Aaron James Scott
- Associate Professor, Medicine - (Clinical Scholar Track)
I am an academic medical oncologist specializing in translational research and gastrointestinal malignancies. Performing translational and clinical research has been my primary focus during my Hematology and Oncology fellowship training and as junior faculty under the guidance of my mentors at University of Colorado Hospital, Drs. Wells Messersmith and Chris Lieu, and at University of Arizona with Dr. Julie Bauman. My research has encompassed the study of anti-tumor effects of multiple small molecule agents, including cabozantinib, in colorectal cancer cell lines and xenograft mouse models. Most recently, I have been investigating the MET kinase pathway as a target for anti-proliferation of colorectal cancer (CRC) explants in patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) models. The results of my experiments have led to the development of a Phase II investigator-initiated trial currently undergoing budget approval, and I wrote the protocol for this trial at the ASCO/AACR Vail Workshop in July 2016. In addition to my translational research, I have written investigator initiated clinical trial protocols including a study investigating ceritinib, an ALK inhibitor, as first-line treatment in patients with ALK-activated CRC. I have published five first-author papers, including a manuscript published in Annals of Oncology that reported results from a phase II clinical trial investigating rigosertib in pancreatic cancer. I have developed strong collaborations with multiple academic GI oncology groups throughout the nation as the local PI of the Academic GI Cancer Consortium (AGICC) group at Banner University Medical Center and University of Arizona Cancer Center. I am dedicated to strengthening my skills as a translational researcher and clinician to help advance personalized cancer therapy and improve outcomes for cancer patients.
- University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States
- B.S. Molecular and Cellular Biology
- University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States
- Clinical Consensus Group Oncology Banner University Medical Center (2017 - Ongoing)
- Department of Medicine Banner University Medical Center (2016 - Ongoing)
- Hematology/Oncology University of Colorado (2015 - 2016)
- Hematology/Oncology University of Colorado (2013 - 2015)
- Internal Medicine, University of Colorado (2010 - 2013)
- Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine (2006 - 2010)
- University of Arizona Cancer Center (2004 - 2006)
- Favorite, Best Oncologist
- Readers' Choice Awards - Arizona Daily Star, Fall 2020
- Best Oncologist in Readers Choice Award
- Arizona Daily Star., Spring 2019
- COM-Tucson Clinical Excellence Award Nominee
- Univ of Ariz COM, Fall 2018 (Award Nominee)
- Translational Workshop of the Integrated Translational Science Center, Spring 2017 (Award Nominee)
- Certificate of Commitment
- Denver VA Hospital, Fall 2016 (Award Finalist)
- Chief Fellow
- Hematology/Oncology Fellowship Program, University of Colorado, Fall 2015
- Gastrointestinal Cancer Symposium
- ASCO/AGA/SSO/ASTRO, Fall 2015 (Award Finalist)
- Oncology Trainee Travel
- ASCO/AGA/SSO/ASTRO, Spring 2015 (Award Finalist)
- Gold Humanism and Excellence in Teaching
- University of Colorado, Fall 2012 (Award Nominee)
- Zenas B Noon Distinguished Medical Student in Cardiology Award
- Spring 2010
- Medical Student Research Project Training Grant
- Department of Surgery, Fall 2007 (Award Finalist)
Licensure & Certification
- Medical Oncology Diplomate, American Board of Internal Medicine (2016)
- Internal Medicine Diplomate, American Board of Internal Medicine (2013)
No activities entered.
Cancer Bio Clin ExprnceCBIO 561 (Spring 2022)
Cancer Bio Clin ExprnceCBIO 561 (Spring 2021)
- Dasari, A., Morris, V. K., Allegra, C. J., Atreya, C., Benson, A. B., Boland, P., Chung, K., Copur, M. S., Corcoran, R. B., Deming, D. A., Dwyer, A., Diehn, M., Eng, C., George, T. J., Gollub, M. J., Goodwin, R. A., Hamilton, S. R., Hechtman, J. F., Hochster, H., , Hong, T. S., et al. (2020). ctDNA applications and integration in colorectal cancer: an NCI Colon and Rectal-Anal Task Forces whitepaper. Nature reviews. Clinical oncology, 17(12), 757-770.More infoAn increasing number of studies are describing potential uses of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) in the care of patients with colorectal cancer. Owing to this rapidly developing area of research, the Colon and Rectal-Anal Task Forces of the United States National Cancer Institute convened a panel of multidisciplinary experts to summarize current data on the utility of ctDNA in the management of colorectal cancer and to provide guidance in promoting the efficient development and integration of this technology into clinical care. The panel focused on four key areas in which ctDNA has the potential to change clinical practice, including the detection of minimal residual disease, the management of patients with rectal cancer, monitoring responses to therapy, and tracking clonal dynamics in response to targeted therapies and other systemic treatments. The panel also provides general guidelines with relevance for ctDNA-related research efforts, irrespective of indication.
- Ewongwo, A., Hamidi, M., Alattar, Z., Ayotunde, O. P., Tiwari, H. A., Elquza, E., Scott, A., Hanna, K., & Nfonsam, V. (2020). Contributing factors and short-term surgical outcomes of patients with early-onset rectal cancer. American journal of surgery, 219(4), 578-582.More infoThe aim of this study was to evaluate patient factors that contribute to increased incidence of early onset rectal cancer and analyze the short-term surgical outcomes of patients undergoing surgery.
- Menghani, S. V., Barbosa, A., Sagerman, P., Beal, M. W., & Scott, A. (2020). Gastric Cardia Adenocarcinoma with Metastasis to the Scalp: A Case Report. Cureus, 12(1), e6781.More infoCutaneous metastasis is a rare manifestation of advanced gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Gastric adenocarcinoma rarely presents with cutaneous metastasis, as cutaneous manifestations occur in less than 1% of upper GI tract malignancies. Here, we present the case of a patient with advanced gastric cardia adenocarcinoma with metastasis to the right occipital region of the scalp. Following shave biopsy, the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and molecular profile of the scalp lesion were analyzed, both of which confirmed metastasis and guided the treatment approach. The lesion demonstrated programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), an immune checkpoint protein, positivity by IHC, which led to the recommendation for treatment with immunotherapy as per the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines. Clinicians should conduct dermatologic examinations in patients with a history of gastric cancer or who are currently undergoing chemotherapy for gastric cancer in order to monitor for disease progression or metastatic lesions. The aim of this report is to increase awareness of scalp metastasis as an indicator of advanced internal visceral carcinoma for earlier diagnosis and improved management of the condition.
- Recio-Boiles, A., Vondrak, J., Veeravelli, S., Mancuso, J. J., Saboda, K., Roe, D. J., Riaz, I. B., Scott, A. J., Elquza, E., McBride, A., & Babiker, H. M. (2020). Analyzing outcomes of neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment for borderline-resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma in the perioperative period at an academic institution. Annals of pancreatic cancer, 3.More infoOnly 15-20% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients are upfront surgical candidates at presentation, and for this cohort of patients, the 5-year survival is a mere 20% despite adjuvant therapy. Previous data indicate that in clinical practice most of these cases are "borderline-resectable," and there is currently no mature data on perioperative treatment.
- Catenacci, D. V., Tesfaye, A., Tejani, M., Cheung, E., Eisenberg, P., Scott, A. J., Eng, C., Hnatyszyn, J., Marina, N., Powers, J., & Wainberg, Z. (2019). Bemarituzumab with modified FOLFOX6 for advanced FGFR2-positive gastroesophageal cancer: FIGHT Phase III study design. Future oncology (London, England), 15(18), 2073-2082.More infoBemarituzumab is an afucosylated monoclonal antibody against FGFR2b (a FGF receptor) with demonstrated monotherapy clinical activity in patients with late-line gastric cancer whose tumors overexpress FGFR2b (NCT02318329). We describe the rationale and design of the FIGHT trial (NCT03343301), a global, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase III study evaluating the role of bemarituzumab in patients with previously untreated, FGFR2b-overexpressing advanced gastroesophageal cancer. Patients are randomized in a blinded fashion to the combination of mFOLFOX6 and bemarituzumab or mFOLFOX6 and placebo. Eligible patients are selected based on the presence of either FGFR2b protein overexpression determined by immunohistochemistry or gene amplification determined by circulating tumor DNA. The primary end point is overall survival, and secondary end points include progression-free survival, objective response rate and safety.
- Choi, B., McBride, A., & Scott, A. J. (2019). Treatment with pembrolizumab after hypersensitivity reaction to nivolumab in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma. American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 76(21), 1749-1752.More infoThe options for immunotherapy treatment are limited for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this case study, we report a case of successful alternation of one PD-1 inhibitor for another after a hypersensitivity reaction.
- Nfonsam, V. N., Jecius, H., Chen, D., Omesiete, P. N., Ewongwo, A. N., Elquza, E., Scott, A. J., & Jandova, J. (2019). Increasing Incidence of Colon Cancer in the Young: Assessing the Tumor Biology. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 229(1), 79-90.More infoThe overall incidence of colon cancer (CC) is decreasing, but with increasing early-onset colon cancer (EOCC < 50 years old). Our recent study revealed unique overexpression of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) in EOCC and its association with aggressiveness. The aim of this study was to assess CC biology, especially in the young, by evaluating the role of COMP in CC carcinogenesis and cancer progression, detecting COMP in serum and its association with disease stage.
- Recio-Boiles, A., Hammad, H., Howell, K., Kalb, B. T., Nfonsam, V. N., Scott, A. J., Babiker, H. M., & Elquza, E. (2019). Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Evaluation by Magnetic Resonance Imaging after Neoadjuvant Therapy on Decision Making: Cancer Center Experience and Literature Review. Journal of gastrointestinal cancer.More infoAn accurate clinical and radiological staging is the pyramid of treatment decisions in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Guidelines recommended neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) followed by surgical resection for fit patients with LARC. Determining the aggressiveness of intervention while avoiding needless morbidity according to patient risk remains an unmet pre-operative decision-making need. With newer magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques and image acquisition available at our Cancer Center, we seek to retrospectively review the correlation between pre- and post-CRT MRI response to the surgical pathological stage in order to aide multidisciplinary team decision making.
- Recio-Boiles, A., Veeravelli, S., Vondrak, J., Babiker, H. M., Scott, A. J., Shroff, R. T., Patel, H., Elquza, E., & McBride, A. (2019). Evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of direct oral anticoagulants and low molecular weight heparin in gastrointestinal cancer-associated venous thromboembolism. World journal of gastrointestinal oncology, 11(10), 866-876.More infoGastrointestinal cancer (GICA) is associated with a higher incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared to other solid tumors, moreover, recurrent VTE and major bleeding (MB) complications during anticoagulation treatment have an associated increase rate. GICA-VTE remains a challenging clinical scenario with MB concerns for utilization of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC), especially with active cancer therapies.
- Scott, A. J., & Shroff, R. T. (2019). Moving the Needle Forward With Locoregional Treatment in Unresectable Cholangiocarcinoma-The Jury Is Still Out. JAMA oncology.
- Eckstrom, J., Bartels, T., Abraham, I., Patel, H., Elquza, E., Scott, A. J., Malangone, S., Hollings, J., & McBride, A. (2018). A single-arm, retrospective analysis of the incidence of febrile neutropenia using same-day versus next-day pegfilgrastim in patients with gastrointestinal cancers treated with FOLFOX or FOLFIRI. Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer.More infoPractice patterns of same-day versus next-day pegfilgrastim vary in numerous practice settings across the country. Current utilization with same-day pegfilgrastim reduced overall visits and reduced treatment time for chemotherapy administration.
- Scott, A. J., Arcaroli, J. J., Bagby, S. M., Yahn, R., Huber, K. M., Serkova, N. J., Nguyen, A., Kim, J., Thorburn, A., Vogel, J., Quackenbush, K. S., Capasso, A., Schreiber, A., Blatchford, P., Klauck, P. J., Pitts, T. M., Eckhardt, S. G., & Messersmith, W. A. (2018). Cabozantinib Exhibits Potent Antitumor Activity in Colorectal Cancer Patient-Derived Tumor Xenograft Models via Autophagy and Signaling Mechanisms. Molecular cancer therapeutics, 17(10), 2112-2122.More infoAntiangiogenic therapy used in treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) inevitably succumbs to treatment resistance. Upregulation of MET may play an essential role to acquired anti-VEGF resistance. We previously reported that cabozantinib (XL184), an inhibitor of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) including MET, AXL, and VEGFR2, had potent antitumor effects in mCRC patient-derived tumor explant models. In this study, we examined the mechanisms of cabozantinib sensitivity, using regorafenib as a control. The tumor growth inhibition index (TGII) was used to compare treatment effects of cabozantinib 30 mg/kg daily versus regorafenib 10 mg/kg daily for a maximum of 28 days in 10 PDX mouse models. angiogenesis and glucose uptake were assessed using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI and [F]-FDG-PET imaging, respectively. RNA-Seq, RTK assay, and immunoblotting analysis were used to evaluate gene pathway regulation and Analysis of TGII demonstrated significant antitumor effects with cabozantinib compared with regorafenib (average TGII 3.202 vs. 48.48, respectively; = 0.007). Cabozantinib significantly reduced vascularity and glucose uptake compared with baseline. Gene pathway analysis showed that cabozantinib significantly decreased protein activity involved in glycolysis and upregulated proteins involved in autophagy compared with control, whereas regorafenib did not. The combination of two separate antiautophagy agents, SBI-0206965 and chloroquine, plus cabozantinib increased apoptosis Cabozantinib demonstrated significant antitumor activity, reduction in tumor vascularity, increased autophagy, and altered cell metabolism compared with regorafenib. Our findings support further evaluation of cabozantinib and combinational approaches targeting autophagy in colorectal cancer. .
- Scott, A. J., Lieu, C. H., & Messersmith, W. A. (2016). Therapeutic Approaches to RAS Mutation. Cancer journal (Sudbury, Mass.), 22(3), 165-74.More infoThe study of oncogenic RAS mutations has led to crucial discoveries regarding cancer molecular biology and behavior and has been integral in shaping the era of targeted cancer therapy. RAS mutations are one of the most common oncogenic drivers in human cancer, and intense efforts to find a clinically effective inhibitor are ongoing. Despite these efforts, targeting RAS mutations has remained elusive, so much so that some have termed oncogenic RAS mutations as "undruggable." In this review, we will summarize current understanding of RAS biology, explore strategies to inhibit RAS oncoproteins and its downstream effectors, and discuss recently described complexities that have shed new light on this pursuit.
- Gastelum, Z. N., Biggs, D. M., & Scott, A. (2017). Multiple Myeloma Presenting as Acute Renal Failure in the Absence of Other Characteristic Features. Cureus, 9(9), e1703.More infoThis case report describes a 54-year-old, asymptomatic man who presented with hyperkalemia on routine lab testing who was later found to have acute renal failure, unresponsive to fluid resuscitation, with minimal improvement after hemodialysis. After a comprehensive evaluation ruled out common causes of acute renal failure, the patient underwent testing with a bone survey, urine protein electrophoresis (UPEP), serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP), and immunoelectrophoresis for suspected plasma cell dyscrasia and received plasmapheresis for hyperviscosity syndrome and nephrotoxicity, which resulted in improved renal function. Lab results showed monoclonal gammopathy, elevated serum free light chains, and Bence Jones protein in the urine with a follow-up bone marrow biopsy indicating plasma cell dyscrasia. The patient received a diagnosis of multiple myeloma (MM) and was started on chemotherapy and immunosuppression. In patients presenting with acute renal failure with an evaluation ruling out prerenal and postrenal causes, multiple myeloma should be considered.
- Minckler, M. R., Conser, E., Figueroa, J. J., Scott, A. J., Gaither, J., & Amini, R. (2017). The Semantics of Priapism and the First Sign of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. Case reports in emergency medicine, 2017, 2656203.More infoPriapism is defined as an erection that persists beyond four hours, lasting beyond or unrelated to sexual stimulation (Salonia et al., 2014). Because the risk of ischemic damage and impotence is high with priapism (35%), management guidelines are directed towards rapid treatment of this condition (Salonia et al., 2014). This report describes the rare case of an 18-year-old male who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) three times with recurrent and worsening episodes of sustained penile erections. On the patient's third visit, he presented with priapism of greater than six-hour duration that was found to be the result of chronic myeloid leukemia. Clinician awareness of the diagnostic semantics and differential diagnosis surrounding priapism is pivotal in its urgent management.
- Scott, A. J., Song, E. K., Bagby, S., Purkey, A., McCarter, M., Gajdos, C., Quackenbush, K. S., Cross, B., Pitts, T. M., Tan, A. C., Eckhardt, S. G., Fenton, H., Arcaroli, J., & Messersmith, W. A. (2017). Evaluation of the efficacy of dasatinib, a Src/Abl inhibitor, in colorectal cancer cell lines and explant mouse model. PloS one, 12(11), e0187173.More infoDysregulation of the Src pathway has been shown to be important at various stages of cancer. Dasatinib is a potent Src/Abl inhibitor and has demonstrated to have anti-proliferative and anti-invasive activity in many preclinical models. The objective of this study was to determine the anti-tumor activity of dasatinib using in vitro and in vivo preclinical colorectal (CRC) models.
- O'Neil, B. H., Scott, A. J., Ma, W. W., Cohen, S. J., Leichman, L., Aisner, D. L., Menter, A. R., Tejani, M. A., Cho, J. K., Granfortuna, J., Coveler, L., Olowokure, O. O., Baranda, J. C., Cusnir, M., Phillip, P., Boles, J., Nazemzadeh, R., Rarick, M., Cohen, D. J., , Radford, J., et al. (2015). A phase II/III randomized study to compare the efficacy and safety of rigosertib plus gemcitabine versus gemcitabine alone in patients with previously untreated metastatic pancreatic cancer. Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology, 26(12), 2505.
- Scott, A. J., Messersmith, W. A., & Jimeno, A. (2015). Apatinib: a promising oral antiangiogenic agent in the treatment of multiple solid tumors. Drugs of today (Barcelona, Spain : 1998), 51(4), 223-9.More infoAberrant proangiogenic pathways have long been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Antiangiogenic therapies have shown efficacy in the treatment of a variety of solid tumors including lung, breast, colon, glioblastomas, and other solid tumor types. Apatinib, a small-molecule inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), is an orally bioavailable agent currently being studied in multiple tumor types. Apatinib has shown a survival benefit in gastric cancer in a phase III trial and non-small cell lung cancer in a phase II trial. With a favorable side effect profile and improved outcomes, apatinib has demonstrated a substantial potential to augment therapeutic options in a variety of tumor types.
- Scott, A., Messersmith, W. A., Jimeno, A., & Davies, S. L. (2014). Panitumumab in the treatment of colon cancer: A biomarker dilemma. Drugs of today (Barcelona, Spain : 1998), 50(10), 679-90.More infoPanitumumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) approved for use in colorectal cancer (CRC). Critical information regarding biomarkers in CRC has been discovered through the investigation of panitumumab treatment. The discovery of anti-EGFR resistance in the setting of Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene (KRAS) and more recently, neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene (NRAS) mutations in CRC has changed the focus of therapy for metastatic disease to one based on the molecular characteristics of the tumor. This review will give a brief background on panitumumab and its current uses in CRC.
- Scott, A., Leong, S., & Messersmith, W. (2013). A moving target: challenges in treating BRAF-mutant colorectal cancer. Colorectal Cancer, 2(3), 197-204.
- Scott, A., Amaria, R., & Lewis, K. (2011). Adjuvant peg-interferon alfa-2b therapy in stage III melanoma. Expert Review in Dermatology, 6(6), 567-75.
- Scott, A. (2020, June/Spring). A phase 2 multicenter study to evaluate the efficacy of tilsotolimod in combination with nivolumad and ipilumumab for treatment of microsatellite-stable colorectal cancer (ILLUMINATE-206). AACR Virtual Meeting. Vitrual: American Association of Cancer Research.
- Scott, A. (2019, January). Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Updates on Biomarkers and Management. Grand Rounds Lecture Division of Hematology/Oncology.
- Scott, A. (2020, January/Spring). A Phase II trial using cabozantinib treatment in refractory colorectal cancer. ASCO GI MeetingAmerican Society of Clinical Oncology.
- Scott, A. (2020, January/Spring). NRG-G1005 (COBRA): Phase II/III study of circulating tumor DNA as a predictive biomarker in adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage II colon cancer. ASCO GIAmerican Society of Clinical Oncology.
- McBride, A., Malangone, S., Recio Boiles, A. R., Scott, A., Babiker, H., & Elquza, E. (2018, January/Spring). An analysis of the efficacy and safety of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in gastrointestinal cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (GI-CAVTE).. GI ASCO. San Francisco, CA: ASCO.
- Recio Boiles, A., Mahadevan, D., Babiker, H., Elquza, E., Zahid, U., Acharya, U. H., Recio Boiles, A., Riaz, I. B., Howe, C. L., Zahid, U., Elquza, E., Scott, A., Acharya, U. H., Riaz, I. B., Scott, A., Saboda, K., Elliott, C. M., Howe, C. L., Saboda, K., , Elliott, C. M., et al. (2018, January/ Spring). Analyzing the efficacy and safety of immunotherapy in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA): A systematic review and meta-analysis. GI ASCO. San Francisco, CA: ASCO.
- Saboda, K., Elquza, E., Recio Boiles, A. R., Mahadevan, D., Liu, A. J., Babiker, H., Scott, A., Liau, J., Liau, J., Scott, A., Liu, A. J., Babiker, H., Recio Boiles, A. R., Mahadevan, D., Saboda, K., & Elquza, E. (2018, January/ Spring). Correlative analysis of circulating tumor (ct) DNA and tumor mutational analysis (TMA) in patients with advanced pancreatobilliary malignancies (PBM). GI ASCO. San Francisco, CA: ASCO.
- Recio Boiles, A., Babiker, H., Zahid, U., Acharya, U. H., Riaz, I. B., Howe, C. L., Zahid, U., Scott, A., Riaz, I. B., Scott, A., Elliott, C. M., Howe, C. L., Saboda, K., Elliott, C. M., Acharya, U. H., Babiker, H., Elquza, E., Mahadevan, D., Recio Boiles, A., , Elquza, E., et al. (2018, January/ Spring). Analyzing the efficacy and safety of immunotherapy in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA): A systematic review and meta-analysis. GI ASCO. San Francisco, CA: ASCO.
- Saboda, K., Elquza, E., Recio Boiles, A. R., Mahadevan, D., Liu, A. J., Babiker, H., Liau, J., Scott, A., Scott, A., Liau, J., Liu, A. J., Babiker, H., Recio Boiles, A. R., Mahadevan, D., Saboda, K., & Elquza, E. (2018, January/ Spring). Correlative analysis of circulating tumor (ct) DNA and tumor mutational analysis (TMA) in patients with advanced pancreatobilliary malignancies (PBM). GI ASCO. San Francisco, CA: ASCO.
- Mahadevan, D., Elquza, E., Recio Boiles, A., Elquza, E., Acharya, U. H., Saboda, K., Elliott, C. M., Riaz, I. B., Scott, A., Howe, C. L., Zahid, U., & Babiker, H. (2018, January/ Spring). Analyzing the efficacy and safety of immunotherapy in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA): A systematic review and meta-analysis. GI ASCO. San Francisco, CA: ASCO.