical external potentials are investigated. The 1/r Coulomb potential is treated as the limit R → 0 of cutoff Coulomb potentials (R is the cutoff parameter). The results are interpreted in terms of quantum electrodynamics. A number of new physical phenomena occur in quantum electrodynamics of strong fields. One of the most interesting ones is the autoionization of positrons (energyless creation of electronpositron pairs) in overcritical external fields. © 1973 Società Italiana di Fisica.
 Müller, B., Rafelski, J., & Greiner, W. (1973). Solution of the Dirac equation with two Coulomb centres. Physics Letters B, 47(1), 57.More infoAbstract: The Dirac equation for a relativistic particle (electron) in the field of two Coulomb centres Z1 and Z2  pointlike as well as extended charges  has been solved. The systems BrBr, IAu, UU are shown as examples. © 1973.
 Peitz, H., Müller, B., Rafelski, J., & Greiner, W. (1973). Autoionization spectra of positrons in heavyion collisions. Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento Series 2, 8(1), 3742.
 RAFELSKI, H., & FINK, B. (1973). PARTICLE NUMBER DEPENDENCE OF COLLECTIVE PROPERTIES OF NUCLEI IN RAREEARTH REGION. ZEITSCHRIFT FUR NATURFORSCHUNG SECTION AA JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES, A 29(8), 11311137.
 RAFELSKI, J., GREINER, W., & MULLER, B. (1973). SUPERHEAVY ELECTRONIC MOLECULES. LETTERE AL NUOVO CIMENTO, 4(11), 469&.
 Rafelski, J., Greiner, W., & Fulcher, L. (1973). Superheavy elements and nonlinear electrodynamics. Il Nuovo Cimento B Series 11, 13(1), 135160.More infoAbstract: Maxwell's equations, which underlie electrodynamics, are linear equations. Nonlinear effects, such as photonphoton scattering, are known to arise in quantum electrodynamics, and one might expect them to become important in the case of strong external fields. We investigate the consequences of a class of nonlinear Lagrangians, which includes that of Born and Infeld and whose common property is that they lead to upper limits for the electricfield strength (somewhat analogous to the upper limit for the velocity of a particle in special relativity). These nonlinear Lagrangians also lead to a finite electromagnetic selfenergy for the electron, unlike the case of Maxwellian electrodynamics. The importance of nonlinear effects of course depends upon the size of the upper limit to the electricfield strength. If this upper limit is determined by requiring that the mass of the electron is of an entirely electromagnetic origin, nonlinear effects become very important in determining the eigenvalues of electrons bound to superheavy nuclei. For example, the Is energy eigenvalue is raised by 270 keV for Z= 164. The Lagrangians considered here do not lead to an absolute gap between bound states and the states of the lower continuum; the Iδ energy eigenvalue becomes equal to 0.511 MeV, where the lower continuum begins, for Z=215. An analogy between nonlinear electrodynamics and higherorder vacuum polarization corrections is studied. © 1973 Società Italiana di Fisica.
 SOFF, G., RAFELSKI, J., & GREINER, W. (1973). LOWER BOUND TO LIMITING FIELDS IN NONLINEAR ELECTRODYNAMICS. PHYSICAL REVIEW A, 7(3), 903907.
 Soff, G., Rafelski, J., & Greiner, W. (1973). Lower bound to limiting fields in nonlinear electrodynamics. Physical Review A, 7(3), 903907.More infoAbstract: In view of new highprecision experiments in atomic physics it seems necessary to reexamine nonlinear theories of electrodynamics. The precise calculation of electronic and muonic atomic energies has been used to determine the possible size of the upper limit Emax to the electric field strength, which has been assumed to be a parameter. This is opposed to Born's idea of a purely electromagnetic origin of the electron's mass which determines Emax. We find Emax1.7×1020 V/cm. © 1973 The American Physical Society.
 DANOS, M., GREINER, W., & RAFELSKI, J. (1972). FIELDS NONLOCAL IN CLIFFORD SPACE .2. QUANTUMTHEORY OF INTERACTING FIELDS. ZEITSCHRIFT FUR PHYSIK, 258(2), 147162.
 Danos, M., Greiner, W., & Rafelski, J. (1972). Fields nonlocal in Clifford space. I. Classical gaugeinvariant nonlinear field theory. Physical Review D, 6(12), 34763491.More infoAbstract: A fully gaugeinvariant, Lorentzcovariant, nonlocal, and nonlinear theory, for coupled spin1/2 fields, ψ, and vector fields, A, i.e., "electrons" and "photons," is constructed. The field theory is linear in the ψ fields. The nonlinearity in the A fields arises unambiguously from the requirement of gauge invariance. The coordinates are generalized to admit hypercomplex values, i.e., they are taken to be Clifford numbers. The nonlocality is limited to the hypercomplex component of the coordinates. As the size of the nonlocality is reduced toward zero, the theory goes over into the inhomogeneous Dirac theory. The nonlocality parameter corresponds to an inverse mass and induces selfregulatory properties of the propagators. It is argued that in a gaugeinvariant theory a graphbygraph convergence is impossible in principle, but it is possible that convergence may hold for the complete solution, or for sums over classes of graphs. © 1972 The American Physical Society.
 KLEIN, A., & RAFELSKI, J. (1972). CONTRIBUTIONS TO PIONNUCLEUS OPTICALPOTENTIAL NONLINEAR IN NUCLEAR DENSITY  ERICSONERICSON LORENTZLORENZ CORRECTION. PHYSICS LETTERS B, B 49(4), 318322.
 Müller, B., Peitz, H., Rafelski, J., & Greiner, W. (1972). Solution of the dirac equation for strong external fields. Physical Review Letters, 28(19), 12351238.More infoAbstract: The 1s bound state of superheavy atoms and molecules reaches a binding energy of 2mc2 at 169. It is shown that the K shell is still localized in r space even beyond this critical proton number and that it has a width Γ (several keV large) which is a positron escape width for ionized K shells. The suggestion is made that this effect can be observed in the collision of very heavy ions (superheavy molecules) during the collision. © 1972 The American Physical Society.
 Müller, B., Rafelski, J., & Greiner, W. (1972). Autoionization of positrons in heavy ion collisions. Zeitschrift für Physik, 257(3), 183211.More infoAbstract: Autoionization of positrons occurs as a fundamentally new process of quantum electrodynamics, if empty 1 s or 2 p1/2 etc. electronic shells obtain binding energies larger than 2 mec2. This effect should be experimentally observable in the scattering of very heavy ions (Z≧80) on each other since in such collisions superheavy electronic molecules are formed (superheavy quasimolecules). The scattering mechanism and the distribution of autoionization positrons are discussed. The adiabaticity of the heavy ion collision is studied and the electronpositron pair production background to the ionization problem is estimated. Analytic solutions are obtained for 1/rpotentials for the case Zα≧1. The phase shifts of negative energy solutions in the case of cutoff Coulomb potentials reveal the accuracy of the autoionization formalism. © 1972 SpringerVerlag.
 Müller, B., Rafelski, J., & Greiner, W. (1972). Electron shells in overcritical external fields. Zeitschrift für Physik, 257(1), 6277.More infoAbstract: When the charge of a nucleus exceeds Z=Zcr≈ 164172 the energy of the 1 selectron level is lowered beyond the critical value of mec2. Then this bound level is degenerated with negative energy continuum solutions of the Dirac equation and becomes a resonance, whose shape varies and is approximately of BreitWigner type for ZZcr≳5. The physical meaning of this resonance can be understood most easily if the 1 slevel is unoccupied (Khole). In this case a positron may escape if Z>Zcr, a process, that can be interpreted as autoionization of the positron. This fundamentally new process of quantum electrodynamics of strong fields can be tested experimentally by scattering very heavy ions (Z≧80) on each other since in such collisions superheavy electronic molecules occur (superheavy quasimolecules). © 1972 SpringerVerlag.
 RAFELSKI, J., & KLEIN, A. (1972). POSSIBLE MEASUREMENT OF VACUUM POLARIZATION IN HEAVYION SCATTERING. PHYSICAL REVIEW C, 9(5), 17561759.
 RAFELSKI, J., GREINER, W., & FULCHER, L. (1972). SUPERHEAVY ELEMENTS AND NONLINEAR ELECTRODYNAMICS. NUOVO CIMENTO DELLA SOCIETA ITALIANA DI FISICA BGENERAL PHYSICS RELATIVITY ASTRONOMY AND MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS AND METHODS, B 13(1), 135160.
 RAFELSKI, J., MULLER, B., & GREINER, W. (1972). CHARGED VACUUM IN OVERCRITICAL FIELDS. NUCLEAR PHYSICS B, B 68(2), 585604.
 RAFELSKI, J., MULLER, B., SOFF, G., & GREINER, W. (1972). CRITICAL DISCUSSION OF VACUUM POLARIZATION MEASUREMENTS IN MUONIC ATOMS. ANNALS OF PHYSICS, 88(2), 419453.
 Rafelski, J., Fulcher, L. P., & Greiner, W. (1972). A condition for vanishing electromagnetic selfstress in nonlinear classical electrodynamics. Il Nuovo Cimento, 7(1), 137144.More infoAbstract: A condition for a vanishing electromagnetic selfstress is established, which also leads to a finite electromagnetic selfenergy. Maxwell's theory does not satisfy this requirement. A class of nonlinear theories, which includes that of Born and Infeld, satisfies the condition. © 1972 Società Italiana di Fisica.
 Rafelski, J., Müller, B., & Greiner, W. (1972). Superheavy electronic molecules. Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento Series 2, 4(11), 469474.
 SOFF, G., MULLER, B., & RAFELSKI, J. (1972). PRECISE VALUES FOR CRITICAL FIELDS IN QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS. ZEITSCHRIFT FUR NATURFORSCHUNG SECTION AA JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES, A 29(9), 12671275.
 Rafelski, J., Fulcher, L. P., & Greiner, W. (1971). Superheavy elements and an upper limit to the electric field strength. Physical Review Letters, 27(14), 958961.More infoAbstract: An upper limit to the electric field strength, such as that of the nonlinear electrodynamics of Born and Infeld, leads to dramatic differences in the energy eigenvalues and wave functions of atomic electrons bound to superheavy nuclei. For example, the 1s12 energy level joins the lower continuum at Z=215 instead of Z=174, the value obtained when Maxwell's equations are used to determine the electric field. © 1971 The American Physical Society.
 SOFF, G., MULLER, B., RAFELSKI, J., & GREINER, W. (1971). SOLUTION OF DIRAC EQUATION FOR SCALAR POTENTIALS AND ITS IMPLICATIONS IN ATOMIC PHYSICS. ZEITSCHRIFT FUR NATURFORSCHUNG SECTION AA JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES, A 28(9), 13891396.
Proceedings Publications
 Rafelski, J. (2016, Summer). Hagedorn legacy. In EPJ Web of Conferences/EDP Sciences, 126, 03001.More infoThese remarks open the oneday session "50 years of Hagedorn's Temperatureand the Statistical Bootstrap Model". These developments set the path at CERNtowards the discovery of QuarkGluon Plasma in the year 2000.[Journal_ref: ]
 Rafelski, J. (2016, Summer). The hot Hagedorn Universe. In 4th International Conference on New Frontiers in Physics, 126, 03005.More infoIn the context of the halfcentenary of Hagedorn temperature and thestatistical bootstrap model (SBM) we present a short account of how theseinsights coincided with the establishment of the hot bigbang model (BBM) andhelped resolve some of the early philosophical difficulties. We then turnattention to the present day context and show the dominance of stronginteraction quark and gluon degrees of freedom in the early stage, helping tocharacterize the properties of the hot Universe. We focus attention on thecurrent experimental insights about cosmic microwave background (CMB)temperature fluctuation, and develop a much improved understanding of theneutrino freezeout, in this way paving the path to the opening of a directconnection of quarkgluon plasma (QGP) physics in the early Universe with theQCDlattice, and the study of the properties of QGP formed in the laboratory.[Journal_ref: ]
 Labun, L., Rafelski, J., & Chen, P. (2013, 2013). TEMPERATURE OF ELECTRON FLUCTUATIONS IN AN ACCELERATED VACUUM. In TOWARDS ULTIMATE UNDERSTANDING OF THE UNIVERSE, 153158.
 Petran, M., Letessier, J., Petracek, V., & Rafelski, J. (2014, Fall). Charm decay as a source of multistrange hadrons. In Strangeness In Quark Matter 2013 Birmingham, 509.More infoWe describe a newly formulated approach to account for charm production and decay in Statistical Hadronization approach. Considering PbPb collisions at = 2.76 TeV at LHC we show that charm hadron decays can be a significant contributor to the multistrange hadron abundance. We discuss the magnitude of expected effects as a function of charm yield.
 Petran, M., Letessier, J., Petracek, V., & Rafelski, J. (2014, Fall). Interpretation of strange hadron production at LHC. In Strangeness In Quark Matter 2013 Birmingham, 509.More infoWe extend the SHM analysis of hadron production results showing here consistency with the increased experimental data set, stability of the fit with regard to inclusion of finite resonance widths and 2star hyperon resonances. We present new results on strangeness yield as a function of centrality and present their interpretation in terms of QGP inspired model of strangeness abundance in the hadronizing fireball.
 Rafelski, J., & Birrell, J. (2014, Spring). Traveling Through the Universe: Back in Time to the QuarkGluon Plasma Era. In Strangeness In Quark Matter 2013 Birmingham, 509.More infoWe survey the early history of the discovery of quark gluon plasma and the early history of the Universe, beginning with the present day and reaching deep into QGP and almost beyond. We introduce cosmological Universe dynamics and connect the different Universe epochs with one another. We describe some of the many remaining open questions that emerge.
 Rafelski, J., & Petran, M. (2014, Spring). Universal QGP Hadronization Conditions at RHIC and LHC. In Wiegner 111 Budapest, 78.More infoWe address the principles governing QGP hadronization and particle production in relativistic heavyion collisions. We argue that chemical nonequilibrium is required and show that once this condition is assumed a very good description of hadron production in collider RHIC and at LHC heavy ion experiments follows. We present results of our analysis as a function of centrality. Comparing most extreme experimental conditions we show that only the reaction volume and degree of strangeness phase space saturation change. We determine the universal QGP fireball hadronization conditions.
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2013, April). How top quark dipole moments affect Higgs decay. In 2013 APS April Meeting, 58.More infoOther Information: 11008
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2013, Fall). Temperature of Electron Fluctuations in an Accelerated Vacuum. In NOT PROVIDED, 28.More infoOther Information: 1340015
 Rafelski, J. (2013, Fall). Connecting QGPHeavy Ion Physics to the Early Universe. In NOT PROVIDED, 155, 243244.
 Rafelski, J., & Labun, L. (2013, April). QED vacuum fluctuations as a function of magnetic moment. In 2013 APS April Meeting, 58.More infoOther Information: 15008
 Rafelski, J., & Labun, L. (2013, Fall). Critical Acceleration and Quantum Vacuum. In NOT PROVIDED, 28.More infoOther Information: 1340014
 Rafelski, J., & Labun, L. (2013, Fall). Strong fields and QED as function of the gfactor. In 2012 Fall Meeting of the APS Division of Nuclear Physics, 57.
 Rafelski, J., & Rafelsk, J. (2013, Fall). In the beginning\ ldots. In 2013 Fall Meeting of the APS Division of Nuclear Physics, 58.
 Rafelski, J., Labun, L., Hadad, Y., & Dumitras, D. (2013, 2010). Horizons of Strong Field Physics. In LIGHT AT EXTREME INTENSITIES: OPPORTUNITIES AND TECHNOLOGICAL ISSUES OF THE EXTREME LIGHT INFRASTRUCTURE, 1228, 3953.
 Rafelski, J., Petran, M., & Rafelsk, J. (2013, Fall). Decay of charmed hadronsSHARE with CHARM. In 2013 Fall Meeting of the APS Division of Nuclear Physics, 58.
 Rafelski, J., Petran, M., & Rafelsk, J. (2013, Fall). Universality of Hadronization Condition at RHIC and LHC. In 2013 Fall Meeting of the APS Division of Nuclear Physics, 58.
 Birrell, J., Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2012, April). Impacts by Compact Ultra Dense Objects. In 2012 APS April Meeting, 57.More infoOther Information: 7008
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2012, April). Signature of Spontaneous Particle Production in Converging Laser Pulses. In 2012 APS April Meeting, 57.More infoOther Information: 14002
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2012, April). Temperature of the Vacuum Accelerated by External Fields. In 2012 APS April Meeting, 57.More infoOther Information: 1020
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2012, Fall). Nonlinear Electromagnetic Forces in Astrophysics. In NOT PROVIDED, 43.More infoOther Information: 2237
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2012, Fall). Planetary Impacts by Clustered Quark Matter Strangelets. In NOT PROVIDED, 5.More infoOther Information: 381
 Miller, G., Thomas, A., Carroll, J., & Rafelski, J. (2012, Fall). Resolution of the proton radius puzzle via offshell form factors. In 19TH PARTICLES AND NUCLEI INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (PANIC11).More infoOther Information: 1441, 150
 Miller, G., Thomas, A., Carroll, J., & Rafelski, J. (2012, May). What's new with the neutron and proton. In NOT PROVIDED, 52, 13571366.More infoIn: LIGHTCONE 2011: Applications of LightCone Coordinates to Highly Relativistic Systems
 Petran, M., Letessier, J., Petracek, V., & Rafelski, J. (2012, Fall). Strangeness Production in AuAu collisions at \sqrt{s_{NN =62.4 GeV. In NOT PROVIDED, 5.More infoOther Information: 255
 Rafelski, J. (2012, Fall). Strangeness and QuarkGluon Plasma. In NOT PROVIDED, 43.More infoOther Information: 829
 Rafelski, J., & Rafelsk, J. (2012, April). Strangeness Signature of Quark Gluon Plasma at LHC. In 2012 APS April Meeting, 57.More infoOther Information: 10001
 Rafelski, J., Dietl, C., & Labun, L. (2012, Fall). Compact Ultradense Objects in the Solar System. In NOT PROVIDED, 43.More infoOther Information: 2251
 Rafelski, J., Birrell, J., Evans, D., Hands, S., Lietava, R., Romita, R., & Baillie, O. (2010, 2014). Traveling Through the Universe: Back in Time to the QuarkGluon Plasma Era. In 14TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON STRANGENESS IN QUARK MATTER (SQM2013), 509.
 Rafelski, J., Labun, L., & Chen, P. (2008, 2013). CRITICAL ACCELERATION AND QUANTUM VACUUM. In TOWARDS ULTIMATE UNDERSTANDING OF THE UNIVERSE, 141152.
 Torrieri, G., Jeon, S., Rafelski, J., Simak, ., Sumbera, M., Todorova, S., & Tomasik, B. (2008, 2006). Particle multiplicities and fluctuations in 200 GeVAuAu collisions. In MULTIPARTICLE DYNAMICS, 828, 5561.
 Carroll, J. D., Thomas, A. W., Rafelski, J., Miller, G. A., Kizilersu, A., & Thomas, A. (2007, 2011). The Radius of the Proton: Size Does Matter. In T(R)OPICAL QCD 2010, 1354.
 Miller, G. A., Thomas, A. W., Carroll, J. D., Rafelski, J., Steadman, S., Stephans, G., & Taylor, F. (2006, 2012). Resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle via Offshell Form Factors. In 19TH PARTICLES AND NUCLEI INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE (PANIC11), 1441, 150152.
 Rafelski, J. (2006, OCTNOV). Connecting QGPHeavy Ion Physics to the Early Universe. In NUCLEAR PHYSICS BPROCEEDINGS SUPPLEMENTS, 243, 155162.
 Rafelski, J., Letessier, J., Sinha, B., Alam, J., & Nayak, T. (2006, 2006). Strangeness and the discovery of QuarkGluon plasma. In 5TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PHYSICS AND ASTROPHYSICS OF QUARK GLUON PLASMA, 50, 176191.
 Rafelski, J., Petran, M., Varro, S., Adam, P., Biro, T., Barnafoldi, G., & Levai, P. (2006, 2014). Universal QGP Hadronization Conditions at RHIC and LHC. In WIGNER 111  COLOURFUL & DEEP SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIUM, 78.
 , ., & , . (2002). New states of matter in hadronic interactions. Proceedings, PanAmerican Advanced Study Institute, PASI 2002, Campos do Jordao, Sao Paulo, Brazil, January 718, 2002.
 Elze, H. T., Rafelski, J., & Turko, L. (2002). Entropy Production in Relativistic Hydrodynamics. In NonPerturbative QCD.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2002). Hadronic signature of quarkgluon plasma. In Quark confinement and the hadron spectrum. Proceedings, 5th International Conference, Gargnano, Italy, September 1014, 2002.
 Rafelski, J., & Letessier, J. (2002). Probing dense matter with strange hadrons. In NonPerturbative QCD.
 Rafelski, J., Torrieri, G., & Letessier, J. (2002). Strangeness and QGP freezeout dynamics. In Proceedings, 36th Rencontres de Moriond on QCD and High Energy Hadronic Interactions: Les Arcs, France, Mar 1724, 2001.
Presentations
 Rafelski, J. (2017, December 11). Relativity Matters: The Acceleration Frontier. Physics Colloquium. Lausanne, SWITZERLAND: EPFL (Ecole Polytechnique Federale Lausanne).
 Rafelski, J. (2017, December 15). Something Strange is Flying Around. Physics Colloquium. Wroclaw, Poland: University Wroclaw.
 Rafelski, J. (2017, July 24). Relativity Matters: The Acceleration Frontier. Department of Physics Colloquium. Bogota, Colombia: Uni Andes.
 Rafelski, J. (2017, July 25). All About the Quantum Vacuum. Third Andean School on Nuclear Physics: QCD, QGP, HI Collisions. Bogota, Colombia: Uni Andes.
 Rafelski, J. (2017, July 2628). Three Lectures on Strangness Signatures of QuarkGluon Plasma. Third Andean School on Nuclear Physics: QCD, QGP, HI Collisions. Bogota, Colombia: Uni Andes.
 Rafelski, J. (2017, June 2630). Die Erste Stunde. FIAS International Symposium on Discoveries at the Frontiers of Science. Frankfurt, GERMANY: FIAS (Frankfurt Institute of Advanced Studies).
 Rafelski, J. (2017, September). Evolution of Matter in the Universe from quarkgluon plasma era to the present. Physics Colloquium. New York, NY: City College Graduate Center.
 Rafelski, J. (2017, September). Strangeness from quarkgluon plasma. Physics Colloquium. Norfolk: Old Dominion University.
 Rafelski, J. (2016, Fall). Critical Fields=Critical Acceleration = Particle Production. Colloquium. University Frankfurt: Fachbereich Physik.
 Rafelski, J. (2016, Fall). Decelerating Partons: Accelerating Science with SM. XII Polish Workshop on RHIC  From Instabilities to Fluctuations. Kielce, Poland: Jan Kochanowski University.
 Rafelski, J. (2016, Fall). Exploring the QCD Phase Diagram with Strangenes. Exploring the QCD Phase Diagram through Energy Scans INT163. Seattle, Institute Nuclear Theory: INTSeattle.
 Rafelski, J. (2016, Fall). QGP in the Universe and in the Laboratory. Departmental Colloquium. Washington DC: George Washington University,.
 Rafelski, J. (2016, Spring). ELIBL/Institute of Physics Prague Colloquium March 2016. ELIBL Symposium, PragueEuropean Light Infrastructure.
 Rafelski, J. (2016, Summer). Charting the future frontier(s) of particle production. Particle Production in Hadronic Collisions. Krakow: Jagiellonian University.
 Rafelski, J. (2016, Summer). QGP in the Universe and in the Laboratory. Research Seminar University of Washington.
 Rafelski, J. (2016, Summer). Something STRANGE is flying around. Departmental Colloquiumm.
 Rafelski, J. (2016, Summer). The Mar(e)k of QGP: Strangeness and Entropy. CPOD 2016. Wroclaw: University.
 Rafelski, J. (2015, April). New Insights into the Time Evolution of the Universe. Clark Fest 2015. St Louis: Department of Physics, Washington University.
 Rafelski, J. (2015, August). Hagedorn Session Conference Opening. ICFNP2015 // Hagedorn Session. Crete, Greece: CERN and ICFNP2015.
 Rafelski, J. (2015, August). Time Evolution of the Hot Hagedorn Universe. ICFNP 2015. Crete, Greece: CERN and ICFNP2015.
 Rafelski, J. (2015, December). QGP in the Universe and in the Laboratory. Institutes Colloquium. Vienna, Austria: Stefan Meier Institute.
 Rafelski, J. (2015, January). QuarkGluon Plasma as the Possible Source of Cosmological Dark Radiation. UCLA Chiral Symmetry Workshop. Los Angeles: Department of Physics, University of California at Los Angeles.
 Rafelski, J. (2015, June). Boiling Quarks, Melting Hadrons. Wigner Colloquium. Budapest: Wigner Research Institute.
 Rafelski, J. (2015, May 2015). QuarkGluon Plasma as the Possible Source of Cosmological Dark Radiation. CERN Experiment NA61 Collaboration Meeting Paris. Paris, France: CERN and Unversity Paris Jussieu.
 Rafelski, J. (2015, November). Physics of Strong Fields: Foundations and Applications. Greinerium 2015. Makutsi: Frankfurt institute for Advanced Studies, Germany.
 Rafelski, J. (2015, November). QGP in the Universe Particles in the Universe. Greinerium Makutsi 2015. Makutsi: Frankfurt institute for Advanced Studies, Germany.
 Rafelski, J. (2015, November). ‘Hagedorn Legacy’ 50 y of Hagedorn Temperature Introductory Remarks,. CERN symposium. CERN, Geneva: CERN.
 Rafelski, J. (2015, October). Near Beginning of Time . . . There Was QGP. University of California, Irvine Particle Physics Colloquium. Irvine: UC Irvine.
 Rafelski, J. (2015, September). Near Beginning of Time . . . There Was QGP. Departmental Colloqium. Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas.
 Rafelski, J. (2014, April). (K)CUDOs at PSITucson. Tucson Planetary Science Institute Seminar.
 Rafelski, J. (2014, April). Traveling through the Universe: Back in Time to the QuarkGluon Plasma Era. Notre Dame University Department of Physics Colloquium.
 Rafelski, J. (2014, February). QCD Phases studied by means of hadron production. HECOLS Workshop and XXXII MaxBorn Symposium. Wroclaw, Poland: University Wroclaw.
 Rafelski, J. (2014, January). Critical acceleration = Critical force = Critical field. Physics Department Colloquium. Prague, Chech Rep.
 Rafelski, J. (2014, January). QGP: Journey in the Universe. Brookhaven National Laboratory Physics Department Colloquium. Upton New York: Department of Energy.
 Rafelski, J. (2014, March). Reconsideration of Statistical Hadronization in Light of LHC Results. CERN Heavy Ion Forum. Heavy Ion Forum: CERN.
 Rafelski, J., & Petran, M. (2014, April). Reconsideration of Statistical Hadronization in Light of LHC Results. 2014 APS April Meeting. Savannah, Giorgia: Bulletin of the American Physical Society.
Poster Presentations
 Rafelski, J. (2013, April). A new scheme for pB fusion. Technical University Physics Colloquium. Prague, Check Rep.
 Rafelski, J. (2013, April). Critical acceleration: probing elementary interactions in laserelectron scattering. SPIE "Research Using Extreme Light: Entering New Frontiers with PetawattClass Lasers meeting'' Conference. Prague.
 Rafelski, J. (2013, December). A new scheme for pB fusion. Physics Department Colloquium. Bergen, Norway.
 Rafelski, J. (2013, December). Universality of Hadronization Condition. Yukawa Symposium. Osaka, Japan.
 Rafelski, J. (2013, July). (K)CUDOs in Berlin. Physics and Geology Colloquium. Berlin, Germany.
 Rafelski, J. (2013, July). Connecting QGPRHI physics to the Early Universe. SQM2013 International Meeting. Birmingham, UK.
 Rafelski, J. (2013, July). Universality of Hadronization Condition at RHIC and LHC. FIAS Seminar. Frankfurt, Germany.
 Rafelski, J. (2013, June). (K)CUDOs for Iwo. Polish Academy Symposium 80Y Iwo Bialynicki Birula. Warsaw, Poland.
 Rafelski, J. (2013, June). Quantum Vacuum, the primordial imponderable "matter”. ELIBeamlines Physics Seminar. Prague, Check Rep.
 Rafelski, J. (2013, June). Universal Hadronization Conditions at RHIC and LHC. Max Born Symposium "Critical Behavior in Hot and Dense QCD”. Wroclaw, Poland.
 Rafelski, J. (2013, June). Universal QGP hadronization condition. STARRHIC regional collaboration meeting. Prague, Chech Rep.
 Rafelski, J. (2013, March). Compact Ultra Dense Object (CUDO) Impacts. UTEP Physics Colloquium.
 Rafelski, J. (2013, March). Compact Ultra Dense Objects (CUDOs). Washington University St Louis Physics Seminar.
 Rafelski, J. (2013, March). Laserelectron scattering at the critical force limit. Northern Illinois University Physics Colloquium.
 Rafelski, J. (2013, May). A new scheme for pB fusion. Duke University Seminar. Durham.
 Rafelski, J. (2013, November). QGP: Universal Hadronization. Wigner 101 Symposium. Budapest.
 Rafelski, J. (2013, October). In the beginning... there was QuarkGluon Plasma. APSDNP Meeting. Newport Beach.
 Petran, M., Letessier, J., & Rafelski, J. (2012, August). Charm contribution to final hadron yield at LHC SHARE with CHARM describes PbPb hadron yields at 2.76 TeV Bulk properties of hot QCD matter at RHIC and LHC and Universal QGP hadronization condition. QUARK MATTER 2013. Washington DC.
 Rafelski, J. (2012, April). Hadronization of Quark Gluon Plasma at LHC. APS April meeting. Anaheim, CA.
 Rafelski, J. (2012, February). Critical Acceleration. Leung Center of Astrophysics. Taipei, Taiwan: National University.
 Rafelski, J. (2012, January). Critical Acceleration and Vacuum Structure. Munich LMU Sommerfeld Center Colloquium.
 Rafelski, J. (2012, June). (K)CUDOS for Joe. Kapusta Fest. Montreal.
 Rafelski, J. (2012, March). Discovery of QuarkGLuon Plasma. ICRA Center SeminarUniversity Rome.
 Rafelski, J. (2012, March). QuarkGluon Plasma in the Early Universe. ICRA Center SeminarUniversity Rome.
 Rafelski, J. (2012, March). Renaissance of Strong Field Physics: Critical Acceleration and Laser Pulses. ICRA lectureUniversity Rome.
 Rafelski, J. (2012, May). From QuarkGluon Plasma to Neutrino Decoupling. Invited Lecture at the Krakow School of Theoretical Physics. Zakopane.More infoOther Information: 3 Lectures
 Rafelski, J. (2012, May). Solar System Signatures of Impacts by Compact Ultra Dense Objects. Symposium on occasion of 70th birthday of Remo RuffiniUniversity Rome La Sapienza.
 Rafelski, J. (2012, November). Connecting QGPRHI physics to the Early Universe. SpacePart12 Particle Physics in Space Conference.
 Rafelski, J. (2012, November). Hadron production in PbPb collisions at LHC. CERN Heavy Ion Forum.
 Rafelski, J. (2012, October). Strong fields and QED as function of the gyromagnetic factor. APSDNP meeting. Newport Beach.
Reviews
 Rafelski, J. (2014. Einstein’s Physics: Atoms, Quanta, and Relativity – Derived, Explained, and Appraised(p. 47). March 2014.
 Rafelski, J. (2013. A Student’s Guide to Einstein’s Major Papers.
 Ruffini, R., & Rafelski, J. (2012. Obituary  Fang Lizhi 1936–2012.
Case Studies
 Rafelski, J. (2016. Report on: Research in Theoretical High Energy Nuclear Physics at the University of Arizona(p. 24).More infoPrincipal Investigator: Johann Rafelski, Project and Reporting Period: June, 2004  December, 2015In the past decade (20042015) we addressed the quest for the understanding of how quark confinement works, how it can be dissolved in a limited spacetime domain, and what this means: i) for the paradigm of the laws of physics of present day; and, ii) for our understanding of cosmology.Addressing the quarkgluon phase (QGP) in laboratory we explore the physics governing the highly effective conversion of kinetic energy into abundant particle multiplicity. This is arguably the most remarkable feature of relativistic heavy ion (RHI) collisions. We devoted most of our effort to both phenomenological and theoretical understanding of this phenomenon which concerns the physics of ultra high acceleration. In our phenomenological analysis of experimental data we obtained the precise characterization of the QGP fireball at the time of hadronization. Our noteworthy results include the determination of universal conditions of fireball breakup into matter (hadronization), with universal pressure P = 80 ± 3 MeV/fm3. Hadronization conditions are obtained by computing the partial contributions of all hadron components in the final state, akin to the method used to compute flavor strangeness content of the fireball.Among pivotal questions about the early Universe we have addressed are: a) How QGP transits to the hot hadronic universe, that is hadronization mode, matterantimatter annihilation; and more generally b) The evolution path connecting QGP to the BBN phase of the Universe; c) Application of the chemical nonequilibrium methods developed in the study of hadronization of QGP to characterize the properties of the freestreaming neutrinos in the early universe; d) Demonstration that hadrons in the Universe remain in chemical equilibrium at all temperatures is among noteworthy achievements; e) The study of the transition from hadronic to the leptonic Universe, and how this affects freestreaming neutrino spectrum which affects physics of the BBN era of the universe, and how the BBN observables could be affected.
Others
 Barish, K., Huang, H. Z., Kapusta, J., Odyniec, G., Rafelski, J., & Whitten, C. A. (2013, DEC). Special issue: SQM 2006  International Conference on Strangeness in Quark Matter (University of California Los Angeles, 2631 March 2006)  Preface. JOURNAL OF PHYSICS GNUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS.
 Birrell, J., & Rafelski, J. (2012, May). Possibility of Electroweak Phase Transition at Low Temperature. arXiv. http://arxiv.org/abs/1205.1011
 Rafelski, J., & Labun, L. (2012, May). A Cusp in QED at g=2. arXiv. http://arxiv.org/abs/1205.1835
 Labun, L., & Rafelski, J. (2010, October). Higgs twogluon decay and the topquark chromomagnetic moment. arXiv. http://arxiv.org/abs/1210.3150
 RAFELSKI, J. (2010, 1973). QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS OF STRONG FIELDS IN HEAVYION COLLISIONS. BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY.
 FULCHER, L., RAFELSKI, J., & GREINER, W. (1974, 1972). SUPERHEAVY ELEMENTS AND QUANTUM ELECTRODYNAMICS. BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY.
 KLEIN, A., & RAFELSKI, J. (1974, 1974). STABILITY OF BOSEVACUUM IN SUPERCRITICAL ELECTROMAGNETICFIELDS. BULLETIN OF THE AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY.