- Director, International Initiatives
- Research Scientist, Soil/Water and Environmental Science
- Research Scientist, Environmental Research Lab
- Research Scientist, Natural Resources
- Professor, Soil/Water and Environmental Science
- Professor, Agricultural-Biosystems Engineering
- Professor, Roshan Persian and Iranian Studies - GIDP
- Professor, Applied BioSciences - GIDP
- Port Sampler, National Marine Fisheries Service (1979 - 1980)
- Fulbright Research Fellowship
- Fulbright - USAID, Fall 2017
- Excellence in Global Education
- Center for English as a Second Language and Office of Global Initiatives, Fall 2016
- World Aquaculture Society, Spring 2004
No activities entered.
DissertationENVS 920 (Fall 2018)
ThesisENVS 910 (Fall 2018)
DissertationENVS 920 (Spring 2018)
ThesisENVS 910 (Spring 2018)
Aquatic Plants+EnviromntECOL 474 (Fall 2017)
Aquatic Plants+EnviromntECOL 574 (Fall 2017)
Aquatic Plants+EnviromntENVS 474 (Fall 2017)
Aquatic Plants+EnviromntENVS 574 (Fall 2017)
Aquatic Plants+EnviromntWFSC 474 (Fall 2017)
DissertationENVS 920 (Fall 2017)
ThesisENVS 910 (Fall 2017)
DissertationENVS 920 (Spring 2017)
Freshwater+Marine AlgaeECOL 475 (Spring 2017)
Freshwater+Marine AlgaeECOL 575 (Spring 2017)
Freshwater+Marine AlgaeENVS 575 (Spring 2017)
Independent StudyENVS 699 (Spring 2017)
Aquatic Plants+EnviromntECOL 474 (Fall 2016)
Aquatic Plants+EnviromntENVS 474 (Fall 2016)
Aquatic Plants+EnviromntENVS 574 (Fall 2016)
Aquatic Plants+EnviromntWFSC 474 (Fall 2016)
Directed ResearchENVS 492 (Fall 2016)
DissertationENVS 920 (Fall 2016)
Independent StudyENVS 399 (Fall 2016)
Independent StudyENVS 499 (Fall 2016)
Independent StudyENVS 699 (Fall 2016)
Master's ReportENVS 909 (Summer I 2016)
- Fitzsimmons, K., Tun, K. L., Janjua, R., & Naing, M. M. (2018). Aquaculture Handbook: Fish Farming, Health and Nutrition in Myanmar. Yangon, Myanmar: USAID.
- Fitzsimmons, K., & Janjua, R. (2015). Aquaculture Handbook. American Soybean Association and USDA FAS.
- Fitzsimmons, K., & Shahkar, E. (2017). Tilapia–Shrimp Polyculture. In Tilapia in Intensive Co-culture(pp 94-113). Chapter 7: John Wiley.
- Fitzsimmons, K. (2012). Merging the Best of the Green and Blue Revolutions: The Sustainable Food System for the Future. In Ocean 101: Current Issues and Our Future(pp 99-109). Busan, Korea: World Ocean Forum.
- Fitzsimmons, K., Biketi, A., Manayala, J., Rachuonyo, H., Egna, H., & Rono, K. (2018). Biketi, A., Manyala, J., Rachuonyo, H., Fitzsimmons, K., Egna, H. and Rono, K. 2018. Effect of replacing fish meal by soybean-blood meal mixture on performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). International Journal of Science and Technoledge 6(8):1-7.. International Journal of Science and Technoledge 6(8):1-7., 6(8), 1-7.
- Fitzsimmons, K., Obado, E., Ani, J., Manyala, J., Ngugi, C., Raburu, P., & Egna, H. (2018). EFFECTS OF LYSINE AND METHIONINE SUPPLEMENTATION AND COST EFFECTIVENESS IN PRODUCTION OF NILE TILAPIA DIETS (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS) IN WESTERN KENYA. International Journal of Research Science and Management, 5(3), 12-23.
- Fitzsimmons, K., Rono, K., Manyala, J., Ngugi, C., & Sabwa, J. (2018). Rono, K., Manyala, J., Lusega, D. Sabwa, J., Yongo, E., Ngugi, C., Fitzsimmons, K. and Egna, H. (2018). Growth performance of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) on diets supplemented with iron-amino acid complex in an aquaponic system in Kenya. International Journal of Research Science and Management 5(7):117-127.. International Journal of Research Science and Management 5(7):117-127., 5(7), 117-127.
- Fitzsimmons, K., Rono, K., Ngugi, C., Manyala, J., Egna, H., Tarus, A., & Obado, E. (2018). EFFECTS OF BIOFLOC TECHNOLOGY ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromis niloticus) FINGERLINGS AND MICROBIAL COLONIZATION IN THE SYSTEM.. International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch, 3((5)), 106-120.
- Fitzsimmons, K., & Cerozi, B. (2017). Effect of dietary phytase on phosphorus use efficiency and dynamics in aquaponics.. Aquaculture International, 1 -12.
- Fitzsimmons, K., & Cerozi, B. (2017). Phosphorus dynamics modeling and mass balance in an aquaponics system. Agricultural Systems, 153, 94-100., 153, 94-100.
- Fitzsimmons, K., & Menaga, M. (2017). Growth of the tilapia industry in India. World Aquaculture, 48(3), 49-52.
- Fitzsimmons, K., Ngugi, C., Okoth, E., Manyala, J., & Kimotho, A. (2017). Characterization of the nutritional quality of amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus) leaf protein concentrates (ALPC) and suitability of fish meal replacement in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) feeds. Aquaculture Reports, 5, 62-69.
- Fitzsimmons, K., & da Silva Cerozi, B. (2016). The effect of pH on phosphorus availability and speciation in an aquaponics nutrient solution. Bioresource Technology, 219, 778–781.
- Fitzsimmons, K., & da Silva Cerozi, B. (2016). Use of Bacillus spp. to enhance phosphorus availability and serve as a plant growth promoter in aquaponics systems. Scientia Horticulturae, 211, 277–282.
- Fitzsimmons, K., Silva, L., Gasca-Leyva, E., Escalante, E., & Valdes Lozano, D. (2015). Evaluation of Biomass Yield and Water Treatment in Two Aquaponic Systems Using the Dynamic Root Floating Technique (DRF). Sustainability, 7, 15384-15399.More infoSilva, L., Gasca-Leyva, E., Escalante, E., Fitzsimmons, K.M., and Valdés Lozano, D. (2015) Evaluation of Biomass Yield and Water Treatment in Two Aquaponic Systems Using the Dynamic Root Floating Technique (DRF). Sustainability 2015, 7, 15384-15399.
- Angelova, A., Park, S., Kyndt, J., Fitzsimmons, K., & Brown, J. K. (2014). Sonication-based isolation and enrichment of Chlorella protothecoides chloroplasts for Illumina genome sequencing. Journal of Applied Phycology, 26(1), 209-218.More infoAbstract: With the increasing world demand for biofuel, a number of oleaginous algal species are being considered as renewable sources of oil. Chlorella protothecoides Krüger synthesizes triacylglycerols (TAGs) as storage compounds that can be converted into renewable fuel utilizing an anabolic pathway that is poorly understood. The paucity of algal chloroplast genome sequences has been an important constraint to chloroplast transformation and for studying gene expression in TAGs pathways. In this study, the intact chloroplasts were released from algal cells using sonication followed by sucrose gradient centrifugation, resulting in a 2.36-fold enrichment of chloroplasts from C. protothecoides, based on qPCR analysis. The C. protothecoides chloroplast genome (cpDNA) was determined using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform and found to be 84,576 Kb in size (8.57 Kb) in size, with a GC content of 30.8 %. This is the first report of an optimized protocol that uses a sonication step, followed by sucrose gradient centrifugation, to release and enrich intact chloroplasts from a microalga (C. prototheocoides) of sufficient quality to permit chloroplast genome sequencing with high coverage, while minimizing nuclear genome contamination. The approach is expected to guide chloroplast isolation from other oleaginous algal species for a variety of uses that benefit from enrichment of chloroplasts, ranging from biochemical analysis to genomics studies. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
- Fitzsimmons, K., Brown, C., Bolivar, R., & Yang, T. (2014). Brown, C.L., Yang, T.B., Fitzsimmons, K. and Bolivar, R.B. (2014) The value of pig manure as a source of nutrients for semi-intensive culture of Nile Tilapia in ponds (A Review). Agricultural Sciences, 5, 1182-1193.. Agricultural Sciences, 5, 1182-1193.More infoBrown, C.L., Yang, T.B., Fitzsimmons, K. and Bolivar, R.B. (2014) The value of pig manure as a source of nutrients for semi-intensive culture of Nile Tilapia in ponds (A Review). Agricultural Sciences, 5, 1182-1193.
- Fitzsimmons, K. (2013). Productivity of Polycultured Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in a Recirculating System. The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - Bamidgeh.More infoIJA_65.2013.802
- Fitzsimmons, K. -., & Sace, C. (2013). Vegetable production in a recirculating aquaponic system using Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with and without freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Academic Journal of Agricultural Research, 12(1), 236-250.More infoSace, C.F. and Fitzsimmons, K.M. 2013. Vegetable production in a recirculating aquaponic system using Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with and without freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Acad. J. Agric. Res. 1(12):236-250.
- Hernández-Barraza, C., Cantú, D. L., Osti, J. L., Fitzsimmons, K., & Nelson, S. (2013). Productivity of polycultured nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in a recirculating system. Israeli Journal of Aquaculture - Bamidgeh, 65(1).More infoAbstract: Two experiments were conducted in the Environmental Research Laboratory of the University of Arizona in Tucson, AZ, USA, to evaluate the production of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in recirculating polyculture and monoculture systems. The experiments were conducted for six weeks in twenty and sixteen 200-l fiberglass tanks, respectively, at a salinity of 10 ppt. In the first experiment, tilapia were fed pelleted feed at 3%, 2.25%, or 1.5% of their body weight. In the second experiment, tilapia were stocked at 12, 8, or 4 fish/cage, submerged in the shrimp tanks. In general, total production of fish and shrimp was higher in polyculture than in monoculture. The better growth of shrimp in polyculture appears to be because shrimp were able to utilize waste from the tilapia. In experiment 1, shrimp growth did not significantly differ between treatments (p>0.05) but tilapia growth was rapid, with significant differences between treatments; higher feeding rates produced higher biomasses. In experiment 2, growth significantly differed between shrimp grown in polyculture with 12 fish/cage and shrimp grown in monoculture. Final mean shrimp weights averaged 10.83±0.97, 10.37±0.96, and 10.20±0.94 g in polyculture, but only 9.85±0.73 in monoculture while tilapia growth did not significantly differ between treatments. This study shows that adding Nile tilapia to shrimp tanks at suitable stocking densities and appropriate feeding rates produces positive interactions.
- Tran, L., Nunan, L., Redman, R., Mohney, L., Pantoja, C., Fitzsimmons, K., & Lightner, D. (2013). Determination of the infectious nature of the agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome affecting penaeid shrimp. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 105, 45-55.
- Al-Hafedh, Y. S., Alam, A., Buschmann, A. H., & Fitzsimmons, K. M. (2012). Experiments on an integrated aquaculture system (seaweeds and marine fish) on the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia: Efficiency comparison of two local seaweed species for nutrient biofiltration and production. Reviews in Aquaculture, 4(1), 21-31.More infoAbstract: Seaweeds absorb inorganic nutrient wastes from mariculture and reduce their undesirable environmental effects. Mariculture in Saudi Arabia is increasing rapidly, thus, to exploit aquaculture wastes and to reduce coastal pollution risks, local seaweeds were cultured using mariculture effluents in integration on the Red Sea coast. The aim of the present study was to test integrated aquaculture of seaweed and marine fish (Oreochromisspilurus) for the first time in Saudi Arabia and to determine the seaweeds, Ulvalactuca and Gracilariaarcuata, biomass production and inorganic nutrient bioremediation capabilities. Results showed that G. arcuata grew at a significantly higher rate (2.71% wet weightday -1) than U. lactuca (1.77% wet weightday -1). The biomass yield (42.38gwetweightm -2day -1) and net yield (91.11gwetweightday -1) of G. arcuata were also significantly higher than U. lactuca (27.39gwet weightm -2day -1 and 58.89gwetweightday -1, respectively). Gracilariaarcuata removed 0.45gm -2day -1 of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) with 80.15% removal efficiency and 1.03gm -2day -1 of soluble phosphate with 41.06% efficiency. Ulvalactuca removed 0.42gm -2day -1 of TAN with 83.06% removal efficiency and 1.07gm -2day -1 of soluble phosphate with 41.11% efficiency. Total tissue carbon of both species reached 25.1-26.9% and nitrogen content reached 3.0-3.2% of dry weight. The C/N ratio for both seaweeds was
- Al-Hafedh, Y., Alam, A., Buschmann, A., & Fitzsimmons, K. (2012). Experiments on an integrated aquaculture system (seaweeds and marine fish) on the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia: efficiency comparison of two local seaweed species for nutrient biofiltration and production. Reviews in Aquaculture, 4, 1-11.
- Fitzsimmons, K. -., , C., Loredo, J., Adame, J., & Fitzsimmon, K. (2012). Effect of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) on the growth performance of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in a sequential polyculture system. Lat. Am. J. Aquat. Res, 40(4), 936-942.
- Hernández-Barraza, C., Loredo, J., Adame, J., & Fitzsimmons, K. M. (2012). Effect of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) on the growth performance of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in a sequential polyculture system. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research, 40(4), 936-942.More infoAbstract: The present study was carried out at the Environmental Research Laboratory (ERL), University of Arizona, to assess the effect of the addition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), at different densities, on the growth performance of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). The growth rate and feed conversion of shrimp, both in polyculture and monoculture, were evaluated. Shrimp-tilapia proportions were 20:8 individuals in Treatment One (T1), 20:4 individuals in Treatment Two (T2) and 20:2 individuals in Treatment Three (T3), while in Treatment Four (T4) shrimp were stocked as a control group with a ratio of 20:0. The experiment lasted for four weeks at 10 ppt water salinity. The shrimp and fish were fed once a day with 8% and 3% of their body weight, respectively, using a 35% protein feed. At the end of the experiment, the average individual weight and best feed conversion ratio were obtained in shrimp polyculture treatment with highest tilapia density 6.08 ± 0.18 g and 1.26 ± 0.01 respectively, while the lowest scores were found in the monoculture treatment with 5.14 ± 0.59 g and 1.35 ± 0.01, respectively (P < 0.05). The present study demonstrate that integrated farming of shrimp and tilapia, with a polyculture sequential tanks system is technically feasible and increases the production of shrimp, which is higher than in monoculture, without any adverse interaction between fish and shrimp.
- Fitzsimmons, K., & Watanabe, W. O. (2010). Tilapia (Family: Cichlidae). Finfish Aquaculture Diversification, 374-396.
- Stevenson, K. T., Fitzsimmons, K. M., Clay, P. A., Alessa, L., & Kliskey, A. (2010). Integration of aquaculture and arid lands agriculture for water reuse and reduced fertilizer dependency. Experimental Agriculture, 46(2), 173-190.More infoAbstract: SUMMARY Field irrigation is costly in arid regions, and over-fertilization of farmland can lead to high groundwater nitrate levels and significant environmental challenges. Integrative aquaculture and agriculture (IAA) systems allow the reuse of water and nutrients to offset production costs while promoting greater sustainability. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an IAA system using treatments formed from one water source, groundwater (GRND) or fish pond effluent (EFF), and one chemical fertilizer regime, eliminated (ELIM) or historical (HIST). Treatments were applied to field plots of barley or cotton. There were typically positive effects of EFF applications on crop growth and yield relative to GRND applications under identical fertilizer regimes. However, GRND-HIST almost always outperformed EFF-ELIM, suggesting that substituting effluent irrigations for a historical fertilization regime without pond biosolid or reduced fertilizer applications could be detrimental to crop production. © Cambridge University Press 2010.
- Zerai, D. B., Fitzsimmons, K. M., & Collier, R. J. (2010). Transcriptional response of delta-9-desaturase gene to acute and chronic cold stress in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 41(5), 800-806.More infoAbstract: Tilapia is a warmwater fish and a popular choice for aquaculture. However, cold sensitivity of tilapia is a constraint to expansion of tilapia culture into the colder regions of the world. Tilapia generally require a thermal environment of 25-30 C. Acclimation to cold requires changes in gene expression such as delta 9 desaturase (Δ9D) which is widely expressed in many poikilothermic animals in the process of cold acclimation. A major function of Δ9D is to desaturate membrane lipids in order to sustain membrane fluidity during cold. In this article we examined the effect of acute and chronic cold stress (12-14 C) on the expression of the Δ9D gene in muscle, gill, heart, and liver of growing Oreochromis niloticus. Despite the relatively cold temperatures, none of the fish were killed by the cold stress. Results indicate that there was no significant change in expression of Δ9D during acute cold stress. The expression of Δ9D in liver and heart tissues was not chronically affected by cold (7 d); however, Δ9D expression of muscle and gill tissue was increased in response to chronic cold stress. Muscle was the most responsive tissue demonstrating greater than 16-fold increase following 7 d of cold exposure. Unlike many other cold tolerant teleost fish, tilapia liver Δ9D transcription was not affected by acclimation to chronic cold stress. It is possible that upregulation of expression of Δ9D in muscle and gill tissue reflects the requirement of these tissues in maintenance of a higher metabolism associated with the need to sustain oxygen consumption, mobility, and heat generation. In contrast, reduced expression of Δ9D in liver may reflect lower overall metabolic rate during cold. © by the World Aquaculture Society 2010.
- Cruz, P. S., Andalecio, M. N., Bolivar, R. B., & Fitzsimmons, K. (2008). Tilapia-shrimp polyculture in Negros Island, Philippines: A review. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 39(6), 713-725.More infoAbstract: Tilapia-shrimp polyculture has played an important role in current efforts to control luminous bacterial disease caused by Vibrio harveyi. At present, green water technology is most extensively used by shrimp farmers in Negros Island in the central Philippines. While the contribution of tilapia as a biomanipulator is highlighted in the literature, the mechanism of action is not well understood. Data were gathered from shrimp ponds practicing two production systems: (a) green water system (probiotics + tilapia) and (b) closed/semiclosed system (probiotics alone). There was no difference between luminous Vibrio count (P < 0.05) in both systems, and water quality was found to be similar (P < 0.05). Because the green water system uses a bigger reservoir to raise the tilapia biomass, the net shrimp production was lower. In terms of direct cost of production, however, the green water system was 10-15% lower than the closed/semiclosed system because of significantly less aeration required. The polyculture maintained a more stable plankton environment during the early months of culture, which increased survival of shrimps. Various pathways are presented for the control of luminous bacterial growth in polyculture ponds: (a) fish feeding on organic wastes and conversion to feces; (b) selective fish foraging to increase the dominance of beneficial phytoplankton; (c) bioturbation of pond sediments; and (d) release in the water column of antimicrobials, fungi, or competing bacteria from the skin and gut mucus of tilapia. © Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2008.
- II, W. Z., Hanson, A. T., Sauceda, J. A., & Fitzsimmons, K. M. (2008). Evaluation of submerged surface flow (SSF) constructed wetlands for recirculating tilapia production systems. Aquacultural Engineering, 39(1), 16-23.More infoAbstract: A recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) treating tilapia production wastewaters used a two-step process combining a simple clarifier and a submerged surface flow (SSF) constructed wetlands for suspended solids removal and removal of nitrogenous compounds. This system successfully supported a commercial scale level of production (>35 kg/m3) for over 36 months of operation. The innovative SSF wetland design incorporated a high hydraulic loading rate (3.03 m/day), larger effective diameter media (380 mm), and a deeper bed depth (0.90 m) than previously suggested design guidelines. The SSF wetland flow pattern was characterized as plug flow with dispersion, but this analysis based on bed volume data indicated that media porosity was reduced from an assumed design value of 54-27% under operating conditions. The TSS, TAN, NO2-N, and NO3-N, percent mass removal for the SSF wetlands was 67.2, 46.0, 87.0, and 40.6, respectively. The TSS, TAN, NO2-N, and NO3-N mass removal for the SSF wetlands was 8.21, 0.58, 0.63, and 0.93 g/(m2 day), respectively. Optimal performance of the SSF wetlands with simultaneous removal of TAN and NO2-N, and NO3-N occurred at TAN loadings less than 6.0 g/(m2 day). Bed depth and hydraulic loading rates were major factors controlling this aerobic/anaerobic removal of nitrogen. The wetlands appeared to be oxygen limited at very high TAN loadings above 6.0 g/(m2 day). Site elevation (1189 m) and warm culture temperatures (∼25 °C) contributed, but supplemental aeration could provide better TAN removal. Summary of design parameters were presented. Mean KT values calculated for TSS, TAN, NO2-N, and NO3-N were 9.861, 0.614, 20.033, and 8.292 days-1 compared favorably to other SSF systems.
- Zerai, D. B., Fitzsimmons, K. M., Collier, R. J., & Duff, G. C. (2008). Evaluation of brewer's waste as partial replacement of fish meal protein in nile tilapia, oreochromis niloticus, diets. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 39(4), 556-564.More infoAbstract: Brewer's waste is one of the promising protein source by-products for fish diets. A 10-wk feeding trial experiment involving five different diets with increasing levels of brewer's waste (32% crude protein) was carried out to evaluate the use of brewer's waste in tilapia diets in place of fish meal. Growth performance was compared against a control diet formulated to have similar composition to a typical commercial diet. Four experimental diets replaced successively 25, 50, 75, and 100% of the fish meal protein with brewer's waste. The diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Results indicated that weight gain did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) with up to 50% replacement. Feed intake and utilization were depressed at high levels of brewer's waste. In addition, methionine of high replacement level diets was low. The results of the digestibility trial demonstrated that the brewer's waste used in this study has an apparent digestibility coefficient for protein of 70%. It was concluded that 50% of the fish meal protein in a typical commercial diet could be replaced with brewer's waste with no adverse effect on growth and feed utilization for tilapia. © Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2008.
- Fitzsimmons, K. (2005). Tilapia culture. American Fisheries Society Symposium, 2005(46), 563-590.
- McIntosh, D., Ryder, E., Dickenson, G., & Fitzsimmons, K. (2004). Laboratory determination of a phosphorus leaching rate from trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) feces. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 35(4), 506-512.More infoAbstract: In order to reduce the impact that trout farm effluent can have on receiving water, it imperative to reduce the overall phosphorus (P) loading of these effluents. In response, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) is issuing new effluent regulations for aquaculture. Therefore, efficient removal of P from effluent water is becoming increasingly important. The goal of this project was to determine the leaching rate of total and reactive P from trout feces under different water temperatures and water velocities immediately after evacuation. Scatter plots of the P load in the experimental containers over time were created for each fish/fecal sample and regression analysis was used to determine P leaching rates. Results from this study suggest that reactive phosphorus leaching rates are not affected by water velocities between 0.027 and 0.134 m/sec. However, at higher temperatures, reactive P leaches 1.92-mg PO4/hr per g feces faster (F1.52 = 4.6445, P = 0.0358) than at lower temperatures. Mean reactive phosphorus leaching rates were 2.88 ± 0.704 and 0.96 ± 0.581mg PO4/hr/g feces, for the high and low temperatures, respectively. On the other hand, total P does not appear to be affected by either water velocity or temperature. Mean total P leaching rate is 4.50 ± 1.053 mg PO4/hr per g feces. This study suggests that removal time of feces from the system is critical in reducing the overall P load in effluent. © Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2004.
- McIntosh, D., & Fitzsimmons, K. (2003). Characterization of effluent from an inland, low-salinity shrimp farm: What contribution could this water make if used for irrigation. Aquacultural Engineering, 27(2), 147-156.More infoAbstract: Coastal aquaculture can contribute to eutrophication of receiving waters. New technologies and improved management practices allow the aquaculture industry to be more sustainable and economically viable. Current practices, however, do not provide an additional use for effluent water. Nitrogen, phosphorus and other effluent compounds could be valuable plant nutrients. Inflow and effluent water from an inland, low-salinity shrimp farm, were monitored. Bi-weekly analysis included total nitrogen, ammonia-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, total phosphorus, reactive phosphorus, alkalinity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS) and volatile suspended solids (VSS), as well as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH. Alkalinity and total nitrogen decreased during the in-pond residency. The other parameters increased while in the ponds. The potential benefit of having nutrient enriched wastewater to irrigate field crops was substantial, supplying between 20 and 31% of the necessary nitrogen fertilizer for wheat production. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
- McIntosh, D., King, C., & Fitzsimmons, K. (2003). Tilapia for biological control of giant salvinia. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 41(1), 28-31.More infoAbstract: In August 1999, giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta Mitchell) was found along the lower Colorado River in irrigation drainages. To investigate the slow spread and apparent control of giant salvinia in this region, the herbivorous fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Trewavas), was examined as a biological control agent. The study was conducted in a 5,000-L recirculating system. One of four treatments was assigned to each of twenty 200-L tanks after they were stocked with tilapia at a density of five fish per tank. The first treatment group, the giant salvinia control, contained giant salvinia only; group two, the fish control, contained fish only and was fed a commercial diet; group three, the giant salvinia and fish minus feed treatment, contained fish and giant salvinia; and group four, the giant salvinia and fish plus feed treatment, contained fish and giant salvinia, as well as being fed a commercial diet. Changes in giant salvinia biomass were statistically different among all treatments (p < 0.0001, F2, 12 = 49.4370), with greatest change occurring in the giant salvinia and fish minus feed treatment (-491 g). Average fish growth was 13.7 g greater in the giant salvinia and fish plus feed treatment than either the fish control treatment or the salvinia and fish minus feed treatments. These findings could explain why giant salvinia has had limited dispersal on the Lower Colorado River, as tilapia are ubiquitous.
- Watanabe, W. O., Losordo, T. M., Fitzsimmons, K., & Hanley, F. (2002). Tilapia Production Systems in the Americas: Technological Advances, Trends, and Challenges. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 10(3-4), 465-498.More infoAbstract: Tilapia is the common name applied to three genera of fish in the family Cichlidae: Oreochromis, Sarotherodon, and Tilapia. The species that are most important for aquaculture are in the genus Oreochromis, including the Nile tilapia, O. niloticus, the Mozambique tilapia, O. mossambicus, the blue tilapia, O. aureus, and O. urolepis hornorum. Fish farmers are now growing many strains of these parent species along with many hybrid strains. Native to Africa and the Middle East, these species have become the second most common farm raised food fish in the world. In the 1960s and 1970s tilapia culture was aimed at the production of food for local consumption, utilizing primarily extensive or semiintensive culture methods with minimal inputs of fertilizer or feeds. However, tilapia culture has expanded rapidly during the last decade as a result of technological advances associated with the intensification of culture practices. These include the development of new strains and hybrids, monosex male culture, formulated diets, a variety of semiintensive and intensive culture systems (e.g., ponds, cages, tanks, and raceways) and the utilization of greenhouses, geothermal, or industrial waste heat and advanced water treatment methods. Marketing programs have also nurtured a growing demand for tilapia in domestic and international markets. Annual worldwide production of cultured tilapia was less than 200,000 metric tons (mt) in 1984 and increased to 1,100,000 mt in 1999. In the Americas, the increased production of farmed tilapia is due in large part to their adaptability to a diverse array of production systems. These include subsistence level, extensive pond culture in the Eastern Caribbean, integrated animal-fish culture in Guatemala and Panama, semiintensive pond culture in Honduras, intensive pond culture in Colombia, Costa-Rica and Jamaica, semiintensive cage culture in several countries, intensive flowthrough tank and raceway culture in the U.S., and a variety of highly intensive indoor recirculating tank culture in the U.S. In addition, there is increasing production of tilapia in shrimp ponds in Ecuador to ameliorate shrimp disease problems. In this article, representatives of various systems are compared with respect to technological approaches and constraints. Poor management of tilapia genetic resources is causing a loss of productivity, and research in genetics and selective breeding will be needed to improve production efficiency, fillet yields, and environmental tolerance. Continuing nutritional studies will also be needed to increase efficiency and profitability. With intensification, infectious diseases have become more serious, and fish health management through biosecurity procedures, environmental manipulation, reduction of stress, nutrition, genetics, and the use of prophylactic therapeutics will be essential. Increasing waste production will require novel methods for integrating tilapia culture with the production of other valuable crops to maximize nutrient recovery and minimize pollution. Market development and quality control will be critical to ensure market growth.
- Fitzsimmons, K., Dickenson, G., Brand, C., & Davis, J. (1997). Effects of reducing dietary lipid levels on growth and body composition of hybrid tilapia in an intensive recirculating-water system. Progressive Fish-Culturist, 59(4), 293-296.More infoAbstract: Juvenile hybrids of Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus x blue tilapia O. aureus reared in an intensive recirculating-water system were fed isonitrogenous (30% protein), isocaloric (2,870) kcal/kg digestible energy) diets with varying levels of dietary lipids. Diets containing 3, 6, and 8% lipids were fed at a rate of 3% of biomass per day. Fish grew from 68 g to 250 g in 91 d. Specific growth rates and feed efficiency ratios were not significantly different between treatments. Examination of fat levels in fillets and livers did not demonstrate any trend as lipid levels in diets decreased. The amount of fat in the viscera did not decrease with a reduction of lipid in the diets. It was concluded that lower fat levels could be used in feeds for intensive production systems if the caloric value of the diet is balanced with suitable carbohydrates. In addition, fat level in the final fillet product will not be reduced by lowering the dietary fat level in fish feed within the range of 3% to 8% lipid.
- Fitzsimmons, K. (2012, Fall). Position of tilapia among primary farmed fish and aquaculture technical difficulties. In 9th International Tilapia Industry Development Forum, 25-31.
- Fitzsimmons, K. (2012, Fall). Tilapia Production and Market Situation in 2012. In 9th International Tilapia Industry Development Forum, 36-42.
- Liping, L., & Fitzsimmons, K. (2011, Fall). Better Science, Better Fish, Better Life. In Ninth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture.
- Fitzsimmons, K. (2017, August). Tilapia: The Future Fish. International Workshop on Tilapia. Chennai, INDIA: Tamil Nadu Fisheries University.
- Fitzsimmons, K. (2017, July). Myanmar Experience in On Boarding Farmers Supporting Small-Holders Toward Market Access, Using Certification as Scheme for Improvement. Asia Pacific Aquaculture. KL, Malaysia: WAS - APC.
- Fitzsimmons, K. (2017, July). Professional Advancement Through Volunteer Opportunities. Asia Pacific Aquaculture. Putra World Trade Center, KL, Malaysia: APC - WAS.
- Fitzsimmons, K. (2017, June). Supply and demand in Tilapia Markets. World Aquaculture Meetings 2017. CapeTown, Sount Africa: World Aquaculture Society.
- Fitzsimmons, K., & LWIN TUN, K. (2017, July). 2017 - Supply and Demand in Tilapia Markets. Asian Pacific Aquaculture 2017. Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur: WAS - APC.
- Fitzsimmons, K., Tun, S., Lwin, K., & Lwin, M. (2017, July). Environmental Improvement in South East Asia Aquaculture: The Success Stories, Challenges and Future Insights. Asia Pacific Aquaculture 2017. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Asia Pacific Chapter of World Aquaculture Society.
- Kyi, H. H., Aranguren, L. F., Dhar, A., Mclain, J. E., Fitzsimmons, K., & Lwin Tun, K. (2017, July). Identification of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in black tiger shrimp (Penaeua monodon), Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei), and fresh water shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). World Aquaculture Society APA 17. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
- Fitzsimmons, K. (2016, Feb). Partnerships in Development and Use of Aquaponics as a Novel Technology. The Social Impact of Economic Innovations. Salt Lake City: Choice International.
- Fitzsimmons, K. (2016, November). Aquaculture and Past Experience with Seawater, Energy and Agricultural Systems. Seawater, Energy and Agricultural Systems Forum. MASDAR Abu Dhabi, UAE: MASDAR.
- Mclain, J. E., & Fitzsimmons, K. (2016, October). Sustainable seafood development in Burma. 2016 International Burma Studies Conference. Dekalb, Illinois: Northern Illinois University Burma Studies Department.
- Fitzsimmons, K. (2015, April). Market Stability: Why Tilapia Supply and Demand have Avoided the Boom and Bust of other Commodities. Tilapia 2015. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Infofish FAO.
- Fitzsimmons, K. (2015, April). USA: World’s Largest Tilapia Market. Tilapia 2015. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: InfoFish FAO.
- Fitzsimmons, K. (2015, October). Supply and Demand in Global Tilapia Markets. Southern Africa Aquaculture Conference. Polokwane, South Africa: University of Limpopo and FAO.
- Fitzsimmons, K. -. (2014, May). Aquaponics Shortcourse - 5 lectures. Aquaponics Shortcourse. University of Guelph, Guelph Canada: Noa Fisheries.
- Fitzsimmons, K. M. (2012, June). Tilapia and carp polyculture. USSEC Yangon, Burma. Yangon, Burma: US Soybean Export Council.
- Fitzsimmons, K. M. (2013, Aug). Progress in research in tilapia biology. Brazilian Conference on Animal Science. Campinas, SP, Brazil: Brazilian Association of Animal Science.
- Fitzsimmons, K. M. (2013, December). Control of EMS with tilapia polyculture. Asia Pacific Aquaculture. Ho Chi Minh, VietNam: World Aquaculture Society.
- Fitzsimmons, K. M. (2013, July). Early Mortality Syndrome in Marine Shrimp - causes and controls. Multiple (Bangkok and Pattaya, Thailand; Surabaya and Lombok, Indonesia; Cau Ma, Vung Tau, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam). Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand: USSEC.
- Fitzsimmons, K. M. (2013, July). Potential for Softshell crab, seaweed and tilapia production in Brunei. Brunei Fisheries. Brunei.
- Fitzsimmons, K. M. (2013, June). Polyculture of tilapia and carps. USSEC workshop, Mandalay, Burma. Mandalay, Burma: USSEC.
- Fitzsimmons, K. M. (2013, March). Farming Desert Coastlines. Desert Aquaculture - Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, UAE.
- Fitzsimmons, K. M. (2013, Sept). College of Agriculture and Life Sciences as partner for Research and Education. faculty visit to UEMA. Sao Luis, Brazil: UEMA.
- Fitzsimmons, K. M. (2013, Sept). Global Markets for Tilapia. Tilapia Symposium. Rio de Janeiro: UN FAO - INFOPESCA.
- Fitzsimmons, K. M. (2013, Sept). Role of tilapia in global trade of whitefish. CONXEMAR. Vigo, Spain: UN FAO.
- Fitzsimmons, K. M. (2013, Sept). Water Resource Management in the Arabian Penisula. Arizona Hydrological Society. Doubletree Hotel Tucson.
- Fitzsimmons, K. (2013, March). Integration of aquaculture and agriculture in arid coastal regions. International Conference on Agricultural Technologies in Arid Lands. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
- Fitzsimmons, K. -. (2013, February). Organize, chair and lead presentation for Tilapia Session at World Aquaculture meetings. Organize, chair and lead presentation for Tilapia Session at World Aquaculture meetings.. Nashville, TN.
- Fitzsimmons, K. -. (2013, November). Tenth International Tilapia Conference. Tenth International Tilapia Conference. Dalian, China.
- Fitzsimmons, K. M. (2013, November). Innovaciones en las tecnicas de produccion de tilapia y perspectiva del mercado mundial. La acuacultura: Una alternativa para la alimentacion en Mexico. Mexico City, Mexico: CONAPESCA.
- Fitzsimmons, K. -. (2012, March). Organize, chair and lead presentation for Tilapia Session at US Aquaculture meetings. US Aquaculture Meetings. Las Vegas, Nevada.
- Fitzsimmons, K. -. (2012, November). Ninth International Tilapia Conference. Ninth International Tilapia Conference. HaiNan, China.
- Fitzsimmons, K. -. (2012, October). Grey Water Use Information Exchange - WRRC. Grey Water Use Information Exchange. Tucson: WRRC.
- Fitzsimmons, K. -. (2012, September). Organize, chair and lead presentation for Tilapia Session at World Aquaculture meetings. World Aquaculture meetings. Prague, Czech Republic.
- Fitzsimmons, K. (2011, August). Integrated Aquaculture-Agriculture - Summer 2011 - 5 Continents - 5 Weeks - 5 Slides - 5 Minutes. Annual CEAC Research Reports and Retreat. Tucson, AZ: CEAC.
- Fitzsimmons, K. -. (2011, April). ISTA 9. ISTA 9. Shanghai, China.
- Fitzsimmons, K. -. (2011, August). Sustainable Aquaculture and Agriculture in Guyana. Short course in the Amazon basin. Bina Hill, Region 9 Guyana.
- Fitzsimmons, K. -. (2011, January). Guest lecture. Guest lecture. Mymensingh, Bangladesh: Bangladesh Agricultural University.
- Fitzsimmons, K. -. (2011, January). Keynote address. World Aquaculture Society Conference. Kochi, India: World Aquaculture Society.
- Fitzsimmons, K. -. (2011, January). Sustainable Aquaculture in Rural India. Farmer to Farmer Aquaculture workshop. Raichur, India.
- Fitzsimmons, K. -. (2011, July). Tilapia - Shrimp polyculture systems. CP Prima. Jakarata, Indonesia: CP Prima.
- Fitzsimmons, K. -. (2011, March). Organize, chair and lead presentation for Tilapia Session at US Aquaculture meetings. US Aquaculture Meetings. New Orleans, LA.
- Fitzsimmons, K. -. (2011, November). Production and processing for tilapia, Chiapas, Mexico. aquaculture confernce. Tuxtla Guttierez, Chiapas, Mexico.More infoInternet/intranet
- Fitzsimmons, K. -. (2011, October). Aquaponics and Integrated Aquaculture and Agriculture. Guest Lecture. Thuwal, Saudia Arabia: King Abdullah University of Science and Technology.
- Fitzsimmons, K. -. (2011, September). Tilapia Production and Markets, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Aquaponics conference. Cancun, Mexico.
- Fitzsimmons, K., Mclain, J., Lynch, R., Meixner, T., & Abreil, L. (2018, Feb). Might recycled water inhibit toxin-producing algae?. Water Resources Center. Tucson: WRRC.
- Fitzsimmons, K., Stevens, S. J., & Korchmaros, J. D. (2017, June). Structural interventions in Myanmar to advance women’s economic independence to reduce substance use and other health risk behavior. International Woman’s and Children’s Health and Gender Group Conference (InWomen Conference). Montreal, Canada.
- Mclain, J. E., Fitzsimmons, K., Lynch, R., Mclain, J. E., Fitzsimmons, K., & Lynch, R. (2017, March). Might recycled water inhibit toxin-producing algae?. Water Resources Research Center Annual Conference. Tucson, Arizona: WRRC.
- Tran, L., Nunan, L., Redman, R., Lightner, D., & Fitzsimmons, K. (2013, Fall). EMS/AHPNS: Infectious disease caused by bacteria. Global Aquaculture Advocate.More infoVolume 15, pgs 18-20
- Al-Ghanem, K., Alam, A., Al-Hafedh, Y., & Fitzsimmons, K. (2011, Fall). Tilapia Aquaculture in Saudi Arabia - Farming with seaweed may improve economic, environmental sustainability. Global Aquaculture Advocate.More infoVolume 3, pgs 26-27
- Fitzsimmons, K. -. (2010, Fall). Arizona Aquaculture Website.