Russ B Toomey
- Associate Professor, Family and Consumer Sciences
Dr. Russell Toomey is an Associate Professor of Family Studies and Human Development at the University of Arizona. Dr. Toomey received his Ph.D. in Family Studies and Human Development from the University of Arizona, completed an NIH-funded postdoctoral fellowship at Arizona State University in the Prevention Research Center and the T. Denny Sanford School of Social and Family Dynamics, and served on the faculty at Kent State University. Dr. Toomey’s research identifies malleable contextual (e.g., family, school) and individual-level (e.g., identity processes) factors that contribute to and mitigate health disparities experienced by marginalized adolescents in the United States. His research has examined these relationships with explicit attention to the minority-specific stressors of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination that contribute to the disparate rates of negative outcomes experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) adolescents and Latinx youth, and the culturally-relevant protective factors (e.g., ethnic-racial identity, Gay-Straight Alliances) that buffer these associations. Dr. Toomey’s current research integrates these two distinct – but conceptually similar - lines of research (i.e., LGBTQ youth and Latinx youth), and focuses on how the amalgamation of individuals’ multiple marginalized identities contributes to their contextual experiences, health, and well-being. Dr. Toomey is Associate Editor for the Journal of Adolescent Research, and is a recipient of the Society for Research on Adolescence Young Investigator Award, a National Institutes of Health Loan Repayment Award, a University Distinguished Scholar Award, and the University of Arizona Shirley O’Brien Diversity Award.
- Ph.D. Family Studies and Human Development
- The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA
- Extracurricular Activity and Social Justice Involvement of Sexual Minority Youth
- M.A. Human Development and Family Studies
- Kent State University, Kent, Ohio, USA
- Perceived Sibling Relationships of LGBT Adolescents
- B.S. Child and Family Studies
- Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, USA
- University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (2017 - Ongoing)
- The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (2015 - 2017)
- Kent State University (2013 - 2015)
- Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona (2012 - 2013)
- Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona (2011 - 2012)
- SA7: 40 Under 40
- Tucson Hispanic Chamber of Commerce and the Arizona Daily Star, Fall 2019
- SA7: Civil Libertarian
- ACLU of Arizona, Fall 2019
- University of Arizona Distinguished Scholar Award
- University of Arizona, Spring 2018
- Faculty Award
- Council of Alumni and Friends of the John and Doris Norton School of Family and Consumer Sciences, Fall 2017
- Shirley O'Brien Diversity Award
- College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona, Spring 2016
- Young Investigator Award
- Society for Research on Adolescence, Spring 2016
- Outstanding Ohio Professional Presentation Award
- Ohio Council on Family Relations, Fall 2013
- Student / New Professional Paper Award
- Family & Health Section, National Council on Family Relations, Fall 2012
Adolescent development; Applied Graduate-Level Statistics; Human Sexuality; Structural Equation Modeling
Adolescent development; Gender identity and expression; Intersectionality; LGBTQA populations; Marginalization; Mental health; Mindfulness; Minority stress; Oppression and privilege; Positive youth development; Risk and protective processes; Self-compassion; Sexual orientation
DissertationFSHD 920 (Fall 2020)
Family+Consumer SciencesFSHD 696Z (Fall 2020)
Independent StudyFSHD 499 (Fall 2020)
Independent StudyFSHD 699 (Fall 2020)
Indpnd Study Comp ExamFSHD 799A (Fall 2020)
ThesisFSHD 910 (Fall 2020)
Independent StudyFSHD 499 (Summer I 2020)
DissertationFSHD 920 (Spring 2020)
Independent StudyFSHD 699 (Spring 2020)
Structural Equat ModelFSHD 617A (Spring 2020)
DissertationFSHD 920 (Fall 2019)
Human Sexuality+RelationFSHD 450 (Fall 2019)
Independent StudyFSHD 699 (Fall 2019)
ThesisFSHD 910 (Fall 2019)
Directed ResearchFSHD 492 (Spring 2019)
Independent StudyFSHD 699 (Spring 2019)
Inter Quantitative AnlysFSHD 537B (Spring 2019)
ResearchFSHD 900 (Spring 2019)
ThesisFSHD 910 (Spring 2019)
Directed ResearchFSHD 492 (Fall 2018)
Human Sexuality+RelationFSHD 450 (Fall 2018)
Independent StudyFSHD 399 (Fall 2018)
ResearchFSHD 900 (Fall 2018)
Directed ResearchFSHD 492 (Spring 2018)
Inter Quantitative AnlysFSHD 537B (Spring 2018)
Structural Equat ModelFSHD 617A (Spring 2018)
Directed ResearchFSHD 492 (Fall 2017)
DissertationFSHD 920 (Fall 2017)
Independent StudyFSHD 399 (Fall 2017)
Directed ResearchFSHD 492 (Spring 2017)
Independent StudyFSHD 699 (Spring 2017)
Tpcs in Diverse ContextsFSHD 604 (Spring 2017)
AdolescenceFSHD 377 (Fall 2016)
Directed ResearchFSHD 492 (Fall 2016)
Honors ThesisFSHD 498H (Fall 2016)
PreceptorshipFSHD 491 (Fall 2016)
Honors ThesisFSHD 498H (Summer I 2016)
AdolescenceFSHD 377 (Spring 2016)
Directed ResearchFSHD 492 (Spring 2016)
Independent StudyFSHD 499 (Spring 2016)
Independent StudyFSHD 699 (Spring 2016)
PreceptorshipFSHD 491 (Spring 2016)
Structural Equat ModelFSHD 617A (Spring 2016)
- Peter, C. R., Toomey, R. B., Heinze, J. E., & Horn, S. S. (2017). Positive development during emerging adulthood for queer populations. In Flourishing in emerging adulthood: Positive development during the third decade of life. Oxford University Press.
- Toomey, R. B. (2016). Gay-straight alliances. In SAGE Encyclopedia of LGBTQ Studies(pp 441-444). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
- Toomey, R. B. (2016). School climate. In SAGE Encyclopedia of LGBTQ Studies(pp 987-990). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
- Card, N. A., & Toomey, R. B. (2011). Applying the social relations model to developmental research. In Handbook of Developmental Research Methods(pp 557-576). New York, NY: Guilford Publicaitons.
- Russell, S. T., Toomey, R. B., Crockett, J., & Laub, C. (2010). LGBT student activism and civic engagement. In Handbook of research on civic engagement in youth(pp 471-494). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
- Russell, S. T., & Toomey, R. B. (2008). Gays and lesbians: Youth and adolescence. In Encyclopedia of the life course and human development: Vol. 1. Childhood and Adolescence(pp 191-195). Farmington Hills, MI: Thomas/Gale.
- Ryan, C., Toomey, R. B., Diaz, R. M., & Russell, S. T. (2018). Parent-initiated sexual orientation change efforts with LGBT adolescents: Implications for young adult mental health and adjustment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. doi:10.1080/00918369.2018.1538407
- Storlie, C., & Toomey, R. B. (2019). *Facets of career development in a new immigrant destination. Journal of Career Development. doi:10.1177/0894845319828541More infoIncluded in 2018 APR as in press. Published online in spring 2019.** Counted in 2018 APR year.
- Syvertsen, A. K., Scales, P. C., & Toomey, R. B. (2019). The Developmental Assets Framework revisited: Confirmatory factor analysis and invariance testing to create a new generation of assets measures for applied research. Applied Developmental Science. doi:10.1080/10888691.2019.1613155More infoListed in 2018 APR as R&R; Accepted in Spring 2019.
- Toomey, R. B., Syvertsen, A. K., & Flores, M. (2018). Are developmental assets protective against suicidal behavior? Differential associations by sexual orientation. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. doi:10.1007/s10964-018-0954-yMore infoPublished online in Spring 2018.
- Hoyt, L. T., Zeiders, K. H., Chaku, N., Toomey, R. B., & Nair, R. (2018). Young adults’ psychological and physiological reactions to the 2016 U.S. presidential election: The role of gender, race/ethnicity, and political views. Psychonueroendocrinology, 92, 162-169. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2018.03.011
- Nair, R., Toomey, R. B., Chaku, N., Zeiders, K. H., & Hoyt, L. T. (2018). Young adults’ psychological and physiological reactions to the 2016 U.S. presidential election: The role of gender, race/ethnicity, and political views. Psychonueroendocrinology.
- Perez-Brena, N. J., Deborah, R., Toomey, R. B., & Umana-Taylor, A. J. (2018). Contributions of the Integrative Model for the Study of Developmental Competencies in Minority Children: What have we learned about adaptive culture?. American Psychologist, 73(6), 713-726. doi:10.1037/amp0000292
- Santos, C. E., & Toomey, R. B. (2018). Introduction: Integrating an intersectionality lens in theory and research in developmental science. New Directions in Child and Adolescent Development, 161, 7-15. doi:10.1002/cad.20214
- Santos, C. E., & Toomey, R. B. (2018). Special Issue: Envisioning the integration of an intersectional lens in developmental science.. New Directions in Child and Adolescent Development, 161, 1-123. doi:10.1002/cad.20214
- Shramko, M., Toomey, R. B., & Anhalt, K. (2018). Profiles of minority stressors and identity centrality among sexual minority Latinx youth. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 88, 471-482. doi:10.1037/ort0000298
- Shulla, R. M., & Toomey, R. B. (2018). Sex differences in behavioral and psychological expression of grief during adolescence. A meta-analysis. Journal of Adolescence, 65, 219-227. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2018.04.001
- Toomey, R. B., & McGeorge, C. R. (2018). Profiles of LGBTQ ally engagement in college athletics. Journal of LGBT Youth, 15, 162-178. doi:10.1080/193361653.2018.1453428
- Toomey, R. B., McGeorge, C. R., & Carlson, T. S. (2018). Athletes’ perceptions of the climate for sexual and gender minority athletes and their intervention in bias. Journal of the Study of Sports and Athletes in Education, 12(2), 133-154. doi:10.1080/19357397.2018.1477278
- Toomey, R. B., Shramko, M., Flores, M., & Anhalt, K. (2018). Family socialization for racism and heterosexism: Experiences of Latinx sexual minority adolescent and young adults.. Journal of Family Issues, 39, 3586-3611. doi:10.1177/0192513X18783807
- Toomey, R. B., Syvertsen, A. K., & Shramko, M. (2018). Transgender adolescent suicide behavior: Understanding subgroup differences. Pediatrics, 142, e1-e8. doi:10.1007/s10964-018-0954-y
- Bravo, D. Y., Toomey, R. B., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Updegraff, K. A., & Jahromi, L. B. (2017). Growth Trajectories of Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers' Educational Expectations. International journal of behavioral development, 41(2), 165-174.More infoPregnant and parenting adolescents are at significant risk for educational underachievement. Educational expectations play a critical role for understanding subsequent educational attainment; yet, limited empirical attention has been given to changes in educational expectations across the transition to parenthood among adolescent mothers. This longitudinal study explored stability and change in educational expectations across the transition to parenthood among 191 first-time pregnant Mexican-origin adolescents (Mage = 16.76, SD = .98). The current study also examined how several contextually relevant risk and protective factors were associated with differential patterns of educational trajectories across this transition and subsequent educational attainment. Latent class growth analyses revealed three educational expectation trajectories: low and stable (< high school degree), moderate and increasing (≈ associate degree), and high and increasing (≈ bachelor's degree). Adolescent mothers in the low and stable group encountered several educational risk factors that partially explained their probability of membership in this trajectory and subsequent lower attainment. Conversely, probability of membership in the high and increasing expectations class was partially explained by adolescents' on-track school status at the time of pregnancy and their mother figures' educational expectations for their pregnant daughters. These findings have implications for understanding the malleable factors that help to explain why some adolescent mothers describe consistently high educational expectations and subsequent higher attainment, while others do not.
- Casper, D. M., Card, N. A., Bauman, S., & Toomey, R. B. (2017). Overt and Relational Aggression Participant Role Behavior: Measurement and Relations With Sociometric Status and Depression. Journal of research on adolescence : the official journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence, 27(3), 661-673.More infoThis study is the first to measure participant role behavior across overt and relational forms of aggression. The Overt and Relational Aggression Participant Role Behavior Scales were designed to measure aggression, assisting, reinforcing, defending, victimization, and outsider behavior during acts of peer aggression in an ethnically diverse sample of 609 adolescents (M age = 12 years). The data fit the hypothesized 12-factor model, and measurement invariance was established across gender. Relational victimization, but not overt victimization, was positively associated with all other relational aggression roles. Each participant role subscale was positively associated with depressive symptoms with the exception of the overt and relational outsider subscales. Future research and intervention efforts should consider overt and relational aggression participant roles, separately.
- Toomey, R. B., Pina-Watson, B., & Romero, A. J. (2018). When is bicultural stress associated with loss of hope and depressive symptoms? Variations by ethnic identity status among Mexican descent youth. Journal of Latina/o Psychology, 6(1), 49-63. doi:10.1037/lat0000078More infoRC1
- Toomey, R. B., Ryan, C., Diaz, R. M., & Russell, S. T. (2018). Coping With Sexual Orientation-Related Minority Stress. Journal of homosexuality, 65(4), 484-500.More infoLittle is known about how adolescents cope with minority stressors related to sexual orientation. This study examined 245 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) young adult's (ages 21-25) retrospective reports of coping in response to LGB minority stress during adolescence (ages 13-19) to test the reliability and validity of a measure of minority stress coping. Further, the study examined associations between LGB minority stress coping and young adult psychosocial adjustment and high school attainment. Validation and reliability was found for three minority stress coping strategies: LGB-specific strategies (e.g., involvement with LGBT organizations), alternative-seeking strategies (e.g., finding new friends), and cognitive strategies (e.g., imagining a better future). LGB-specific strategies were associated with better psychosocial adjustment and greater likelihood of high school attainment in young adulthood, whereas alternative-seeking and cognitive-based strategies were associated with poorer adjustment and less likelihood of high school attainment.
- Bravo, D. Y., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Toomey, R. B., Updegraff, K. A., & Jahromi, L. B. (2016). Risky behaviors and educational attainment among young Mexican-origin mothers: The role of acculturative stress and the educational aspiration-expectation gap. International journal of intercultural relations : IJIR, 52, 13-26.More infoThe current longitudinal study examined how Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' (N = 204) reports of acculturative stress during late adolescence were associated with their educational attainment and engagement in risky behaviors in young adulthood, 4 years post-partum; we also examined whether this association was mediated by discrepancies between adolescents' educational aspirations and expectations. Findings revealed that mothers' greater reports of stress regarding English competency pressures and pressures to assimilate were associated with a larger gap between their aspirations and expectations. Mothers' reports of greater stress from pressures against assimilation, however, were associated with a smaller gap between aspirations and expectations. As expected, a larger gap between aspirations and expectations was associated with lower educational attainment and increased engagement in risky behaviors. Finally, significant mediation emerged, suggesting that the influence of stress from English competency pressures and pressures to assimilate on young mothers' educational attainment and engagement in risky behaviors was mediated through the aspiration-expectation gap. Findings are discussed with respect to understanding discrepancies between young mothers' aspirations and expectations in the context of acculturative stress.
- Derlan, C. L., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Toomey, R. B., Jahromi, L. B., & Updegraff, K. A. (2016). Measuring Cultural Socialization Attitudes and Behaviors of Mexican-Origin Mothers With Young Children: A Longitudinal Investigation. Family relations, 65(3), 477-489.More infoWe describe the development and psychometric testing of the Cultural Socialization Behaviors Measure (CSBM) and the Cultural Socialization Attitudes Measure (CSAM). The CSBM assesses cultural socialization behaviors that parents use with young children, and the CSAM assesses the attitudes that parents have regarding the importance of socializing their young children about their culture. Both measures demonstrated strong reliability, validity, and cross-language equivalence (i.e., Spanish and English) among a sample of 204 Mexican-origin young mothers (Mage = 20.94 years, SD = 1.01) with 4-year-old children. In addition, the measures demonstrated longitudinal equivalence when children were 4 and 5 years of age.
- McGuire, J. K., Kuvalanka, K. A., Catalpa, J. M., & Toomey, R. B. (2016). Transfamily theory: How the presence of trans* family members informs gender development in families.. Journal of Family Theory and Review, 8, 60-73. doi:10.1111/jftr.12125More infoThe presence of a trans* family member can challenge existing theoretical notions about the development of gender in families. Emerging knowledge about trans* identities consolidates around five primary challenges to existing theoretical notions of gender: 1) non-dimorphic sex, 2) non-binary gender, 3) the biological and social construction of gender, 4) gender identity development, and 5) family meaning making about transgender identity. These challenges structure an examination of hetero and cis-normative expectations within family theory, and help to unpack long-standing tensions between essentialist and social constructionist views of gender development. This can play out in family theory through recognizing the tension between upholding and decentering cis-normativity within families. The aim of this article is to pinpoint locations where current family theories require reexamination and expansion to accurately conceptualize the flexibility and variability of families with trans* members.
- Russell, S. T., Day, J. K., Ioverno, S., & Toomey, R. B. (2016). Are school policies focused on sexual orientation and gender identity associated with less bullying? Teachers' perspectives. Journal of school psychology, 54, 29-38.More infoBullying is common in U.S. schools and is linked to emotional, behavioral, and academic risk for school-aged students. School policies and practices focused on sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) have been designed to reduce bullying and show promising results. Most studies have drawn from students' reports: We examined teachers' reports of bullying problems in their schools along with their assessments of school safety, combined with principals' reports of SOGI-focused policies and practices. Merging two independent sources of data from over 3000 teachers (California School Climate Survey) and nearly 100 school principals (School Health Profiles) at the school level, we used multi-level models to understand bullying problems in schools. Our results show that SOGI-focused policies reported by principals do not have a strong independent association with teachers' reports of bullying problems in their schools. However, in schools with more SOGI-focused policies, the association between teachers' assessments of school safety and bullying problems is stronger. Recent developments in education law and policy in the United States and their relevance for student well-being are discussed.
- Storlie, C. A., & Toomey, R. B. (2016). Professional school counselor perceptions of systemic barriers affecting Latino students: Implications for socially just preparation and practice. Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision, 2, 8. doi:10.7729/82.1156
- Toomey, R. B., & Anhalt, K. (2016). Mindfulness as a coping strategy for bias-based school victimization among Latina/o sexual minority youth. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 3(4), 432-441.More infoThis manuscript was invited for full submission to a special issue on LGBTQ Youth in Schools.
- Toomey, R. B., & Russell, S. T. (2016). The Role of Sexual Orientation in School-Based Victimization: A Meta-Analysis. Youth & Society, 48(2), 176-201. doi:10.1177/0044118X13483778More infoSchool-based victimization is associated with poorer developmental,academic, and health outcomes. This meta-analytic review compared themean levels of school-based victimization experienced by sexual minorityyouth to those of heterosexual youth, and examined moderators of thisdifference. Results from 18 independent studies (N = 56,752 participants)suggest that sexual minority youth experience moderately higher levels ofschool-based victimization compared to heterosexual youth (d = 0.33). Thiseffect varied by two study characteristics: the average effect size increasedover time and was larger in studies that had a greater proportion of maleparticipants. Results highlight the need for future research on school-basedvictimization to include measures of sexual orientation and for interventionsto include a component that addresses sexual orientation.
- Toomey, R. B., Anhalt, K., & Shramko, M. (2016). An examination of the validity and reliability of a measure of sexual orientation identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation. Self & Identity, 15, 488-504. doi:10.1080/15298868.2016.1157516
- Toomey, R. B., Huynh, V. W., Jones, S. K., Lee, S., & Revels-Macalinao, M. (2017). Sexual minority youth of color: A content analysis and critical review of the literature. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Mental Health, 21(1), 3-31. doi:10.1080/19359705.2016.1217499
- Toomey, R. B., McGeorge, C. R., & Carlson, T. S. (2016). LGBTQ ally development and engagement in sports: A mixed-methods study. Journal of Intercollegiate Sports, 9(2), 24-267. doi:10.1123/jis.2015-049
- Derlan, C. L., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Toomey, R. B., Updegraff, K. A., & Jahromi, L. B. (2015). Person-environment fit: everyday conflict and coparenting conflict in Mexican-origin teen mother families. Cultural diversity & ethnic minority psychology, 21(1), 136-45.More infoThe current study examined whether a match or mismatch between teen mothers' cultural orientation and the cultural context of the family (i.e., familial ethnic socialization) predicted mother-daughter everyday and coparenting conflict, and in turn, teen mothers' adjustment. Participants were 204 Mexican-origin teen mothers (M age = 16.81 years; SD = 1.00). Consistent with a person-environment fit perspective, findings indicated that a mismatch between teen mothers' cultural orientation (i.e., high mainstream cultural involvement) and the cultural context of the family (i.e., higher levels of familial ethnic socialization) predicted greater mother-daughter everyday conflict and coparenting conflict 1 year later. However, when there was a match (i.e., high levels of familial ethnic socialization for teen mothers with high Mexican orientation), familial ethnic socialization was not associated with mother-daughter conflict. In addition, mother-daughter conflict was positively associated with depressive symptoms and engagement in risky behaviors 1 year later among all teen mothers.
- McGeorge, C. R., Carlson, T. S., & Toomey, R. B. (2015). An exploration of family therapists' beliefs about the ethics of conversion therapy: the influence of negative beliefs and clinical competence with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients. Journal of marital and family therapy, 41(1), 42-56.More infoThe majority of the literature on conversion therapy has focused on clients' experiences and rationales for seeking such therapy. This study sought to explore differences in the beliefs and clinical competence of therapists who practice and believe in the ethics of conversion therapy and those who do not. The sample for this study included 762 family therapists who were members of the American Association of Marriage and Family Therapy. Data were collected using electronic surveys that assessed participants' negative beliefs about and perceived clinical competence with lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals. Results indicate that those who believe in the ethics of and/or practice conversion therapy report statistically higher levels of negative beliefs about LGB individuals and lower levels of clinical competence working with LGB clients. Implications for clinical practice and organizational policy are discussed.
- McGeorge, C. R., Carlson, T. S., & Toomey, R. B. (2015). Assessing lesbian, gay, and bisexual affirmative training in couple and family therapy: establishing the validity of the Faculty Version of the Affirmative Training Inventory. Journal of marital and family therapy, 41(1), 57-69; quiz 69-71.More infoThis study established the validity and factor structure of the Faculty Version of the Affirmative Training Inventory (ATI-F), which assesses faculty members' perceptions of the level of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) affirmative training that occurs in clinical programs. Additionally, this study examined the latent associations among the subscales of the ATI-F and three convergent validity items utilizing a sample of 117 faculty members from accredited family therapy programs. The findings provide empirical support for the relationship between including classroom content on LGB affirmative therapy and faculty members' beliefs about LGB individuals and relationships. Specifically, faculty members who report more positive beliefs about LGB clients appear to be more likely to include LGB affirmative therapy content in the courses they teach.
- Toomey, R. B., & Storlie, C. A. (2015). School counselors’ intervention in bias-related incidents among Latino students. Journal of School Violence, 1-22. doi:10.1080/15388220.2015.1049354More infoSchool counselors help foster student’s academic, social, and careerdevelopment; yet, school counselors are often neglected in researchon school climate and student safety. Framed by the theory ofplanned behavior, this study examined how 206 school counselors’multicultural counseling competence, multicultural self-efficacy,and perceptions of Latino students’ experiences of the school environment(e.g., safety, bias-motivated bullying, discrimination, andharassment) were associated with intervention in bias-relatedincidents among Latino students. Findings indicated that schoolcounselors’ multicultural knowledge competence was positivelyassociated with self-reported intervention in bullying, discrimination,or harassment related to Latino ethnicity. Further, counselors’perceptions of a more negative school climate for Latino studentswere associated with greater intervention in bias-based incidents.Implications for school counselors and school counselor educatorsare discussed.
- Toomey, R. B., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Updegraff, K. A., & Jahromi, L. B. (2015). Trajectories of Problem Behavior among Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers. Journal of Latina/o psychology, 3(1), 1-10.More infoEngagement in problem behaviors during adolescence has important implications for academic achievement and psychosocial well-being. The current study examined engagement in problem behavior across the transition from pregnancy to parenthood among a sample of 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (ages 15-18 years; Mage = 16.8 at Time 1) to better understand the behaviors in which this sample engaged and how engagement changed over this period of transition. Descriptively, this sample engaged in relatively low levels of problem behaviors. Frequently endorsed problem behaviors included missing school or work without an excuse, lying or disobeying parents, and engagement in dangerous behaviors for a thrill; notably, substance use was not a frequently endorsed behavior until the final waves of the study, when most of the mothers were of legal age for these behaviors. Further, latent growth curve modeling revealed a non-linear pattern of change in problem behaviors, such that engagement decreased substantially from the third trimester of pregnancy to 36 months postpartum, but then leveled off between 36 and 48 months postpartum. Findings suggest a need for future research to better understand how engagement in problem behaviors changes pre- to post-pregnancy, and how to best support the decrease in problem behaviors once a pregnancy has been detected.
- Toomey, R. B., Updegraff, K. A., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., & Jahromi, L. B. (2015). Gender role attitudes across the transition to adolescent motherhood in Mexican-origin families. Family process, 54(2), 247-62.More infoUsing longitudinal data collected at four time points from 191 dyads of Mexican-origin adolescent first-time mothers and their mother figures, we examined changes in and socialization of traditional gender role attitudes across the transition to parenthood using latent growth curve modeling and actor-partner interdependence modeling. Longitudinal growth models indicated that, regardless of nativity status, adolescent mothers' and their foreign-born mother figures' gender role attitudes became more egalitarian across adolescents' transition to parenthood, spanning from the 3rd trimester of pregnancy to 36 months postpartum. Furthermore, actor-partner interdependence modeling suggested that adolescents' and their mother figures' gender role attitudes during adolescents' third trimester of pregnancy equally contributed to subsequent increases in one another's gender role attitudes at 10 months postpartum. Importantly, this reciprocal socialization process was not moderated by adolescent mothers' nor by their mother figures' nativity status. Findings suggest that it is important to understand the cultural and intergenerational family processes that contribute to the development of gender role attitudes during the transition to parenthood for adolescent mothers and their mother figures in Mexican-origin families.
- Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Tynes, B. M., Toomey, R. B., Williams, D. R., & Mitchell, K. J. (2015). Latino adolescents' perceived discrimination in online and offline settings: an examination of cultural risk and protective factors. Developmental psychology, 51(1), 87-100.More infoGuided by a risk and resilience framework, the current study examined the associations between Latino adolescents' (n = 219; Mage = 14.35; SD = 1.75) perceptions of ethnic discrimination in multiple settings (e.g., online, school) and several domains of adjustment (e.g., mental health, academic), and tested whether developmentally salient cultural assets (i.e., ethnic identity) directly promoted youth adjustment or moderated the negative impact of discrimination on adjustment. Each of the 3 ethnic identity components (i.e., exploration, resolution, affirmation) demonstrated evidence of promoting positive outcomes among Latino youth; furthermore, there was some evidence that the promotive effects of affirmation and resolution were significantly stronger for older versus younger adolescents. In addition, with the exception of experiences with discrimination from adults outside of the school setting, there was evidence of ethnic identity interacting with each type of discrimination to predict Latino adolescents' self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and externalizing problems. Findings suggest directions for future research and identify potential targets for intervention that may prove fruitful in programming efforts with Latino adolescents.
- Carlson, T. S., McGeorge, C. R., & Toomey, R. B. (2014). Establishing the validity of the spirituality in clinical training scale: Measuring the level of integration of spirituality and religion in family therapy training. Contemporary Family Therapy, 36(2), 310-25.More infoThe existing literature suggests that family therapy training programs are not adequately preparing students to address spiritual and/or religious beliefs as a resource for change in therapy. Therefore, this study sought to validate the Spirituality in Clinical Training Scale (SCTS) as a measure of the level of integration of spirituality and/or religion in family therapy training. Additionally, this study examined the latent associations among the subscales of the SCTS and measures of personal importance of spirituality, spiritual clinical competence, and spiritual self-exploration. Finally, given that the type of educational institution (i.e., religious compared to non-religious schools) may influence the extent to which spirituality is addressed in training, this study examined whether attending a religious or non-religious institution moderated the associations among the SCTS and constructs used to assess validity. A sample of 341 master’s and doctoral family therapy students completed an on-line survey for this study. The results suggest that the SCTS is a reliable and valid measure for assessing integration of spirituality into family therapy training. The establishment of this measure is important given that no previous scale measuring the integration of spirituality into therapy training exists. The results also suggest that spiritual self-exploration is associated with increased use of interventions that integrate spirituality into therapy. Implications for clinical training are discussed.
- Derlan, C. L., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Toomey, R. B., Updegraff, K. A., Jahromi, L. B., & Flores, L. I. (2014). Perceived discrimination and ethnic affirmation: Anglo culture orientation as a moderator among mexican-origin adolescent mothers. Child development, 85(4), 1357-65.More infoThis study examined whether Anglo culture orientation modified the association between adolescents' perceived ethnic discrimination and ethnic identity affirmation over time in a sample of Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 205, Mage = 16.24 years). Results indicated that perceived ethnic discrimination was significantly associated with decreases in ethnic identity affirmation over time for adolescents reporting high Anglo culture orientation, but no relation existed for adolescents reporting low Anglo culture orientation. Findings suggest that a person-environment mismatch (i.e., between adolescents' perceptions of their connection to Anglo culture and the messages they receive from others regarding that connection in terms of perceived ethnic discrimination) may be detrimental to adolescents' development of positive feelings about their ethnicity.
- Gonzales, N. A., Wong, J. J., Toomey, R. B., Millsap, R., Dumka, L. E., & Mauricio, A. M. (2014). School engagement mediates long-term prevention effects for Mexican American adolescents. Prevention science : the official journal of the Society for Prevention Research, 15(6), 929-39.More infoThis 5-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial evaluated the efficacy of a family-focused intervention delivered in middle school to increase school engagement following transition to high school (2 years post-test), and also evaluated mediated effects through school engagement on multiple problem outcomes in late adolescence (5 years post-test). The study sample included 516 Mexican American adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program (Bridges/Puentes). Path models representing the direct and indirect effects of the program on four outcome variables were evaluated using school engagement measured in the 9th grade as a mediator. The program significantly increased school engagement, with school engagement mediating intervention effects on internalizing symptoms, adolescent substance use, and school dropout in late adolescence when most adolescents were in the 12th grade. Effects on substance use were stronger for youth at higher risk based on pretest report of substance use initiation. There were no direct or indirect intervention effects on externalizing symptoms. Findings support that school engagement is an important prevention target for Mexican American adolescents.
- Jahromi, L. B., Guimond, A. B., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Updegraff, K. A., & Toomey, R. B. (2014). Family context, Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' parenting knowledge, and children's subsequent developmental outcomes. Child development, 85(2), 593-609.More infoThis study examined parenting knowledge among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 191; Mage = 16.26 years), family contextual factors associated with adolescents' parenting knowledge, and toddlers' (Mage = 2.01 years) subsequent developmental outcomes. Data came from home interviews and direct child assessments. Adolescents both underestimated and overestimated children's developmental timing, and showed differences in their knowledge of specific developmental domains. Instrumental support from mother figures was positively linked to adolescents' knowledge accuracy, whereas emotional support was negatively related to adolescents' knowledge confidence. Furthermore, whereas mother figures' autonomy granting was positively linked to knowledge confidence, psychological control was associated with less accurate adolescent parenting knowledge. Toddlers of adolescents with more accurate knowledge showed positive developmental functioning. Intervention implications are discussed.
- McGeorge, C. R., Carlson, T. S., & Toomey, R. B. (2014). The intersection of spirituality, religion, sexual orientation, and gender identity in family therapy training: An exploration of students’ beliefs and practices. Contemporary Family Therapy, 36(4), 497-506.More infoThis study explored the relationship between the level of clinical training that family therapy students receive related to spirituality and/or religion and their beliefs about providing therapy to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) clients. The sample consists of 341 students in family therapy programs who completed an online survey assessing the level of training on spirituality and/or religion that students received as well as indicators assessing the level of congruence between students’ spiritual and/or religious beliefs and the practices of LGBT affirmative and reparative therapies. The findings highlight a number of significant associations between the training students receive on spirituality and/or religion and their beliefs about therapy with LGBT clients.
- Russell, S. T., Toomey, R. B., Ryan, C., & Diaz, R. M. (2014). Being out at school: the implications for school victimization and young adult adjustment. The American journal of orthopsychiatry, 84(6), 635-43.More infoMany lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents disclose their sexual and/or gender identities to peers at school. Disclosure of LGBT status is linked with positive psychosocial adjustment for adults; however, for adolescents, "coming out" has been linked to school victimization, which in turn is associated with negative adjustment. This study investigates the associations among adolescent disclosure of LGBT status to others at school, school victimization, and young adult psychosocial adjustment using a sample of 245 LGBT young adults (aged 21-25 years, living in California). After accounting for the association between school victimization and later adjustment, being out at high school was associated with positive psychosocial adjustment in young adulthood. Results have significant implications for training of school-based health and mental health providers, education and guidance for parents and caregivers, fostering positive development of LGBT youth, and developing informed school policies and educational practices.
- Toomey, R. B., Card, N. A., & Casper, D. M. (2014). Peers' Perceptions of Gender Nonconformity: Associations with Overt and Relational Peer Victimization and Aggression in Early Adolescence. The Journal of early adolescence, 34(4), 463-485.More infoThe current study used reports from 318 early adolescents to examine the associations of peer-reported gender nonconformity with peer- and self-reported overt and relational victimization and aggression and possible sex differences in these associations. Multiple-group structural equation modeling revealed that higher levels of peer-reported gender nonconformity were associated with higher self- and peer-reports of overt and relational victimization and aggression among males and females. The association between peer-reported gender nonconformity and peer-reported overt aggression was moderated by participant sex, such that the association was stronger for females compared to males. Results suggest that perceived gender nonconformity is associated with problematic peer relations, especially among females, in early adolescence and implications of these associations are discussed.
- Toomey, R. B., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Williams, D. R., Harvey-Mendoza, E., Jahromi, L. B., & Updegraff, K. A. (2014). Impact of Arizona's SB 1070 immigration law on utilization of health care and public assistance among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers and their mother figures. American journal of public health, 104 Suppl 1, S28-34.More infoWe examined the impact of Arizona's "Supporting Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act" (SB 1070, enacted July 29, 2010) on the utilization of preventive health care and public assistance among Mexican-origin families.
- Bauman, S., Toomey, R. B., & Walker, J. L. (2013). Associations among bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide in high school students. JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENCE, 36(2), 341-350.More infoThis study examined associations among depression, suicidal behaviors, and bullying and victimization experiences in 1491 high school students using data from the 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results demonstrated that depression mediated the association between bullying/victimization and suicide attempts, but differently for males and females. Specifically, depression mediated the link between traditional victimization and suicide attempts similarly across gender, whereas depression mediated the link between cyber victimization and suicide attempts only for females. Similarly, depression mediated the link between traditional bullying and suicide attempts for females only. Depression did not mediate the link between cyberbullying and suicide attempts for either gender. Implications of the findings are discussed, including the importance of greater detection of depression among students involved in bullying, and the need for a suicide prevention and intervention component in anti-bullying programs. Findings suggest that bullying prevention efforts be extended from middle school students to include high school students. (C) 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Brittian, A. S., Toomey, R. B., Gonzales, N. A., & Dumka, L. E. (2013). Perceived Discrimination, Coping Strategies, and Mexican Origin Adolescents' Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors: Examining the Moderating Role of Gender and Cultural Orientation. APPLIED DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCE, 17(1), 4-19.More infoThe literature identifying effective coping strategies related to perceived discrimination has yielded mixed findings, suggesting that recommendations for effective coping may vary by individual and group differences. The current study examined the influence of perceived discrimination and coping strategies on Mexican origin adolescents' later internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors, and assessed the moderating roles of gender and cultural orientation. Participants included 189 adolescents (46% male, 54% female) interviewed at 7th and 8th grades. Results suggested that the associations between perceived discrimination and internalizing symptoms were buffered by distraction coping among youth that were low on Anglo orientation but not among youth high on Anglo orientation. In addition, the associations between perceived discrimination and externalizing behaviors were buffered by social support seeking, but only among youth that were low on Mexican orientation. Directions for future research and application of the current research are discussed.
- Carlson, T. S., McGeorge, C. R., & Toomey, R. B. (2013). Establishing the Validity of the Affirmative Training Inventory: Assessing the Relationship between Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Affirmative Training and Students' Clinical Competence. JOURNAL OF MARITAL AND FAMILY THERAPY, 39(2), 209-222.More infoThis study established the validity and factor structure of the Affirmative Training Inventory (ATI; T. S. Carlson, C. R. McGeorge & M. Rock, unpublished) as a measure of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) affirmative clinical training. Additionally, this study examined the latent associations among the subscales of the ATI and the Sexual Orientation Counselor Competency Scale (Bidell, 2005) utilizing a sample of 248 master's and doctoral couple and family therapy students. The findings from this study provide empirical support for the relationship between specific classroom-related content associated with LGB affirmative therapy and students' perceptions of their own ability to work competently with LGB clients. This study also found a positive association between the degree to which couple and family therapy programs adopt a LGB-affirmative stance and students' beliefs, knowledge, and skills associated with competent therapy with LGB clients.
- McGeorge, C. R., Carlson, T. S., & Toomey, R. B. (2013). Establishing the Validity of the Feminist Couple Therapy Scale: Measuring Therapists’ Use of Feminist Practices With Heterosexual Couples. Journal of Couple & Relationship Therapy, 12(1), 3-21. doi:10.1080/15332691.2013.749760More infoThe authors sought to establish the validity and factor structureof the Feminist Couple Therapy Scale (FaCTS) as a measure oftherapists’ use of feminist principles and practices in their work withheterosexual couples. Additionally, the authors examined the latentassociations among the subscales of the FaCTS and two feministconstructs using a sample of 217 couple and family therapists. Theresults of this study suggest that a belief that addressing patriarchyis central to the practice of therapy with heterosexual couples and isstrongly associated with engaging in clinical practices that addressthe power differentials that exist between men and women.
- Russell, S. T., & Toomey, R. B. (2013). Risk and Protective Factors for Suicidal Thoughts Among Sexual Minority Youth: Evidence from the Add Health Study. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 17(2), 132-49. doi:10.1080/19359705.2012.753398More infoSexual minority youth are at greater risk for suicidal thoughts compared to heterosexual youth: Directions for prevention and intervention are urgently needed. Few studies have examined a broad range of risk and protective factors that may explain this disparate risk. This study utilized the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine which protective and risk factors for suicidal thoughts behaved distinctly in sexual minority adolescents compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Although many risk factors did not differ for heterosexual and sexual minority adolescents, we found several that were statistically significant for predicting later suicidal thoughts for sexual minorities: personal and friends’ school connections, friendship activities, and maternal caring.
- Toomey, R. B., & Russell, S. T. (2013). An Initial Investigation of Sexual Minority Youth Involvement in School-Based Extracurricular Activities. Journal of research on adolescence : the official journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence, 23(2).More infoSexual minority youth are at risk for negative school-based experiences and poor academic outcomes. Yet, little is known about their experiences in positive school-based contexts. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1,214 sexual minority and 11,427 heterosexual participants), this study compared participation rates in, predictors of, and outcomes associated with three types of school-based extracurricular activities - sports, arts, and school clubs - by sexual orientation and gender. Findings revealed several significant sexual orientation and gender differences in participation rates in school-based sports, clubs, and arts activities. Further, findings suggested that the outcomes associated with extracurricular activity involvement do not differ by sexual orientation and gender; however, predictors of participation in these domains varied across groups.
- Toomey, R. B., & Russell, S. T. (2013). Gay-Straight Alliances, Social Justice Involvement, and School Victimization of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Queer Youth: Implications for School Well-Being and Plans to Vote. Youth & society, 45(4), 500-522.More infoFew studies have investigated school-based, positive development for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) youth, despite knowledge of their heightened negative school experiences compared to heterosexual youth (e.g., school victimization). This study examines associations among participation in Gay-Straight Alliance (GSA)-related social justice activities, GSA presence, and GSA membership with victimization based on sexual orientation and school-based well-being (i.e., school safety, school belongingness, grade point average [GPA]) and future plans to vote. Using data from the Preventing School Harassment Study, a survey of 230 LGBQ students in 7th through 12th grades, the study finds that participation in GSA-related social justice activities and the presence of a GSA are positively associated with school belongingness and GPA. GSA membership is also positively associated with school belongingness. However, moderation analyses suggest that the positive benefits of GSA-related social justice involvement and the presence of a GSA dissipate at high levels of school victimization. Implications for schools are discussed.
- Toomey, R. B., Ryan, C., Diaz, R. M., Card, N. A., & Russell, S. T. (2013). Gender-nonconforming lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth: School victimization and young adult psychosocial adjustment. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 1(S), 71-80.More infoReprint of 2010 Developmental Psychology Paper in initial volume of APA's new journal: Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity.
- Toomey, R. B., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Jahromi, L. B., & Updegraff, K. A. (2013). Measuring Social Support from Mother-Figures in the Transition from Pregnancy to Parenthood among Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers. Hispanic journal of behavioral sciences, 35(2), 194-212.More infoSocial support for adolescent mothers, particularly from mother figures, can buffer risks and promote well-being. To date, no longitudinal research has investigated how the dimensions of social support may change during the transition from pregnancy to parenthood for adolescent mothers. This study examined stability and change in dimensions of social support from the third trimester of pregnancy to two years postpartum among 191 dyads of Mexican-origin adolescent first-time mothers and their mother figures. Perceptions of social support received from a mother figure shifted from a single dimension (i.e., global support) to three distinct factors (instrumental, emotional, and companionship support) during this transition; however, social support provision as reported by mother figures remained stable. Measurement equivalence was established across interview language (English and Spanish) and across two time points postpartum. Bivariate correlations provided support for the convergent and divergent validity of these measures. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
- Toomey, R. B., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Updegraff, K. A., & Jahromi, L. B. (2013). Ethnic identity development and ethnic discrimination: examining longitudinal associations with adjustment for Mexican-origin adolescent mothers. Journal of adolescence, 36(5), 825-33.More infoFew studies examine normative developmental processes among teenage mothers. Framed from a risk and resilience perspective, this prospective study examined the potential for ethnic identity status (e.g., diffuse, achieved), a normative developmental task during adolescence, to buffer the detrimental effects of discrimination on later adjustment and self-esteem in a sample of 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers. Ethnic discrimination was associated with increases in depressive symptoms and decreases in self-esteem over time, regardless of ethnic identity status. However, ethnic discrimination was only associated with increases in engagement in risky behavior among diffuse adolescents, suggesting that achieved or foreclosed identities buffered the risk of ethnic discrimination on later risky behavior. Findings suggest that ethnic identity resolution (i.e., the component shared by those in foreclosed and achieved statuses) may be a key cultural factor to include in prevention and intervention efforts aimed to reduce the negative effects of ethnic discrimination on later externalizing problems.
- Russell, S. T., & Toomey, R. B. (2012). Men's sexual orientation and suicide: Evidence for US adolescent-specific risk. SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE, 74(4), 523-529.More infoThere is strong consensus in the research literature that adolescent and adult men who report same-sex sexual orientations, identities, and behaviors are at higher risk for suicide. Recent studies of general adolescent suicide risk have identified developmental trajectories that peak during the teenage years. Because the adolescent years are characterized by the development and heightened awareness of gender roles and sexual scripts closely tied to dominant cultural ideals of masculinity and heterosexuality, an adolescent-focused developmental trajectory for suicide risk might be particularly relevant for males with adolescent same-sex sexual orientations. We provide the first prospective examination of adolescent-specific risk for suicidality based on adolescent same-sex sexual orientation using data from the United States, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Tracing suicide ideation and attempts across four assessments from adolescence (Wave 1 average age 15.3 years) to young adulthood (Wave 4 average age 28.2), we documented that the risk for suicidal thoughts and attempts for adolescent same-sex attracted males is developmental in nature. Specifically, the risk for suicidal thoughts and attempts for males with same-sex attractions is largely limited to the adolescent years. These results offer new insights for suicide prevention and intervention for male adolescents and adults with same-sex sexual orientations. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Toomey, R. B., & Umana-Taylor, A. J. (2012). The Role of Ethnic Identity on Self-Esteem for Ethnic Minority Youth: A Brief Review. Prevention Researcher, 19(2), 8-12.
- Toomey, R. B., McGuire, J. K., & Russell, S. T. (2012). Heteronormativity, school climates, and perceived safety for gender nonconforming peers. Journal of adolescence, 35(1), 187-96.More infoStudents' perceptions of their school climates are associated with psychosocial and academic adjustment. The present study examined the role of school strategies to promote safety in predicting students' perceptions of safety for gender nonconforming peers among 1415 students in 28 high schools. Using multilevel modeling techniques, we examined student- and school-level effects on students' perceptions of safety for gender nonconforming peers. We found that older students, bisexual youth, Latino youth, and youth who experienced school violence perceived their gender nonconforming male peers to be less safe. Similarly, we found that older students and students who experienced school violence and harassment due to gender nonconformity perceived their gender nonconforming female peers to be less safe. At the school-level, we found that when schools included lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) issues in the curriculum and had a Gay-Straight Alliance, students perceived their schools as safer for gender nonconforming male peers.
- Russell, S. T., Ryan, C., Toomey, R. B., Diaz, R. M., & Sanchez, J. (2011). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adolescent school victimization: implications for young adult health and adjustment. The Journal of school health, 81(5), 223-30.More infoAdolescent school victimization due to lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) status is commonplace, and is associated with compromised health and adjustment. Few studies have examined the long-term implications of LGBT school victimization for young adult adjustment. We examine the association between reports of LGBT school victimization and young adult psychosocial health and risk behavior.
- Toomey, R. B., Ryan, C., Diaz, R. M., & Russell, S. T. (2011). High School Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) and Young Adult Well-Being: An Examination of GSA Presence, Participation, and Perceived Effectiveness. Applied developmental science, 15(4), 175-185.More infoGay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) are student-led, school-based clubs that aim to provide a safe environment in the school context for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students, as well as their straight allies. The present study examines the potential for GSAs to support positive youth development and to reduce associations among LGBT-specific school victimization and negative young adult well-being. The sample includes 245 LGBT young adults, ages 21-25, who retrospectively reported on the presence of a GSA in their high school, their participation in their school's GSA, and their perceptions of whether or not their GSA was effective in improving school safety. Findings revealed that the presence of a GSA, participation in a GSA, and perceived GSA effectiveness in promoting school safety were differentially associated with young adult well-being and in some cases, buffered the negative association between LGBT-specific school victimization and well-being. Implications for future research and schools are discussed.
- McGuire, J. K., Anderson, C. R., Toomey, R. B., & Russell, S. T. (2010). School Climate for Transgender Youth: A Mixed Method Investigation of Student Experiences and School Responses. JOURNAL OF YOUTH AND ADOLESCENCE, 39(10), 1175-1188.More infoTransgender youth experience negative school environments and may not benefit directly from interventions defined to support Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual (LGB) youth. This study utilized a multi-method approach to consider the issues that transgender students encounter in school environments. Using data from two studies, survey data (total n = 2260, 68 transgender youth) from study 1 and focus groups (n = 35) from study 2, we examine transgender youth's experience of school harassment, school strategies implemented to reduce harassment, the protective role of supportive school personnel, and individual responses to harassment, including dropping out and changing schools. In both studies, we found that school harassment due to transgender identity was pervasive, and this harassment was negatively associated with feelings of safety. When schools took action to reduce harassment, students reported greater connections to school personnel. Those connections were associated with greater feelings of safety. The indirect effects of school strategies to reduce harassment on feelings of safety through connection to adults were also significant. Focus group data illuminate specific processes schools can engage in to benefit youth, and how the youth experience those interventions.
- Toomey, R. B., Ryan, C., Diaz, R. M., Card, N. A., & Russell, S. T. (2010). Gender-nonconforming lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth: school victimization and young adult psychosocial adjustment. Developmental psychology, 46(6), 1580-9.More infoPast research documents that both adolescent gender nonconformity and the experience of school victimization are associated with high rates of negative psychosocial adjustment. Using data from the Family Acceptance Project's young adult survey, we examined associations among retrospective reports of adolescent gender nonconformity and adolescent school victimization due to perceived or actual lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) status, along with current reports of life satisfaction and depression. The participants included 245 LGBT young adults ranging in age from 21 to 25 years. Using structural equation modeling, we found that victimization due to perceived or actual LGBT status fully mediates the association between adolescent gender nonconformity and young adult psychosocial adjustment (i.e., life satisfaction and depression). Implications are addressed, including specific strategies that schools can implement to provide safer environments for gender-nonconforming LGBT students.
- Toomey, R. B., & Richardson, R. A. (2009). Perceived sibling relationships of sexual minority youth. Journal of homosexuality, 56(7), 849-60.More infoThe purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of sexual minority youth and their siblings. The participants were 56 lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individuals ranging in age from 18 to 24 years, who reported information about a total of 107 siblings. Respondents completed a demographic data questionnaire as well as adapted versions of the Sibling Closeness Scale (SCS) and the Sibling Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale (SASBS) to describe their relationship with each of their siblings. Analyses examined birth order and gender in relation to outness to siblings as well as sibling closeness and approval. Results provide information about disclosure of LGBT status to siblings, elements of closeness and acceptance in sibling relationships of sexual minority youth, and the significance of gender and birth order in these sibling relationships.
- Toomey, R. B. (2019, April). Rethinking demographic data collection: Race and gender in multiple dimensions.. In Biennial Meeting Society for Research in Child Development.
- Toomey, R. B. (2019, February). Creating Connections: Preventing Co-Occurring Health Risks among Secondary School Students. In Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Meeting.More infoRC2: Invited Panelist to Think Tank Meeting
- Toomey, R. B. (2019, June). LGBTQ Sampling Methodology. In Center for LGBTQ Evidence-based Applied Research Meeting.More infoRC2: Invited Panelist to Think Tank Meeting; resulted in live webinar on LGBTQ Sampling Methodology
- Austin, M. A., & Toomey, R. B. (2019, May). Latent profiles of supportive environments for SGM youth in rural settings. 2019 LGBTQ Research Symposium: An Interdisciplinary Symposium on LGBTQ Research in the Social Sciences. University of Illinois: University of Illinois.
- Curran, M. A., Toomey, R. B., & Walsh, M. E. (2019, Sept). Developing and Evaluating Supports for Trans Youth and Their Families: On-going Work in Arizona [EC1]. University of Illinois Extension 4-H training workshop on rural LGBTQ issues. University of Illinois: Illinois Extension/HATCH Multistate Research Project NCERA218.
- Toomey, R. B. (2019, February). Quantitative plausibility: Capturing the holistic experiences of SGM populations. National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine Expert Meeting on Understanding the Effects of Intersectionality on Sexual and Gender Minorities. Washington, DC: National Academies of Science.More infoRC2 Invited presentation
- Toomey, R. B. (2019, February). SGM health disparities and the importance of within-group variability. UA Health Sciences LGBTQ+ Symposium and Community Fair. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Health Sciences.More infoRC2: Invited keynote
- Toomey, R. B. (2019, February). Suicidal Behavior Disparities among Transgender Youth: Within-Group Heterogeneity's Relevance for Prevention. Reach Institute's Colloquia Series. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University.More infoRC2: Invited keynote
- Toomey, R. B. (2019, November). Risk and thriving: Suicide prevention among trans adolescents in a national study. Tulane University Psychology Department Diversity and Inclusion Committee Speaker Series. New Orleans, LA: Tulane University.
- Toomey, R. B. (2019, October). Sexual and gender minority disparities in suicide behavior: Pathways to resilience. Arizona Suicide Prevention Coalition HOPE Conference. Phoenix, AZ: Arizona Suicide Prevention Coalition.
- Toomey, R. B. (2019, September). Trans ± ition. Rethinking Sex/Gender in Trans Studies Symposium. University of Arizona: Confluence Center.
- Toomey, R. B., Abeln, B. A., Zhao, Z., Rodas, J., & Syvertsen, A. K. (2019, April). Variability in substance use behaviors by gender identity: A nuanced examination of subgroups.. Biennial Meeting Society for Research in Child Development. Baltimore, MD: Society for Research in Child Development.
- Toomey, R. B., Delgado, M. Y., Cruze, A., Parks, S. J., Yoo, H. C., & Zeiders, K. H. (2019, April). Color-blind racial attitudes and psychosocial costs of racism to White young adults (RC2). Biennial Meeting Society for Research in Child Development. Baltimore, MD: Society for Research in Child Development.
- Zeiders, K. H., Yoo, H. C., Parks, S. J., Cruze, A., Delgado, M. Y., & Toomey, R. B. (2019, April). Color-blind racial attitudes and psychosocial costs of racism to White young adults. Biennial Meeting Society for Research in Child Development. Baltimore, MD: Society for Research in Child Development.
- Zhao, Z., & Toomey, R. B. (2019, May). Latinx youth disclosure of sexual orientation to parents, friends, and school adults.. 2019 LGBTQ Research Symposium: An Interdisciplinary Symposium on LGBTQ Research in the Social Sciences. University of Illinois: University of Illinois.
- McGeorge, C., & Toomey, R. B. (2018, Spring). Standing up, speaking out: Reducing LGBTQ prejudice in sports. NASPA Student Affairs Administrators in Higher Education Annual Conference. Philadelphia, PA.
- Pollitt, A., Russell, S. T., Curran, M. A., Toomey, R. B., & Grossman, A. (2018, April). Inside and outside: Heteronormativity, gender, and health in the lives of bi/sexual minority youth. Society for Research on Adolescence Biennial Meeting. Minneapolis, MN: Society for Research on Adolescence.
- Toomey, R. B. (2018, April). Considering the future of developmental science. Society for Research on Adolescence Biennial Meeting. Minneapolis, MN.More infoInvited panelist
- Toomey, R. B. (2018, April). Habits of highly effective junior faculty/advancing career faculty panel. Society for Research on Adolescence Biennial Meeting. Minneapolis, MN.More infoInvited panelist
- Toomey, R. B. (2018, April). Integrating intersectionality in the developmental sciences: Advancing developmental theory, methods, and science. Society for Research on Adolescence Biennial Meeting. Minneapolis, MN: Society for Research on Adolesence.More infoModerator for session
- Toomey, R. B. (2018, February). Questioning the "It Gets Better" campaign. University of Southern California LGBT Health Equity Initative. Los Angeles, CA: USC.
- Toomey, R. B. (2018, May). Quantitative approaches to intersectionality. 2018 LGBTQ Research Symposium: An Interdisciplinary Symposium on LGBTQ Research in the Social Sciences. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois.
- Toomey, R. B. (2018, September). The challenges, dilemmas, and resilience related to gender affirmation among youth. 2018 Ethics of Medical Intervention for Transgender Youth Symposium. Tucson, AZ: El Rio Health.
- Toomey, R. B., & Anhalt, K. (2018, April). Co-occurring ethnic and sexual identity processes: Experiences of sexual minority Latinx adolescents and young adults. Society for Research on Adolescence Biennial Meeting. Minneapolis, MN: Society for Research on Adolesence.
- Toomey, R. B., & Syvertsen, A. K. (2018, March). Suicide attempt risk protection by sexual orientation and gender identity. Big Brothers Big Sisters of America LGBTQ Mentoring Enhancement Series. Webinar: Big Brothers Big Sisters of America.
- Anhalt, K., & Toomey, R. B. (2017, Spring). Latinx sexual minority youth adjustment in the context of discrimination and internalized homonegativity: The moderating role of cultural orientation processes. 10th Biennial National Multicultural Conference and Summit. Portland, OR.
- Shramko, M., Toomey, R. B., & Anhalt, K. (2017, Spring). Profiles of minority stressors and identity centrality among sexual minority Latinx youth.. Society for Research in Child Development. Austin, TX.
- Toomey, R. B. (2017, Spring). A tale of two academies: Experiences of underrepresented faculty.. Society for Research in Child Development. Austin, TX.
- Toomey, R. B. (2017, Spring). Cultivating mindfulness and compassion among trans youth and their caregiver(s): Preliminary findings from a pilot study. Mindfulness Research Conference. Seattle, WA.
- Toomey, R. B. (2017, Spring). Intersectionality: A gentle introduction.. Family and Consumer Sciences Professional Development Series. San Marcos, TX: Texas State University.
- Toomey, R. B. (2017, Spring). Making a difference through scholarship: Equity and social justice as a lens for students and early career scholars. Society for Research in Child Development. Austin, TX.More infoModerator of panel
- Toomey, R. B. (2017, Spring). Person-centered approaches to understanding context and development in Latino youth. Society for Research in Child Development. Austin, TX.More infoDiscussant
- Toomey, R. B. (2017, Spring). When two silos collide: Health and development among Latinx sexual minority youth. Minority Health Disparities Initiative Speaker Series. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska.
- Toomey, R. B., & Syvertsen, A. K. (2017, Spring). Protective factors associated with suicide attempts among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth. Society for Research in Child Development. Austin, TX.
- Reilly, A., Oswald, R., Routon, J., McGuire, J., Grafsky, E., Zvonkovic, A., Toomey, R. B., Cuthbertson, C., Paceley, M., Walsh, M. E., & Curran, M. A. (2016, March). Development of a theoretical model to study LGBT people living in rural areas in the United States of America.. Rural Development conference. Bangkok, Thailand.More info[RC2/RA2] Based on work from the multi-state development collaborative
- Romero, A. J., Pina-Watson, B., & Toomey, R. B. (2016, March). Does ethnic identity status moderate the association between bicultural stress and mental health of Mexican descent youth?. Society for Research on Adolescence. Baltimore, MD: Society for Research on Adolescence.
- Toomey, R. B. (2016, February). Do we need to expand the definition of “underrepresented”? Development and adjustment of LGBT, poor, and affluent youth.. 20th Anniversary of Garcia Coll and Colleagues’ (1996) An Integrative Model for the Study of Developmental Competencies in Minority Children: Looking Back and Looking Forward. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University.
- Toomey, R. B. (2016, March). Getting a job after graduation. Society for Research on Adolescence. Baltimore, MD: Society for Research on Adolescence.
- Toomey, R. B. (2016, May). Becoming a sexual and gender minority scholar: Advice for students and young professionals. Fourth Annual LGBT Research Symposium: An Interdisciplinary Symposium on LGBT Research in the Social Sciences. University of Illinois.
- Toomey, R. B. (2016, October). Risk and protection for suicide among gender diverse yout. Gender Development Research Conference. San Francisco, CA.
- Toomey, R. B., Anhalt, K., & Rodas, J. (2016, March). Mindfulness as a coping strategy for bias-based school victimization among Latin@ sexual minority youth. Society for Research on Adolescence Biennial Meeting. Baltimore, MD: Society for Research on Adolescence.
- Toomey, R. B., Anhalt, K., & Shramko, M. (2016, March). Structure and validity of a new measure assessing exploration, resolution, and affirmation of sexual orientation. Society for Research on Adolescence Biennial Meeting. Baltimore, MD: Society for Research on Adolescence.
- Toomey, R. B., Shramko, M., Anhalt, K., & Flores, M. (2016, May). An intersectional perspective on family socialization for societal prejudices: Experiences of preparation for bias among Latina/o LGB youth. Fourth Annual LGBT Research Symposium: An Interdisciplinary Symposium on LGBT Research in the Social Sciences. University of Illinois: University of Illinois.
- Walsh, M. E., DeBlois, M., Toomey, R. B., & Gonzalez, J. (2016, Oct). Developing and Evaluating Supports for Trans Youth and Their Families. American Evaluation Association 30th Annual Meeting. Atlanta, Georgia.More info[RC2]
- Dominguez, E. V., deBlois, M., Toomey, R. B., & Walsh, M. E. (2019, Jan). Camp Born This Way: Support and Connection for Transgender and Gender Creative Kids and Their Families. [SC2]. UA Health Sciences LGBTQ+ Symposium & Community Resource Fair. Tucson, AZ: Banner Medical Center.
- Duenaz, U., & Toomey, R. B. (2019, April). How does religious centrality affect Latinx sexual minority youths’ identity development and self-esteem?. Biennial Meeting Society for Research in Child Development. Baltimore, MD: Society for Research in Child Development.
- Nair, R., Toomey, R. B., Chaku, N., Hoyt, L., & Zeiders, K. H. (2018, Spring). Young adults’ physiological and psychological reactions to the 2016 U.S. presidential election.. The University of Arizona, College of Agriculture and Life Science Poster Forum.
- Pech, A., Shramko, M., Toomey, R. B., Syvertsen, A. K., & Rodas, J. M. (2018, April). Linking external assets to predict self-esteem and hope in girls of color. Society for Research on Adolescence Biennial Meeting. Minneapolis, MN.
- Rodas, J. M., Romero, A. J., Toomey, R. B., & Curran, M. A. (2018, April). The association between ambiguous loss of family relationships and depressive symptoms among Latino youth. Society for Research on Adolescence Biennial Meeting. Minneapolis, MN: Society for Research on Adolesence.
- Shramko, M., Syvertsen, A. K., & Toomey, R. B. (2018, April). Developmental assets among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth: Associations between classes of external assets and well-being. Society for Research on Adolescence Biennial Meeting. Minneapolis, MN: Society for Research on Adolesence.
- Shramko, M., Wray-Lake, L., Romero, A. J., & Toomey, R. B. (2018, April). Latent classes of civic opportunity among Latina/o youth: An intersectional examination of civic inequality in adolescence. Society for Research on Adolescence Biennial Meeting. Minneapolis, MN: Society for Research on Adolesence.
- Toomey, R. B., Hoyt, L., Zeiders, K. H., & Shramko, M. (2018, April). Civic engagement and the 2016 Presidential Election: Trajectories of climate and civic development of diverse university students. Society for Research on Adolescence. Austin, TX.
- Toomey, R. B., Hoyt, L., Zeiders, K. H., & Shramko, M. (2018, Spring). Civic engagement and the 2016 Presidential Election: Trajectories of climate and civic development of diverse university students. The 2018 Francis McClelland Institute Student Poster Colloquium, University of Arizona.
- Gouker, L., Toomey, R. B., & Anhalt, K. (2017, Spring). Victimization, internalized homonegativity, and support networks in Latinx sexual minority youth.. Society for Research in Child Development. Austin, TX.
- Hernandez-Ainza, A., Toomey, R. B., Walsh, M. E., DeBlois, M., & Pace, T. W. (2017, Spring). Depression, anxiety, and perceived social support as potential mediators for disparities in stress-hormonal regulation in transgender youth.. Mindfulness Research Conference. Seattle, WA.
- Hoyt, L., Zeiders, K. H., Toomey, R. B., & Etscheid, C. (2017, April). The association between perceived discrimination and sleep quality among college students.. 2017 Francis McClelland Institute Student Poster Colloquium.
- Toomey, R. B., Zeiders, K. H., Wilson, E., Koleski, A., Garcia, G., Etscheid, C., & Brangwin, E. E. (2017, April). Race/ethnic differences in academic belonging among university undergraduate students. 2017 Francis McClelland Institute Student Poster Colloquium.
- Carlson, T. S., McGeorge, C. R., & Toomey, R. B. (2015, September). Intersection of religion and LGBT identities in CFT training. American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy Annual Conference. Austin, TX: American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
- Mallory, C., Sears, B., Brown, T. N., & Toomey, R. B. (2018, March). The impact of stigma and discrimination against LGBT people in Arizona. Los Angeles, CA: The Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law.. https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/Arizona-Impact-Discrimination-March-2018.pdf
- Toomey, R. B. (2018, August). Proposed law would harm children with gender issues [Editorial]. Columbus Dispatch. https://www.dispatch.com/opinion/20180801/russell-toomey-proposed-law-would-harm-children-with-gender-issues
- Toomey, R. B., & McGeorge, C. R. (2018, December). LGBTQ equality in college athletics: Cultivating the development of LGBTQ student-athlete allies.. Annual Knowledge Community Conference Publication: National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA)..