Larry A. Fisher
- Research Professor, School of Natural Resources and the Environment
- Ph.D. Natural Resources
- Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
- Beyond the Berugaq: Conflict, Policy, and Decision Making in Forest and Conservation Management in Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia
- Masters in Professional Studies - Agriculture Agriculture
- Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
Ecosystems management, climate change adaptation, environmental conflict resolution
Landscape-scale conservation, sustainable forestry, collaborative planning and adaptive management, environmental mediation
National Climate AssessmentRNR 496G (Spring 2018)
National Climate AssessmentRNR 596G (Spring 2018)
Intro to Natural SystemsDVP 620 (Fall 2017)
National Climate AssessmentRNR 496G (Spring 2017)
National Climate AssessmentRNR 596G (Spring 2017)
Climate Change AdaptationRNR 440 (Fall 2016)
Climate Change AdaptationRNR 540 (Fall 2016)
Climate Change AdaptationRNR 440 (Spring 2016)
Climate Change AdaptationRNR 540 (Spring 2016)
- Fisher, L. A. (2020). Seka Sengketa: Pergulatan Pengalaman Resolusi Konflik (Resolving Conflict: Experiences with Land Use Mediation in Indonesia). GIZ/Indonesia Business Council for Sustainable Development.
- Fisher, L. A. (2020). Supporting Conflict-Sensitive Development: Insights from Mediation Practitioners in Indonesia. GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit).
- Fisher, L. A. (2019). Panduan Praktis Penanganan Konflik Berbasis Lahan (Practical Guide to Managing Land Use Conflict). Indonesia Business Council for Sustainable Development.
- Fisher, L. A. (2018). Manual on Conflict Resolution (published in Bahasa Indonesia - Pedoman Resolusi Konflik). Jakarta, Indonesia: Conflict Resolution Unit, International Business Council for Sustainable Development.
- Fisher, L. A., Yeon-su, K., Apriani, E., & Baral, H. (2020). Non-state certification of smallholders for sustainable palm oil in Sumatra, Indonesia. Land Use Policy, 99.
- Fisher, L. A. (2019). Development of a Comprehensive Ecosystem Conservation Assessment and Design: An example from the Lower San Pedro Watershed, Arizona, U.S.A.. Nature Conservation.
- Fisher, L. A. (2019). Indonesia to conserve 70% of Tanah Papua’s forest cover. Forest and Society.
- Fisher, L. A. (2018). Heber Wild Horse Territory Management Plan - Summary of Findings and Recommendations. Arizona State University.
- Fisher, L. A. (2013). Questions that Won’t Go Away in Participatory Research. Society and Natural Resources.More infoEthical issues are intrinsic to conducting research regarding society and natural resources, but they often become poignant when engaging in Participatory Action Research. We compiled common and persistent challenges into a list of “Questions That Won’t Go Away” or “QTWGAs” that are relevant to people interested in conducting participatory research to benefit communities. We discuss these questions in the context of previously published literature and share examples from the experience of graduate student fellows who conducted research with various communities around the United States. The questions serve to stimulate ongoing reflection about the process of participatory research, which may help reconcile expectations and improve research outcomes for both practitioners and communities.
- Fisher, L. A. (2015). Applying the Science of Decision Making: A Survey of Use and Needs in the National Forest System. Joint Internal Report from the National Forest System Ecosystem Management Coordination Program and the Research and Development Mission Area.
- Fisher, L. A. (2015). Forests, Fuelwood and Livelihoods - Energy Transition Patterns in Eastern Indonesia. Energy Policy.
- Fisher, L. A. (2013). Conflict, Perception, and Power. The Broker.
- Fisher, L. A. (2013). Promises and Perils of Decentralized Forest Governance: The case of Indonesia’s forest management units in REDD+ implementation. Society and Natural Resources.More infoIndonesia’s forest management unit (Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan or KPH) system can be a promising mechanism for balancing international and national interests for global carbon mitigation initiatives with local interests in project implementation. We discuss the potential role of the KPH system in implementing REDD+ (Reducing Emission from Deforestation and forest Degradation) projects and improving decentralized forest governance. Substantial financial gains from international initiatives like REDD+ and others can provide appropriate motivation for the central government to ensure successful decentralization of forest management. Development and implementation of REDD+ activities can also support the KPHs in performing their basic functions: conducting forest inventory, developing and implementing forest management plans, and strengthening communication and coordination with local communities. However, engaging indigenous peoples and local communities, which is a legal mandate for the system, will require building some measure of democratic process that can hold the KPHs accountable to local people.
- Fisher, L. A. (2014). Applying the science of decision making: A survey of use and needs in the National Forest System. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report.More infoTo determine how decision support tools and methods are being used, and how their use could be improved, we conducted an anonymous on-line survey of 1,738 decision-makers (including staff managers and line officers) and 4,819 analysts (planners and specialists) of the USDA Forest Service’s (FS) National Forest System (NFS). More specifically, the purpose of the survey was to determine (1) how techniques and tools for risk analysis are being used within a structured decision making (SDM) framework, (2) the range of natural resource management issues for which they are being used, and (3) what improvements in their use and in user knowledge may be needed. This survey builds on previous work substantiating the utility of the SDM framework for decision-making within NFS.
- Fisher, L. A. (2014). Fuelwood, Deforestation, and Climate Change: An Analysis of Consumption Patterns, Impacts and Alternatives in Lombok, Indonesia.. Proceedings of International Conference On Sustainable Development Practice (ICSDP).More infoAbstract: Indonesia is the third largest contributor of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the world, and approximately 85% of Indonesia’s total GHG emissions are linked to the forestry sector (especially peatlands). On the island of Lombok, located in West Nusa Tenggara (NTB) province, unsustainable fuelwood consumption is one of the primary contributors to carbon emissions, since it is the main source of energy for households and industries across the island. NTB is one of the poorest provinces in Indonesia and its main policy objectives are poverty alleviation, economic development, and improvements in quality of life. However, links between fuelwood use and poverty, as well as their impacts on forest conditions and GHG emissions, are poorly understood. Limiting fuelwood use is a major challenge in poor communities due to a high reliance on forest resources to meet everyday energy demands. In order to improve forest conditions in Lombok, it is important to understand fuelwood consumption patterns, and identify effective incentives that would encourage transition to alternative energy sources. This paper examines the use of fuelwood around the West Rinjani Forest Management Unit, where a forest carbon investment project is being developed. We hope to contribute to the policies and programs that could be implemented to incentivize the use of alternative fuels. Transitioning to alternative energy sources will ultimately assist in mitigating the impacts of deforestation and forest degradation on both rural livelihoods and environmental services, and in turn will limit further carbon emissions.
- Fisher, L. A. (2013). Integrating Collaboration, Adaptive Management, and Scenario- Planning: Experiences at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area. Ecology and Society, 18.More infoThere is growing recognition that public lands cannot be managed as islands; rather, land management must address the ecological, social, and temporal complexity that often spans jurisdictions and traditional planning horizons. Collaborative decision making and adaptive management (CAM) have been promoted as methods to reconcile competing societal demands and respond to complex ecosystem dynamics. We detail the experiences of land managers and stakeholders in using CAM at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area (LCNCA), a highly valued site under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The CAM process at Las Cienegas is marked by strong stakeholder engagement, with four core elements: (1) shared watershed goals with measurable resource objectives; (2) relevant and reliable scientific information; (3) mechanisms to incorporate new information into decision making; and (4) shared learning to improve both the process and management actions. The combination of stakeholder engagement and adaptive management has led to agreement on contentious issues, more innovative solutions, and more effective land management. However, the region is now experiencing rapid changes outside managers’ control, including climate change, human population growth, and reduced federal budgets, with large but unpredictable impacts on natural resources. Although the CAM experience provides a strong foundation for making the difficult and contentious management decisions that such changes are likely to require, neither collaboration nor adaptive management provides a sufficient structure for addressing the externalities that drive uncontrollable and unpredictable change. As a result, LCNCA is exploring two specific modifications to CAM that may better address emerging challenges, including: (1) creating nested resource objectives to distinguish between those objectives that may be crucial to maintaining ecological resilience from those that may hinder a flexible response to climate change, and (2) incorporating scenario planning into CAM to explore how climate change may interact with other drivers and alter options for the future, to identify robust management actions, and to prioritize ecological monitoring efforts. The experiences at LCNCA demonstrate how collaboration and adaptive management can be used to improve social and environmental outcomes and, with modifications, may help address the full range of complexity and change that threatens to overwhelm even the best efforts to sustain public lands.
- Fisher, L. A. (2013). The Science of Decision Making: Applications for Sustainable Forest and Grassland Management in the National Forest System. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report, WO-88(WO-88), 54.More infoDecisions—made by humans and rooted in science—are the fundamental elements of natural resource management. Often neglected in discussions about natural resource decisionmaking is the science of the human decision process itself. When faced with complex, uncertain decisions, humans can be susceptible to biases, shortcuts, and other limitations that can degrade decision pro- cesses—but these pitfalls can be avoided. Much has been learned in the last 30 years in the field of decision science combining contributions from psychology, management science, operations research, economics, statistics, and other fields to provide ways to improve the quality of decisions and problem-solving processes. Decision science provides a sound theoretical basis, and a specific framework and method, for making sound decisions under uncer- tainty by using formal decision analysis techniques and methods of risk analysis and risk management. Decision analysis is “a for- malization of common sense for decision problems which are too complex for informal use of common sense” (Keeney 1982: 806). Decision science is applied increasingly in management of natural resources, including fisheries, wildlife, forestry, rangeland, and fire (Marcot et al. 2012a).In this report, we present the principles of decision science anda well-established, structured decisionmaking (SDM) frame- work to help natural resource managers and analysts navigate the decision process (Gregory and Long 2009, Gregory and Keeney 2002, Hammond et al. 1999). SDM is not a new tool or modelin and of itself, but rather an integrated system of principles and concepts that link to tools and models and that can improve decision processes and outcomes. We review the wide variety of decision-support tools and approaches useful for each stage in the natural resource decisionmaking process. We perform this review through the lens of insights gained from an extensive survey of U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service line officers, planners, and specialists describing their experiencesand information needs. We also conducted a series of indepth interviews with selected decisionmakers who have considerable experience with these tools and approaches.
- Fisher, L. A., Marcot, B., & et, a. l. (2012). Recent advances in applying decision science to managing national forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 285, 123-132.
- Fisher, L. A. (2018, October). Research priorities for conservation in Papua and West Papua, Indonesia. International Conference on Biodiversity, Creative Economy, and Ecotourism. Manokwari, West Papua, Indonesia: UNDP/UK Climate Change Unit.
- Fisher, L. A. (2018, October). Spatial planning, land use, and forest management conflicts in Indonesia. National Workshop on Land Use and Forest Management Conflict. Jakarta, Indonesia: Ministry of Environment and Forestry.
- Fisher, L. A. (2019, January). Priorities for capacity building for conservation in Papua and West Papua. Regional forums in Papua and West Papua. Jayapura (Papua) and Manokwari (West Papua): United National Development Program.
- Fisher, L. A. (2017, November). Cost of Conflict in Land Use and Natural Resource Management Disputes in Indonesia. Indonesian Business Council for Sustainable Development.
- Fisher, L. A. (2016, Fall 2016). Forest Management and Conflict: Challenges and Opportunities for REDD+ Implementation. REDD+ and Forest Governance. Seoul, Korea: Korean National Institute of Forestry Research.
- Fisher, L. A. (2016, February). Managing Forest Conflicts: Perspectives of Indonesia’s Forest Management Units. General Seminar, Forest Studies Program. Mataram, Lombok, Indonesia: Forest Studies Program, University of Mataram.
- Fisher, L. A. (2016, May). Guidelines on Forest Conflict Assessment: Preliminary Results from a Survey of Indonesia’s Forest Management Units. Assessment Training for Tenure and Indigenous Forest Disputes. Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia: Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Indonesia.
- Fisher, L. A. (2016, May). Managing Forest Conflicts: Perspectives of Indonesia’s Forest Management Units. Special seminar series, Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Indonesia. Bogor, Indonesia: Research, Development, and Innovation Agency, Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Indonesia.
- Webb, A., Falk, D. A., & Fisher, L. A. (2016, November). Fire in Lowland Riparian Ecosystems of Chihuahuan, Sonoran, and Mojave Desert Ecoregions: A Literature Review and Information Gap Analysis. AFE Southwest Conference. Tucson, AZ: Association for Fire Ecology (AFE).
- Fisher, L. A. (2015, April). Environmental conflict resolution: Applications to international watershed management. USDA Forest Service International Watershed Seminar. Tucson, AZ: USDA Forest Service, International Programs.
- Fisher, L. A. (2015, August). Landscape Restoration and Collaborative Forest Management in the United States. Strengthening Ecosystem Restoration Concession Management and its Policy Implementation in Indonesia: State of the Art at the Local and Global Scales. Jakarta, Indonesia: Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Bogor Agriculture Institute, Birdlife International.
- Fisher, L. A. (2015, February 2015). Overview of the Cienega Watershed: Criteria and Indicators for Watershed Health. Cienega Watershed Partnership: State of the Watershed Workshop. Tucson, AZ: Cienega Watershed Partnership.
- Fisher, L. A. (2015, January 2015). Building Capacity in Resolving Land Use and Natural Resource Conflicts: Reflections on US Experience, Implications for Indonesia. Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and Industry National Conference. Jakarta, Indonesia: Indonesia Business Council for Sustainable Development.
- Fisher, L. A. (2015, March 2015). Assessment of Land Use and Natural Resource Conflicts in Indonesia. National Forum for Natural Resource Conflict Resolution. Jakarta, Indonesia: Impartial Mediators Network, Indonesia.
- Fisher, L. A. (2015, March 2015). Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Indonesia: Drivers of Forest Cover Change, Emerging Policy Options. SNRE Seminar Series. Tucson, AZ: School of Natural Resources and the Environment.
- Fisher, L. A. (2015, March 2015). Perspectives on Climate Change and Land Use; Challenges and Opportunities in Indonesia. Climate and Land Use Alliance International Retreat. New York, NY: Climate and Land Use Alliance/Ford Foundation.
- Fisher, L. A. (2015, March 2015). Sustainable Forest Management in Asia: Opportunities for Collaborative Research on Forest Governance. Workshop on International Cooperation in Forestry Research in Asia. Seoul, Korea: Seoul National University.
- Fisher, L. A. (2015, May 2015). Palm Oil and Conflict in Indonesia: Alternatives for Communities and Corporations. Land Use and Agrarian Conflicts in Indonesia. Jakarta, Indonesia.
- Fisher, L. A. (2015, May 2015). The Role of Forest Management Units in Sustainable Forest Management in Indonesia. Workshop on Sustainable Forest Management in Indonesia. Lombok, Indonesia: University of Mataram.