- Assistant Professor, Biomedical Engineering
- Assistant Professor, Electrical and Computer Engineering
- Assistant Professor, BIO5 Institute
- Craig M Berge Faculty Fellow
Dr. Philipp Gutruf is an Assistant Professor in the Biomedical Engineering Department at the University of Arizona and leads the Gutruf Lab. He received his postdoctoral training in the Rogers Research Group at Northwestern University and the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) where he developed a broad set of soft, highly miniaturized wireless battery free tools for the characterization and stimulation of biological systems. Dr. Gutruf received his PhD in 2016 at RMIT University where he worked on oxide based stretchable electronics, sensors and photonics, with emphasis on device fabrication and material concepts for intrinsically stretchable devices. He has authored over 32 journal articles and received 4 patents and his work has been highlighted on 8 journal covers. He has also been the recipient of prestigious scholarships and fellowships such as the International Postgraduate Research Scholarship (IPRS) and the Australian Nano Technology Network Travel Fellowship. The Gutruf Lab`s research focuses on creating devices that intimately integrate with biological systems by unifying innovations in soft materials, photonics and electronics to create systems with broad impact on health diagnostics and neuroscience.
- Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology
- Transforming flexible devices to stretchable oxide-based electronics, photonics, and sensors
- Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences
Our research focuses on creating devices that intimately integrate with biological systems. We combine innovations in soft materials, photonics and electronics to create systems with broad impact on health diagnostics and neuroscience.
I am specifically interested in teaching design oriented hands on skills for biomedical engineers.
ResearchBME 900 (Fall 2020)
ThesisBME 910 (Fall 2020)
Medical Device DesignBME 310 (Spring 2020)
ResearchBME 900 (Spring 2020)
ThesisBME 910 (Spring 2020)
Directed ResearchBME 492 (Fall 2019)
ResearchBME 900 (Fall 2019)
Rsrch Meth Biomed EngrBME 597G (Fall 2019)
Directed ResearchBME 492 (Spring 2019)
Rsrch Meth Biomed EngrBME 597G (Spring 2019)
Rsrch Meth Biomed EngrBME 597G (Fall 2018)
- Zhang, H., Gutruf, P., & Rogers, J. A. (2019). Flexible Inorganic Light Emitting Diodes Enabled by New Materials and Designs, With Examples of Their Use in Neuroscience Research. Wiley.
- Gutruf, P. (2018). Low Power Semiconductor Devices and Processes for Emerging Applications in Communications, Computing, and Sensing. Chapter 12:"Miniaturized Battery-Free Wireless Bio-Integrated Systems": CRC Press.
- Burton, A., Obaid, S. N., VÃ¡zquez-Guardado, A., Schmit, M. B., Stuart, T., Cai, L., Chen, Z., Kandela, I., Haney, C. R., Waters, E. A., Cai, H., Rogers, J. A., Lu, L., & Gutruf, P. (2020). Wireless, battery-free subdermally implantable photometry systems for chronic recording of neural dynamics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 201920073.
- Bandodkar, A. J., Choi, J., Lee, S. P., Jeang, W. J., Agyare, P., Gutruf, P., Wang, S., Sponenburg, R. A., Reeder, J. T., Schon, S., Ray, T. R., Chen, S., Mehta, S., Ruiz, S., & Rogers, J. A. (2019). Soft, Skin-Interfaced Microfluidic Systems with Passive Galvanic Stopwatches for Precise Chronometric Sampling of Sweat. Advanced Materials, 31(32), 1902109.
- Bandodkar, A. J., Gutruf, P., Choi, J., Lee, K., Sekine, Y., Reeder, J. T., Jeang, W. J., Aranyosi, A. J., Lee, S. P., Model, J. B., Ghaffari, R., Su, C., Leshock, J. P., Ray, T., Verrillo, A., Thomas, K., Krishnamurthi, V., Han, S., Kim, J., , Krishnan, S., et al. (2019). Battery-free, skin-interfaced microfluidic/electronic systems for simultaneous electrochemical, colorimetric, and volumetric analysis of sweat. Science Advances, 5(1).
- Gutruf, P., Yin, R. T., Lee, K. B., Ausra, J., Brennan, J. A., Qiao, Y., Xie, Z., Peralta, R., Talarico, O., Murillo, A., Chen, S. W., Leshock, J. P., Haney, C. R., Waters, E. A., Zhang, C., Luan, H., Huang, Y., Trachiotis, G., Efimov, I. R., & Rogers, J. A. (2019). Wireless, battery-free, fully implantable multimodal and multisite pacemakers for applications in small animal models. Nature Communications, 10(1), 5742.
- Ray, T. R., Choi, J., Bandodkar, A. J., Krishnan, S., Gutruf, P., Tian, L., Ghaffari, R., & Rogers, J. A. (2019). Bio-Integrated Wearable Systems: A Comprehensive Review. Chemical Reviews.
- Reeder, J. T., Choi, J., Xue, Y., Gutruf, P., Hanson, J., Liu, M., Ray, T., Bandodkar, A. J., Avila, R., Xia, W., Krishnan, S., Xu, S., Barnes, K., Pahnke, M., Ghaffari, R., Huang, Y., & Rogers, J. A. (2019). Waterproof, electronics-enabled, epidermal microfluidic devices for sweat collection, biomarker analysis, and thermography in aquatic settings. Science Advances, 5(1).
- Yu, X., Xie, Z., Yu, Y., Lee, J., Vazquez-Guardado, A., Luan, H., Ruban, J., Ning, X., Akhtar, A., Li, D., Ji, B., Liu, Y., Sun, R., Cao, J., Huo, Q., Zhong, Y., Lee, C., Kim, S., Gutruf, P., , Zhang, C., et al. (2019). Skin-integrated wireless haptic interfaces for virtual and augmented reality. Nature, 575(7783), 473-479.
- Zhang, H., Gutruf, P., Meacham, K., Montana, M. C., Zhao, X., Chiarelli, A. M., VÃ¡zquez-Guardado, A., Norris, A., Lu, L., Guo, Q., Xu, C., Wu, Y., Zhao, H., Ning, X., Bai, W., Kandela, I., Haney, C. R., Chanda, D., Gereau, R. W., & Rogers, J. A. (2019). Wireless, battery-free optoelectronic systems as subdermal implants for local tissue oximetry. Science Advances, 5(3), eaaw0873.
- Zhang, Y., Castro, D. C., Han, Y., Wu, Y., Guo, H., Weng, Z., Xue, Y., Ausra, J., Wang, X., Li, R., Wu, G., VÃ¡zquez-Guardado, A., Xie, Y., Xie, Z., Ostojich, D., Peng, D., Sun, R., Wang, B., Yu, Y., , Leshock, J. P., et al. (2019). Battery-free, lightweight, injectable microsystem for in vivo wireless pharmacology and optogenetics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(43), 21427.
- Zhang, Y., Mickle, A. D., Gutruf, P., McIlvried, L. A., Guo, H., Wu, Y., Golden, J. P., Xue, Y., Grajales-Reyes, J. G., Wang, X., Krishnan, S., Xie, Y., Peng, D., Su, C., Zhang, F., Reeder, J. T., Vogt, S. K., Huang, Y., Rogers, J. A., & Gereau, R. W. (2019). Battery-free, fully implantable optofluidic cuff system for wireless optogenetic and pharmacological neuromodulation of peripheral nerves. Science Advances, 5(7), eaaw5296.
- Gutruf, P., & Rogers, J. A. (2018). Implantable, wireless device platforms for neuroscience research. Current opinion in neurobiology, 50, 42-49.More infoRecently developed classes of ultraminiaturized wireless devices provide powerful capabilities in neuroscience research, as implantable light sources for simulation/inhibition via optogenetics, as integrated microfluidic systems for programmed pharmacological delivery and as multimodal sensors for physiological measurements. These platforms leverage basic advances in biocompatible materials, semiconductor device designs and systems engineering concepts to afford modes of operation that are qualitatively distinct from those of conventional approaches that tether animals to external hardware by means of optical fibers, electrical cables and/or fluidic tubing. Neuroscience studies that exploit the unique features of these technologies enable insights into neural function through targeted stimulation, inhibition and recording, with spatially and genetically precise manipulation of neural circuit activity. Experimental possibilities include studies in naturalistic, three dimensional environments, investigations of pair-wise or group related social interactions and many other scenarios of interest that cannot be addressed using traditional hardware.
- Gutruf, P., Good, C. H., & Rogers, J. A. (2018). Perspective: Implantable optical systems for neuroscience research in behaving animal models:Current approaches and future directions. APL Photonics, 3(12), 120901.
- Gutruf, P., Krishnamurthi, V., VÃ¡zquez-Guardado, A., Xie, Z., Banks, A., Su, C., Xu, Y., Haney, C. R., Waters, E. A., Kandela, I., Krishnan, S. R., Ray, T., Leshock, J. P., Huang, Y., Chanda, D., & Rogers, J. A. (2018). Fully implantable optoelectronic systems for battery-free, multimodal operation in neuroscience research. Nature Electronics, 1(12), 652-660.
- Heo, S. Y., Kim, J., Gutruf, P., Banks, A., Wei, P., Pielak, R., Balooch, G., Shi, Y., Araki, H., Rollo, D., Gaede, C., Patel, M., Kwak, J. W., PeÃ±a-AlcÃ¡ntara, A. E., Lee, K., Yun, Y., Robinson, J. K., Xu, S., & Rogers, J. A. (2018). Wireless, battery-free, flexible, miniaturized dosimeters monitor exposure to solar radiation and to light for phototherapy. Science Translational Medicine, 10(470), eaau1643.
- Krishnan, S. R., Ray, T. R., Ayer, A. B., Ma, Y., Gutruf, P., Lee, K., Lee, J. Y., Wei, C., Feng, X., Ng, B., Abecassis, Z. A., Murthy, N., Stankiewicz, I., Freudman, J., Stillman, J., Kim, N., Young, G., Goudeseune, C., Ciraldo, J., , Tate, M., et al. (2018). Epidermal electronics for noninvasive, wireless, quantitative assessment of ventricular shunt function in patients with hydrocephalus. Science Translational Medicine, 10(465).
- Krishnan, S. R., Su, C., Xie, Z., Patel, M., Madhvapathy, S. R., Xu, Y., Freudman, J., Ng, B., Heo, S. Y., Wang, H., Ray, T. R., Leshock, J., Stankiewicz, I., Feng, X., Huang, Y., Gutruf, P., & Rogers, J. A. (2018). Wireless, Battery-Free Epidermal Electronics for Continuous, Quantitative, Multimodal Thermal Characterization of Skin. Small, 0(0), 1803192.
- Lu, L., Gutruf, P., Xia, L., Bhatti, D. L., Wang, X., Vazquez-Guardado, A., Ning, X., Shen, X., Sang, T., Ma, R., Pakeltis, G., Sobczak, G., Zhang, H., Seo, D. O., Xue, M., Yin, L., Chanda, D., Sheng, X., Bruchas, M. R., & Rogers, J. A. (2018). Wireless optoelectronic photometers for monitoring neuronal dynamics in the deep brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115(7), E1374-E1383.More infoCapabilities for recording neural activity in behaving mammals have greatly expanded our understanding of brain function. Some of the most sophisticated approaches use light delivered by an implanted fiber-optic cable to optically excite genetically encoded calcium indicators and to record the resulting changes in fluorescence. Physical constraints induced by the cables and the bulk, size, and weight of the associated fixtures complicate studies on natural behaviors, including social interactions and movements in environments that include obstacles, housings, and other complex features. Here, we introduce a wireless, injectable fluorescence photometer that integrates a miniaturized light source and a photodetector on a flexible, needle-shaped polymer support, suitable for injection into the deep brain at sites of interest. The ultrathin geometry and compliant mechanics of these probes allow minimally invasive implantation and stable chronic operation. In vivo studies in freely moving animals demonstrate that this technology allows high-fidelity recording of calcium fluorescence in the deep brain, with measurement characteristics that match or exceed those associated with fiber photometry systems. The resulting capabilities in optical recordings of neuronal dynamics in untethered, freely moving animals have potential for widespread applications in neuroscience research.
- Nirantar, S., Ahmed, T., Ren, G., Gutruf, P., Xu, C., Bhaskaran, M., Walia, S., & Sriram, S. (2018). Metal Air Transistors: Semiconductor-Free Field-Emission Air-Channel Nanoelectronics. Nano Letters.
- Araki, H., Kim, J., Zhang, S., Banks, A., Crawford, K. E., Sheng, X., Gutruf, P., Shi, Y., Pielak, R. M., & Rogers, J. A. (2017). Materials and Device Designs for an Epidermal UV Colorimetric Dosimeter with Near Field Communication Capabilities. ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, 27(2).
- Kim, J., Gutruf, P., Chiarelli, A. M., Heo, S. Y., Cho, K., Xie, Z., Banks, A., Han, S., Jang, K. I., Lee, J. W., Lee, K. T., Feng, X., Huang, Y., Fabiani, M., Gratton, G., Paik, U., & Rogers, J. A. (2017). Miniaturized Battery-Free Wireless Systems for Wearable Pulse Oximetry. Advanced functional materials, 27(1).More infoDevelopment of unconventional technologies for wireless collection, storage and analysis of quantitative, clinically relevant information on physiological status is of growing interest. Soft, biocompatible systems are widely regarded as important because they facilitate mounting on external (e.g. skin) and internal (e.g. heart, brain) surfaces of the body. Ultra-miniaturized, lightweight and battery-free devices have the potential to establish complementary options in bio-integration, where chronic interfaces (i.e. months) are possible on hard surfaces such as the fingernails and the teeth, with negligible risk for irritation or discomfort. Here we report materials and device concepts for flexible platforms that incorporate advanced optoelectronic functionality for applications in wireless capture and transmission of photoplethysmograms, including quantitative information on blood oxygenation, heart rate and heart rate variability. Specifically, reflectance pulse oximetry in conjunction with near-field communication (NFC) capabilities enables operation in thin, miniaturized flexible devices. Studies of the material aspects associated with the body interface, together with investigations of the radio frequency characteristics, the optoelectronic data acquisition approaches and the analysis methods capture all of the relevant engineering considerations. Demonstrations of operation on various locations of the body and quantitative comparisons to clinical gold standards establish the versatility and the measurement accuracy of these systems, respectively.
- Lee, G., Kang, S., Won, S. M., Gutruf, P., Jeong, Y. R., Koo, J., Lee, S., Rogers, J. A., & Ha, J. S. (2017). Fully Biodegradable Microsupercapacitor for Power Storage in Transient Electronics. ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS, 7(18).
- Fumeaux, C., Zou, C., Headland, D., Nirantar, S., Gutruf, P., Zou, L., Bhaskaran, M., Sriram, S., & Withayachumnankul, W. (2016). Terahertz and Optical Dielectric Resonator Antennas: Potential and Challenges for Efficient Designs. 2016 10TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION (EUCAP).
- Gutruf, P., Zou, C., Withayachumnankul, W., Bhaskaran, M., Sriram, S., & Fumeaux, C. (2016). Mechanically Tunable Dielectric Resonator Metasurfaces at Visible Frequencies. ACS nano, 10(1), 133-41.More infoDevices that manipulate light represent the future of information processing. Flat optics and structures with subwavelength periodic features (metasurfaces) provide compact and efficient solutions. The key bottleneck is efficiency, and replacing metallic resonators with dielectric resonators has been shown to significantly enhance performance. To extend the functionalities of dielectric metasurfaces to real-world optical applications, the ability to tune their properties becomes important. In this article, we present a mechanically tunable all-dielectric metasurface. This is composed of an array of dielectric resonators embedded in an elastomeric matrix. The optical response of the structure under a uniaxial strain is analyzed by mechanical-electromagnetic co-simulations. It is experimentally demonstrated that the metasurface exhibits remarkable resonance shifts. Analysis using a Lagrangian model reveals that strain modulates the near-field mutual interaction between resonant dielectric elements. The ability to control and alter inter-resonator coupling will position dielectric metasurfaces as functional elements of reconfigurable optical devices.
- Headland, D., Carrasco, E., Nirantar, S., Withayachumnankul, W., Gutruf, P., Schwarz, J., Abbott, D., Bhaskaran, M., Sriram, S., Perruisseau-Carrier, J., & Fumeaux, C. (2016). Dielectric Resonator Reflectarray as High-Efficiency Nonuniform Terahertz Metasurface. ACS PHOTONICS, 3(6), 1019-1026.
- Headland, D., Nirantar, S., Gutruf, P., Abbott, D., Bhaskaran, M., Fumeaux, C., Sriram, S., & Withayachumnankul, W. (2016). Fabrication of micro-scale single-crystal silicon structures for efficient terahertz magnetic mirror. 2016 41ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INFRARED, MILLIMETER, AND TERAHERTZ WAVES (IRMMW-THZ).
- Wong, W., Gutruf, P., Sriram, S., Bhaskaran, M., Wang, Z., & Tricoli, A. (2016). Strain Engineering of Wave-like Nanofibers for Dynamically Switchable Adhesive/Repulsive Surfaces. ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, 26(3), 399-407.
- Yan, Z., Zhang, F., Liu, F., Han, M., Ou, D., Liu, Y., Lin, Q., Guo, X., Fu, H., Xie, Z., Gao, M., Huang, Y., Kim, J., Qiu, Y., Nan, K., Kim, J., Gutruf, P., Luo, H., Zhao, A., , Hwang, K. C., et al. (2016). Mechanical assembly of complex, 3D mesostructures from releasable multilayers of advanced materials. Science advances, 2(9), e1601014.More infoCapabilities for assembly of three-dimensional (3D) micro/nanostructures in advanced materials have important implications across a broad range of application areas, reaching nearly every class of microsystem technology. Approaches that rely on the controlled, compressive buckling of 2D precursors are promising because of their demonstrated compatibility with the most sophisticated planar technologies, where materials include inorganic semiconductors, polymers, metals, and various heterogeneous combinations, spanning length scales from submicrometer to centimeter dimensions. We introduce a set of fabrication techniques and design concepts that bypass certain constraints set by the underlying physics and geometrical properties of the assembly processes associated with the original versions of these methods. In particular, the use of releasable, multilayer 2D precursors provides access to complex 3D topologies, including dense architectures with nested layouts, controlled points of entanglement, and other previously unobtainable layouts. Furthermore, the simultaneous, coordinated assembly of additional structures can enhance the structural stability and drive the motion of extended features in these systems. The resulting 3D mesostructures, demonstrated in a diverse set of more than 40 different examples with feature sizes from micrometers to centimeters, offer unique possibilities in device design. A 3D spiral inductor for near-field communication represents an example where these ideas enable enhanced quality () factors and broader working angles compared to those of conventional 2D counterparts.
- Zou, C., Gutruf, P., Withayachumnankul, W., Zou, L., Bhaskaran, M., Sriram, S., & Fumeaux, C. (2016). Nanoscale TiO2 dielectric resonator absorbers. OPTICS LETTERS, 41(15), 3391-3394.
- Gutruf, P., Walia, S., Sriram, S., & Bhaskaran, M. (2015). Visible-Blind UV Imaging with Oxygen-Deficient Zinc Oxide Flexible Devices. ADVANCED ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, 1(12).
- Gutruf, P., Zeller, E., Walia, S., Nili, H., Sriram, S., & Bhaskaran, M. (2015). Stretchable and Tunable Microtectonic ZnO-Based Sensors and Photonics. SMALL, 11(35), 4532-4539.
- Gutruf, P., Zeller, E., Walia, S., Sriram, S., & Bhaskaran, M. (2015). Mechanically Tunable High Refractive-Index Contrast TiO2-PDMS Gratings. ADVANCED OPTICAL MATERIALS, 3(11), 1565-1569.
- Headland, D., Nirantar, S., Withayachumnankul, W., Gutruf, P., Abbott, D., Bhaskaran, M., Fumeaux, C., & Sriram, S. (2015). Terahertz Magnetic Mirror Realized with Dielectric Resonator Antennas. ADVANCED MATERIALS, 27(44), 7137-+.
- Headland, D., Taha, M., Gutruf, P., Withayachumnankul, W., Bhaskaran, M., Fumeaux, C., Abbott, D., & Sriram, S. (2015). Passive electric monopole array for terahertz surface wave launcher. 2015 40TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INFRARED, MILLIMETER AND TERAHERTZ WAVES (IRMMW-THZ).
- Kim, J., Banks, A., Cheng, H., Xie, Z., Xu, S., Jang, K., Lee, J. W., Liu, Z., Gutruf, P., Huang, X., Wei, P., Liu, F., Li, K., Dalal, M., Ghaffari, R., Feng, X., Huang, Y., Gupta, S., Paik, U., & Rogers, J. A. (2015). Epidermal Electronics with Advanced Capabilities in Near-Field Communication. SMALL, 11(8), 906-912.
- Kim, J., Banks, A., Xie, Z., Heo, S. Y., Gutruf, P., Lee, J. W., Xu, S., Jang, K., Liu, F., Brown, G., Choi, J., Kim, J. H., Feng, X., Huang, Y., Paik, U., & Rogers, J. A. (2015). Miniaturized Flexible Electronic Systems with Wireless Power and Near-Field Communication Capabilities. ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, 25(30), 4761-4767.
- Nili, H., Walia, S., Kandjani, A. E., Ramanathan, R., Gutruf, P., Ahmed, T., Balendhran, S., Bansal, V., Strukov, D. B., Kavehei, O., Bhaskaran, M., & Sriram, S. (2015). Donor-Induced Performance Tuning of Amorphous SrTiO3 Memristive Nanodevices: Multistate Resistive Switching and Mechanical Tunability. ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, 25(21), 3172-3182.
- Sonsilphong, A., Gutruf, P., Withayachumnankul, W., Abbott, D., Bhaskaran, M., Sriram, S., & Wongkasem, N. (2015). Flexible bi-layer terahertz chiral metamaterials. JOURNAL OF OPTICS, 17(8).
- Walia, S., Shah, C. M., Gutruf, P., Nili, H., Chowdhury, D. R., Withayachumnankul, W., Bhaskaran, M., & Sriram, S. (2015). Flexible metasurfaces and metamaterials: A review of materials and fabrication processes at micro- and nano-scales. APPLIED PHYSICS REVIEWS, 2(1).
- Gutruf, P., Walia, S., Ali, M. N., Sriram, S., & Bhaskaran, M. (2014). Strain response of stretchable micro-electrodes: Controlling sensitivity with serpentine designs and encapsulation. APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 104(2).
- Niu, T., Withayachumnankul, W., Upadhyay, A., Gutruf, P., Abbott, D., Bhaskaran, M., Sriram, S., & Fumeaux, C. (2014). Terahertz reflectarray as a polarizing beam splitter. OPTICS EXPRESS, 22(13), 16148-16160.
- Gutruf, P., Shah, C. M., Walia, S., Nili, H., Zoolfakar, A. S., Karnutsch, C., Kalantar-zadeh, K., Sriram, S., & Bhaskaran, M. (2013). Transparent functional oxide stretchable electronics: micro-tectonics enabled high strain electrodes. NPG ASIA MATERIALS, 5.
- Nirantar, S., Ahmed, T., Ren, G., Gutruf, P., Xu, C., Bhaskaran, M., Walia, S., & Sriram, S. (2019, 2019). Semiconductor-Free Field-Emission Nanoelectronics: Application in Air-Channel Transistors. In 2019 International Vacuum Electronics Conference (IVEC), 1-2.
- Gutruf, P. (2019, 03). Wireless battery free subdermally implantable neuromodulation and recording tools. BIOEL 2019. Kirchberg, Austria.
- Gutruf, P. (2019, 04). Fully Implantable Wireless Battery-Free Optoelectronic Systems for Multimodal Optogenetic Neuromodulation. MRS Spring Phoenix.
- Gutruf, P. (2019, 11). Wireless, subdermally implantable neuromodulation tools for chronic recording and stimulation in freely moving subjects. Neuroscience.
- Gutruf, P. (2019, 12). Soft, wireless and battery free sensors and photonics for broad application in the assessment and stimulation of biological systems. ICBME.