- Professor, Physiology
- Professor, Evelyn F Mcknight Brain Institute
- Professor, BIO5 Institute
- Professor, Psychology
- Professor, Physiological Sciences - GIDP
2008-2012, Arizona, Executive Vice President and Provost University of Arizona,
Special Advisor for Strategic Initiatives, Arizona Board of Regents
The University of Arizona (UA), Arizona’s land-grant university, is an American Association of Universities (AAU) institution with an annual budget of $1.8B and 40,000 students and over 13,000 employees. Total research expenditures at UA are over $670M. As Executive Vice President and Provost, Dr. Hay served as the chief operating officer for the university with responsibilities for the entire university budget including the Arizona Health Sciences Center. Dr. Hay had oversight of all academic, research, economic development, and outreach programs with responsibility of ensuring excellence and coordination in all areas. Direct reports included Vice President for Research, Vice President for Human Relations, Vice President for Student Affairs, Chief Information Officer and 17 academic deans.
2005-2008, Iowa, Vice President for Research, University of Iowa
The University of Iowa, an AAU institution, is a $2.3 billion organization and has an enrollment of over 29,600 students in 11 colleges, departments, and programs, many of which are ranked among the nation's best. As Vice President for Research, Dr. Hay reported directly to the President and provided central leadership for all of the university's research, creative activity and scholarly endeavors, including the academic medical center. Dr. Hay worked daily with the president, the provost, and other university vice presidents, college deans, faculty, and students to advance and diversify research and creative scholarship at the University of Iowa.
2002-2005, Missouri, Assistant to the Vice President for Academic Affairs, University of Missouri-System
The University of Missouri has more than 62,000 students on four campuses and is the land-grant University for the State of Missouri. Dr. Hay’s position with University of Missouri-System was the first-of-its-kind for the University and the first time the University System administration had taken an active role in the research strategic planning on its four campuses. In this position Dr. Hay was responsible for building state-wide coalitions to compete for multi-institutional, multidisciplinary federal funding programs.
2001-2005, Missouri, Director and Founder of the National Center for Gender Physiology, University of Missouri-Columbia
The University of Missouri-Columbia (MU) is an AAU institution and the land-grant institution for the State of Missouri. The National Center for Gender Physiology is NASA and NIH funded Center was the first-of-its-kind in the country with a mission to serve as a catalyst for the development of multidisciplinary, integrated collaborations in basic and clinical research in the arena of gender-based biology and medicine. As Chair and Center Director, Dr. Hay had responsibilities of a department chair including faculty recruitment, promotion and support, and fiscal management of a $4.3 M budget.
2000-2002, Missouri, Associate Director, University of Missouri Nuclear Research Reactor.
The University of Missouri-Columbia Nuclear Research Reactor is the largest and most powerful research reactor in the country. Duties of the Associate Director included strategic planning and direct reporting responsibility for the reactor’s 3 major research programs including Biomedical Sciences Program, the Trace Analysis Program and the Material Sciences Program, faculty recruitment, program mission alignment, financial management and community relations.
FISCAL LEADERSHIP, STRATEGIC PLANNING AND BUDGET DEVELOPMENT:
As the Executive Vice President and Provost for the University of Arizona, Dr. Hay served as chief operating officer with responsibilities for the entire $1.8 Billion budget, including the Arizona Health Sciences Center and the two Colleges of Medicine in Tucson and in Phoenix. Examples of her successes in leading long-range fiscal and strategic planning include:
- · Working with faculty leadership and deans, Dr. Hay developed and implemented the first metric driven strategic plan for the University of Arizona for Fiscal Years 2009-2014.
- · Working with a faculty steering committee, Dr. Hay led the redesign of the entire university budget away for historical budgeting to an RCM model. http://rcm.arizona.edu/.
- · Dr. Hay had oversight responsibility for the installation of a $90 M Enterprise Systems Replacement Project over 3 years. This was a campus-wide endeavor that involved the replacement of most of the aged administrative computer systems on the University of Arizona campus. http://mosaic.arizona.edu/
- · Worked annually with the Arizona Board of Regents, the President’s office, senior campus vice presidents and deans to develop the annual state budget request and balance revenue needs and shortfalls while maintaining excellence and coordination in all areas.
- · Working with faculty leadership, led the successful 10 year NCA reaccreditation “Bridging to the Future” plan.
- · http://nca2010.arizona.edu/documents/selfstudy.pdf
- · During the world financial crisis that began in 2008, the University of Arizona faced the largest and most rapid decline of state support in its history with a loss of nearly $180 million representing nearly 45% of its state appropriations. Dr. Hay led the UA response to this financial crisis and working with faculty leadership and deans initiated the UA Transformation Plan that sought to retain, but also improve, access and quality, to reduce administrative costs, and to decrease institutional barriers hampering collaborative work among the faculty.
As Vice President for Research at the University of Iowa, Dr. Hay was responsible for the entire research budget of the University of Iowa. Examples of her specific accomplishments in budget and strategic planning while at Iowa include:
- · Led budget planning efforts to raise private, state and federal funds for a new $120 million Iowa Biomedical Discovery Building http://www.news-releases.uiowa.edu/2007/september/092807biomedical-discovery.html
- · Led the reorganization and strategic planning for the UI government relations office and secured over $10 million of federally designated appropriations for University of Iowa biomedical and engineering related research.
- · Led the budget planning and secured $36 million in State funds for a new public health laboratory, a project for which Dr. Hay’s office oversaw all design, development, and construction efforts.
- · Secured $18 million from the State Legislature for advancement of biomedical research programs.
LEGISLATIVE AND GOVERNMENT RELATIONS Dr. Hay works effectively with multiple constituencies to communicate the value of the public research land-grant university to community leaders, state legislators, the federal delegations, the Governor’s office, trustees, donors, and the general public. Further, Dr. Hay has extensive experience in working with federal agencies and aligning university research expertise with agency needs. The following are examples of some of Dr. Hay’s success in engaging with federal agencies, state and federal delegations, and other constituencies to generate both financial support and legislative support to advance the mission of the university.
- Worked closely with Governor Napolitano’s office, Arizona legislators and the Arizona construction industry to advance the development of the Phoenix Biomedical Campus and ensure the success of the University of Arizona College Of Medicine in Phoenix.
- Met with legislative leadership to gain approval for construction of $170 million Health Sciences Education Building for the new University of Arizona College of Medicine in Phoenix.
- Worked closely with City of Phoenix Mayor Phil Gordon’s office to identify funds to further the development of the University of Arizona Phoenix Biomedical Campus.
- Secured $14 million from the City of Phoenix to expand the UA NIH Comprehensive Cancer Center to its second $130 million new facility in downtown Phoenix.
- Worked closely with College of Science leadership to make the strategic investments needed to secure the largest grant in UA a history in 2011: a $800 Million contract from NASA in collaboration with Lockheed Martin and Goddard Space Flight Center. http://azstarnet.com/news/local/university-of-arizona-picked-to-lead-million-mission-to-asteroid/article_b3ba74ec-870d-11e0-a4b2-001cc4c03286.html
- Met annually with NIH, NSF, DOE, DOD, DHS, and USDA senior program leadership to align UA expertise with agency needs.
- Worked with Congresswoman Gifford’s office to advance solar energy research and development in southern Arizona.
- Worked with Congressman Pastor’s office to generate support for building a new Maricopa County Hospital on the Phoenix Biomedical Campus.
- Worked closely with City of Tucson elected leadership and Pima County leadership to develop University-Downtown partnerships in technology commercialization and economic development. http://web.sbs.arizona.edu/college/news/ua-establishes-presence-downtown-tucson
- · Worked with the City of Iowa City to advance economic development. http://www.icgov.org/boardminute/1020.pdf
- · Provided testimony to the Iowa Senate Economic Development Committee on the role and University of Iowa – Bioscience Alliance of Iowa partnerships.
- · Provided and prepared faculty testimony to the Iowa House Standing Committee on Economic Growth regarding Battelle and Bioscience Alliance of Iowa -University of Iowa Partnered Platforms.
- · Led and organized Regent University faculty team presentations on biofuels to the State of Iowa General Assembly.
- · Structured a collaboration between The University of Iowa College of Engineering and Rockwell Collins, Inc. to work with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to establish the Iowa Institute for Flight Systems Research.
- · Worked extensively with Senator Tom Harkin’s staff to support and align the expertise of the University of Iowa research enterprise with federal agency needs and opportunities.
- · Worked closely with Senator Chuck Grassley’s staff to draft energy legislation that would support university-private sector partnerships to develop and build a biomass gasification plant on campus.
- · Worked extensively with U.S. Senatorial and House delegation and staff from the State of Iowa to align the expertise of the University of Iowa research enterprise with federal agency needs and opportunities.
- · Led the successful State funding request for $30 million to support a new biomedical research facility.
CORPORATE RELATIONS/STRATEGIC PARTNERING/ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: Universities serve as major economic engines for their states in both workforce development and wealth creation. The following are examples of some of Dr. Hay’s successes as an entrepreneur and in developing strategic partnerships and advancing corporate relations between the university and regional industries.
- In 2013, Dr. Hay founded and is President of a new biotechnology start-up, ProNeurogen, Inc. This new spin-off company is based on Dr. Hay’s patent for the development of new therapeutics for cognitive impairment. The company has submitted its first IND to the FDA to begin clinical trials http://www.proneurogen.com.
- Developed public-private partnerships to create local venture capital funds and building new biotechnology incubators which together were aimed at increasing the number of University technology based spin-off companies within the State.
- Led efforts to create a UA Center for Drug Development with the private investors and Sanofi-Aventis of Tucson with a focus on developing local pathways for UA spin-off companies in drug development.
- Led efforts with Roche-Ventana Medical to identify new areas of collaboration with UA.
- Worked with TGen in Phoenix and BioAccel to create UA biotechnology related start-up companies at the new Innovations Center in Chandler, AZ.
- Led the realignment efforts for UA Tech transfer office now named “Tech Launch Arizona” that helps move innovations created at the University into the marketplace.
- Worked to create new partnership with Raytheon to commercialize new technologies.
- Worked closely with TREO, the Tucson Regional Economic Development Organization, to recruit new firms to the Tucson region.
- Worked with Governor Vilsack’s office and the State of Iowa Economic Development Committee and the Board of Regents to secure over $18 million for infrastructure and project support for advancement of key biomedical research programs.
- Leveraged a $1.2 million state investment in regional economic development into a $16 million private partnership with a local development firm to design and build a new biotechnology incubator at the University of Iowa.
- Created and founded the IOWA Centers for Enterprise. This effort brought together with coordinated purpose the University of Iowa Research Foundation, the Technology Innovation Center and Oakdale Research Park, Office of Corporate Relations, the John Pappajohn Entrepreneurial Center, the Center Small Business Development and college liaisons.
AREA OF PERSONAL SCHOLARLY INTEREST
Dr. Hay’s research is focused on the central nervous system control of cardiovascular regulation. The primary emphasis is on understanding the biophysical and cellular mechanisms underlying neurotransmitter and hormone modulation of brainstem neurons and sympathetic outflow and, ultimately, how those actions affect arterial blood pressure and hypertension. Current efforts are focused are the development of novel neuroprotective peptide therapies for treatment of cognitive dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease. Dr. Hay’s recent discovery of a novel neuroprotective peptide has led to the creation of a new biotechnology company, ProNeurogen, Inc, where she currently serves as President and co-founder.
- Ph.D. Cardiovascular Pharmacology
- Univ of Texas Health Sciences Center San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA
- M.S. Neurobiology
- University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA
- B.A. Psychology
- University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado, USA
- University of Arizona, Arizona (2008 - Ongoing)
- University of Arizona (2008 - 2012)
- University of Iowa College of Medicine (2005 - 2008)
- University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (2005 - 2008)
- National Center for Gender Physiology (2000 - 2005)
- University of Missouri (1996 - 2005)
- UTHSCSA (1993 - 1996)
Dr. Hay’s research is focused on the central nervous system control of cardiovascular regulation. The primary emphasis is on understanding the biophysical and cellular mechanisms underlying neurotransmitter and hormone modulation of brainstem neurons and sympathetic outflow and, ultimately, how those actions affect arterial blood pressure and hypertension. Current efforts are focused are the development of novel neuroprotective peptide therapies for treatment of cognitive dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease. Dr. Hay’s recent discovery of a novel neuroprotective peptide has led to the creation of a new biotechnology company, ProNeurogen, Inc, where she currently serves as President, CEO and co-founder.
Human PhysiologyPSIO 603A (Spring 2020)
Physiology/Biomed EngrBME 511 (Spring 2020)
Physiology/Biomed EngrPSIO 511 (Spring 2020)
Human PhysiologyPSIO 603A (Spring 2019)
Physiology/Biomed EngrBME 511 (Spring 2019)
Physiology/Biomed EngrPSIO 511 (Spring 2019)
Sex Matters in MedicinePSIO 495S (Fall 2018)
Human PhysiologyPSIO 603A (Spring 2018)
Physiology/Biomed EngrBME 511 (Spring 2018)
Physiology/Biomed EngrPSIO 511 (Spring 2018)
Sex Matters in MedicinePSIO 495S (Fall 2017)
Sex Matters in MedicinePSIO 595S (Fall 2017)
Directed ResearchPSIO 492 (Spring 2017)
Human PhysiologyPSIO 603A (Spring 2017)
Physiology/Biomed EngrBME 511 (Spring 2017)
Independent StudyPSIO 399 (Fall 2016)
Intro to PharmacologyPHCL 412 (Fall 2016)
Intro to PharmacologyPHCL 512 (Fall 2016)
Human PhysiologyPSIO 603A (Spring 2016)
Independent StudyPSIO 399 (Spring 2016)
Physiology/Biomed EngrBME 511 (Spring 2016)
- Hay, M., Polt, R., Heien, M. L., Vanderah, T. W., Largen-Milnes, T. M., Rodgers, K. E., Falk, T., Bartlett, M. J., Doyle, K., & Konhilas, J. (2019). A Novel Angiotensin-(1-7)-glycosylated Mas Receptor Agonist for Treating Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Inflammation Related Memory Dysfunction. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics.More infoA growing body of evidence indicates that decreased brain blood flow, increased reactive oxygen species production (ROS), and pro-inflammatory mechanisms accelerate the progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) and Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD). There is an urgent clinical need for safe and effective therapies for the treatment and prevention of cognitive impairment known to occur in patients with VCID and chronic inflammatory diseases such as heart failure (HF), hypertension and diabetes. This study used our mouse model of VCID/HF to test our novel glycosylated Angiotensin-(1-7) peptide, PNA5, as a therapy to treat VCID and investigate circulating inflammatory biomarkers that may be involved. We demonstrate that PNA5 has greater brain penetration as compared to the native Angiotensin-(1-7) peptide. Moreover, following treatment with 1.0/mg/kg subcutaneously for 21 days, PNA5 exhibits up to 10 days of sustained cognitive protective effects in our VCID/HF mice that last beyond the peptide half-life. PNA5 reversed object recognition impairment in VCID/HF mice and rescued spatial memory impairment. PNA5 activation of MasR results in a dose-dependent inhibition of ROS in human endothelial cells. Lastly, PNA5 treatment decreased VCID/HF induced activation of brain microglia/macrophages and inhibited circulating TNF-α, IL-7 and G-CSF serum levels while increasing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. These results suggest that PNA5 is an excellent candidate and "first-in-class" therapy for treating VCID and other inflammatory related brain diseases.
- Hay, M., Sands, J., & Samuelson, L. (2019). An Exciting Time to Be an APS Member. Physiology (Bethesda, Md.), 34(6), 376-378.
- Ryan, L., Hay, M., Huentelman, M. J., Duarte, A., Rundek, T., Levin, B., Soldan, A., Pettigrew, C., Mehl, M. R., & Barnes, C. A. (2019). Precision Aging: Applying Precision Medicine to the Field of Cognitive Aging. Frontiers in aging neuroscience, 11, 128.More infoThe current "one size fits all" approach to our cognitive aging population is not adequate to close the gap between cognitive health span and lifespan. In this review article, we present a novel model for understanding, preventing, and treating age-related cognitive impairment (ARCI) based on concepts borrowed from precision medicine. We will discuss how multiple risk factors can be classified into because of their interrelatedness in real life, the that increase sensitivity to, or ameliorate, risk for ARCI, and the or common mechanisms mediating brain aging. Rather than providing a definitive model of risk for ARCI and cognitive decline, the Precision Aging model is meant as a starting point to guide future research. To that end, after briefly discussing key risk categories, genetic risks, and brain drivers, we conclude with a discussion of steps that must be taken to move the field forward.
- Talboom, J. S., Håberg, A., De Both, M. D., Naymik, M. A., Schrauwen, I., Lewis, C. R., Bertinelli, S. F., Hammersland, C., Fritz, M. A., Myers, A. J., Hay, M., Barnes, C. A., Glisky, E., Ryan, L., & Huentelman, M. J. (2019). Family history of Alzheimer's disease alters cognition and is modified by medical and genetic factors. eLife, 8.More infoIn humans, a first-degree family history of dementia (FH) is a well-documented risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the influence of FH on cognition across the lifespan is poorly understood. To address this issue, we developed an internet-based paired-associates learning (PAL) task and tested 59,571 participants between the ages of 18-85. FH was associated with lower PAL performance in both sexes under 65 years old. Modifiers of this effect of FH on PAL performance included age, sex, education, and diabetes. The Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele was also associated with lower PAL scores in FH positive individuals. Here we show, FH is associated with reduced PAL performance four decades before the typical onset of AD; additionally, several heritable and non-heritable modifiers of this effect were identified.
- Sands, J. M., Hay, M., & Brown, D. (2018). APS: Moving Forward to Aid Our Membership. Physiology (Bethesda, Md.), 33(6), 370-371.
- Hay, M., Vanderah, T. W., Samareh-Jahani, F., Constantopoulos, E., Uprety, A. R., Barnes, C. A., & Konhilas, J. (2017). Cognitive impairment in heart failure: A protective role for angiotensin-(1-7). Behavioral neuroscience, 131(1), 99-114.More infoPatients with congestive heart failure (CHF) have increased hospital readmission rates and mortality if they are concomitantly diagnosed with cognitive decline and memory loss. Accordingly, we developed a preclinical model of CHF-induced cognitive impairment with the goal of developing novel protective therapies against CHF related cognitive decline. CHF was induced by ligation of the left coronary artery to instigate a myocardial infarction (MI). By 4- and 8-weeks post-MI, CHF mice had approximately a 50% and 70% decline in ejection fraction as measured by echocardiography. At both 4- and 8-weeks post-MI, spatial memory performance in CHF mice as tested using the Morris water task was significantly impaired as compared with sham. In addition, CHF mice had significantly worse performance on object recognition when compared with shams as measured by discrimination ratios during the novel object recognition NOR task. At 8-weeks post-MI, a subgroup of CHF mice were given Angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) (50mcg/kg/hr) subcutaneously for 4 weeks. Following 3 weeks treatment with systemic Ang-(1-7), the CHF mice NOR discrimination ratios were similar to shams and significantly better than the performance of CHF mice treated with saline. Ang-(1-7) also improved spatial memory in CHF mice as compared with shams. Ang-(1-7) had no effect on cardiac function. Inflammatory biomarker studies from plasma revealed a pattern of neuroprotection that may underlie the observed improvements in cognition. These results demonstrate a preclinical mouse model of CHF that exhibits both spatial memory and object recognition dysfunction. Furthermore, this CHF-induced cognitive impairment is attenuated by treatment with systemic Ang-(1-7). (PsycINFO Database Record
- Forte, B. L., Slosky, L. M., Zhang, H., Arnold, M. R., Staatz, W. D., Hay, M., Largent-Milnes, T. M., & Vanderah, T. W. (2016). Angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas receptor as an antinociceptive agent in cancer-induced bone pain. Pain, 157(12), 2709-2721.More infoMany cancerous solid tumors metastasize to the bone and induce pain (cancer-induced bone pain [CIBP]). Cancer-induced bone pain is often severe because of enhanced inflammation, rapid bone degradation, and disease progression. Opioids are prescribed to manage this pain, but they may enhance bone loss and increase tumor proliferation, further compromising patient quality of life. Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) binds and activates the Mas receptor (MasR). Angiotensin-(1-7)/MasR activation modulates inflammatory signaling after acute tissue insult, yet no studies have investigated whether Ang-(1-7)/MasR play a role in CIBP. We hypothesized that Ang-(1-7) inhibits CIBP by targeting MasR in a murine model of breast CIBP. 66.1 breast cancer cells were implanted into the femur of BALB/cAnNHsd mice as a model of CIBP. Spontaneous and evoked pain behaviors were assessed before and after acute and chronic administration of Ang-(1-7). Tissues were collected from animals for ex vivo analyses of MasR expression, tumor burden, and bone integrity. Cancer inoculation increased spontaneous pain behaviors by day 7 that were significantly reduced after a single injection of Ang-(1-7) and after sustained administration. Preadministration of A-779 a selective MasR antagonist prevented this reduction, whereas pretreatment with the AT2 antagonist had no effect; an AT1 antagonist enhanced the antinociceptive activity of Ang-(1-7) in CIBP. Repeated Ang-(1-7) administration did not significantly change tumor burden or bone remodeling. Data here suggest that Ang-(1-7)/MasR activation significantly attenuates CIBP, while lacking many side effects seen with opioids. Thus, Ang-(1-7) may be an alternative therapeutic strategy for the nearly 90% of patients with advanced-stage cancer who experience excruciating pain.
- Hasser, E. M., Cunningham, J. T., Sullivan, M. J., Curtis, K. S., Blaine, E. H., & Hay, M. (2016). Area postrema and sympathetic nervous system effects of vasopressin and angiotensin II. Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology, 27(5-6), 432-6.More info1. Precise control over the cardiovascular system requires the integration of both neural and humoral signals related to blood volume and blood pressure. Humoral signals interact with neural systems, modulating their control over the efferent mechanisms that ultimately determine the level of pressure and volume. 2. Peptide hormones such as angiotensin (Ang)II and arginine vasopressin (AVP) act through circumventricular organs (CVO) to influence cardiovascular regulation. 3. The area postrema (AP), a CVO in the brainstem, mediates at least some of the central actions of these peptides. Vasopressin appears to act in the AP to cause sympathoinhibition and a shift in baroreflex control of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) to lower pressures. These effects of AVP and the AP appear to be mediated by alpha2-adrenoceptor and glutamatergic mechanisms in the nucleus tractus solitarius. 4. In contrast to AVP AngII has effects in the AP to blunt baroreflex control of heart rate and cause sympathoexcitation. The effects of chronic AngII to increase activity of the SNS may be due to AP-dependent activation of neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla.
- Hay, M. (2016). Sex, the brain and hypertension: brain oestrogen receptors and high blood pressure risk factors. Clinical science (London, England : 1979), 130(1), 9-18.More infoHypertension is a major contributor to worldwide morbidity and mortality rates related to cardiovascular disease. There are important sex differences in the onset and rate of hypertension in humans. Compared with age-matched men, premenopausal women are less likely to develop hypertension. However, after age 60, the incidence of hypertension increases in women and even surpasses that seen in older men. It is thought that changes in levels of circulating ovarian hormones as women age may be involved in the increase in hypertension in older women. One of the key mechanisms involved in the development of hypertension in both men and women is an increase in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Brain regions important for the regulation of SNA, such as the subfornical organ, the paraventricular nucleus and the rostral ventral lateral medulla, also express specific subtypes of oestrogen receptors. Each of these brain regions has also been implicated in mechanisms underlying risk factors for hypertension such as obesity, stress and inflammation. The present review brings together evidence that links actions of oestrogen at these receptors to modulate some of the common brain mechanisms involved in the ability of hypertensive risk factors to increase SNA and blood pressure. Understanding the mechanisms by which oestrogen acts at key sites in the brain for the regulation of SNA is important for the development of novel, sex-specific therapies for treating hypertension.
- Hasser, E. M., Cunningham, J. T., Sullivan, M. J., Curtis, K. S., Blaine, E. H., & Hay, M. (2015). Area postrema and sympathetic nervous system effects of vasopressin and angiotensin II. Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology, 27(5-6), 432-6.More info1. Precise control over the cardiovascular system requires the integration of both neural and humoral signals related to blood volume and blood pressure. Humoral signals interact with neural systems, modulating their control over the efferent mechanisms that ultimately determine the level of pressure and volume. 2. Peptide hormones such as angiotensin (Ang)II and arginine vasopressin (AVP) act through circumventricular organs (CVO) to influence cardiovascular regulation. 3. The area postrema (AP), a CVO in the brainstem, mediates at least some of the central actions of these peptides. Vasopressin appears to act in the AP to cause sympathoinhibition and a shift in baroreflex control of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) to lower pressures. These effects of AVP and the AP appear to be mediated by alpha2-adrenoceptor and glutamatergic mechanisms in the nucleus tractus solitarius. 4. In contrast to AVP AngII has effects in the AP to blunt baroreflex control of heart rate and cause sympathoexcitation. The effects of chronic AngII to increase activity of the SNS may be due to AP-dependent activation of neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla.
- Hay, M. (2015). Genetic knockdown of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the subfornical organ augments angiotensin II-induced hypertension in female mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 308(6), R507-16.
- Hay, M. (2015). His and hers hypertension-down to a T?. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol, 308(8), F822-3.
- Hay, M. (2015). The Good and the Bad: Immune Cells and Hypertension. Clin Sci (Lond)., 117(10), 830-1.
- Sandberg, K., Ji, H., & Hay, M. (2015). Sex-specific immune modulation of primary hypertension. Cellular immunology, 294(2), 95-101.More infoIt is well known that the onset of essential hypertension occurs earlier in men than women. Numerous studies have shown sex differences in the vasculature, kidney and sympathetic nervous system contribute to this sex difference in the development of hypertension. The immune system also contributes to the development of hypertension; however, sex differences in immune system modulation of blood pressure (BP) and the development of hypertension has only recently begun to be explored. Here we review findings on the effect of one's sex on the immune system and specifically how these effects impact BP and the development of primary hypertension. We also propose a hypothesis for why mechanisms underlying inflammation-induced hypertension are sex-specific. These studies underscore the value of and need for studying both sexes in the basic science exploration of the pathophysiology of hypertension as well as other diseases.
- Sandberg, K., Ji, H., Einstein, G., Au, A., & Hay, M. (2015). Is immune system-related hypertension associated with ovarian hormone deficiency?. Experimental physiology.More infoWhat is the topic of this review? This review summarizes recent data on the role of ovarian hormones and sex in inflammation-related hypertension. What advances does it highlight? The adaptive immune system has recently been implicated in the development of hypertension in males but not in females. The role of the immune system in the development of hypertension in women and its relationship to ovarian hormone production are highlighted. The immune system is known to contribute to the development of high blood pressure in males. However, the role of the immune system in the development of high blood pressure in females and the role of ovarian hormones has only recently begun to be studied. In animal studies, both the sex of the host and the T cell are critical biological determinants of susceptibility and resistance to hypertension induced by angiotensin II. In women, natural menopause is known to result in significant changes in the expression of genes regulating the immune system. Likewise, in animal models, ovariectomy results in hypertension and an upregulation in T-cell tumour necrosis factor-α-related genes. Oestrogen replacement results in decreases in inflammatory genes in the brain regions involved in blood pressure regulation. Together, these studies suggest that the response of the adaptive immune system to ovarian hormone deficiency is a significant contributor to hypertension in women.
- Hay, M., Xue, B., & Johnson, A. K. (2014). Yes! Sex matters: sex, the brain and blood pressure. Current hypertension reports, 16(8), 458.More infoThe role of the brain in hypertension between the sexes is known to be important especially with regards to the effects of circulating sex hormones. A number of different brain regions important for regulation of sympathetic outflow and blood pressure express estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ). Estradiol, acting predominantly via the ERα, inhibits angiotensin II activation of the area postrema and subfornical organ neurons and inhibits reactive oxygen generation that is required for the development of Angiotensin II-induced neurogenic hypertension. Estradiol activation of ERβ within the paraventricular nucleus and the rostral ventral lateral medulla inhibits these neurons and inhibits angiotensin II, or aldosterone induced increases in sympathetic outflow and hypertension. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying ERα and ERβ actions within key brain regions regulating blood pressure will be essential for the development of "next generation" selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMS) that can be used clinically for the treatment of neurogenic hypertension.
- Ji, H., Zheng, W., Li, X., Liu, J., Wu, X., Zhang, M. A., Umans, J. G., Hay, M., Speth, R. C., Dunn, S. E., & Sandberg, K. (2014). Sex-specific T-cell regulation of angiotensin II-dependent hypertension. Hypertension, 64(3), 573-82.More infoStudies suggest T cells modulate arterial pressure. Because robust sex differences exist in the immune system and in hypertension, we investigated sex differences in T-cell modulation of angiotensin II-induced increases in mean arterial pressure in male (M) and female (F) wild-type and recombination-activating-gene-1-deficient (Rag1(-/-)) mice. Sex differences in peak mean arterial pressure in wild-type were lost in Rag1(-/-) mice (mm Hg: wild-type-F, 136±4.9 versus wild-type-M, 153±1.7; P
- Pollow, D. P., Uhrlaub, J., Romero-Aleshire, M. J., Sandberg, K., Nikolich-Zugich, J., Brooks, H. L., & Hay, M. (2014). Sex differences in T-lymphocyte tissue infiltration and development of angiotensin II hypertension. Hypertension, 64(2), 384-90.More infoThere is extensive evidence that activation of the immune system is both necessary and required for the development of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension in males. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sex differences exist in the ability of the adaptive immune system to induce Ang II-dependent hypertension and whether central and renal T-cell infiltration during Ang II-induced hypertension is sex dependent. Recombinant activating gene-1 (Rag-1)(-/-) mice, lacking both T and B cells, were used. Male and female Rag-1(-/-) mice received adoptive transfer of male CD3(+) T cells 3 weeks before 14-day Ang II infusion (490 ng/kg per minute). Blood pressure was monitored via tail cuff. In the absence of T cells, systolic blood pressure responses to Ang II were similar between sexes (Δ22.1 mm Hg males versus Δ18 mm : Hg females). After adoptive transfer of male T cells, Ang II significantly increased systolic blood pressure in males (Δ37.7 mm : Hg; P
- Xue, B., Zhang, Z., Beltz, T. G., Guo, F., Hay, M., & Johnson, A. K. (2014). Estrogen regulation of the brain renin-angiotensin system in protection against angiotensin II-induced sensitization of hypertension. American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology, 307(2), H191-8.More infoThis study investigated sex differences in the sensitization of angiotensin (ANG) II-induced hypertension and the role of central estrogen and ANG-(1-7) in this process. Male and female rats were implanted for telemetered blood pressure (BP) recording. A subcutaneous subpressor dose of ANG II was given alone or concurrently with intracerebroventricular estrogen, ANG-(1-7), an ANG-(1-7) receptor antagonist A-779 or vehicle for 1 wk (induction). After a 1-wk rest (delay), a pressor dose of ANG II was given for 2 wk (expression). In males and ovariectomized females, subpressor ANG II had no sustained effect on BP during induction, but produced an enhanced hypertensive response to the subsequent pressor dose of ANG II during expression. Central administration of estrogen or ANG-(1-7) during induction blocked ANG II-induced sensitization. In intact females, subpressor ANG II treatment produced a decrease in BP during induction and delay, and subsequent pressor ANG II treatment given during expression produced only a slight but significant increase in BP. However, central blockade of ANG-(1-7) by intracerebroventricular infusion of A-779 during induction restored the decreased BP observed in females during induction and enhanced the pressor response to the ANG II treatment during expression. RT-PCR analyses indicated that estrogen given during induction upregulated mRNA expression of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) antihypertensive components, whereas both central estrogen and ANG-(1-7) downregulated mRNA expression of RAS hypertensive components in the lamina terminalis. The results indicate that females are protected from ANG II-induced sensitization through central estrogen and its regulation of brain RAS.
- Xue, B., Zhang, Z., Beltz, T. G., Guo, F., Hay, M., & Johnson, A. K. (2014). Genetic knockdown of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the subfornical organ augments angiotensin II-induced hypertension in female mice. American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology, ajpregu.00406.2014.More infoThe present study tested the hypotheses that 1) ERα in the brain plays a key role in the estrogen protective effects against angiotensin (ANG) II-induced hypertension, and 2) that the subfornical organ (SFO) is a key site where ERα mediates these protective actions. In this study, a "floxed" ERα transgenic mouse line (ERα(flox)) was used to create models in which ERα was knocked down in the brain or just in the SFO. Female mice with ERα ablated in the nervous system (Nestin-ERα(-) mice) showed greater increases in blood pressure (BP) in response to ANG II. Furthermore, females with ERα knockdown specifically in the SFO [SFO adenovirus-Cre (Ad-Cre) injected ERα(flox) mice] also showed an enhanced pressor response to ANG II. Immunohistochemical, RT-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed a marked reduction in the expression of ERα in nervous tissues and, in particular, in the SFO. These changes were not present in peripheral tissues in Nestin-ERα(-) mice or Ad-Cre injected ERα(flox) mice. mRNA expression of components of the renin-angiotensin system in the laminal terminalis were up-regulated in Nestin-ERα(-) mice. Moreover, ganglionic blockade on day 7 after ANG II infusions resulted in a greater reduction of BP in Nestin-ERα(-) mice or SFO Ad-Cre injected mice suggesting that knockdown of ERα in the nervous system or the SFO alone augments central ANG II-induced increase in sympathetic tone. The results indicate that interfering with the action of estrogen on SFO ERα is sufficient to abolish the protective effects of estrogen against ANG II-induced hypertension.
- Xue, B., Johnson, A. K., & Hay, M. (2013). Sex differences in angiotensin II- and aldosterone-induced hypertension: the central protective effects of estrogen. American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology, 305(5), R459-63.More infoPremenopausal women have lower blood pressure and a reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease compared with age-matched men. Similar sex differences have been seen across species and in multiple animal models of hypertension. While important progress over the last decade has been made in elucidating some of the mechanisms underlying these differences, there are still significant gaps in our knowledge. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for sex differences in hypertension will be important for developing sex-specific therapies targeted toward the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Female sex hormones, especially estrogen, have been demonstrated to modulate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular function through actions not only on the kidney, heart, and vasculature, but also on the central nervous system (CNS). This review primarily focuses on the central regulatory actions of estrogen on brain nuclei involved in blood pressure regulation and the interactions between estrogen and the RAAS in the CNS by which estrogen plays an important protective role against the development of hypertension.
- Xue, B., Zhang, Z., Beltz, T. G., Johnson, R. F., Guo, F., Hay, M., & Johnson, A. K. (2013). Estrogen receptor-β in the paraventricular nucleus and rostroventrolateral medulla plays an essential protective role in aldosterone/salt-induced hypertension in female rats. Hypertension, 61(6), 1255-62.More infoThe identification of the specific estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes that are involved in estrogen protection from hypertension and their specific locations in the central nervous system is critical to our understanding and design of effective estrogen replacement therapies in women. Using selective ER agonists and recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying small interference (si) RNA to silence either ERα (AAV-siRNA-ERα) or ERβ (AAV-siRNA-ERβ), the present study investigated regional specificity of different ER subtypes in the protective actions of estrogen in aldosterone (Aldo)-induced hypertension. Intracerebroventricular infusions of either diarylpropionitrile, a selective ERβ agonist, or propyl-pyrazole-triol, a selective ERα agonist, attenuated Aldo/NaCl-induced hypertension in ovariectomized rats. In contrast, intracerebroventricular injections of siRNA-ERα or siRNA-ERβ augmented Aldo-induced hypertension in intact females. Site-specific paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM) injections of siRNA-ERβ augmented Aldo-induced hypertension. However, rats with PVN or RVLM injections of siRNA-ERα did not significantly increase blood pressure induced by Aldo. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses of the PVN and RVLM of siRNA-injected rat confirmed a marked reduction in the expression of ERα and ERβ. In cultured PVN neurons, silencing either ERα or ERβ by culturing PVN neurons with siRNA-ERα or siRNA-ERβ enhanced Aldo-induced reactive oxygen species production. Ganglionic blockade after Aldo infusion showed an increase in sympathetic activity in ERβ knockdown rats. These results indicate that both PVN and RVLM ERβ, but not ERα in these nuclei, contribute to the protective effects of estrogen against Aldo-induced hypertension. The brain regions responsible for the protective effects of estrogen interaction with ERα in Aldo-induced hypertension still need to be determined.
- Xue, B., Zhang, Z., Johnson, R. F., Guo, F., Hay, M., & Johnson, A. K. (2013). Central endogenous angiotensin-(1-7) protects against aldosterone/NaCl-induced hypertension in female rats. American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology, 305(5), H699-705.More infoIn comparison to male rodents, females are protected against angiotensin (ANG) II- and aldosterone (Aldo)-induced hypertension. However, the mechanisms underlying this protective effect are not well understood. ANG-(1-7) is formed from ANG II by angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and has an antihypertensive effect in the central nervous system (CNS). The present study tested the hypothesis that central ANG-(1-7) plays an important protective role in attenuating the development of Aldo/NaCl-hypertension in female rats. Systemic infusion of Aldo into intact female rats with 1% NaCl as their sole drinking fluid resulted in a slight increase in blood pressure (BP). Intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of A-779, an ANG-(1-7) receptor (Mas-R) antagonist, significantly augmented the pressor effects of Aldo/NaCl. In contrast, systemic Aldo/NaCl induced a significant increase in BP in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats, and central infusion of ANG-(1-7) significantly attenuated this Aldo/NaCl pressor effect. The inhibitory effect of ANG-(1-7) on the Aldo/NaCl pressor effect was abolished by concurrent infusion of A-779. RT-PCR analyses showed that there was a corresponding change in mRNA expression of several renin-angiotensin system components, estrogen receptors and an NADPH oxidase subunit in the lamina terminalis. Taken together these results suggest that female sex hormones regulate an antihypertensive axis of the brain renin-angiotensin system involving ACE2/ANG-(1-7)/Mas-R that plays an important counterregulatory role in protecting against the development of Aldo/NaCl-induced hypertension.
- Xue, B., Beltz, T. G., Johnson, R. F., Guo, F., Hay, M., & Johnson, A. K. (2012). PVN adenovirus-siRNA injections silencing either NOX2 or NOX4 attenuate aldosterone/NaCl-induced hypertension in mice. American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology, 302(3), H733-41.More infoMineralocorticoid excess increases superoxide production by activating NADPH oxidase (NOX), and intracerebroventricular infusions of NADPH oxidase inhibitors attenuate aldosterone (Aldo)/salt-induced hypertension. It has been hypothesized that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brain may be a key mechanism in the development of hypertension. The present study investigated the brain regional specificity of NADPH oxidase and the role of NOX2 and NOX4 NADPH oxidase subunits in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in Aldo/salt-induced hypertension. PVN injections of adenoviral vectors expressing small interfering (si)RNA targeting NOX2 (AdsiRNA-NOX2) or NOX4 (AdsiRNA-NOX4) mRNAs were used to knock down NOX2 and NOX4 proteins. Three days later, delivery of Aldo (0.2 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) sc) via osmotic pump commenced and 1% NaCl was provided in place of water. PVN injections of either AdsiRNA-NOX2 or AdsiRNA-NOX4 significantly attenuated the development of Aldo/NaCl-induced hypertension. In an additional study, Aldo/salt-induced hypertension was also significantly attenuated in NOX2 (genomic) knockout mice compared with wild-type controls. When animals from both functional studies underwent ganglionic blockade, there was a reduced fall in blood pressure in the NOX2 and NOX4 knockdown/knockout mice. Western blot analyses of the PVN of siRNA-NOX2- or siRNA-NOX4-injected mice confirmed a marked reduction in the expression of NOX2 or NOX4 protein. In cultured PVN neurons, silencing either NOX2 or NOX4 protein production by culturing PVN cells with siRNA-NOX2 or siRNA-NOX4 attenuated Aldo-induced ROS. These data indicate that both NOX2 and NOX4 in the PVN contribute to elevated sympathetic activity and the hypertensivogenic actions induced by mineralocorticoid excess.
- Xue, B., Beltz, T. G., Yu, Y., Guo, F., Gomez-Sanchez, C. E., Hay, M., & Johnson, A. K. (2011). Central interactions of aldosterone and angiotensin II in aldosterone- and angiotensin II-induced hypertension. American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology, 300(2), H555-64.More infoMany studies have implicated both angiotensin II (ANG II) and aldosterone (Aldo) in the pathogenesis of hypertension, the progression of renal injury, and cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction. In several cases, ANG II and Aldo have been shown to have synergistic interactions in the periphery. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that ANG II and Aldo interact centrally in Aldo- and ANG II-induced hypertension in male rats. In rats with blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) measured by DSI telemetry, intracerebroventricular (icv) infusions of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists spironolactone and RU28318 or the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist irbesartan significantly inhibited Aldo-induced hypertension. In ANG II-induced hypertension, icv infusion of RU28318 significantly reduced the increase in BP. Moreover, icv infusions of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger tempol or the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin attenuated Aldo-induced hypertension. To confirm these effects of pharmacological antagonists, icv injections of either recombinant adeno-associated virus carrying siRNA silencers of AT1aR (AT1aR-siRNA) or MR (MR-siRNA) significantly attenuated the development of Aldo-induced hypertension. The immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses of AT1aR-siRNA- or MR-siRNA-injected rats showed a marked reduction in the expression of AT1R or MR in the paraventricular nucleus compared with scrambled siRNA rats. When animals from all studies underwent ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium, there was a smaller reduction in the fall of BP in animals receiving icv AT1R or MR antagonists. These results suggest that ANG II and Aldo interact in the brain in a mutually cooperative manner such that the functional integrity of both brain AT1R and MR are necessary for hypertension to be induced by either systemic ANG II or Aldo. The pressor effects produced by systemic ANG II or Aldo involve increased central ROS and sympathetic outflow.
- Xue, B., Badaue-Passos, D., Guo, F., Gomez-Sanchez, C. E., Hay, M., & Johnson, A. K. (2009). Sex differences and central protective effect of 17beta-estradiol in the development of aldosterone/NaCl-induced hypertension. American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology, 296(5), H1577-85.More infoThe present study tested the hypotheses that male and female rats respond differently to subcutaneous infusions of aldosterone (Aldo; 1.8 microg.kg(-1).h(-1), 1% NaCl to drink; 28 days) and that central estrogen plays a protective role against the development of hypertension. In rats with blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) measured by Data Sciences International telemetry, chronic Aldo/NaCl treatment induced a greater increase in BP in males (Delta25.4 +/- 2.4 mmHg) than in females (Delta7.1 +/- 2.2 mmHg). Gonadectomy augmented Aldo/NaCl-induced hypertension in females (Delta18.2 +/- 2.0 mmHg) but had no effect in males (Delta23.1 +/- 2.9 mmHg). Immunohistochemistry for Fra-like activity was higher in the paraventricular nucleus of intact males, castrated males, and ovariectomized (OVX) females compared with intact females after 28 days of Aldo/NaCl treatment. In intact males, central 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) inhibited the Aldo/NaCl increase in BP (Delta10.5 +/- 0.8) compared with that in central vehicle plus systemic Aldo/NaCl (Delta26.1 +/- 2.5 mmHg) rats. Combined administration of E(2) and estrogen receptor antagonist ICI182780 (ICI) blocked the protective effect of E(2) (Delta23.2 +/- 2.4 mmHg). In intact females central, but not peripheral, infusions of ICI augmented the Aldo/NaCl (Delta20.4 +/- 1.8 mmHg) BP increase. Finally, ganglionic blockade after Aldo infusions resulted in a smaller reduction in BP in intact females (-23.9 +/- 2.5 mmHg) and in central estrogen-treated males (-30.2 +/- 1.0 mmHg) compared with other groups (intact males, -39.3 +/- 3.4; castrated males, -41.8 +/- 1.9; intact males with central E(2) + ICI, -42.3 +/- 2.1; OVX females, -40.3 +/- 3.3; and intact females with central ICI, -39.1 +/- 1.3 mmHg). Chronic Aldo infusion produced increases in NaCl intake and decreases in HR that were both similar in all groups. Taken together, the results indicate that central estrogen plays a protective role in the development of Aldo/NaCl-induced hypertension and that this may result from reduced sympathetic outflow.
- Xue, B., Singh, M., Guo, F., Hay, M., & Johnson, A. K. (2009). Protective actions of estrogen on angiotensin II-induced hypertension: role of central nitric oxide. American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology, 297(5), H1638-46.More infoThe present study tested the hypotheses that 1) nitric oxide (NO) is involved in attenuated responses to ANG II in female mice, and 2) there is differential expression of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) in the subfornical organ (SFO) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in response to systemic infusions of ANG II in males vs. females. Aortic blood pressure (BP) was measured in conscious mice with telemetry implants. N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; 100 microg x kg(.-1)day(-1)), an inhibitor of NOS, was administrated into the lateral cerebral ventricle for 14 days before and during ANG II pump implantation. Central infusion of l-NAME augmented the pressor effects of systemic ANG II in females (Delta21.5 + or - 2.2 vs. Delta9.2 + or - 1.5 mmHg) but not in males (Delta29.4 + or - 2.5 vs. Delta30.1 + or - 2.5 mmHg). Central administration of N(5)-(1-imino-3-butenyl)-l-ornithine (l-VNIO), a selective nNOS inhibitor, also significantly potentiated the increase in BP induced by ANG II in females (Delta17.5 + or - 3.2 vs. Delta9.2 + or - 1.5 mmHg). In gonadectomized mice, central l-NAME infusion did not affect the pressor response to ANG II in either males or females. Ganglionic blockade after ANG II infusion resulted in a greater reduction in BP in central l-NAME- or l-VNIO-treated females compared with control females. Western blot analysis of nNOS protein expression indicated that levels were approximately 12-fold higher in both the SFO and PVN of intact females compared with those in intact males. Seven days of ANG II treatment resulted in a further increase in nNOS protein expression only in intact females (PVN, to approximately 51-fold). Immunohistochemical studies revealed colocalization of nNOS and estrogen receptors in the SFO and PVN. These results suggest that NO attenuates the increase in BP induced by ANG II through reduced sympathetic outflow in females and that increased nNOS protein expression associated with the presence of female sex hormones plays a protective role against ANG II-induced hypertension in female mice.
- Xue, B., Zhao, Y., Johnson, A. K., & Hay, M. (2008). Central estrogen inhibition of angiotensin II-induced hypertension in male mice and the role of reactive oxygen species. American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology, 295(3), H1025-H1032.More infoIt has been shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the central effect of ANG II on blood pressure (BP). Recent studies have implicated an antihypertensive action of estrogen in ANG II-infused female mice. The present study used in vivo telemetry recording and in vitro living mouse brain slices to test the hypothesis that the central activation of estrogen receptors in male mice inhibits ANG II-induced hypertension via the modulation of the central ROS production. In male wild-type mice, the systemic infusion of ANG II induced a significant increase in BP (Delta30.1 +/- 2.5 mmHg). Either central infusion of Tempol or 17beta-estradiol (E2) attenuated the pressor effect of ANG II (Delta10.9 +/- 2.3 and Delta4.5 +/- 1.4 mmHg), and the protective effect of E2 was prevented by the coadministration of an estrogen receptor, antagonist ICI-182780 (Delta23.6 +/- 3.1 mmHg). Moreover, the ganglionic blockade on day 7 after the start of ANG II infusions resulted in a smaller reduction of BP in central Tempol- and in central E2-treated males, suggesting that estrogen inhibits the central ANG II-induced increases in sympathetic outflow. In subfornical organ slices, the application of ANG II resulted in a 21.5 +/- 2.5% increase in ROS production. The coadministration of irbesartan, an ANG II type 1 receptor antagonist, or the preincubation of brain slices with Tempol blocked ANG II-induced increases in ROS production (-1.8 +/- 1.6% and -1.0 +/- 1.8%). The ROS response to ANG II was also blocked by E2 (-3.2 +/- 2.4%). The results suggest that the central actions of E2 are involved in the protection from ANG II-induced hypertension and that estrogen modulation of the ANG II-induced effects may involve interactions with ROS production.
- Stas, S., Whaley-Connell, A., Habibi, J., Appesh, L., Hayden, M. R., Karuparthi, P. R., Qazi, M., Morris, E. M., Cooper, S. A., Link, C. D., Stump, C., Hay, M., Ferrario, C., & Sowers, J. R. (2007). Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade attenuates chronic overexpression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system stimulation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase and cardiac remodeling. Endocrinology, 148(8), 3773-80.More infoThe renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system contributes to cardiac remodeling, hypertrophy, and left ventricular dysfunction. Angiotensin II and aldosterone (corticosterone in rodents) together generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) via reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, which likely facilitate this hypertrophy and remodeling. This investigation sought to determine whether cardiac oxidative stress and cellular remodeling could be attenuated by in vivo mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blockade in a rodent model of the chronically elevated tissue renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, the transgenic TG (mRen2) 27 rat (Ren2). The Ren2 overexpresses the mouse renin transgene with resultant hypertension, insulin resistance, proteinuria, and cardiovascular damage. Young (6- to 7-wk-old) male Ren2 and age-matched Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with spironolactone or placebo for 3 wk. Heart tissue ROS, immunohistochemical analysis of 3-nitrotyrosine, and NADPH oxidase (NOX) subunits (gp91(phox) recently renamed NOX2, p22(phox), Rac1, NOX1, and NOX4) were measured. Structural changes were assessed with cine-magnetic resonance imaging, transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Significant increases in Ren2 septal wall thickness (cine-magnetic resonance imaging) were accompanied by perivascular fibrosis, increased mitochondria, and other ultrastructural changes visible by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Although there was no significant reduction in systolic blood pressure, significant improvements were seen with MR blockade on ROS formation and NOX subunits (each P < 0.05). Collectively, these data suggest that MR blockade, independent of systolic blood pressure reduction, improves cardiac oxidative stress-induced structural and functional changes, which are driven, in part, by angiotensin type 1 receptor-mediated increases in NOX.
- Xue, B., Johnson, A. K., & Hay, M. (2007). Sex differences in angiotensin II- induced hypertension. Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas médicas e biológicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofísica ... [et al.], 40(5), 727-34.More infoSex differences in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease have been described in humans and in animal models. In this paper we will review some of our studies which have as their emphasis the examination of the role of sex differences and sex steroids in modulating the central actions of angiotensin II (ANG II) via interactions with free radicals and nitric oxide, generating pathways within brain circumventricular organs and in central sympathomodulatory systems. Our studies indicate that low-dose infusions of ANG II result in hypertension in wild-type male mice but not in intact wild-type females. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that ANG II-induced hypertension in males is blocked by central infusions of the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide, and by central infusions of the superoxide dismutase mimetic, tempol. We have also found that, in comparison to females, males show greater levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species in circumventricular organ neurons following long-term ANG II infusions. In female mice, ovariectomy, central blockade of estrogen receptors or total knockout of estrogen a receptors augments the pressor effects of ANG II. Finally, in females but not in males, central blockade of nitric oxide synthase increases the pressor effects of ANG II. Taken together, these results suggest that sex differences and estrogen and testosterone play important roles in the development of ANG II-induced hypertension.
- Xue, B., Pamidimukkala, J., Lubahn, D. B., & Hay, M. (2007). Estrogen receptor-alpha mediates estrogen protection from angiotensin II-induced hypertension in conscious female mice. American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology, 292(4), H1770-6.More infoIt has been shown that the female sex hormones have a protective role in the development of angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension. The present study tested the hypotheses that 1) the estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) is involved in the protective effects of estrogen against ANG II-induced hypertension and 2) central ERs are involved. Blood pressure (BP) was measured in female mice with the use of telemetry implants. ANG II (800 ng.kg(-1).min(-1)) was administered subcutaneously via an osmotic pump. Baseline BP in the intact, ovariectomized (OVX) wild-type (WT) and ERalpha knockout (ERalphaKO) mice was similar; however, the increase in BP induced by ANG II was greater in OVX WT (23.0 +/- 1.0 mmHg) and ERalphaKO mice (23.8 +/- 2.5 mmHg) than in intact WT mice (10.1 +/- 4.5 mmHg). In OVX WT mice, central infusion of 17beta-estradiol (E(2); 30 microg.kg(-1).day(-1)) attenuated the pressor effect of ANG II (7.0 +/- 0.4 mmHg), and this protective effect of E(2) was prevented by coadministration of ICI-182,780 (ICI; 1.5 microg.kg(-1).day(-1), 18.8 +/- 1.5 mmHg), a nonselective ER antagonist. Furthermore, central, but not peripheral, infusions of ICI augmented the pressor effects of ANG II in intact WT mice (17.8 +/- 4.2 mmHg). In contrast, the pressor effect of ANG II was unchanged in either central E(2)-treated OVX ERalphaKO mice (19.0 +/- 1.1 mmHg) or central ICI-treated intact ERalphaKO mice (19.6 +/- 1.6 mmHg). Lastly, ganglionic blockade on day 7 after ANG II infusions resulted in a greater reduction in BP in OVX WT, central ER antagonist-treated intact WT, central E(2) + ICI-treated OVX WT, ERalphaKO, and central E(2)- or ICI-treated ERalphaKO mice compared with that in intact WT mice given just ANG II. Together, these data indicate that ERalpha, especially central expression of the ER, mediates the protective effects of estrogen against ANG II-induced hypertension.
- Pamidimukkala, J., Habibi, S., & Hay, M. (2006). Frequency-dependent depression of exocytosis and the role of voltage-gated calcium channels. Brain research, 1078(1), 1-8.More infoSynaptic vesicle exocytosis in primary cultures of baroreceptor neurons is reduced during high-frequency stimulation. Calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) is a key step in neurotransmitter release. With the help of FM2-10, a marker of synaptic vesicle recycling, the present study investigates the differential contribution of several VGCC subtypes to exocytosis in neuronal processes and how this contribution is altered at high frequencies. In control experiments, field stimulation at 0.5 Hz evoked about 66 +/- 5% destaining. Combined blockade of N- and P/Q-subtypes with Ctx-MVIIC was far more effective in reducing exocytosis (11 +/- 8%) than blocking N-type (49 +/- 5%, Ctx-GVIA) or P-type (46 +/- 1%, Agatoxin) alone. The effectiveness of the blockers also varied with the duration of stimulation: Ctx-GVIA attenuating exocytosis significantly in the first 60 s and Agatoxin affecting exocytosis only towards the end of 180 s stimulation period. Field stimulation at 10 Hz evoked exocytosis (36 +/- 18%) comparable to that evoked by 0.5 Hz in the presence of Ctx-GVIA. While blockade with Agatoxin had no effects, Ctx-GVIA, Ctx-MVIIC and L-type blocker Nifedepine had small but similar inhibitory effects on exocytosis at 10 Hz. The data suggest that N-type is the major contributor to exocytosis at 0.5 Hz, and this contribution is reduced during prolonged stimulation periods and at high frequencies.
- Mueller, P. J., Foley, C. M., Vogl, H. W., Hay, M., & Hasser, E. M. (2005). Cardiovascular response to a group III mGluR agonist in NTS requires NMDA receptors. American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology, 289(1), R198-208.More infoPrevious studies have demonstrated that microinjection of the putative group III metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist, l(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4), into the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) produces depressor and sympathoinhibitory responses. These responses are significantly attenuated by a group III mGluR antagonist and may involve ionotropic glutamatergic transmission. Alternatively, a previous report in vitro suggests that preparations of L-AP4 may nonspecifically activate NMDA channels due to glycine contamination (Contractor A, Gereau RW, Green T, and Heinemann SF. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 8969-8974, 1998). Therefore, the present study tested whether responses to L-AP4 specifically require the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and whether they are due to actions at the glycine site on the NMDA channel. To test these possibilities in vivo, we performed unilateral microinjections of L-AP4, glycine, and selective antagonists into the NTS of urethane-anesthetized rats. L-AP4 (10 mM, 30 nl) produced sympathoinhibitory responses that were abolished by the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP-5, 10 mM) but were unaffected by the non-NMDA antagonist 6-nitro-7-sulfamobenzoquinoxaline-2,3-dione (NBQX, 2 mM). Microinjection of glycine (0.02-20 mM) failed to mimic sympathoinhibitory responses to L-AP4, even in the presence of the inhibitory glycine antagonist, strychnine (3 mM). Strychnine blocked pressor and sympathoexcitatory actions of glycine (20 mM) but failed to reveal a sympathoinhibitory component due to presumed activation of NMDA receptors. The results of these experiments suggest that responses to L-AP4 require NMDA receptors and are independent of non-NMDA receptors. Furthermore, although it is possible that glycine contamination or other nonspecific actions are responsible for the sympathoinhibitory actions of L-AP4, our data and data in the literature argue against this possibility. Thus we conclude that responses to L-AP4 in the NTS are mediated by an interaction between group III mGluRs and NMDA receptors. Finally, we also caution that nonselective actions of L-AP4 should be considered in future studies.
- Pamidimukkala, J., Xue, B., Newton, L. G., Lubahn, D. B., & Hay, M. (2005). Estrogen receptor-alpha mediates estrogen facilitation of baroreflex heart rate responses in conscious mice. American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology, 288(3), H1063-70.More infoEstrogen facilitates baroreflex heart rate responses evoked by intravenous infusion of ANG II and phenylephrine (PE) in ovariectomized female mice. The present study aims to identify the estrogen receptor subtype involved in mediating these effects of estrogen. Baroreflex responses to PE, ANG II, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were tested in intact and ovariectomized estrogen receptor-alpha knockout (ERalphaKO) with (OvxE+) or without (OvxE-) estrogen replacement. Wild-type (WT) females homozygous for the ERalpha(+/+) were used as controls. Basal mean arterial pressures (MAP) and heart rates were comparable in all the groups except the ERalphaKO-OvxE+ mice. This group had significantly smaller resting MAP, suggesting an effect of estrogen on resting vascular tone possibly mediated by the ERbeta subtype. Unlike the WT females, estrogen did not facilitate baroreflex heart rate responses to either PE or ANG II in the ERalphaKO-OvxE+ mice. The slope of the line relating baroreflex heart rate decreases with increases in MAP evoked by PE was comparable in ERalphaKO-OvxE- (-6.97 +/- 1.4 beats.min(-1).mmHg(-1)) and ERalphaKO-OvxE+ (-6.18 +/- 1.3) mice. Likewise, the slope of the baroreflex bradycardic responses to ANG II was similar in ERalphaKO-OvxE- (-3.87 +/- 0.5) and ERalphaKO-OvxE+(-2.60 +/- 0.5) females. Data suggest that estrogen facilitation of baroreflex responses to PE and ANG II is predominantly mediated by ERalpha subtype. A second important observation in the present study is that the slope of ANG II-induced baroreflex bradycardia is significantly blunted compared with PE in the intact as well as the ERalphaKO-OvxE+ females. We have previously reported that this ANG II-mediated blunting of cardiac baroreflexes is observed only in WT males and not in ovariectomized WT females independent of their estrogen replacement status. The present data suggest that in females lacking ERalpha, ANG II causes blunting of cardiac baroreflexes similar to males and may be indicative of a direct modulatory effect of the ERalpha on those central mechanisms involved in ANG II-induced resetting of cardiac baroreflexes. These observations suggest an important role for ERalpha subtype in the central modulation of baroreflex responses. Lastly, estrogen did not significantly affect reflex tachycardic responses to SNP in both WT and ERalphaKO mice.
- Xue, B., Pamidimukkala, J., & Hay, M. (2005). Sex differences in the development of angiotensin II-induced hypertension in conscious mice. American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology, 288(5), H2177-84.More infoSex has an important influence on blood pressure (BP) regulation. There is increasing evidence that sex hormones interfere with the renin-angiotensin system. Thus the purpose of this study was to determine whether there are sex differences in the development of ANG II-induced hypertension in conscious male and female mice. We used telemetry implants to measure aortic BP and heart rate (HR) in conscious, freely moving animals. ANG II (800 ng.kg(-1).min(-1)) was delivered via an osmotic pump implanted subcutaneously. Our results showed baseline BP in male and female mice to be similar. Chronic systemic infusion of ANG II induced a greater increase in BP in male (35.1 +/- 5.7 mmHg) than in female mice (7.2 +/- 2.0 mmHg). Gonadectomy attenuated ANG II-induced hypertension in male mice (15.2 +/- 2.4 mmHg) and augmented it in female mice (23.1 +/- 1.0 mmHg). Baseline HR was significantly higher in females relative to males (630.1 +/- 7.9 vs. 544.8 +/- 16.2 beats/min). In females, ANG II infusion significantly decreased HR. However, the increase in BP with ANG II did not result in the expected decrease in HR in either intact male or gonadectomized mice. Moreover, the slope of the baroreflex bradycardia to phenylephrine was blunted in males (-5.6 +/- 0.3 to -2.9 +/- 0.5) but not in females (-6.5 +/- 0.5 to -5.6 +/- 0.3) during infusion of ANG II, suggesting that, in male mice, infusion of ANG II results in a resetting of the baroreflex control of HR. Ganglionic blockade resulted in greater reduction in BP on day 7 after ANG II infusion in males compared with females (-61.0 +/- 8.9 vs. -36.6 +/- 6.6 mmHg), suggesting an increased contribution of sympathetic nerve activity in arterial BP maintenance in male mice. Together, these data indicate that there are sex differences in the development of chronic ANG II-induced hypertension in conscious mice and that females may be protected from the increases in BP induced by ANG II.
- Xue, B., Skala, K., Jones, T. A., & Hay, M. (2004). Diminished baroreflex control of heart rate responses in otoconia-deficient C57BL/6JEi head tilt mice. American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology, 287(2), H741-7.More infoThe maintenance of stable blood pressure during postural changes is known to involve integration of vestibular and cardiovascular central regulatory mechanisms. Sensory activity in the vestibular system plays an important role in cardiovascular regulation. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of vestibular gravity receptors in normal baroreflex function. Baroreflex heart rate (HR) responses to changes in blood pressure (BP) in otoconia-deficient head tilt (het) mice (n = 8) were compared with their wild-type littermates (n = 12). The study was carried out in conscious male mice chronically implanted with arterial and venous catheters for recording BP and HR and for the infusion of vasoactive drugs. Resting HR was higher in the het mice (661 +/- 13 beats/min) than in the wild-type mice (579 +/- 20 beats/min). BP was comparable in the het (113 +/- 4 mmHg) and wild-type mice (104 +/- 4 mmHg). The slopes of reflex decreases in HR in response to phenylephrine (PE) were blunted in the het mice (-5.5 +/- 1.5 beats x min(-1) x mmHg(-1)) compared with the wild-type mice (-8.5 +/- 0.9 beats x min(-1) x mmHg(-1)). Likewise, reflex tachycardic responses to decreases in BP with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were significantly blunted in the het mice (-0.8 +/- 0.3 beats x min(-1) x mmHg(-1)) versus the wild-type mice (-2.2 +/- 0.6 beats x min(-1) x mmHg(-1)). Frequency-domain analysis of the HR variability suggests that under resting conditions, parasympathetic contribution was lower in the het versus wild-type mice. Mapping of the expression of immediate-early gene product, c-Fos, in forebrain and brain stem nuclei in response to a BP challenge showed no differences between the wild-type and het mice. These results suggest that tonic activity of gravity receptors modulates and is required for normal function of the cardiac baroreflexes.
- Pamidimukkala, J., & Hay, M. (2003). 17 beta-Estradiol inhibits angiotensin II activation of area postrema neurons. American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology, 285(4), H1515-20.More infoIt is well established that the area postrema, as a circumventricular organ, is susceptible to modulation by circulating hormones and peptides. Furthermore, activation of the area postrema has been shown to modulate central neurons involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function and blood pressure. In particular, the vasoactive peptide angiotensin II (ANG II) has been shown to inhibit baroreflex regulation of heart rate and increase sympathetic outflow and blood pressure via activation of area postrema neurons. Estrogen is thought to protect against hypertension in both humans and animal models and has been shown in a number of systems to alter the effects of ANG II. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of estrogen on ANG II activation of area postrema neurons. In this study, the effects of ANG II and KCl on fura 2-measured cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) responses in cultured area postrema neurons in the presence and absence of 12-h exposure to 100 nM 17 beta-estradiol (E2) were evaluated. In neurons incubated in control vehicle media, 50 nM ANG II increased [Ca2+]i by 92 +/- 12%. In neurons preincubated with 100 nM E2, ANG II increased [Ca2+]i by only 68 +/- 11%, for a total inhibition of the ANG II-evoked response of 24%. Coapplication of the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI-182,780 did not inhibit the effects of E2. In the same cells in which the effects of E2 on ANG II-evoked responses were tested, the effects of incubation in E on the depolarization-induced increased [Ca2+2]i due to 60 mM KCl were also tested. Incubation of the cells with 100 nM E increased the KCl-evoked [Ca2+2]i response, and this response was blocked by ICI-182,780. These results suggest that in the area postrema, estrogen may utilize multiple pathways to modulate neural activity and responses to ANG II.
- Pamidimukkala, J., Taylor, J. A., Welshons, W. V., Lubahn, D. B., & Hay, M. (2003). Estrogen modulation of baroreflex function in conscious mice. American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology, 284(4), R983-9.More infoIt has been suggested that estrogen modulates baroreflex regulation of autonomic function. The present study evaluated the effects of estrogen on baroreflex regulation of heart rate in response to changes in blood pressure with phenylephrine (PE), ANG II, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in a conscious mouse model. Males and ovariectomized females with (OvxE+) and without (OvxE-) estradiol replacement chronically implanted with arterial and venous catheters were used in these studies. The slope of the baroreflex bradycardic responses to PE was significantly facilitated in OvxE+ females (-7.65 +/- 1.37) compared with OvxE- females (-4.5 +/- 0.4). Likewise, the slope of the baroreflex bradycardic responses to ANG II was significantly facilitated in OvxE+ females (-7.97 +/- 1.06) compared with OvxE- females (-4.8 +/- 1.6). Reflex tachycardic responses to SNP were comparable in all the groups. Finally, in male mice, the slope of ANG II-induced baroreflex bradycardia (-5.17 +/- 0.95) was significantly less than that induced by PE (-8.50 +/- 0.92), but this ANG II-mediated attenuation of reflex bradycardia was not observed in the female mice. These data support the hypothesis that estrogen facilitates baroreflex function in female mice and suggest that ANG II-mediated acute blunting of baroreflex regulation of heart rate may be sex dependent.
- Xue, B., & Hay, M. (2003). 17beta-estradiol inhibits excitatory amino acid-induced activity of neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius. Brain research, 976(1), 41-52.More infoThe effects of 17beta-estradiol (17betaE2) on spontaneous and excitatory amino acid (EAA) induced nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) neuronal activity were investigated by electrophysiological and immunohistochemical experiments in ovariectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats. Out of 62 NTS neurons tested, 42 were inhibited (68%) following iontophoretic application of 17betaE2 in a current-dependent manner. The averaged firing rate decreased from 3.06+/-0.40 to 0.78+/-0.17 Hz. The inhibitory responses were rapid in onset (within 1 min) and variable in duration (2-4 min). The inhibitory effects of 17betaE2 were blocked by simultaneously applied 17betaE2 antagonist ICI182,780, but not by GABA antagonist, bicuculline and phaclofen. L-Glutamate, AMPA or NMDA enhanced the activity of 71, 73 or 69% of NTS cells tested, respectively. The excitatory effects of EAA were significantly inhibited in the presence of 17betaE2. Fluorescent immunohistochemistry revealed that all subnuclei of the NTS contained high levels of estrogen receptors (ERs) immunoreactivity. These results suggest that 17betaE2 inhibits spontaneous and EAA-induced NTS neuronal activity through 17betaE2 activation of ERs.
- Xue, B., Gole, H., Pamidimukkala, J., & Hay, M. (2003). Role of the area postrema in angiotensin II modulation of baroreflex control of heart rate in conscious mice. American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology, 284(3), H1003-7.More infoThis study reports the effects of angiotensin II (ANG II), arginine vasopression (AVP), phenylephrine (PE), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on baroreflex control of heart rate in the presence and absence of the area postrema (AP) in conscious mice. In intact, sham-lesioned mice, baroreflex-induced decreases in heart rate due to increases in arterial pressure with intravenous infusions of ANG II were significantly less than those observed with similar increases in arterial pressure with PE (slope: -3.0 +/- 0.9 vs. -8.1 +/- 1.5 beats x min(-1) x mmHg(-1)). Baroreflex-induced decreases in heart rate due to increases in arterial pressure with intravenous infusions of AVP were the same as those observed with PE in sham animals (slope: -5.8 +/- 0.7 vs. -8.1 +/- 1.5 beats x min(-1) x mmHg(-1)). After the AP was lesioned, the slope of baroreflex inhibition of heart rate was the same whether pressure was increased with ANG II, AVP, or PE. The slope of the baroreflex-induced increases in heart rate due to decreases in arterial blood pressure with SNP were the same in sham- and AP-lesioned animals. These results indicate that, similar to other species, in mice the ability of ANG II to acutely reset baroreflex control of heart rate is dependent on an intact AP.
- Hay, M. (2001). Subcellular mechanisms of area postrema activation. Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology, 28(7), 551-7.
- Hay, M., Hoang, C. J., & Pamidimukkala, J. (2001). Cellular mechanisms regulating synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis in aortic baroreceptor neurons. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 940, 119-31.More infoThe purpose of this chapter is to review some of the recent progress in the understanding of the cellular and biophysical mechanisms that are involved in the regulation of arterial baroreceptor neurotransmission. Synaptic depression or fatigue following repeated neuronal stimulation has been shown at central baroreceptor synapses in vivo and in vitro. As most of the central neurons have a limited number of vesicles, vesicle retrieval or endocytosis following exocytosis is thought to play a major role in preserving synaptic transmission. We have hypothesized that central baroreceptor terminals may inhibit their own synaptic transmission via feedback activation of presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). We have analyzed the effects of mGluR autoreceptors (group III mGluRs) on voltage-gated calcium channels using standard patch-clamp techniques and on the process of exocytosis and endocytosis in aortic baroreceptor neurons using the quantitative imaging dye FM1-43 and FM2-10. Usng the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we have found that activation of group III mGluRs with L-AP4 inhibits peak calcium channel current. Furthermore, activation of group III mGluRs with L-AP4 markedly decreases stimulation-induced exocytosis in aortic baroreceptor neurons, as measured with FM1-43, and inhibits synapsin I phosphorylation. These results suggest that activation of group III mGluRs may inhibit synaptic transmission by (1) inhibiting calcium influx, (2) decreasing synaptic vesicle exocytosis, and (3) modulating the mechanisms governing synaptic vesicle recovery and endocytosis. These effects of mGluRs on baroreceptor synaptic vesicles may contribute to the baroreceptor/nucleus tractus solitarius synaptic depression observed in vivo.
- Hoang, C. J., & Hay, M. (2001). Expression of metabotropic glutamate receptors in nodose ganglia and the nucleus of the solitary tract. American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology, 281(1), H457-62.More infoThe purpose of this study was to identify the complement of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) expressed in nodose ganglia and the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). mRNA from these tissues was isolated and amplified with standard RT-PCR with primers specific for each mGluR subtype. The results of this analysis showed that the NTS expresses all eight mGluR subtypes, whereas nodose ganglia express only group III mGluRs: mGluR4, mGluR6, mGluR7, and mGluR8. Application of the group III-specific mGluR agonist L-(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (100 microM) reversibly inhibited voltage-gated calcium currents isolated from DiI-labeled aortic baroreceptor neurons and unlabeled nodose neurons. The results of this study suggest that group III mGluRs are the primary mGluR subtype expressed in visceral afferent neurons and that these receptors may be involved in afferent central transmission.
- Pamidimukkala, J., & Hay, M. (2001). Frequency dependence of endocytosis in aortic baroreceptor neurons and role of group III mGluRs. American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology, 281(1), H387-95.More infoSynaptic transmission between baroreceptor afferents and the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is known to exhibit frequency-dependent depression. Reductions in neurotransmitter release and alterations in mechanisms regulating synaptic transmission are hypothesized to be involved in the activity-dependent depression observed in baroreceptor afferent neurons. The present study utilized cultured aortic baroreceptor neurons and the fluorescent dyes FM1-43 and FM2-10 to characterize the process of endocytosis or vesicle retrieval and its dependence on 1) frequency of neuronal activation, 2) metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) activation, and 3) calcium concentrations inside and outside the cell. Endocytosis per spike, measured in fluorescence units after a 10-s stimulus applied at frequencies of 0.5 (53 +/- 4), 1.0 (23 +/- 1), and 10.0 Hz (2.7 +/- 0.2), was significantly depressed at higher frequencies. Blockade of group III mGluRs with (RS)-cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (CPPG) facilitated endocytosis at all frequencies, suggesting that this receptor subtype may be involved in the inhibition of endocytosis. Manipulating the extracellular and intracellular calcium concentrations subsequent to exocytosis had no effect on endocytosis. These results suggest that frequency-dependent depression of endocytosis observed in vitro could contribute to the frequency-dependent depression of baroreceptor afferent neurotransmission and that group III mGluRs inhibit endocytosis.
- Hay, M., Hoang, C. J., Hasser, E. M., & Price, E. M. (2000). Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors inhibits synapsin I phosphorylation in visceral sensory neurons. The Journal of membrane biology, 178(3), 195-204.More infoActivation of glutamate metabotropic receptors (mGluRs) in nodose ganglia neurons has previously been shown to inhibit voltage-gated Ca++ currents and synaptic vesicle exocytosis. The present study describes the effects of mGluRs on depolarization-induced phosphorylation of the synaptic-vesicle-associated protein synapsin I. Depolarization of cultured nodose ganglia neurons with 60 mM KCl resulted in an increase in synapsin I phosphorylation. Application of mGluR agonists 1-aminocyclopentane-1s-3r-dicarboxylic acid (t-ACPD) and L(+)-2-Amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4) either in combination or independently inhibited the depolarization induced phosphorylation of synapsin I. Application of the mGluR antagonist (RS)-alpha-Methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG) blocked t-ACPD-induced inhibition of synapsin phosphorylation but not the effects of L-AP4. In addition, application of either t-ACPD or L-AP4 in the absence of KCl induced depolarization had no effect on resting synapsin I phosphorylation. RT-PCR analysis of mGluR subtypes in these nodose ganglia neurons revealed that these cells only express group III mGluR subtypes 7 and 8. These results suggest that activation of mGluRs modulates depolarization-induced synapsin I phosphorylation via activation of mGluR7 and/or mGluR8 and that this process may be involved in mGluR inhibition of synaptic vesicle exocytosis in visceral sensory neurons of the nodose ganglia.
- Foley, C. M., Vogl, H. W., Mueller, P. J., Hay, M., & Hasser, E. M. (1999). Cardiovascular response to group I metabotropic glutamate receptor activation in NTS. The American journal of physiology, 276(5 Pt 2), R1469-78.More infoGlutamate is the proposed neurotransmitter of baroreceptor afferents at the level of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Exogenous glutamate in the NTS activates neurons through ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). This study tested the hypothesis that group I mGluRs in the NTS produce depressor, bradycardic, and sympathoinhibitory responses. In urethan-anesthetized rats, unilateral 30-nl microinjections of the group I-selective mGluR agonist 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) into the NTS decreased mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity. The dose of drug that produced 50% of the maximal response (ED50) was 50-100 microM. The response to microinjection of equal concentrations of DHPG or the general mGluR agonist 1-aminocyclopentane-1S,3R-dicarboxylic acid (ACPD) produced similar cardiovascular effects. The cardiovascular response to injection of DHPG or ACPD was abolished by NTS blockade of mGluRs with alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG). Blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors with kynurenic acid did not attenuate the response to DHPG or ACPD injection. These data suggest that DHPG and ACPD activate mGluRs in the NTS and do not require ionotropic glutamate receptors to produce their cardiovascular response. In the NTS the group I mGluRs produce responses that are consistent with excitation of neurons involved in reducing sympathetic outflow, heart rate, and arterial pressure.
- Hay, M., & Lindsley, K. A. (1999). AMPA receptor activation of area postrema neurons. The American journal of physiology, 276(2 Pt 2), R586-90.More infoThis study reports on the effects of activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors on area postrema neuron cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). In 140 of 242 area postrema neurons isolated from postnatal rats, application of 100 microM L-glutamate (L-Glu) resulted in a significant increase in [Ca2+]i. The remaining neurons were unaffected. The effects of L-Glu on area postrema [Ca2+]i were dose dependent, with a threshold of response near 1.0 microM and maximal response near 100 microM. To determine if the response of L-Glu in area postrema neurons was due to activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors, the effects of the broad-spectrum ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonist kynurinic acid (Kyn) was determined. Application of 1.0 mM Kyn resulted in a 62.6 +/- 4% inhibition of the L-Glu-evoked response. Application of the selective N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid had no effect on the response of area postrema neurons to 100 microM L-Glu. In contrast, application of the selective DL-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptor antagonist 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline (DNQX) effectively blocked the 100 microM L-Glu response. Application of (+/-)-AMPA mimicked the effects observed with L-Glu and was selectively blocked by DNQX. These results suggest that L-Glu activation of area postrema neurons involves activation of AMPA receptors but not NMDA receptors.
- Hay, M., McKenzie, H., Lindsley, K., Dietz, N., Bradley, S. R., Conn, P. J., & Hasser, E. M. (1999). Heterogeneity of metabotropic glutamate receptors in autonomic cell groups of the medulla oblongata of the rat. The Journal of comparative neurology, 403(4), 486-501.More infoMetabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in the medulla oblongata have been suggested to be involved in the regulation of autonomic function. The aim of the present study was to examine the localization and expression of four types of mGluRs: mGluRla, mGluR2/3, mGluR5, and mGluR7 in the dorsal and ventral autonomic nuclei of the medulla of the rat. The four mGluR subtypes studied were differentially distributed in distinct subnuclei in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). mGluRla immunoreactivity was identified in cell bodies, dendrites, and axonal processes in the intermediate, dorsal lateral, and interstitial subnuclei of the NTS. No mGluRla immunoreactivity was observed in the commissural or medial NTS subnuclei. Immunoreactivity for mGluR2/3 and mGluR5 as observed in fibers and putative axonal processes in the interstitial, intermediate, and dorsolateral subnuclei of the NTS. In contrast, mGluR7 was expressed primarily in fibers and terminals in the central and commissural NTS subnuclei. Expression of mGluR2/3 was clearly evident in cell bodies, dendrites, and axonal processes within the area postrema. The vagal outflow nuclei were also studied. The dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMN) contained mGluRla cell bodies, dendrites, and axonal fibers and light mGluR2/3 processes. Throughout the rostral-caudal extent of the compact and semicompact formation nucleus ambiguus, mGluRla was found in cell bodies and fibers. Within the caudal and rostral regions of the ventral lateral medulla, mGluRla was observed in cell bodies and fibers. Cell bodies containing mGluRla were found adjacent to cells staining positive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in these regions but were not colocalized with the TH staining. However, mGluRla-expressing neurons in the ventral lateral medulla did appear to receive innervation from TH-containing fibers. These results suggest that the mGluRla-expressing neurons within the ventral lateral medulla are predominantly not catecholaminergic but may be innervated by catecholamine-containing fibers. These data are the first to provide a mapping of the different mGluR subtypes within the medulla and may facilitate predictions regarding the function of L-glutamate neurotransmission in these regions.
- Foley, C. M., Moffitt, J. A., Hay, M., & Hasser, E. M. (1998). Glutamate in the nucleus of the solitary tract activates both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. The American journal of physiology, 275(6 Pt 2), R1858-66.More infoGlutamate is the proposed neurotransmitter of baroreceptor afferents at the level of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors with kynurenic acid blocks the arterial baroreflex but, paradoxically, does not abolish the response to exogenous glutamate. This study tested the hypothesis that exogenous glutamate in the NTS activates both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). In urethan-anesthetized rats, unilateral microinjections of glutamate into the NTS decreased mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity. The cardiovascular response to injection of glutamate was not altered by NTS blockade of mGluRs with alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG). Blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors with kynurenic acid attenuated the response to glutamate injection. After combined NTS injection of MCPG and kynurenic acid, the response to glutamate was blocked. These data suggest that exogenous glutamate microinjected into the NTS acts at both ionotropic glutamate receptors and mGluRs. In addition, blockade of both classes of glutamate receptors is required to block the cardiovascular response to microinjection of glutamate in the NTS.
- Hay, M. (1998). Cyclosporine A modulation of Ca++ activated K+ channels in cardiac sensory afferent neurons. Brain research, 786(1-2), 243-7.More infoWhole-cell and single channel recordings were used to characterize the effects of the immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) on cardiac sensory neurons (CSN) of the nodose ganglia. Application of 10 nM CsA resulted in a 29.1% decrease in CSN input resistance and an average -8+/-3 mV hyperpolarization of membrane potential. Application of 10 nM CsA had no effect on evoked Ca++ currents but increased evoked K+ currents by 158.9+/-24%. Application of 10 nM CsA significantly increased the open probability of KCa channels by 183+/-9%. These results suggest that application of CsA results in the activation of KCa channels in cardiac sensory neurons and this effect may contribute to the cellular mechanisms underlying CsA modulation of vagal afferent neurons.
- Hay, M., & Hasser, E. M. (1998). Measurement of synaptic vesicle exocytosis in aortic baroreceptor neurons. The American journal of physiology, 275(2 Pt 2), H710-6.More infoThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of the fluorescent membrane label FM1-43 as a measure of synaptic terminal exocytosis during stimulation of labeled aortic baroreceptor and unlabeled nodose ganglia neurons. Activation of the nerve terminals with electrical stimulation or depolarization with 90 mM KCl in the presence of 2.0 microM FM1-43 resulted in bright, punctate staining of synaptic boutons. Additional depolarization in the absence of dye resulted in destaining with a time course that was consistent and repeatable in multiple boutons within a given terminal. Destaining was dependent on calcium influx and was blocked by bath application of 100 microM CdCl2. Whole cell patch-clamp studies have reported that depolarization-induced calcium influx in aortic baroreceptor cell bodies is predominantly caused by the activation of omega-conotoxin GVIA (omega-CgTx)-sensitive N-type calcium channels. In addition, these N-type channels have been shown to be inhibited by activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors. In the present study, exocytosis in aortic baroreceptor terminals was not affected by bath application of 5 microM nifedipine and only partially inhibited by bath application of 2.0 microM omega-CgTx. However, depolarization-induced exocytosis was significantly inhibited by bath application of 200 microM L-AP4, a type III metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist. Results from this study suggest that 1) FM1-43 can be used to measure synaptic vesicle exocytosis in baroreceptor neurons; 2) the N-type calcium channel may not be involved in the initial phase of vesicle exocytosis; and 3) activation of L-AP4-sensitive metabotropic glutamate receptors inhibits 90 mM KCl-induced vesicle release.
- Hasser, E. M., Bishop, V. S., & Hay, M. (1997). Interactions between vasopressin and baroreflex control of the sympathetic nervous system. Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology, 24(1), 102-8.More info1. In addition to its effects at the renal tubules to influence water retention and at vascular smooth muscle to cause vasoconstriction, the hormone arginine vasopressin also appears to modulate cardiovascular reflex control of the sympathetic nervous system. Infusion or endogenous release of vasopressin results in enhanced baroreflex sympatho-inhibitory responses compared with other pressor agents. In addition, when changes in arterial pressure are imposed on an elevated background level of circulating vasopressin, due either to infusion or endogenous release, the arterial baroreflex response is shifted to lower pressures, and the maximum sympatho-excitation to a decrease in pressure is reduced. 2. Evidence suggests that vasopressin may influence cardiovascular reflex function at multiple sites. Nevertheless, the primary site involved in the effects of circulating vasopressin on baroreflex function appears to be in the central nervous system, specifically in the area postrema. Lesion of the area postrema abolishes the ability of circulating vasopressin to modulate arterial baroreflex and cardiopulmonary reflex function and electrical or chemical stimulation of this circumventricular organ mimics the effects of vasopressin. In addition, vasopressin has been shown to influence the activity of area postrema neurons in vivo and in vitro. Although not all studies agree, the effects of the area postrema and vasopressin on cardiovascular reflex function appear to be dependent on afferent input from peripheral baroreceptors. 3. Most evidence suggests that vasopressin exerts its effects on baroreflex function through a V1 vasopressin receptor mechanism. Systemic administration or microinjection into the area postrema of a specific V1 receptor antagonist abolishes the action of arginine vasopressin on arterial baroreflex and cardiopulmonary reflex control of the sympathetic nervous system. 4. The ability of vasopressin and the area postrema to influence baroreflex function appears to be dependent on an alpha 2-adrenoceptor mechanism at the level of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Blockade of alpha 2-adrenoceptors in the NTS abolishes the effects of vasopressin and the area postrema on the sympathetic nervous system. Facilitation of NTS processing of baroreceptor afferent inputs by the area postrema could contribute to the enhanced sympatho-inhibition and shift of the baroreflex curve to lower pressures during elevations in circulating vasopressin.
- Qu, L., Hay, M., & Bishop, V. S. (1997). Administration of AVP to the area postrema alters response of NTS neurons to afferent inputs. The American journal of physiology, 272(2 Pt 2), R519-25.More infoThis study was designed to determine if arginine vasopressin (AVP) facilitates the response of nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) neurons to baroreceptor input. In anesthetized sinoaortic-denervated vagotomized rabbits, AVP was intravenously infused (15 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1), 1 min) or microinjected into the area postrema (AP; 1 ng/nl, 10 nl). Extracellular recordings of evoked NTS neuronal responses to electrical stimulation of the aortic depressor nerve (ADN) or vagus nerve (1 Hz, 2-20 V, 0.05-0.6 ms) were evaluated before and after AVP administration. In neurons receiving input from the ADN (n = 19), 58% of them increased their responses after AVP (40.3 +/- 5.0 to 71.5 +/- 4,8%, P < 0.001). Similarly, in neurons activated by vagal stimulation (n = 22), 55% of them were facilitated during AVP administration (59.7 +/- 12.8 to 90.8 +/- 10.7%, P < 0.01). This action of AVP was independent of the mode of AVP administration, since either microinjection or venous infusion was effective in augmenting responses of NTS neurons to aortic/vagal stimulation. In an additional 37 spontaneous NTS neurons, AVP showed no effect on the mean baseline firing rate (8.9 +/- 1.3 vs. 9.6 +/- 1.3 spikes/s, P > 0.05), but increased neuronal activity in 54% of neurons (6.9 +/- 1.3 vs. 13.1 +/- 1.7 spikes/s, P < 0.01). In two rabbits pretreated with vasopressin antagonist (15 microg/kg iv), AVP failed to produce facilitatory effects (n = 8). The results of this study provide evidence in support of the hypothesis that circulating peptides modulate the arterial baroreflex via activation of neurons in the AP.
- Consolim-Colombo, F. M., Hay, M., Smith, T. C., Elizondo-Fournier, M., & Bishop, V. S. (1996). Subcellular mechanisms of angiotensin II and arginine vasopressin activation of area postrema neurons. The American journal of physiology, 271(1 Pt 2), R34-41.More infoAngiotensin II (ANG II) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) act on area postrema (AP) neurons to modulate the baroreflex. Because activation of AP neurons by either ANG II or AVP increases intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i), the goal of this study was to analyze the factors affecting the [Ca2+]i responses to ANG II and AVP. Neurons were recovered from 14- to 16-day old rats and studied after 8-14 days in culture by use of the microscopic digital image analysis for fura 2-loaded cells. The effects of ANG II (100 nM) and AVP (100 nM) on [Ca2+]i were determined in normal (2 mM) and low (< 10 nM) extracellular Ca2+ concentrations. In 143 of 240 neurons, ANG II increased [Ca2+]i 4.65-fold after 20 s, and a similar response was observed in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ (3.65-fold after 20 s). After 60 s of observation, steady-state levels of increased [Ca2+]i were still present under both conditions. Pretreatment with AT1 antagonist or pertussis toxin abolished the response to ANG II. AVP also increased [Ca2+]i (3.6-fold at peak, 20 s) in normal and low extracellular Ca2+. Pretreatment with AVP V1 antagonist or pertussis toxin abolished the response to AVP. This study indicates that ANG II-induced increases in [Ca2+]i are independent of extracellular Ca2+ concentrations and involve the activation of AT1 receptors and a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein. Although AVP affects a fewer number of AP neurons, the mechanisms of activation are also independent of extracellular Ca2+ concentration and are mediated by a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein.
- Hay, M., Hasser, E. M., & Lindsley, K. A. (1996). Area postrema voltage-activated calcium currents. Journal of neurophysiology, 75(1), 133-41.More info1. Calcium currents in rabbit area postrema neurons were studied with the perforated patch-clamp technique. Experimental conditions eliminated Na+ and K+ currents and identified both low- and high-threshold voltage-activated calcium currents. 2. Low-threshold, T-type calcium currents were observed in 64% of the area postrema neurons recorded. This current activated near -60 mV and had an average peak amplitude of -36.2 +/- 5 pA (mean +/- SE) at -40 mV. This current began rapid inactivation near -95 mV, reached half-maximal inactivation at -71 mV and was totally inactivated by -40 mV. 3. A high-threshold transient current was recorded in all area postrema neurons, which consisted of both a transient and sustained component. This current was present at voltages greater than -40 mV and the transient component of this current was responsible for the majority of the total Ca2+ current. 4. Nickel ions (10 microM) effectively reduced both the T-type current and the high-threshold current. Cadmium ions (100 microM) effectively reduced the high-threshold current while having insignificant effects on the low-threshold current. 5. Application of the dihydropyridine antagonist nimodipine (1-10 microM) had no effect on either the low- or high-threshold voltage-activated calcium Ca2+ in area postrema neurons. In addition, application of omega-conotoxin-GVIA (2-10 microM) was also without effect on either the low- or high-threshold voltage-activated Ca2+ current, suggesting that area postrema neurons possess neither L- or N-type voltage-activated Ca2+ currents. 6. Application of omega-conotoxin MVIIC (10 microM) significantly inhibited the peak high-threshold Ca2+ current by 65.4% suggesting that area postrema neurons do possess a omega-conotoxin MVIIC-sensitive high-threshold Ca2+ channel. 7. Arg-vasopressin (150 nM) significantly increased the transient component of the high-threshold Ca2+ current but had little effect on either the low-threshold or the high-threshold sustained component.
- Yu, R., Hay, M., & Ticku, M. K. (1996). Chronic neurosteroid treatment attenuates single cell GABAA response and its potentiation by modulators in cortical neurons. Brain research, 706(1), 160-2.More infoIn previous studies we have observed that chronic neurosteroid 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha-ol-20-one (5 alpha 3 alpha) treatment produced downregulation of the GABAA receptors, heterologous uncoupling, and decreased heterologous efficacy at the GABAA receptor complex in cultured mammalian cortical neurons. In this study, using whole cell recording, we examined the consequence of chronic 5 alpha 3 alpha (1 microM; 5 days) treatment on GABA-induced currents in isolated cortical neurons. We observed that the GABA current was decreased by 78% after 5 days treatment of cortical cells with 1 microM 5 alpha 3 alpha. We also observed decreased pentobarbital, and 5 alpha 3 alpha potentiation of GABA currents after chronic 5 alpha 3 alpha treatment. These findings support the notion that GABA response, and its potentiation by pentobarbital, and neurosteroid, 5 alpha 3 alpha, are attenuated after chronic 5 alpha 3 alpha treatment.
- Hay, M., & Lindsley, K. A. (1995). Membrane properties of area postrema neurons. Brain research, 705(1-2), 199-208.More infoIntrinsic membrane properties, voltage-dependent sodium and voltage-dependent potassium currents of area postrema neurons in culture have been characterized with respect to their voltage dependence, time dependence and sensitivity to specific blocking agents. The area postrema is a hindbrain circumventricular organ which is known to have an important role in the central regulation of cardiovascular function. This study is the first to describe the biophysical properties of ion channels present in rat area postrema neurons. Recordings in current-clamp mode revealed a mean resting membrane potential of -55.0 +/- 1.6 (n = 24) mV and an input resistance of 213.6 +/- 23 M omega. For the 24 neurons tested, the evoked action potential had a mean threshold of 38.8 +/- 2 mV and a mean amplitude of 107.3 +/- 15 mV. Our results show that the area postrema possesses only one principle sodium current which is completely abolished by 5 microM tetrodotoxin (TTX) (n = 28). This current activated near -50 mV and reached peak amplitude at -30 mV. The area postrema does not possess a TTX insensitive sodium current. The area postrema has at least two types of potassium currents. All area postrema neurons studied with tetraethylamonium (TEA) (n = 40) showed the presence of a slowly activating outward current which was present at voltages greater than -40 mV and was blocked by 10 mM TEA. In addition, 75% of the neurons studied (n = 30/40) also showed a rapidly inactivating, 4-AP sensitive IA type current which activated near -30 mV. Angiotensin II attenuated both the peak and the steady-state potassium currents, suggesting that angiotensin II may modulate area postrema activity by inhibiting voltage-gated potassium channels.
- Hay, M., & Lindsley, K. A. (1995). Metabotropic glutamate receptor inhibition of visceral afferent potassium currents. Brain research, 698(1-2), 169-74.More infoThe effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor activation (mGluR) on voltage-gated potassium currents have been characterized in visceral sensory afferent neurons. L-Glutamate is known to be a primary neurotransmitter in visceral afferents which terminate at the level of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Synaptic communication between these afferents and the NTS has been shown to involve both postsynaptic ionotropic and presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptor activation. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of mGluR activation on voltage-gated potassium currents in visceral sensory neurons. Application of mGluR agonist t-ACPD inhibited both the peak and the steady state voltage-gated potassium current in 39 out of 56 visceral afferent neurons tested (70%) by 22.0 +/- 3 and 22.8 +/- 2%, respectively. Voltage and pharmacological protocols were utilized to isolate the potassium current affected by mGluR activation. Increasing the holding potential from -100 mV to -30 mV only partially attenuated the inhibitory effects of t-ACPD (decreased effect by 11%), suggesting that t-ACPD modulates both a voltage insensitive and a voltage-sensitive potassium current. In addition, 4-aminopyridine (5 microM) was applied to eliminate the 4-AP sensitive transient current. Also, this protocol only partially attenuated the inhibitory effects of t-ACPD (decreased effect by 6.3%), suggesting that mGluR activation inhibits both a 4-AP-sensitive and 4-AP-insensitive potassium current in visceral afferent neurons. Results from this study suggest that mGluRs may regulate visceral sensory afferent neuronal activity through inhibition of voltage-gated potassium channels.
- Hay, M., & Kunze, D. L. (1994). An intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel in rat visceral sensory afferent neurons. Neuroscience letters, 167(1-2), 179-82.More infoWhole-cell and single channel recordings were used to characterize an intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channel in sensory neurons of the nodose ganglion. From a -80 mV holding potential, the total outward current in these neurons was increased when extracellular calcium was raised from 0.02 to 5 mM. This calcium-evoked outward current was not blocked by either charybdotoxin (50 nM) or apamine (40 nM). In the inside-out patch configuration, the current-voltage relationship for this channel was linear between -60 and +60 mV in symmetrical 145 mM potassium aspartate (KAsp) and possessed a conductance of approximately 60 picosiemens (pS). Increasing [Ca2+]i from 0.01 microM to 1.0 microM markedly increased the cumulative open probability of this channel and the effect of increasing [Ca2+]i on these channels was not voltage dependent. In the outside-out patch configuration, neither tetraethylammonioum (TEA), (1 mM), apamine (40 nM) or charybdotoxin (ChTx) (50 nM) had any effect on the activity of this channel. These results provide new evidence for the existence of pharmacologically distinct intermediate conductance KCa channel in sensory afferent neurons.
- Hay, M., & Kunze, D. L. (1994). Calcium-activated potassium channels in rat visceral sensory afferents. Brain research, 639(2), 333-6.More infoThe purpose of the present study was to describe, at the single-channel level, the activity of a calcium-sensitive potassium channel in rat visceral-sensory neurons which has been suggested to be involved in sensory neuron excitability. Single-channel recordings in the inside-out configuration identified a 220 pS conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (KCa). From a -20 mV holding potential, increasing [Ca2+]i from 0.01 microM to 1.0 microM increased the open probability of this channel 92% (from 0.12 to 0.23). However, from a +20 mV holding potential, increasing [Ca2+]i from 0.01 to 1.0 microM increased the open probability by 326% (from 0.15 to 0.64). In addition, this large conductance KCa channel was blocked by TEA (1.0 microM) and charybdotoxin (40 microM) when applied to the external surface. These results are the first to characterize a large conductance KCa channel in the sensory afferent neurons of the rat nodose ganglia and should further expand the understanding of the ionic currents involved in the regulation of sensory afferent neuronal activity.
- Hay, M., & Kunze, D. L. (1994). Glutamate metabotropic receptor inhibition of voltage-gated calcium currents in visceral sensory neurons. Journal of neurophysiology, 72(1), 421-30.More info1. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) have been suggested to modulate neurotransmission of glutamatergic pathways via autoreceptive action. Visceral sensory afferents and baroreceptor afferents in particular are thought to utilize L-glutamate (L-glu) as a primary neurotransmitter. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether visceral sensory afferents possess a mGluR and determine the effect of mGluR activation on voltage-gated calcium currents in these neurons. 2. Activation of mGluRs by the selective agonist trans-(+/-)-1-amino-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (t-ACPD) reversibly suppressed the voltage-gated calcium currents in visceral sensory afferents of the nodose ganglion. Concentrations of t-ACPD ranging from 50 to 1,000 microM consistently decreased the evoked calcium current with a maximum suppression of the peak current of 25-30%. This response was repeatable and reversible within a given cell. 3. Metabotropic GluR activation selectively decreased the high-threshold calcium current evoked from step potentials greater than -30 mV and had no effect on the low-threshold calcium current. The inhibitory effects of t-ACPD on the high-threshold channel was partially blocked by omega-conotoxin (omega-CTx-GVIA) suggesting that at least part of the effects of mGluR inhibition of the voltage-gated calcium current is because of a modulation of the omega-CTx-GVIA sensitive high-threshold current. 4. Finally, the inhibitory effects of quisqualate (quis) on the high-threshold calcium current were blocked by pretreatment of the neurons with pertussis toxin (PTX). These results suggest that visceral sensory afferents do possess a PTX-sensitive mGluR and activation of this receptor results in the inhibition of a omega-CTx-GVIA sensitive high-threshold calcium channel.
- Schild, J. H., Clark, J. W., Hay, M., Mendelowitz, D., Andresen, M. C., & Kunze, D. L. (1994). A- and C-type rat nodose sensory neurons: model interpretations of dynamic discharge characteristics. Journal of neurophysiology, 71(6), 2338-58.More info1. Neurons of the nodose ganglia provide the sole connection between many types of visceral sensory inputs and the central nervous system. Electrophysiological studies of isolated nodose neurons provide a practical means of measuring individual cell membrane currents and assessing their putative contributions to the overall response properties of the neuron and its terminations. Here, we present a comprehensive mathematical model of an isolated nodose sensory neuron that is based upon numerical fits to quantitative voltage- and current-clamp data recorded in our laboratory. Model development was accomplished using an iterative process of electrophysiological recordings, nonlinear parameter estimation, and computer simulation. This work is part of an integrative effort aimed at identifying and characterizing the fundamental ionic mechanisms participating in the afferent neuronal limb of the baroreceptor reflex. 2. The neuronal model consists of two parts: a Hodgkin-Huxley-type membrane model coupled to a lumped fluid compartment model that describes Ca2+ ion concentration dynamics within the intracellular and external perineuronal media. Calcium buffering via a calmodulin-type buffer is provided within the intracellular compartment. 3. The complete model accurately reproduces whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings of the major ion channel currents observed in enzymatically dispersed nodose sensory neurons. Specifically, two Na+ currents exhibiting fast (INaf) and slow tetrodotoxin (TTX)-insensitive (INas) kinetics; low- and high-threshold Ca2+ currents exhibiting transient (ICa,t) and long-lasting (ICa,n) dynamics, respectively; and outward K+ currents consisting of a delayed-rectifier current (IK), a transient outward current (I(t)) and a Ca(2+)-activated K+ current (IK,Ca). 4. Whole-cell current-clamp recordings of somatic action-potential dynamics were performed on enzymatically dispersed nodose neurons using the perforated patch-clamp technique. Stimulus protocols consisted of both short (< or = 2.0 ms) and long (> or = 200 ms) duration current pulses over a wide range of membrane holding potentials. These studies clearly revealed two populations of nodose neurons, often termed A- and C-type cells, which exhibit markedly different action-potential signatures and stimulus response properties. 5. Using a single set of equations, the model accurately reproduces the electrical behavior of both A- and C-type nodose neurons in response to a wide variety of stimulus conditions and membrane holding potentials. The structure of the model, as well as the majority of its parameters are the same for both A- and C-type implementations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
- Hayward, L., Hay, M., & Felder, R. B. (1993). Acute resetting of the carotid sinus baroreflex by aortic depressor nerve stimulation. The American journal of physiology, 264(4 Pt 2), H1215-22.More infoThe effect of prolonged aortic depressor nerve (ADN) stimulation on carotid sinus baroreflex regulation of arterial pressure (AP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) was examined in anesthetized rabbits. Ramp increases in carotid sinus pressure (CSP) were repeated before and after 5 min of bilateral ADN stimulation. One minute after ADN stimulation the curve relating AP to CSP had shifted up and to the right, characterized by significant increases (P < 0.05) in the maximum (91 +/- 2 to 101 +/- 3 mmHg; mean +/- SE), midpoint (118 +/- 7 to 125 +/- 8 mmHg CSP), and minimum (45 +/- 3 to 53 +/- 4 mmHg) of the AP reflex curve. There was a parallel shift downward of the curve relating RSNA to CSP, characterized by significant decreases in the maximum [100 +/- 0 to 66 +/- 8% of maximum control RSNA value (%max)], the range (90 +/- 2 to 59 +/- 8%max), and the gain (-1.0 +/- 0.2 to -0.5 +/- 0.1%max/mmHg) of the RSNA reflex curve. Values returned to control within 10 min of cessation of ADN stimulation. These results suggest that central neurons processing baroreflex information from one set of mechanoreceptors can be reset by convergent signals arising from another baroreceptor site.
- Hay, M., & Bishop, V. S. (1991). Effects of area postrema stimulation on neurons of the nucleus of the solitary tract. The American journal of physiology, 260(4 Pt 2), H1359-64.More infoPrevious studies have suggested that neurons of the area postrema may modulate cardiovascular function through an interaction at the level of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Using an in vitro brain slice preparation of the rabbit medulla, the present study investigated the electrophysiological and pharmacological effects of area postrema stimulation on NTS neuronal activity. In the majority of neurons tested (85.7%), electrical stimulation of the area postrema consistently produced either single or multiple action potentials in NTS neurons. Latency values for neurons showing single spike responses to area postrema stimulation ranged from 3.0 to 17.0 ms with an average latency of 9.3 +/- 4.3 ms. The average threshold for area postrema activation of these nonspontaneously active NTS neurons was 99.8 +/- 12 microA with a stimulus threshold range between 15 and 200 microA (n = 53). Perfusion of the slice with phentolamine (1.0 microM) or yohimbine (200 nM) blocked the area postrema-evoked action potentials, whereas perfusion of the slice with prazosin (200 nM) had no effect. These findings suggest that area postrema neurons do modulate NTS neuronal activity and that this modulation results in an increase in NTS neuronal activation.
- Hay, M., & Bishop, V. S. (1991). Interactions of area postrema and solitary tract in the nucleus tractus solitarius. The American journal of physiology, 260(5 Pt 2), H1466-73.More infoThe nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) receives information from both area postrema (AP) and peripheral afferents. It is, therefore, one likely site of interaction between AP and peripheral afferent fibers. The present study's purpose was to determine the influence of AP stimulation on solitary tract-induced modulation of NTS neuronal activity. With the use of an in vitro rabbit brain slice preparation, extracellular recordings were made from 58 NTS neurons in which action potentials were evoked by both solitary tract and AP stimulation. In the majority of the cells tested, simultaneous stimulation of solitary tract and AP, at voltage levels that evoked no action potentials when stimulated separately, resulted in production of either single or multiple action potentials. In 27 units, stimulation levels to the solitary tract and to the AP were adjusted such that their respective separate stimulations produced an NTS action potential less than 30% of the time. When the two inputs were stimulated together, simultaneous stimulations produced an NTS action potential 100% of the time, suggesting a facilitatory interaction between the AP and the solitary tract on NTS neuronal activity. In nine cells, perfusion of the slice with clonidine induced a facilitation of solitary tract-evoked NTS response to a level similar to that seen during simultaneous stimulation of the solitary tract with the AP. Application of the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonist yohimbine blocked the ability of both clonidine and AP to facilitate the solitary tract-evoked response. These results support a possible interaction between AP and peripheral afferents and suggest that AP stimulation facilitates effects of solitary tract activation at the level of the NTS.
- Hay, M., Hasser, E. M., Undesser, K. P., & Bishop, V. S. (1991). Role of baroreceptor afferents on area postrema-induced inhibition of sympathetic activity. The American journal of physiology, 260(4 Pt 2), H1353-8.More infoActivation of the area postrema by either electrical stimulation or chemical application of L-glutamate has been shown to result in an enhancement of cardiovascular baroreflexes similar to that seen with systemic infusions of arginine vasopressin (AVP). In addition, it has been found that the effects of AVP on baroreflex inhibition of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) are similar to those observed with phenylephrine following lesions of the area postrema or after partial denervation of baroreceptor afferents. The present study was undertaken to determine the role of baroreceptor afferent input on area postrema stimulation-induced decreases in sympathetic activity. In anesthetized rabbits, the responses of arterial pressure, heart rate, and RSNA to area postrema electrical stimulation were obtained before and after progressive sinoaortic denervation and vagotomy. Stimulation of the area postrema in carotid sinus-denervated animals consistently decreased RSNA in a frequency-dependent manner. However, following bilateral removal of both the aortic nerves and the vagi, electrical stimulation of the area postrema had no effect on RSNA. These results suggest that the ability of area postrema stimulation to inhibit RSNA is dependent on the presence of baroreceptor afferent input.
- Cox, B. F., Hay, M., & Bishop, V. S. (1990). Neurons in area postrema mediate vasopressin-induced enhancement of the baroreflex. The American journal of physiology, 258(6 Pt 2), H1943-6.More infoIntravenous infusion of arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been shown to enhance baroreflex sensitivity, and this enhancement is dependent on the integrity of the area postrema. However, previous studies did not differentiate a role for cell bodies in the area postrema vs. the dense network of fibers located in and around the lateral and ventral margins of this circumventricular organ. In the present study, baroreflex function was assessed in conscious rabbits by examining heart rate after ramp infusions of phenylephrine (PE) and AVP. The subsequent day, the excitotoxin kainic acid was injected (30 nl initially, with five 15-nl supplemental injections of a 1 ng/nl solution over 1 h) into the area postrema, thus selectively destroying cell bodies. After an 8-day recovery period, baroreflex function was again assessed. The bradycardic response to graded infusion of PE (slope = -2.29 +/- 0.30) was not significantly different after selective lesions of area postrema neurons (slope = -1.88 +/- 0.49). In contrast, the previously enhanced bradycardic response to infusion of AVP (slope = -5.76 +/- 1.02) was significantly attenuated (slope = -2.31 +/- 0.21) to levels similar to that seen with infusion of PE. Thus selective chemical lesions of area postrema neurons block vasopressin-induced enhancement of the baroreflex.
- Armstrong, D. L., Hay, M., & Terrian, D. M. (1987). Modulation of cerebellar granule cell activity by iontophoretic application of serotonergic agents. Brain research bulletin, 19(6), 699-704.More infoSerotonergic fibers have been identified within the granule cell layer of the cerebellar cortex; however, their functional significance has not been identified. In this study the effect of serotonin on granule cell spontaneous activity was determined in the rat cerebellum. Of the 136 granule cells tested, 44.8% displayed a decrease in firing rate, 21.3% increased firing rate and 33.8% were not affected. The serotonin-induced changes in activity were not blocked by bicuculline or methysergide. The serotonin agonist 1,3 (trifluoromethylphenyl) piperazine mimicked the serotonin-induced suppressive response. Iontophoretically applied serotonin was also found to modulate GABA-induced suppression of granule cell activity. The variable effects of serotonin on spontaneous activity suggests the presence of more than one type of serotonergic receptor in the cerebellar granule cell layer.
- Streicher, J. M., Falk, T., Hay, M., Apostol, C. R., Bartlett, M. J., Heien, M. L., Molnar, G., Liu, C., Smith, C. L., Szabo, L., & Polt, R. L. (2018, Fall). Glycopeptides as Systemically Delivered CNS Active Drugs from Endogenous Peptide Hormones. Society for Neuroscience.
- Pollow, D., Romero-Aleshire, M. J., Uhrlaub, J., Nikolich-Zugich, J., Hay, M., & Brooks, H. L. (2014, April). Tcell-dependent hypertension is attenuated in female mice during angiotensin II infusion. FASEB 2014.More info25. Pollow D.P., Romero-Aleshire, M.J., Uhrlaub J., Nikolich-Zugich J., Hay M., Brooks H.L. FASEB 2014, A751. 26. Beckman J., Moore-Dotson J.M., Romero-Aleshire M.J., Brooks H.L., and Eggers E.D. Morphology of the Retina in Early Diabetes. The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO), May 2014.27. Moore-Dotson JM, Mazade R.E., Bernstein, A.S., Romero-Aleshire, M.J., Brooks, H.L., and Eggers ED. Light-evoked rod bipolar cell inhibition is decreased in diabetes. FASEB Summer Research Conference, Retinal Neurobiology and Visual Processing, June 2014.28. Pollow DP, Perez JN, Constantopoulos E, Konhilas JP, Brooks HL. Menopause impairs cardiovascular resilience and blood pressure regulation. American College of Sports Medicine Annual Meeting 2014. Abstract #3087.29. Pollow DP, Romero-Aleshire MJ, Goldberg E, Nikolich-Zugich J, Brooks H.L. 17-β estradiol treatment prevents angiotensin II-induced hypertension in VCD-treated menopausal female mice, independent of renal T lymphocyte infiltration. American Heart Association Council for High Blood Pressure Research, San Francisco, Sept 2014. 30. Moore-Dotson, J.M., Beckman, J., Mazade, R.E., Bernstein, A.S., Romero-Aleshire, M.J., Brooks, H.L. and Eggers, E.D. Spontaneous GABAergic signaling in the retinal OFF pathway is reduced in diabetes. Society for Neuroscience, November 2014.
- Hay, M. (2015). His and hers hypertension-down to a T?. American journal of physiology. Renal physiology.
- Hay, M. (2015). The Good and the Bad: Immune Cells and Hypertension. Circulation research.
- Hay, M., & Johnson, A. K. (2013). Sex and the heart: timing is everything. Experimental physiology.
- de la Peña, J. A., Hay, M., Arámburo de la Hoz, C., & Ruiz, J. (2010). Immigration law jeopardizes university collaboration. Science (New York, N.Y.).