Jay F Nunamaker
- Professor, Management Information Systems
- Professor, Computer Science
- Director, Center for Management of Information
- Regents Professor
- Professor, Communication
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF JAY F. NUNAMAKER, JR.
Title Regents and Soldwedel Professor of Management Information Systems, Computer Science and Communication, Director, Center for the Management of Information, University of Arizona.
Address Center for the Management of Information,
University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721
Office Phone: (520) 621-4475 E-mail email@example.com
- a. Professional Preparation
1968 Ph.D., Operations Research and Systems Engineering, Case Institute of Technology, CWRU
1965 Professional Engineer’s License
1965 M.S., Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Pittsburgh
1964 B.S., Industrial Management, Carnegie-Mellon University
1960 B.S., Mechanical Engineering, University of Pittsburgh
- b. Employment
1994-pres Regents & Soldwedel Professor of MIS, Computer Science, & Communication, Univ. of Arizona Regents’ Professorship. Highest faculty rank reserved for those who have brought the University of Arizona national and/or international distinction (up to 3% of the tenured faculty).
1989-2016 Co-Founder and Chairman of Board, CEO and President, Member, Board of Directors.
Ventana Corporation, GroupSystems Corp. ThinkTank, Univ. of Arizona spinoff-company, producer of collaboration technology and services.
1985-pres Founder and Director of the Center for the Management of Information, research center to study collaboration technology, decision support and detection of deception and intent.
1977-1981 Co-Founder and President of PLEX Corporation, producer of education and training materials
1974-1992 Founder and Head of MIS department at the University of Arizona.
1970-1974 Co-Founder and Vice-President, Combinatorics Inc., producers of mathematical programing software for transportation scheduling. Combinatorics sold to Mathematica, INC. Princeton, N. J.
1969-1974 Assistant and Associate Professor with tenure, Computer Science and Industrial Admn. Purdue Univ.
1967-1968 Member of the ISDOS research team at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
1965-1967 Founding Member of ISDOS research team at Case Institute of Technology, Cleveland, Ohio
1960-1963 Design and Test Engineer, Shippingport Atomic Power Facility and Bettis Atomic Power Facility,
1960 Served in US Army critical skills program at Ft. Knox, Kentucky
1959 US Steel, Engineering Trainee in Operations (summer), National Tube Works, McKeesport, PA.
- c. Professional Positions and Appointments
2012 Conference Chair IEEE Conference on Information Security, June 11-14, 2012, Washington, D.C.
2009 Conference Chair, International Conference on Information Systems, December, Phoenix, Arizona
2008-pres Director, Dept. of Homeland Security, Center of Excellence on Border Security and Immigration
2006-pres Co-PI NSF/IUCRC on Identification Technology, University of Arizona.
2006-pres Member of ACM Curriculum Committee on Information Systems
1990-pres Track Chair, and Member of Advisory Board, Hawaii International Conf. on System Sciences
1986-2001 PI of NSF I/UCRC on Collaboration Technology, University of Arizona
1984 Conference Chair, International Conference on Information Systems, November, Tucson, AZ
1983-1991 Served on Faculty at AACSB Basic and Advanced Institutes for faculty retraining
1980 Founding member of International Conference on Information Systems
1976-1991 Chairman, ACM Curriculum committee on Information Systems
1974-1992 Founder and Head of MIS department at the University of Arizona
d. Significant Recent Publications Relevant to Deception Detection:
1. Proudfoot, J., Twyman, N., Burgoon, J. and Nunamaker, J. F., Jr., “More than Meets the Eye: Interpreting Variations in Oculometric Behaviors over Time to Identify Deception,” Journal of Management Information Systems, a Special Issue on Deception Detection. Fall 2016.
2. G. Mark Grimes, Jeffrey G. Proudfoot, Joseph S. Valacich, Jeffrey L. Jenkins, Nathan W. Twyman, Judee K. Burgoon, Jay F. Nunamaker, Jr., “Controlled Realism in Deception Research,” Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences, 2017.
3. Benjamin, V, Zhang, B., Chen, H., and Nunamaker, J.F., “Predicting Hacker Participation in IRC Communities Using Discrete—Time Duration Modeling with Recurrent Events,” Accepted for publication in Journal of Management Information Systems, 2017.
4. Li, W., Chen, H. and Nunamaker, J. F., “Cyber Carding Community Collection and Analytics: The AZ Secure Text Mining Research Framework,” accepted for publication in Journal of Management Information Systems, 2017.
5. Jay F. Nunamaker, Jr., Nathan Twyman, Justin Giboney and Robert O. Briggs, “Creating High-value Real-world Impact through Systematic Programs of Research,” accepted for publication in MIS Quarterly, 2017.
6. Wright, R., Topi, H., Nunamaker, J.F., Jr., Valacich, J. and Davis, G., “Strengthening Information Systems Through Cross-disciplinary Research and Expanded Domains of Practice,” accepted for publication in TIMS, 2017.
7. Abbasi, A., Zahedi, F.M., Zeng, D., Chen, Y., Chen, H., Nunamaker, J.F., Jr. Enhancing Predictive Analytics for Anti-Phishing by Exploiting Website Genre Information,” JMIS. 31(4): 109-157 (2015).
8. Twyman, N., Lowry, P. B., Burgoon, J. K., Nunamaker, J. F., Jr., “Autonomous Scientifically Controlled Screening Systems for Detecting Information Purposely Concealed by Individuals,” JMIS, 31(3): 106-137 (2014).
9. Jiang, S. Chen, H., Nunamaker, J. F., Jr., Zimbra, D., “Analyzing Firm-specific Social Media and Market: A Stakeholder-based Event Analysis Framework,” Decision Support Systems, 67: 30-39 (2014).
10. Dang, Y., Zhang, Y., Chen, H., Brown, S., Hu, P. J. H., Nunamaker, J. F., “Theory-informed Design and Evaluation of an Advanced Search and Knowledge Mapping System in Nanotechnology,” JMIS, Vol. 28, No. 4, Spring 2012, pp. 99-127.
11. Nunamaker, J. F., Derrick, D. C., Elkins, A.C., Burgoon, J. K., Patton, M., “Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) Based Kiosk for Automated Interviewing,” JMIS, Vol. 28, 1, Summer 2011, pp. 17-48.
12. Abbasi, A., Zhang, Z., Zimbra, D., Chen, H., Nunamaker, J. F., Jr., “Detecting Fake Websites: The Contribution of Statistical Learning Theory,” MIS Quarterly, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 435-461/September 2010.
13. Derrick, D., Elkins, A., Burgoon, J. K., Nunamaker, J. F., Jr. and Zeng, D., “Border Security Credibility Assessments via Heterogeneous Sensor Fusion,” IEEE Intelligent Systems, Vol. 25 No 3. May-June, 2010, pp. 41-49.
e. Recognition and Awards
H-Index of 63.
Doctoral Dissertation Advisor for 97 Students.
Awarded $100+ million in sponsored research as PI or Co-PI, University of Michigan, Purdue University and University of Arizona.
AIS/ICIS Best Publication, “Detecting Fake Websites: The Contribution of Statistical Learning Theory,” MISQ.
The Informs ISS Design Science Award.
Governor of Arizona Innovator of the Year-Academic Award finalist.
Technical Innovation Award, University of Arizona.
Information Systems Design Hall of Fame, Atlanta.
AIS LEO Award, Association for Lifetime Exceptional Achievement in Information Systems.
AIS Fellow, The purpose of the award is to recognize individuals who have made outstanding contributions to the Information Systems discipline in terms of research, teaching, and service.
Educator of the Year Award from International Association for Computer Information System.
Soldwedel Chaired Professor.
Educator of the Year Award from Data Processing Management Assoc. Education Foundation.
Editors Choice Award from PC Magazine.
Featured article, People—Innovators, Brainstorming Software, Forbes Magazine.
Featured article, “Here Comes the Payoff From PCs” Fortune Magazine.
Best publication in Information Systems, Academy of Management.
Featured article, “Software Catches the Team Spirit” Fortune Magazine.
- Ph.D. Operations Research and Systems Engineering
- Case Institute of Technology, Cleveland, Ohio, United States
- Design and Optimization of Information Processing Systems
- Most Prolific Author Award over 50 years
- Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Winter 2018
- Distinguished Alumni Award for Mechanical Enginneering and Material Science
- The Swanson School of Engineering, The University of Pittsburgh, Spring 2017
- Distinguished Mechanical Engineering Graduate
- University of Pittsburgh, Spring 2017
- Most Prolific Scholar Award
- Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Spring 2017
No activities entered.
Detect Deception+IntentMIS 429 (Spring 2019)
Detect Deception+IntentMIS 529 (Spring 2019)
DissertationMIS 920 (Spring 2019)
DissertationMIS 920 (Fall 2018)
Readings in MISMIS 696A (Fall 2018)
DissertationMIS 920 (Spring 2018)
DissertationMIS 920 (Fall 2017)
Readings in MISMIS 696A (Fall 2017)
Detect Deception+IntentMIS 429 (Spring 2017)
Detect Deception+IntentMIS 529 (Spring 2017)
DissertationMIS 920 (Spring 2017)
DissertationMIS 920 (Fall 2016)
Readings in MISMIS 696A (Fall 2016)
- Nunamaker, J. F., Romano, N. C., & Briggs, R. O. (2014). Collaboration Systems Concept, Value, and Use. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe.
- Jenkins, J. L., Proudfoot, J. G., Valacich, J. S., Grimes, G. M., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2019). Sleight of Hand: Identifying Concealed Information by Monitoring Mouse-Cursor Movements. Journal of the Association for Information Systems.
- Schuetzler, R. M., Giboney, J. S., Grimes, G. M., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2018). The influence of conversational agent embodiment and conversational relevance on socially desirable responding. Decision Support Systems, 94-102.
- Gibboney, J. S., Briggs, R. O., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2017). Creating Social Value with Information (/articles/1357). Journal of Management Information Systems, 34(4), 935-938.
- Nunamaker, J. F., Twyman, N., Giboney, J., & Briggs, R. O. (2017). Creating High-Value Real World Impact through Systematic Programs of Research. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 41(2), 335-351.
- Pentland, S. J., Twyman, N. W., Burgoon, J. K., Nunamaker, J. F., & Diller, C. (2017). A Video-Based Screening System for Automated Risk Assessment Using Nuanced Facial Features. Journal of Management Information Systems, 34(4), 970-993.
- Samtani, S., Chinn, R., Chen, H., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2017). Exploring Emerging Hacker Assets and Key Hackers for Proactive Cyber Threat Intelligence. Journal of Management Information Systems, 34(4), 1023-1053.
- Benjamin, V., Nunamaker, J. F., & Chen, H. (2016). Examining Hacker Participation Length in CyberCriminal Internet-Relay-Chat Communities. Journal of Management Information Systems, 33(2), 482-510.
- Benjamin, V., Zhang, B., Chen, H., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2016). Examining Hacker Participation Length in Cybercriminal Internet-Relay-Chat Communities. Journal of Management Information Systems, 33(2), 482-510.
- Giboney, J. S., Briggs, R. O., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2013). Special Issue: Designing Tools to Answer Great Information Systems Research Questions (/articles/1311). Journal of Management Information Systems, 33(4).
- Li, W., Chen, H., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2016). Identifying and Profiling Key Sellers in Cyber Carding Community: AZSecure Text Mining System. Journal of Management Information Systems, 33(4).
- Proudfoot, J., Jenkins, J., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2016). More than Meets the Eye: Interpreting Variations in Oculometric Behaviors over Time to Identify Deception. Journal of Management Information Systems.
- Abbasi, A., Zahedi, F. (., Zeng, D., Chen, Y., Chen, H., & Nunamaker, J. (2015). Enhance Predictive Analytics for Anti-Phishing by Exploiting Website Genre Information. Journal of Management Information Systems, 31(4), 109-157.
- Giboney, J., Brown, S. A., Lowry, P. B., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2015). User Acceptance of Knowledge-Based System Recommendations: Explanations, Arguments, and Fit. Decision Support Systems, 72, 1-10.
- Nunamaker, J. F., Briggs, R. O., Schwabe, G., & Derrick, D. D. (2015). The Last Research Mile: Achieving Both Rigor and Relevance in Systems Research. Journal of Management Information Systems.
- Twyman, N., Lowry, P., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2015). Autonomous Scientifically Controlled Security Screening for Detecting Purposely Concealed Knowledge. Journal of Management Information Systems.
- Luna-Reyes, L. F., Derrick, D., Langhals, B., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2014). Collaborative Cross-Border Security Infrastructure and Systems: Identifying Policy, Managerial and Technological Challenges. International Journal of E-Politics (IJEP), 4(2), 18.
- Nunamaker, J. F. (2014). A rigidity detection system for automated credibility assessment. Journal of Management Information Systems, Vol. 31, 173-201.
- Briggs, R. O., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2013). Special issue: Multiple dimensions of value in information systems. Journal of Management Information Systems, 29(4), 97-101.
- Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2013). Preface. Group Decision and Negotiation, 22(1), 85-88.
- Derrick, D. C., Meservy, T. O., Jenkins, J. L., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2013). Detecting deceptive chat-based communication using typing behavior and message cues. ACM Transactions on Management Information Systems, 4(2).More infoAbstract: Computer-mediated deception is prevalent and may have serious consequences for individuals, organizations, and society. This article investigates several metrics as predictors of deception in synchronous chatbased environments, where participants must often spontaneously formulate deceptive responses. Based on cognitive load theory, we hypothesize that deception influences response time, word count, lexical diversity, and the number of times a chat message is edited. Using a custom chatbot to conduct interviews in an experiment, we collected 1,572 deceitful and 1,590 truthful chat-based responses. The results of the experiment confirm that deception is positively correlated with response time and the number of edits and negatively correlated to word count. Contrary to our prediction, we found that deception is not significantly correlated with lexical diversity. Furthermore, the age of the participant moderates the influence of deception on response time. Our results have implications for understanding deceit in chat-based communication and building deception-detection decision aids in chat-based systems. © 2013 ACM.
- Elkins, A. C., Dunbar, N. E., Adame, B., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2013). Are users threatened by credibility assessment systems?. Journal of Management Information Systems, 29(4), 249-261.More infoAbstract: Despite the improving accuracy of agent-based expert systems, human expert users aided by these systems have not improved their accuracy. Self-affirmation theory suggests that human expert users could be experiencing threat, causing them to act defensively and ignore the system's conflicting recommendations. Previous research has demonstrated that affirming an individual in an unrelated area reduces defensiveness and increases objectivity to conflicting information. Using an affirmation manipulation prior to a credibility assessment task, this study investigated if experts are threatened by counterattitudinal expert system recommendations. For our study, 178 credibility assessment experts from the American Polygraph Association (n = 134) and the European Union's border security agency Frontex (n = 44) interacted with a deception detection expert system to make a deception judgment that was immediately contradicted. Reducing the threat prior to making their judgments did not improve accuracy, but did improve objectivity toward the system. This study demonstrates that human experts are threatened by advanced expert systems that contradict their expertise. As more and more systems increase integration of artificial intelligence and inadvertently assail the expertise and abilities of users, threat and self-evaluative concerns will become an impediment to technology acceptance. © 2013 M.E. Sharpe, Inc. All rights reserved.
- Fuller, C. M., Biros, D. P., Burgoon, J., & Nunamaker, J. (2013). An Examination and Validation of Linguistic Constructs for Studying High-Stakes Deception. Group Decision and Negotiation, 22(1), 117-134.More infoAbstract: Theories of deception have produced upwards of 150 potential verbal and nonverbal communication indicators. Of these, approximately 30 indicators, or cues, have been used previously with automated linguistic analysis tools to study text-based communication. The current research examines the interrelationships among these cues and proposes a set of specific constructs to be validated for high-stakes deception research. We analyzed linguistic-based cues extracted from 367 written statements prepared by suspects and victims of crimes on military bases. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate two models. The superior model retained seven constructs: quantity, specificity, affect, diversity, uncertainty, nonimmediacy, and activation. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
- Hassan, N. R., Benbasat, I., Nunamaker, J., Briggs, R., & Mueller, B. (2013). Benefiting from IS research -- Who and how? A panel on the value of IS research. 19th Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2013 - Hyperconnected World: Anything, Anywhere, Anytime, 1, 556-558.More infoAbstract: This panel reexamines the perennial debate on the relevance of IS from the point of view of the value of IS research, who benefits from it and how these benefits are realized. Following up on previous panels, it promotes a discussion on the kinds of knowledge the IS community produces, the visibility of the IS research, its contributions and what could or should the IS community be working on in the future. Four panelists, who have demonstrated outstanding accomplishments in their respective careers, weigh in and respond to questions on who benefits from their research, what they view as grand challenges that the IS community has addressed, and how as a research community, we can create value. Their discussions on these critical issues are expected to inspire the IS community towards addressing impactful issues that matter to society. © (2013) by the AIS/ICIS Administrative Office All rights reserved.
- Jenkins, J. L., Marquardson, J., Proudfoot, J. G., Valacich, J. S., Golob, E., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2013). The checkpoint simulation: A tool for informing border patrol checkpoint design and resource allocation. Proceedings - 2013 European Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference, EISIC 2013, 252-255.More infoAbstract: Proper resource allocation at Border Patrol checkpoints is essential for effective and efficient screening. Improper resource allocation can lead to flushing-i.e., allowing cars to pass through a checkpoint without screening-or cost inefficiencies. To better inform resource allocation, we present a prototype simulation that models the major processes of an operational checkpoint. Data for the simulation was collected during extensive site visits to checkpoints on the U.S. northern and southern borders. In a case study, we configure the simulation to model the Tucson Sector, I-19 checkpoint. We found that the checkpoint can handle current traffic demands, but additional screening capacity is needed to accommodate traffic in the next 20 years. © 2013 IEEE.
- Langhals, B. T., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2013). Using eye-based psychophysiological cues to enhance screener vigilance. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, 7(1), 83-95.More infoAbstract: The objective of this study was to determine whether eye and head-based psychophysiological cues were indicative of vigilance levels during long-duration tasks. For this study, 48 participants reviewed 600 visual search images to determine whether any hazardous items (guns or knives) were present. Individual vigilance levels were determined by scoring the number of correct detections during eight 5-min periods (total study length = 40 min). With an eye-tracking machine, four concurrent eye and head activity measures (blink rates, saccades, pupil diameter, and head position) were used to model changes in vigilance level throughout a simulated baggage screening task. At the end of the study, changes in blink rates and saccade rates proved to be significant predictors of an individual's ability to detect the presence of hazardous items among other nonsignificant baggage items. Copyright © 2012, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Briggs, R. O. (2013). Introduction to Collaboration Systems and Technologies track. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 1-.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Twyman, N. W., & Giboney, J. S. (2013). Breaking out of the design science box: High-value impact through multidisciplinary design science programs of research. 19th Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2013 - Hyperconnected World: Anything, Anywhere, Anytime, 1, 575-585.More infoAbstract: Conducting research that will make an impact is a difficult challenge for any research discipline. Information Systems is no exception, and there is much discussion on how to increase the level of real-world impact of our research. This paper details a framework for generating high-impact research through a DSR-driven program of research. The framework rests on the propositions that as opposed to individual or ad-hoc team-driven approaches, increased impact is more likely to be realized by 1) sustained collaborative research programs that 2) employ multiple research methods to 3) shepherd concepts from the ideation stage all the way to realized, real-world impact. The observations in this paper reflect decades of large-scale programs of design science research that has utilized this framework. © (2013) by the AIS/ICIS Administrative Office All rights reserved.
- Twitchell, D. P., Jensen, M. L., Derrick, D. C., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2013). Negotiation Outcome Classification Using Language Features. Group Decision and Negotiation, 22(1), 135-151.More infoAbstract: In this paper we discuss the relationships among negotiations, integrative and distributive speech acts, and classification of negotiation outcome. Our findings present how using automated linguistic analysis can show the trajectory of negotiations towards convergence (resolution) or divergence (non-resolution) and how these trajectories accurately classify negotiation outcomes. Consequently, we present the results of our negotiation outcome classification study, in which we use a corpus of 20 transcripts of actual face-to-face negotiations to build and test two classification models. The first model uses language features and speech acts to place negotiation utterances onto an integrative and distributive scale. The second uses that scale to classify the negotiations themselves as successful or unsuccessful at the midpoint, three-quarters of the way through, and at the end of the negotiation. Classification accuracy rates were 80, 75, and 85 % respectively. © 2012 The Author(s).
- Valacich, J. S., Wilson, D. W., Nunamaker, J. F., & Golob, E. (2013). Modeling Border Traffic Flow Using Cell Phone Header Packets. Proceedings - 2013 European Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference, EISIC 2013, 266-268.More infoAbstract: This research in progress paper describes a novel approach for improving resource allocation decision-making at ports of entry along a border. The approach involves the collection of cell phone header packets to estimate density of a population around a port of entry, and proposes that such data, if collected in real-time, could allow border agents to more effectively respond to random increases or decreases in border traffic. It is further suggested that such data could be incorporated continuously to update border flow models and help identify trends in traffic flow. The overall result of these advantages could lead to decision-makers at ports of entry being able to reduce queue times and thereby use resources more efficiently. © 2013 IEEE.
- Briggs, R. O., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2012). Special section: Creating value with information. Journal of Management Information Systems, 28(4), 7-10.
- Chen, F., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Briggs, R. O., Corbitt, G., Sager, J., & Gardiner, S. C. (2012). An Application of Focus Theory to Project Management Processes. Group Decision and Negotiation, 1-18.More infoAbstract: This article presents the findings of an exploratory study of the degree to which Focus Theory, a general theory about group productivity, can be used to improve the productivity of project management activities. Guided by the theory and the principles of collaboration engineering, we developed a collaborative template for project progress status reporting. We evaluated the template in both face-to-face and distributed group interactions. The study indicated that a collaborative template helped structure status reporting activity and provided a permanent record of project status for future reference. As a result, it was efficient and effective for team leaders to prepare topics for project status meetings by using the template. The meetings became focused on topics outlined on the template and meeting participants commented that the meeting record helped them keep track of what had been either accomplished or decided. The major limitation observed for use of the template was that, when used in distributed and synchronous interactions, it needed to be augmented by voice communication because communication in text-only format, as provided by the template, was too time-consuming. We discuss implications of the research outcomes with respect to the usefulness and limitations of Focus Theory. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Burgoon, J. K., Twyman, N. W., Proudfoot, J. G., Schuetzler, R., & Giboney, J. S. (2012). Establishing a foundation for automated human credibility screening. ISI 2012 - 2012 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics: Cyberspace, Border, and Immigration Securities, 202-211.More infoAbstract: Automated human credibility screening is an emerging research area that has potential for high impact in fields as diverse as homeland security and accounting fraud detection. Systems that conduct interviews and make credibility judgments can provide objectivity, improved accuracy, and greater reliability to credibility assessment practices, need to be built. This study establishes a foundation for developing automated systems for human credibility screening. © 2012 IEEE.
- Nunamaker, J., Thuraisingham, B., & Golob, E. (2012). Welcome message from conference co-chairs. ISI 2012 - 2012 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics: Cyberspace, Border, and Immigration Securities, viii.
- Wilkerson, J. W., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Mercer, R. (2012). Comparing the defect reduction benefits of code inspection and test-driven development. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 38(3), 547-560.More infoAbstract: This study is a quasi experiment comparing the software defect rates and implementation costs of two methods of software defect reduction: code inspection and test-driven development. We divided participants, consisting of junior and senior computer science students at a large Southwestern university, into four groups using a two-by-two, between-subjects, factorial design and asked them to complete the same programming assignment using either test-driven development, code inspection, both, or neither. We compared resulting defect counts and implementation costs across groups. We found that code inspection is more effective than test-driven development at reducing defects, but that code inspection is also more expensive. We also found that test-driven development was no more effective at reducing defects than traditional programming methods. © 2012 IEEE.
- Briggs, R., Nunamaker Jr., J., & Sprague, R. (2011). Special section applied science research in information systems: The last research mile. Journal of Management Information Systems, 28(1), 13-16.
- Elkins, A. C., Derrick, D. C., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2011). Predicting users' perceived trust in Embodied Conversational Agents using vocal dynamics. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 579-588.More infoAbstract: One of the major challenges facing neurophysiological HCI design is to determine the systems and sensors that accurately and noninvasively measure human cognitive processes. Specifically, it is a significant undertaking to integrate sensors and measurements into an information system and accurately measure and interpret the human state. Using an experimental design this study explores the use of unobtrusive sensors based on behavioral and neurophysiological responses to predict human trust using the voice. Participants (N=88) completed a face-to-face interview with an Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) and reported their perceptions of the ECA. They reported three dimensions consistent with the Mayer model of perceived trustworthiness. During the interaction, the demeanor and gender of the avatar was manipulated and these manipulations affected the reported measures of trustworthiness. Using growth modeling and multilevel analysis of covariance methods, a model was developed that could predict human trust during the interaction using the voice, time, and demographics. © 2012 IEEE.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Briggs, R. O. (2011). Introduction to collaboration systems and technologies track. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 1-.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Briggs, R. O. (2011). Toward a broader vision for information systems. ACM Transactions on Management Information Systems, 2(4).More infoAbstract: In December of 2009, several founders of the Information Systems (IS) academic discipline gathered for a panel discussion at the International Conference on Information Systems to present their visions for the future of the field, and their comments were summarized in the inaugural issue of TMIS [Davis et al., 2010; J. F. J. Nunamaker et al., 1991]. To assure a robust future, they argued, IS journals, conferences, reviewers, promotion committees, teachers, researchers, and curriculum developers must broaden the scope of IS. This article explores the need for a broader vision to drive future development of the IS discipline. © 2011 ACM.
- Nunamaker Jr., J., Derrick, D., Elkins, A., Burgoon, J., & Patton, M. (2011). Embodied conversational agent-based kiosk for automated interviewing. Journal of Management Information Systems, 28(1), 17-48.More infoAbstract: We have created an automated kiosk that uses embodied intelligent agents to interview individuals and detect changes in arousal, behavior, and cognitive effort by using psychophysiological information systems. In this paper, we describe the system and propose a unique class of intelligent agents, which are described as Special Purpose Embodied Conversational Intelligence with Environmental Sensors (SPECIES). SPECIES agents use heterogeneous sensors to detect human physiology and behavior during interactions, and they affect their environment by influencing human behavior using various embodied states (i.e., gender and demeanor), messages, and recommendations. Based on the SPECIES paradigm, we present three studies that evaluate different portions of the model, and these studies are used as foundational research for the development of the automated kiosk. The first study evaluates human-computer interaction and how SPECIES agents can change perceptions of information systems by varying appearance and demeanor. Instantiations that had the agents embodied as males were perceived as more powerful, while female embodied agents were perceived as more likable. Similarly, smiling agents were perceived as more likable than neutral demeanor agents. The second study demonstrated that a single sensor measuring vocal pitch provides SPECIES with environmental awareness of human stress and deception. The final study ties the first two studies together and demonstrates an avatar-based kiosk that asks questions and measures the responses using vocalic measurements. © 2011 M.E. Sharpe, Inc.
- Pickard, M. D., Jenkins, J. L., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2011). Embodied agents and the Predictive Elaboration Model of Persuasion - The ability to tailor embodied agents to users' need for cognition. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 543-552.More infoAbstract: In this study, we explore the ability of embodied agents (EAs) to influence users' assessments. We propose the Predictive Elaboration Model of Persuasion (PEMP), which posits that the need for cognition (NFC) can serve as a practical surrogate for elaboration likelihood in the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of persuasion. PEMP is tested in a laboratory setting involving embodied agents attempting to influence participants' credibility assessments of individuals suspected of a crime. The results show that NFC behaves similarly to elaboration likelihood. We argue that NFC provides greater predictive capability than elaboration likelihood in determining how individuals process persuasive messages. © 2012 IEEE.
- Twyman, N. W., Jenkins, J. L., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Carl, K. (2011). Knowledge sourcing and knowledge consumption in computer-mediated complex decision making. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.More infoAbstract: Individuals are turning increasingly toward web-based information sources as input for complex decisions. Gathering and evaluating decision criteria in an online context is enticing because of information availability and increased control over the process, but how do these factors impact performance? This study shows how an interaction effect between Social Comparison and Social Facilitation predicts and explains how decision making performance is influenced differently by an information consumption-only approach versus a consume-and-contribute approach. Results from an empirical evaluation indicate that publishing decision criteria and reasoning (e.g. in a forum, blog, or knowledge base) plays an important role in improving complex decision making performance. © 2011 IEEE.
- Briggs, R. O., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Sprague, R. H. (2010). Special section: Social aspects of sociotechnical systems. Journal of Management Information Systems, 27(1), 13-16.
- Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2010). Toward computer-aided support for the detection of deception-volume 3. Group Decision and Negotiation, 19(4), 323-325.
- Davis, G. B., Gray, P., Madnick, S., Nunamaker, J. F., Sprague, R., & Whinston, A. (2010). Ideas for the future of the IS field. ACM Transactions on Management Information Systems, 1(1).More infoAbstract: Information systems as a field of intellectual inquiry is now approximately 50 years old. It hasmany achievements and extensive research to its credit and has established a large group of researchers and experts worldwide. The field has changed and changed and changed again over the last half century. The question addressed in this inaugural issue article is:Where does IS go from here? This article presents the views of six of the "fathers of the field" about its directions in the years ahead. Each coauthor presents two ideas about the future. The topics covered includes continuing support of the work of organizations, emerging technologies, new ways of communicating, expanding the ways IS performs research, expanding its vision both of what IS is and of its impact, its role as a resource, its model of the IS professional and its graduates, and its staying on top of new technologies and new areas of inquiry. © 2010 ACM.
- Elder, K. L., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Galletta, D. F., George, J. F., Granger, M. J., & Zmud, R. W. (2010). AIS siged IAIM panel: Where have you gone Joe DiMaggio?. Proceedings of the 2010 International SIGED: IAIM Conference.More infoAbstract: I was talking with my kids the other day about a movie we had been watching. It was a story about a school teacher who became the head master at the school and ended up teaching multiple generations in the same families. My kids mentioned how old a teacher must have been in order to teach the children of their students. It took me less than a nanosecond to realize if I had not moved around and taught at many different schools I could easily be teaching my student's children after having taught for more than 20 years. Would I or should I be teaching the children the same way I taught their parents? Where have you gone Joe DiMaggio? If you are old enough to recognize the lyric than you are probably in the generation of my first students, and old enough to be the parents of my current students. There used to only be 3 channels of television here in the US and you had to get up in order to change the channel. Now the students have literally hundreds of channels and watch them on their computers or cell phones. Children slept in cribs covered with lead based paint. There weren't seat belts in all the cars. You did not wear helmets when you rode your bikes. Kids played with their friends outdoors. Now kids only play with their friends on video games unless they are the rare ones who play on athletic teams. You used to drink water from a garden hose. Now water is almost always coming from a bottle. It was a different time, it was a different world (if you recognize that lyric you are young enough to be my students). Are we using some of the same stories and examples then and now? It was chalk boards, punch cards, and mainframes then; Smart Boards, GUI tablets and cell phones today. Little League had tryouts and not everyone made the team. Those who didn't had to learn to deal with disappointment. Some students weren't as smart as others so they failed a grade and were held back to repeat the same grade. Tests were not adjusted for any reason. Your actions were your own. Consequences were expected. There was no one to hide behind. The idea of a parenting was different. No parent would dream of being a helicopter parent like we have today. So do we need to change our teaching styles? Have we? Should we? And if so how? Each Panelist will describe the classroom as they saw it when they began teaching, they will then describe the classroom as they see it today, they will then discuss the changes that have occurred and then they will finally discuss the changes they think need to occur. After all the panelists have had a turn we will throw out some questions, like does the change in IT and generations really matter? A lively discussion with plenty of audience participation is expected!
- Jenkins, J. L., Durcikova, A., Ross, G., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2010). Encouraging users to behave securely: Examining the influence of technical, managerial, and educational controls on users' secure behavior. ICIS 2010 Proceedings - Thirty First International Conference on Information Systems.More infoAbstract: The human is frequently referred to as the weakest link of security. Employees who engage in behaviors contrary to their organization's security policy often cause undesirable outcomes. This research presents a dual-processing model explaining and predicting secure behavior in relation to password policies. The model posits that the number of password security layers (technical controls), training (educational controls), and manager attitude toward secure behavior (managerial controls) influence secure behavior directly and also indirectly through security policy satisfaction. An experiment was designed to test our model utilizing a realistic corporate environment that captures users' security policy compliance. The results show that the combination of low technical controls and the presence of training significantly increase new employees' compliance with the security policy. Positive managerial controls and low technical controls increase satisfaction with the security policy; however, satisfaction with the security policy was not significantly related to secure behavior for new employees.
- Jensen, M. L., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2010). Judging the credibility of information gathered from face-to-face interactions. Journal of Data and Information Quality, 2(1).More infoAbstract: One of the most pernicious threats to information quality comes through perpetration of deception by information suppliers. Deception undermines many critical dimensions of information quality, such as accuracy, completeness, and believability. Despite this threat, information gatherers are ill equipped to assess the credibility of information suppliers. This work presents a prototype system that examines messages gathered during direct, face-to-face information gathering. The system unobtrusively identifies kinesic and linguistic features that may indicate deception in information suppliers' messages. System use was found to significantly improve assessment ability in between- subjects and within-subjects tests. The improved ability to accurately assess credibility during face-to-face interactions should yield higher information quality. © 2010 ACM 1936-1955/2010/07-ART3.
- Jensen, M. L., Lowry, P. B., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2010). Technology dominance in complex decision making: The case of aided credibility assessment. Journal of Management Information Systems, 27(1), 175-201.More infoAbstract: Decision aids have long been an important source of help in making structured decisions. However, decision support for more complex problems has been much more difficult to create. Decision aids are now being developed for very complex problems, and their effects among low- and high-task-knowledge individuals are still being explored. One such task is credibility assessment, in which message recipients or observers must determine a message's veracity and trustworthiness. Credibility assessment is made difficult by lack of constraints, hidden or incomplete information, and mistaken beliefs of the assessor.The theory of technology dominance (TTD) proposes that technology is most effectively applied in intelligent decision aids when an experienced user is paired with a sophisticated decision aid. This work examines TT D in the complex task of credibility assessment. To assist in credibility assessment, we created a decision aid that augments the capabilities of the user-whether novice or professional. Using hypotheses based on TT D, we tested the decision aid using high-stakes deception in recorded interviews and involved both student (novice) and law enforcement (professional) users. Both professionals and novices improved their assessment accuracy by using the decision aid. Consistent with TTD, novices were more reliant on the decision aid than were professionals. However, contrary to TTD, there was no significant difference in the way novices and professionals interacted with the system, and the decision aid was not more beneficial to professionals. Novices and professionals frequently discounted the aid's recommendations, and in many cases professionals did not view explanations when the decision aid contradicted their assessments. Potential reasons for these findings, as well as limitations and future research opportunities, are discussed. © 2010 M.E. Sharpe, Inc.
- Jensen, M. L., Meservy, T. O., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2010). Automatic, multimodal evaluation of human interaction. Group Decision and Negotiation, 19(4), 367-389.More infoAbstract: This article outlines an approach for automatically extracting behavioral indicators from video, audio, and text and explores the possibility of using those indicators to predict human-interpretable judgments of involvement, dominance, tension, and arousal. We utilized two-dimensional spatial inputs extracted from video, acoustic properties extracted from audio and verbal content transcribed from face-to-face interactions to construct a set of multimodal features. Multiple predictive models were created using the extracted features as predictors and human-coded perceptions of involvement, tenseness, and arousal as the criterion. These predicted perceptions were then used as independent variables in classifying truth and deception. Though the predicted values for perceptions performed comparably to human-coded perceptions in detecting deception, the results were not satisfying. Thus, the extracted multimodal features were used to predict deception directly. Classification accuracy was substantially higher than typical human deception detection performance. Through this research, we consider the feasibility and validity of the approach and identify how such an approach could contribute to the broader community. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
- Topi, H., Valacich, J. S., Wright, R. T., Kaiser, K., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Sipior, J. C., & Vreede, G. d. (2010). IS 2010: Curriculum guidelines for undergraduate degree programs in information systems. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 26(1), 359-428.More infoAbstract: IS 2010 is the latest in a series of model curricula for undergraduate degrees in Information Systems. It builds on the foundation formed by this earlier work, but it is a major revision of the curriculum and incorporates several significant new characteristics. IS 2010 is the third collaborative effort by ACM and AIS. Both organizations have worldwide membership, and, therefore, IS 2010 includes elements that make it more universally adaptable than its predecessors. IS 2010 is not directly linked to a degree structure in any specific environment but it provides guidance regarding the core content of the curriculum that should be present everywhere and suggestions regarding possible electives and career tracks based on those. © 2010 by the authors.
- Burgoon, J. K., Twitchell, D. P., Jensen, M. L., Meservy, T. O., Adkins, M., Kruse, J., Deokar, A. V., Tsechpenakis, G., Shan, L. u., Metaxas, D. N., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Younger, R. E. (2009). Detecting concealment of intent in transportation screening: A proof of concept. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 10(1), 103-112.More infoAbstract: Transportation and border security systems have a common goal: to allow law-abiding people to pass through security and detain those people who intend to harm. Understanding how intention is concealed and how it might be detected should help in attaining this goal. In this paper, we introduce a multidisciplinary theoretical model of intent concealment along with three verbal and nonverbal automated methods for detecting intent: message feature mining, speech act profiling, and kinesic analysis. This paper also reviews a program of empirical research supporting this model, including several previously published studies and the results of a proof-of-concept study. These studies support the model by showing that aspects of intent can be detected at a rate that is higher than chance. Finally, this paper discusses the implications of these findings in an airport-screening scenario. © 2006 IEEE.
- Helquist, J. H., Krus, J., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2009). Synchronicity and group ability to autonomously cluster brainstorming ideas. International Journal of e-Collaboration, 5(4), 67-81.More infoAbstract: This article presents an exploratory examination of the impact of synchronicity and quantity of brainstorming ideas on the ability of a group to autonomously cluster brainstorming ideas. Groups were tasked with clustering brainstorming ideas through the use of a group support system (GSS) tool. The tool allowed each participant to create and modify categories to which individual brainstorming ideas could be aligned. No explicit means of coordination were available; each participant worked autonomously to cluster the brainstorming ideas. The results indicated that the groups working synchronously displayed improved performance and satisfaction ratings. Likewise, groups categorizing the smallest quantity of brainstorming ideas performed better than the larger quantities. Copyright © 2009, IGI Global.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Reinig, B. A., & Briggs, R. O. (2009). Principles for effective virtual teamwork. Communications of the ACM, 52(4), 113-117.More infoAbstract: Some of the significant principles of effective virtual teamwork that companies need to understand and implement for better performance are discussed. Some of the most essential principles for such teamwork, include realigning incentive structures for virtual teams, finding new ways to focus attention on a task, and designing activities that help people to get to know each other. Companies and organizations also need to appreciate and provide incentives for such teams to improve their performance. Better ways and strategies need to be developed and implemented to eliminate distraction among team members and help them improve their performance through joint efforts. Professionals need to make efforts to work on a project jointly, enabling them to know each other better and improve their performance. Leaders of such teams also need to design specific activities to promote team building and improve their performance.
- Nunamaker, J., Sprague, R., & Briggs, R. (2009). Special section: Structure and complexity in sociotechnical systems. Journal of Management Information Systems, 26(1), 13-15.
- Topi, H., Valacich, J. S., Wright, R. T., Kaiser, K., Sipior, J. C., Nunamaker, J. F., Wagner, C., & Bjørn-Andersen, N. (2009). IS 2009: Changing the course for undergraduate is model curricula. ICIS 2009 Proceedings - Thirtieth International Conference on Information Systems.More infoAbstract: In this panel, the joint AIS / ACM Information Systems undergraduate model curriculum task force members together with other curriculum experts will be presenting and discussing the IS 2009 Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Degree Programs in Information Systems document and soliciting IS community feedback regarding ongoing IS curriculum development efforts. As such, the panel discussion will center on the significant components embedded in the newly revised curriculum document. This includes: 1) an introduction to the key principles that guided the development of the document, 2) a list of features incorporated into the new model curricula, 3) the future of curriculum development efforts, and 4) proposed mechanism to solicit feedback from the academy.
- Briggs, R. O., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Sprague, R. H. (2008). Special section: Online coordination and interaction. Journal of Management Information Systems, 25(1), 13-16.
- Burgoon, J. K., Derrick, D. C., Elkins, A. C., Humphreys, S. L., Jensen, M. L., Diller, C. B., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2008). Potential noncontact tools for rapid credibility assessment from physiological and behavioral cues. Proceedings - International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology, 150-157.More infoAbstract: Credibility assessment is a perennial and increasingly urgent problem in light of escalating international security threats. New tools such are needed for rapid, noninvasive and possibly unobtrusive detection of deception and hostile intent. This paper reports five novel instrumented approaches to credibility assessment being investigated in a multi-institution research program. These instruments do not require physical contact with humans and can reliably measure veracity from physiological and behavioral indicators. Data were collected via an experiment, which required participants to commit a mock crime and then be interviewed by a trained interviewer. During and following the interviews, multiple instruments measured physiological, cognitive and behavioral responses of interviewees to determine which automatable features accurately differentiate truthtellers from deceivers. Details concerning the instruments and the experimental method used to test them are shared. ©2008 IEEE.
- Jensen, M. L., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2008). User experiences with an unobtrusive decision aid for deception detection. Proceedings - International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology, 131-134.More infoAbstract: This work describes a prototype system that examines kinesic and linguistic behavior. The prototype is not a fully functional, autonomous system; numerous steps in linguistic and kinesis analysis are currently manual. However, the system represents a reasonable proof-of-concept. Using the system, novice lie-catchers experienced improvement in their assessment ability. However, had they incorporated more of the system's recommendations, they would have performed better. An examination of the reasons behind the novices' judgments indicates that novices most frequently turned to the system when they were unsure of their own, unaided judgment. ©2008 IEEE.
- Jensen, M. L., Meservy, T. O., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2008). Video-based deception detection. Studies in Computational Intelligence, 135, 425-441.More infoAbstract: This chapter outlines an approach for automatically extracting behavioral indicators from video and explores the possibility of using those indicators to predict human-interpretable judgments of involvement, dominance, tenseness, and arousal. The team utilized two-dimensional spatial inputs extracted from video to construct a set of discrete and inter-relational features. Then three predictive models were created using the extracted features as predictors and human-coded perceptions of involvement, tenseness, and arousal as the criterion. Through this research, the team explores the feasibility and validity of the approach and identifies how such an approach could contribute to the broader community. © 2008 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Briggs, R. O. (2008). Introduction to collaboration systems and technologies track. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
- Briggs, R. O., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Sprague, R. H. (2007). Global perspectives on information, communication, and E-commerce. Journal of Management Information Systems, 23(4), 7-9.
- Jensen, M. L., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2007). Computer-aided credibility assessment by novice lie-catchers. Association for Information Systems - 13th Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2007: Reaching New Heights, 5, 3032-3042.More infoAbstract: History is replete with men and women who have caused a great deal of harm and damage through skillful deception. Even though effects of deceptive actions have garnered much recent attention, deception is not a new problem. Researchers have been fascinated with deception and with credibility assessment for centuries, yet humans perform poorly when assessing credibility (Bond et al. 2006). This work presents a prototype system that unobtrusively identifies kinesic and linguistic cues that may indicate deception. This research explores improving assessment accuracy through merging improved human capabilities with system use. System use was found to significantly improve assessment ability. Training in credibility assessment was found to weakly improve assessment ability.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Briggs, R. O. (2007). Introduction to the collaboration systems and technology track. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
- Reinig, B. A., Briggs, R. O., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2007). On the measurement of ideation quality. Journal of Management Information Systems, 23(4), 143-161.More infoAbstract: Ideation is a key step in organizational problem solving, so researchers have developed a variety of technological interventions for improving ideation quality, which we define as the degree to which an ideation activity produces ideas that are helpful in attaining a goal. In this paper, we examine the four measures typically used to evaluate ideation quality, including idea-count, sum-of-quality, average-quality, and good-idea-count, and discuss their validity and potential biases. An experimental study comparing three levels of social comparison was used to illustrate the differences in the ideation quality measures and revealed that research conclusions were dependent on the measure used. Based on our analysis of the measures and experimental results, we recommend that only good-idea-count be used as a measure to evaluate ideation treatments and call into question research that has based its findings on the other measures. Finally, we discuss implications for research and other potential approaches to evaluating ideation quality. © 2007 M.E. Sharpe, Inc.
- Yuan, M., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2007). Asingular value decomposition approach to automatic concept classification in group support systems. ICIS 2007 Proceedings - Twenty Eighth International Conference on Information Systems.More infoAbstract: Group Support Systems (GSS) play an important role in streamlining group activities and improving group outcomes. Various attempts have been made to help automate certain group tasks under GSS environment. Since concept classification in GSS requires group users to manually process a large volume of brainstorming comments into concept categories, it is useful to apply artificial intelligence techniques to automate concept classification in GSS. In this paper, we focused on automatic concept classification by designing a system with a technique called singular vector decomposition to generate a list of important concepts. The experimental result showed that the system generated a comparatively good list of topics with much faster speed than human subjects. With automatic concept classification, the system could significantly reduce burdens from group users' shoulder and thus promote the usefulness and further adoption of GSS.
- Briggs, R. O., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Sprague Jr., R. H. (2006). Special issue: Crossing boundaries in information systems research. Journal of Management Information Systems, 22(4), 7-11.
- Cao, J., Crews, J. M., Lin, M., Deokar, A., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2006). Interactions between system evaluation and theory testing: A demonstration of the power of a multifaceted approach to information systems research. Journal of Management Information Systems, 22(4), 207-235.More infoAbstract: Historically, information systems (IS) researchers have questioned which research paradigms, activities, and methods IS research should follow. In this paper, we argue that different research methods and activities may interact with each other, different research paradigms may complement each other due to such interactions, and therefore, a multimethodological, cross-paradigm research approach may result in better IS research than a singular approach. Three existing multimethodological IS research frameworks are reviewed and summarized into an integrated approach. Two types of interactions between different research methods across system evaluation and theory testing research activities are identified. A three-year research study about a computer-based training system for deception detection (Agent99 Trainer) provides a concrete example to demonstrate the existence and research benefits of these two types of interactions, as well as the benefits of a multimethodological, cross-paradigm IS research approach. © 2006 M.E. Sharpe, Inc.
- Chen, F., Briggs, R. O., Corbitt, G., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Sager, J., & Gardiner, S. C. (2006). Project progress tracking template - Using a repeatable GSS process to facilitate project process management. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 1, 17c.More infoAbstract: This article presents the findings of an action research study in which a repeatable GSS (Group Support System) process was adopted by project teams to track their progress. The repeatable GSS process, implemented by means of a GSS template, was employed and evaluated in both face-to-face and distributed group interactions. The study results indicate that use of a GSS template can facilitate project progress tracking by providing structural support for team interaction and serving as an electronic repository or permanent memory of team interaction. The results also suggest that existing GSS software could be improved though various feature enhancements and additions. © 2006 IEEE.
- Fuller, C., Biros, D. P., Adkins, M., Burgoon, J. K., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Coulon, S. (2006). Detecting deception in person-of-interest statements. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 3975 LNCS, 504-509.More infoAbstract: Most humans cannot detect lies at a rate better than chance. Alternative methods of deception detection may increase accuracy, but are intrusive, do not offer immediate feedback, or may not be useful in all situations. Automated classification methods have been suggested as an alternative to address these issues, but few studies have tested their utility with real-world, high-stakes statements. The current paper reports preliminary results from classification of actual security police investigations collected under high stakes and proposes stages for conducting future analyses. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006.
- Lin, M., Cao, J., B., C., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2006). Learning by browsing: A Web-based multimedia browsing system for learning. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 1, 4b.More infoAbstract: Multimedia, especially video, is widely used in educational applications. More and more universities and corporations now provide videotaped lectures online for knowledge sharing and learning. However, people often have difficulties in finding specific information in these lecture videos because of the unstructured and linear nature of video. Segmenting the videos into short clips based on topic transition and organizing these video segments into well-formed browsing structures will facilitate information searching and may further enhance learning. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a Web-based multimedia learning system with automatically generated browsing structures such as hierarchical tables of contents, index and hyperlink. A pilot study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the system in supporting learning. © 2006 IEEE.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Briggs, R. O. (2006). Introduction to the collaboration systems and technology track. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 1, 1-.
- Shneiderman, B., Fischer, G., Czerwinski, M., Resnick, M., Myers, B., Candy, L., Edmonds, E., Eisenberg, M., Giaccardi, E., Hewett, T., Jennings, P., Kules, B., Nakakoji, K., Nunamaker, J., Pausch, R., Selker, T., Sylvan, E., & Terry, M. (2006). Creativity support tools: Report from a U.S. National Science Foundation sponsored workshop. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 20(2), 61-77.More infoAbstract: Creativity support tools is a research topic with high risk but potentially very high payoff. The goal is to develop improved software and user interfaces that empower users to be not only more productive but also more innovative. Potential users include software and other engineers, diverse scientists, product and graphic designers, architects, educators, students, and many others. Enhanced interfaces could enable more effective searching of intellectual resources, improved collaboration among teams, and more rapid discovery processes. These advanced interfaces should also provide potent support in hypothesis formation, speedier evaluation of alternatives, improved understanding through visualization, and better dissemination of results. For creative endeavors that require composition of novel artifacts (e.g., computer programs, scientific papers, engineering diagrams, symphonies, artwork), enhanced interfaces could facilitate exploration of alternatives, prevent unproductive choices, and enable easy backtracking. This U.S. National Science Foundation sponsored workshop brought together 25 research leaders and graduate students to share experiences, identify opportunities, and formulate research challenges. Two key outcomes emerged: (a) encouragement to evaluate creativity support tools through multidimensional in-depth longitudinal case studies and (b) formulation of 12 principles for design of creativity support tools. Copyright © 2006, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
- Sun, S. X., Zhao, J. L., Nunamaker, J. F., & R., O. (2006). Formulating the data-flow perspective for business process management. Information Systems Research, 17(4), 374-391.More infoAbstract: Workflow technology has become a standard solution for managing increasingly complex business processes. Successful business process management depends on effective workflow modeling and analysis. One of the important aspects of workflow analysis is the data-flow perspective because, given a syntactically correct process sequence, errors can still occur during workflow execution due to incorrect data-flow specifications. However, there have been only scant treatments of the data-flow perspective in the literature and no formal methodologies are available for systematically discovering data-flow errors in a workflow model. As an indication of this research gap, existing commercial workflow management systems do not provide tools for data-flow analysis at design time. In this paper, we provide a data-flow perspective for detecting data-flow anomalies such as missing data, redundant data, and potential data conflicts. Our data-flow framework includes two basic components: data-flow specification and data-flow analysis; these components add more analytical rigor to business process management. © 2006 INFORMS.
- Twitchell, D. P., Biros, D. P., Adkins, M., Forsgren, N., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2006). Automated determination of the veracity of interview statements from people of interest to an operational security force. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 1, 17a.More infoAbstract: In deception detection research validity issues have been raised when subjects are used in controlled laboratory experiments. Studying real-life deception detection is a complicated endeavor because researchers do not have the control in field studies that exist in laboratory experiments so determining ground truth is challenging. This study reports the findings of the combination of some successful previous attempts at automated deception detection in computer-mediated communication results of a study of real-world data from an operation security force. Message feature mining is used to evaluate the effectiveness of technology as an aid to deception detection in actual stressful situations with unpleasant long term consequences. The study analyzes 18 statements (9 truthful, 9 deceptive) from a military service's investigative unit using message feature mining. The analysis resulted in a 72% rate of accuracy in correctly classifying the messages. © 2006 IEEE.
- Zhang, D., Zhou, L., Briggs, R. O., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2006). Instructional video in e-learning: Assessing the impact of interactive video on learning effectiveness. Information and Management, 43(1), 15-27.More infoAbstract: Interactive video in an e-learning system allows proactive and random access to video content. Our empirical study examined the influence of interactive video on learning outcome and learner satisfaction in e-learning environments. Four different settings were studied: three were e-learning environments - with interactive video, with non-interactive video, and without video. The fourth was the traditional classroom environment. Results of the experiment showed that the value of video for learning effectiveness was contingent upon the provision of interactivity. Students in the e-learning environment that provided interactive video achieved significantly better learning performance and a higher level of learner satisfaction than those in other settings. However, students who used the e-learning environment that provided non-interactive video did not improve either. The findings suggest that it may be important to integrate interactive instructional video into e-learning systems. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- Biros, D. P., Hass, M. C., Wiers, K., Twitchell, D., Adkins, M., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2005). Task performance under deceptive conditions: Using military scenarios in deception detection research. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 22-.More infoAbstract: The goal of this research was to investigate how changes in modality (communication type) and external conditioning (warnings of player deception) relate to perceptions of deception and task difficulty and, in turn, how these perceptions relate to the final group game scores in a cooperative effort with conflicting goals. One hundred and eight participants were grouped into teams of three, given similar instructions but different goals, and asked to play a cooperative game called StrikeCOM that simulates the intelligence gathering needed to develop an air tasking order and subsequent air strike on three military targets. The analysis of the post-game surveys showed support for participants in games using a face-to-face communication method to have lower perceptions of deception and task difficulty when compared to games using real-time plain text chat.
- Biros, D. P., Sakamoto, J., George, J. F., Adkins, M., Kruse, J., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2005). A quasi-experiment to determine the impact of a computer based deception detection training system: The use of Agent99 trainer in the U.S. military. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 24-.More infoAbstract: The idea of anywhere and anytime learning is enticing. Electronic-based learning is seen as an answer to this requirement. Currently there are many variations in electronic-based instructional media, and there is little research to determine which format or combination of formats is most conducive to facilitating knowledge transfer and learning. This research project explores three primary constructs of media richness, content flexibility, and forced engagement, in relation to effectiveness or productivity in facilitating learning in the experimental participants. The instructional subject matter was detecting deceptive communication.
- Briggs, R. O., Vreede, G. D., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Sprague Jr., R. H. (2005). Special section: Context-driven information access and deployment. Journal of Management Information Systems, 21(4), 7-9.
- Burgoon, J., Adkins, M., Kruse, J., Jensen, M. L., Meservy, T., Twitchell, D. P., Deokar, A., Nunamaker, J. F., Shan, L. u., Tsechpenakis, G., Metaxas, D. N., & Younger, R. E. (2005). An approach for intent identification by building on deception detection. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 21-.More infoAbstract: Past research in deception detection at the University of Arizona has guided the investigation of intent detection. A theoretical foundation and model for the analysis of intent detection is proposed. Available test beds for intent analysis are discussed and two proof-of-concept studies exploring nonverbal communication within the context of deception detection and intent analysis are shared.
- Cao, J., Lin, M., Crews, J. M., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2005). Virtual interaction for effective e-learning. Association for Information Systems - 26th International Conference on Information Systems, ICIS 2005: Forever New Frontiers, 797-810.More infoAbstract: This research investigates whether information technologies, such as automated question answering (QA), can add interactivity into a multimedia-based e-learning system, as well as how this type of virtual interaction affects the effectiveness of e-learning. Based on a review of multiple learning theories and technologies, an exploratory model for studying the effectiveness of interactive e-learning, Learning with Virtual Mentors (LVM), is proposed and a prototype system is developed to implement the LVM model. A series of studies, including a controlled experiment and surveys, have been conducted to explore the relationships among the core constructs of the LVM model: learning phases, system interactivity, learning activity, and learning outcomes. Findings indicate that virtual interaction positively impacts student behaviors by encouraging students to interact more and increasing student satisfaction with the learning process; however, the correlation between virtual interaction and actual learning performance is limited. Consequently, the LVM model needs to be further explored and developed.
- Cao, J., Roussinov, D., Robles-Flores, J. A., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2005). Automated question answering from lecture videos: NLP vs. pattern matching. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 43-.More infoAbstract: This paper explores the feasibility of automated question answering from lecture video materials used in conjunction with PowerPoint slides. Two popular approaches to question answering are discussed, each separately tested on the text extracted from videotaped lectures: 1) the approach based on Natural Language Processing (NLP) and 2) a self-learning probabilistic pattern matching approach. The results of the comparison and our qualitative observations are presented. The advantages and shortcomings of each approach are discussed in the context of video applications for e-learning or knowledge management.
- Jensen, M. L., Meservy, T. O., Kruse, J., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2005). Identification of deceptive behavioral cues extracted from video. IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Proceedings, ITSC, 2005, 1135-1140.More infoAbstract: This research project investigates a novel approach for deriving behavioral deception cues from video-taped interactions. Researchers utilized inputs extracted from video to construct a set of two-dimensional spatial features. The features for thirty-eight video interactions were then analyzed using discriminant analysis and logistic regression. Through this exploratory study, the team has identified a number of promising features that help discriminate deception from truth. The techniques explored hold promise for the creation of near real time systems for transportation security professionals. © 2005 IEEE.
- Lin, M., Diller, C. B., Forsgren, N., Huang, Y., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2005). Segmenting lecture videos by topic: From manual to automated methods. Association for Information Systems - 11th Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2005: A Conference on a Human Scale, 4, 1891-1898.More infoAbstract: More and more universities and corporations are starting to provide videotaped lectures online for knowledge sharing and learning. Segmenting lecture videos into short clips by topic can extract the hidden information structure of the videos and facilitate information searching and learning. Manual segmentation has high accuracy rates but is very labor intensive. In order to develop a high performance automated segmentation method for lecture videos, we conducted a case study to learn the segmentation process of humans and the effective segmentation features used in the process. Based on the findings from the case study, we designed an automated segmentation approach with two phases: initial segmentation and segmentation refinement. The approach combines segmentation features from three information sources of video (speech text transcript, audio and video) and makes use of various knowledge sources such as world knowledge and domain knowledge. Our preliminary results show that the proposed two-phase approach is promising.
- Lowry, P. B., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Curtis, A., & Lowry, M. R. (2005). The impact of process structure on novice, virtual collaborative writing teams. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 48(4), 341-364.More infoAbstract: Asynchronous-distributed (AD) collaborative writing (CW) is an important form of the growing trend of distributed work. However, AD CW typically results in multiple process losses. We argue that using advanced writing technologies designed for AD work alone is not sufficient by itself to overcome these losses. Instead, adopting high levels of process structure delivered in the form of explicitly written procedural scripts can improve the results of AD CW groups. We performed an experiment with over 500 participants working in groups supported by advanced CW technologies that were designed for AD work. Participants were given six weeks to conduct their work. We found that high levels of process structure in novice AD CW groups that worked on a moderately complex task created significantly better outcomes than did groups using low levels of process structure. Groups with high levels of process structure had better results in terms of production, document quality, satisfaction, relationships, and communication. In no case did low-structure groups outperform high-structure groups. This research supports our hypothesis that increased process structure delivered in the form of a repeatable process script can decrease process losses and increase process gains in novice AD CW groups. We conclude that it is not sufficient to give novice AD writing groups CW technology and time to conduct their tasks; these groups also need appropriate procedural support, which can be provided effectively through written scripts. © 2005 IEEE.
- Meservy, T. O., Jensen, M. L., Kruse, J., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2005). Automatic extraction of deceptive behavioral cues from video. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 3495, 198-208.More infoAbstract: This research initiative is an initial investigation into a novel approach for deriving indicators of deception from video-taped interaction. The team utilized two-dimensional spatial inputs extracted from video to construct a set of discrete and inter-relational features. The features for thirty-eight video interactions were then analyzed using discriminant analysis. Additionally, features were used to build a multivariate regression model. Through this exploratory study, the team established the validity of the approach, and identified a number of promising features, opening the door for further investigation. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005.
- Meservy, T. O., Jensen, M. L., Kruse, J., Burgoon, J. K., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Twitchell, D. P., Tsechpenakis, G., & Metaxas, D. N. (2005). Deception detection through automatic, unobtrusive analysis of nonverbal behavior. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 20(5), 36-43.More infoAbstract: An approach for deception detection through automatic, unobtrusive analysis of nonverbal behavior was described. An automated unobtrusive system identifies behavioral patterns that indicate deception from nonverbal behavioral cues and classifies deception and truth more accurately than many humans. Automated systems can draw upon a wide variety of potential behavioral indicators of deception. It is expected that the automated systems might become reliable enough to replace humans in certain circumstances, thus allowing a redistribution of human assets.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2005). Detection of deception: Collaboration systems and technology. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 18-.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2005). User experience: Collaboration systems and technology. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 41-.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Briggs, R. O. (2005). Introduction to the Collaboration Systems and Technology Track. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 1-.
- Qin, T., Burgoon, J. K., Blair, J. P., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2005). Modality effects in deception detection and applications in automatic-deception-detection. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 23-.More infoAbstract: Modality is an important context factor in deception, which is context-dependent. In order to build a reliable and flexible tool for automatic-deception-detection (ADD), we investigated the characteristics of verbal cues to deceptive behavior in three modalities: text, audio and face-to-face communication. Seven categories of verbal cues (21 cues) were studied: quantity, complexity, diversity, verb nonimmediacy, uncertainty, specificity and affect. After testing the interaction effects between modality and condition (deception or truth), we found significance only with specificity and observed that differences between deception and truth were in general consistent across the three modalities. However, modality had strong effects on verbal cues. For example, messages delivered face-to-face were largest in quantity (number of words, verbs, and sentences), followed by the audio modality. Text had the sparsest examples. These modality effects are an important factor in building baselines in ADD tools, because they make it possible to use them to adjust the baseline for an unknown modality according to a known baseline, thereby simplifying the process of ADD. The paper discusses in detail the implications of these findings on modality effects in three modalities.
- Sun, S. X., Zhao, J. L., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2005). On the theoretical foundation for data flow analysis in workflow management. Association for Information Systems - 11th Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2005: A Conference on a Human Scale, 3, 1457-1465.More infoAbstract: In workflow management, the data flow perspective specifies how data are produced and consumed by activities in a workflow. Data flow analysis can detect data flow anomalies occurring in a workflow while its control flow can be syntactically error-free. Currently, most commercial workflow management systems do not provide the tools for data flow analysis at design time. We have previously proposed a data flow analysis approach and developed the basic concepts and the essential algorithms. As another step forward, this paper examines the issues of data flow anomalies and their verification from a theoretical point of view and validates the correctness of the proposed approach.
- Tsechpenakis, G., Metaxas, D., Adkins, M., Kruse, J., Burgoon, J. K., Jensen, M. L., Meservy, T., Twitchell, D. P., Deokar, A., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2005). Hmm-based deception recognition from visual cues. IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo, ICME 2005, 2005, 824-827.More infoAbstract: Behavioral indicators of deception and behavioral state are extremely difficult for humans to analyze. This research effort attempts to leverage automated systems to augment humans in detecting deception by analyzing nonverbal behavior on video. By tracking faces and hands of an individual, it is anticipated that objective behavioral indicators of deception can be isolated, extracted and synthesized to create a more accurate means for detecting human deception. Blob analysis, a method for analyzing the movement of the head and hands based on the identification of skin color is presented. A proof-of-concept study is presented that uses blob analysis to extract visual cues and events, throughout the examined videos. The integration of these cues is done using a hierarchical Hidden Markov Model to explore behavioral state identification in the detection of deception, mainly involving the detection of agitated and over-controlled behaviors. ©2005 IEEE.
- Twitchell, D. P., Forsgren, N., Wiers, K., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2005). Detecting deception in synchronous computer-mediated communication using speech act profiling. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 3495, 471-478.More infoAbstract: Detecting deception is a complicated endeavor. Previous attempts at deception detection in computer-mediated communication have met with some success. This study shows how speech act profiling  can be used to aid deception detection in synchronous computer-mediated communication (S-CMC). Chat logs from an online group game where deception was introduced were subjected to speech act profiling analysis. The results provide some support to previous research showing greater uncertainty in deceptive S-CMC. Also shown is that deceivers in the specific task tend to engage in less strategizing than non-deceivers. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005.
- Twitchell, D. P., Wiers, K., Adkins, M., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2005). StrikeCOM: A multi-player online strategy game for researching and teaching group dynamics. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 45-.More infoAbstract: StrikeCOM is a multi-player online strategy game designed to create discourse to aid in the examination of the development of group processes, shared awareness, and communication in distributed and face-to-face groups. The game mimics C3ISR (Command, Control, Communication, Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance) scenarios and information gathering in group activities. The game is most commonly used to create group communication and interaction in multiple communication modes. Built using a Java-based collaborative server platform the game is available for use in almost any computing environment. StrikeCOM has been used as a research tool to study leadership and deception in group decision making. The U.S. Department of Defense is using the tool to teach Network Centric Warfare to battle commanders. Use of StrikeCOM over the last two years has resulted in a number of lessons-learned, including using simple, familiar game interfaces, utilizing full and immediate feedback, and creating a flexible technical design to meet shifting research and teaching needs.
- Yuan, M., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Zhao, J. L. (2005). Towards personalized assistance in distributed group facilitation. Association for Information Systems - 11th Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2005: A Conference on a Human Scale, 1, 154-162.More infoAbstract: With the advancement of group decision support systems (GDSS), facilitation has been regarded as one of the most important means in enhancing the outcome of group decisions. Many researchers have spent great efforts in creating useful methodologies and techniques to better support group facilitation. However, most of the research in the current literature deals more with facilitation targeted at a group-level than an individual level. With the increasingly available personalization techniques found in e-commerce, personalized facilitation seems to be a natural direction in group system facilitation research to deal with the needs of individual members for the overall gain of the group. In this paper, we address the needs for personalized facilitation in the context of the "EasyWinWin" framework in software requirements analysis by proposing a conceptual framework of personalized facilitation, developing a system architecture towards personalized facilitation and identifying key functions for a personalized facilitation system.
- Adkins, M., Twitchell, D. P., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2004). Advances in automated deception detection in text-based computer-mediated communication. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 5423, 122-129.More infoAbstract: The Internet has provided criminals, terrorists, spies, and other threats to national security a means of communication. At the same time it also provides for the possibility of detecting and tracking their deceptive communication. Recent advances in natural language processing, machine learning and deception research have created an environment where automated and semi-automated deception detection of text-based computer-mediated communication (CMC, e.g. email, chat, instant messaging) is a reachable goal. This paper reviews two methods for discriminating between deceptive and non-deceptive messages in CMC. First, Document Feature Mining uses document features or cues in CMC messages combined with machine learning techniques to classify messages according to their deceptive potential. The method, which is most useful in asynchronous applications, also allows for the visualization of potential deception cues in CMC messages. Second, Speech Act Profiling, a method for quantifying and visualizing synchronous CMC, has shown promise in aiding deception detection. The methods may be combined and are intended to be a part of a suite of tools for automating deception detection.
- Briggs, R. O., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Sprague Jr., R. H. (2004). Special issue: Information systems design-theory and methodology. Journal of Management Information Systems, 20(4), 5-8.
- Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2004). Introduction: Computer-aided support of the detection of deception. Group Decision and Negotiation, 13(2), 107-110.
- Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2004). Toward computer-aided support for the detection of deception. Group Decision and Negotiation, 13(1), 1-4.
- Burgoon, J. K., Adkins, M., Kruse, J., Jensen, M. L., Deokar, A., Twitchell, D. P., Shan, L. u., Metaxas, D. N., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Younger, R. E. (2004). Moving toward intent detection: A tool-based approach. IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Proceedings, ITSC, 124-129.More infoAbstract: Past research in deception detection at the University of Arizona has guided the investigation of intent detection. A theoretical foundation and model for the analysis of intent detection is proposed. Available test beds for intent analysis are discussed and two proof-of-concept studies exploring nonverbal communication within the context of intent detection are shared.
- Cao, J., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2004). Question answering on lecture videos: A multifaceted approach. Proceedings of the ACM IEEE International Conference on Digital Libraries, JCDL 2004, 214-215.More infoAbstract: In this paper, we introduce a multifaceted approach for question answering on lecture videos. Text extracted from PowerPoint slides associated with the lecture videos is used as a source of domain knowledge to boost the answer extraction performance on these domain specific videos. The three steps of this approach are described and the evaluation plan is discussed.
- Cao, J., Crews, J. M., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Burgoon, J. K., & Lin, M. (2004). User experience with agent99 Trainer: A usability study. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 37, 641-652.More infoAbstract: Usability is a critical measure of a system's success. This study focuses on evaluating the usability of Agent99 Trainer, a Web-based multimedia training system for deception detection training. Common measures and evaluation methods for system usability are reviewed. After briefly introducing the design of Agent99 Trainer, this paper focuses on presenting the evaluation methods used in the study and the results. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected using questionnaires for testing the following system usability attributes: learnability, usefulness, ease of use, effectiveness, and user satisfaction. The results of this evaluation indicate that Agent99 Trainer is a well-designed system with good usability. Several features that make Agent99 Trainer a useful and valuable tool are discussed, and lessons learned from this evaluation for future system improvement are summarized.
- Cao, J., McNeill, K. M., Zhang, D., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2004). An overview of network-aware applications for mobile multimedia delivery. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 37, 4663-4672.More infoAbstract: Network-aware Applications is a promising new concept in which applications are aware of network conditions and thus can adapt to the varying environment to achieve acceptable and predictable performance. This paper reviews the current research on network-aware applications, with a focus on their appliance on mobile multimedia applications. First, different frameworks or architectures of network-aware applications are introduced. Research issues and activities are then discussed in detail from two basic aspects of network-aware applications: network awareness and network adaptation. After the discussion about network-aware applications in general network environments, special problems and requirements of mobile multimedia applications are summarized, and different network-aware application approaches for mobile multimedia delivery are compared with respect to these requirements. Finally, we provide some suggestions to network-aware mobile multimedia application developers and identify current challenges in this area.
- George, J. F., Biros, D. P., Adkins, M., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2004). Testing various modes of computer-based training for deception detection. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 3073, 411-417.More infoAbstract: People are not very good at detecting deception in normal communication, and past efforts to train them to become better detectors have been mixed. This paper reports on a training study involving 177 military officers. In addition to developing and testing a training program to improve deception detection, this study also aimed to test different versions of a computer-based training system. Participants received training on deception generally and on specific indicators. The training program was delivered via a videotaped lecture or via one of four versions of Agent99, the computer-based training system. Participants completed pre- and post-tests on their knowledge of deception and on their ability to detect it. Detection accuracy was measured by asking participants to judge if behavior in video, audio and text examples was deceptive or honest. Agent99 users and video lecture viewers all improved their knowledge of deception and their ability to detect it. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004.
- Lowry, P. B., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Booker, Q. E., Curtis, A., & Lowry, M. R. (2004). Creating hybrid distributed learning environments by implementing distributed collaborative writing in traditional educational settings. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 47(3), 171-189.More infoAbstract: This paper summarizes three field experiments involving distributed collaborative writing (CW) in traditional educational settings creating a hybrid form of distributed education. One finding shows that specialized collaborative tools allowed for parallel work, group awareness, and coordination, providing substantial advantages over traditional word processors in distributed CW. However, it was also found that advanced CW tools alone did not provide optimal results in distributed CW groups; such groups also needed high levels of process structure, which can be delivered through carefully constructed scripts. Moreover, it was found that introducing face-to-face meetings in distributed CW work did not necessarily provide advantages over work that was performed in all-distributed settings. Given these findings, this paper concludes by discussing the contributions, implications, limitations, and future research possibilities for hybrid-distributed education. © 2004 IEEE.
- Qin, T., Burgoon, J., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2004). An exploratory study on promising cues in deception detection and application of decision tree. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 37, 357-366.More infoAbstract: Automatic deception detection (ADD) becomes more and more important. ADD can be facilitated with the development of data mining techniques. In the paper we focus on decision tree to automatic classify deceptions. The major question is how to select experiment data (input data for training in decision tree) so that it maximally benefits the decision tree performance. We investigate promising level of the cues of experiment data, and then adjust the applications in decision tree accordingly. Five comparative decision tree experiments demonstrate that tree performance, such as accurate rate and complexity, is dramatically improved by statistically and semantically selecting cues.
- Rodgers, T. L., Dean, D. L., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2004). Increasing inspection efficiency through group support systems. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 37, 235-244.More infoAbstract: Previous research has found that that software inspection teams that use group support systems (GSS) are more effective and efficient in finding defects than inspection teams using the traditional paper logging method. In an earlier study, GSS-supported teams found forty percent more major defects and forty percent more defects per inspection hour. This paper extends previous research by examining the underlying factors that led to these improvements. This study found two major contributing factors: 1) greater attention focused on finding defects for both inspectors and moderators, and 2) greater adherence to target preparation rates over time. Both factors significantly improve inspections efficiency and effectiveness.
- Twitchell, D. P., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2004). Speech act profiling: A probabilistic method for analyzing persistent conversations and their participants. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 37, 1713-1722.More infoAbstract: The increase in persistent conversations in the form of chat and instant messaging (IM) has presented new opportunities for researchers. This paper describes a method for evaluating and visualizing persistent conversations by creating a speech act profile for conversation participants using speech act theory and concepts from fuzzy logic. This method can be used either to score a participant based on possible intentions or to create a visual map of those intentions. Transcripts from the Switchboard corpus, which have been marked up with speech act labels according to a SWBD-DAMSL tag set of 42 tags, are used to train language models and a modified hidden Markov model (HMM) to obtain probabilities for each speech act type for a given sentence. Rather than choosing the speech act with the maximum probability and assigning it to the sentence, the probabilities are aggregated for each conversation participant creating a set of speech act profiles, which can be visualized as a radar graphs. Several example profiles are shown along with possible interpretations. The profiles can be used as an overall picture of a conversation, and may be useful in various analyses of persistent conversations including information retrieval, deception detection, and online technical support monitoring.
- Twitchell, D. P., Jensen, M. L., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2004). Detecting deception in secondary screening interviews using linguistic analysis. IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Proceedings, ITSC, 118-123.More infoAbstract: Ensuring security in transportation is a challenging problem. Many technologies have been implemented for primary screening, but less has been done to improve the secondary screening process. This paper introduces two methods that may aid in detecting deception during the interviews characteristic of secondary screening. First, message feature mining uses message features or cues combined with machine learning techniques to classify messages according to their deceptive potential. Second, speech act profiling, a method for quantifying and visualizing entire conversations, has shown promise in aiding deception detection. These methods may be combined and are intended to be a part of a suite of tools for automating deception detection.
- Twitchell, D. P., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Burgoon, J. K. (2004). Using speech act profiling for deception detection. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 3073, 403-410.More infoAbstract: The rising use of synchronous text-based computer-mediated communication (CMC) such as chat rooms and instant messaging in government agencies and the business world presents a potential risk to these organizations. There are no current methods for visualizing or analyzing these persistent conversations to detect deception. Speech act profiling is a method for analyzing and visualizing online conversations, and this paper shows its use for distinguishing online conversations that express uncertainty, an indicator of deception. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004.
- Zhang, D., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2004). A natural language approach to content-based video indexing and retrieval for interactive e-Learning. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, 6(3), 450-458.More infoAbstract: As a powerful and expressive nontextual media that can capture and present information, instructional videos are extensively used in e-Learning (Web-based distance learning). Since each video may cover many subjects, it is critical for an e-Learning environment to have content-based video searching capabilities to meet diverse individual learning needs. In this paper, we present an interactive multimedia-based e-Learning environment that enables users to interact with it to obtain knowledge in the form of logically segmented video clips. We propose a natural language approach to content-based video indexing and retrieval to identify appropriate video clips that can address users' needs. The method integrates natural language processing, named entity extraction, frame-based indexing, and information retrieval techniques to explore knowledge-on-demand in a video-based interactive e-Learning environment. A preliminary evaluation shows that precision and recall of this approach are better than those of the traditional keyword based approach.
- Zhang, D., Zhao, J. L., Zhou, L., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2004). Can e-learning replace classroom learning?. Communications of the ACM, 47(5), 75-79.More infoAbstract: The advantages of electeronic learning technology over the traditional class room learning system are discussed. In comparison with the traditional class room learning that centres on instructors, electronic learning offers a learner-centered self-paced learning environment. More multimedia based e-learning systems are becoming available to integrate and present learning materials in diverse media like text, image, sound and video. A multimedia-based electronic learning environment enables well-structured, synchronized and interactive multimedia instructions. A learning by asking (LBA) system allows the learners to type in the questions in either key words or conventional English to effect an interactive electronic classroom.
- Zhou, L., Burgoon, J. K., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Twitchell, D. (2004). Automating Linguistics-Based Cues for detecting deception in text-based asynchronous computer-mediated communication. Group Decision and Negotiation, 13(1), 81-106.More infoAbstract: The detection of deception is a promising but challenging task. A systematic discussion of automated Linguistics Based Cues (LBC) to deception has rarely been touched before. The experiment studied the effectiveness of automated LBC in the context of text-based asynchronous computer mediated communication (TA-CMC). Twenty-seven cues either extracted from the prior research or created for this study were clustered into nine linguistics constructs: quantity, diversity, complexity, specificity, expressivity, informality, affect, uncertainty, and non-immediacy. A test of the selected LBC in a simulated TA-CMC experiment showed that: (1) a systematic analysis of linguistic information could be useful in the detection of deception; (2) some existing LBC were effective as expected, while some others turned out in the opposite direction to the prediction of the prior research; and (3) some newly discovered linguistic constructs and their component LBC were helpful in differentiating deception from truth.
- Zhou, L., Burgoon, J. K., Twitchell, D. P., Qin, T., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2004). A comparison of classification methods for predicting deception in computer-mediated communication. Journal of Management Information Systems, 20(4), 139-165.More infoAbstract: The increased chance of deception in computer-mediated communication and the potential risk of taking action based on deceptive information calls for automatic detection of deception. To achieve the ultimate goal of automatic prediction of deception, we selected four common classification methods and empirically compared their performance in predicting deception. The deception and truth data were collected during two experimental studies. The results suggest that all of the four methods were promising for predicting deception with cues to deception. Among them, neural networks exhibited consistent performance and were robust across test settings. The comparisons also highlighted the importance of selecting important input variables and removing noise in an attempt to enhance the performance of classification methods. The selected cues offer both methodological and theoretical contributions to the body of deception and information systems research. © 2004 M.E. Sharpe, Inc.
- Zhou, L., Burgoon, J. K., Zhang, D., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2004). Language dominance in interpersonal deception in computer-mediated communication. Computers in Human Behavior, 20(3), 381-402.More infoAbstract: Dominance is not only a complicated social phenomenon that involves interpersonal dynamics, but also an effective strategy used in various applications such as deception detection, negotiation, and online community. The extensive literature on dominance has primarily focused on the personality traits and socio-biological influence, as well as various nonverbal and paralinguistic behaviors associated with dominance. Nonetheless, language dominance manifested through dynamically acquired linguistic capability and strategies has not been fully investigated. The exploration of language dominance in the context of deception is even rarer. With the increasing use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) in all aspects of modern life, language dominance in CMC has emerged as an important issue. This study examines language dominance in the context of deception via CMC. The experimental results show that deceivers: (1) demonstrate a different trend of language dominance from truthtellers over time; (2) manipulate the level of language dominance by initiating communication with low dominance and gradually increasing the level over the course of interaction, and (3) display higher levels of dominance in terms of some linguistic behaviors than truthtellers. They suggest that in CMC, deceivers not only adjust the level of language dominance more frequently, but also change it more remarkably than truthtellers. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Adkins, M., Burgoon, M., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2003). Using group support systems for strategic planning with the United States Air Force. Decision Support Systems, 34(3), 315-337.More infoAbstract: Strategic planning is a critical part of establishing an organization's direction. Although strategic planning is utilized throughout the United States Air Force today in various forms, group sessions can become time-consuming without structured planning and a focus on group communication. Computer-supported strategic planning, making effective use of technology, is one way to improve the strategic planning process. This research implements a group support system (GSS) as a communication tool to facilitate the strategic planning process. The researchers investigate effects of a facilitator's using technology to structure verbal and electronic communication, with the goal of increasing quality output and improving group member satisfaction. This project was completed at Mountain Home Air Force Base with the support of the 366th Wing. As predicted, a GSS facilitator's structuring verbal and electronic communication improved the quality of the strategic plan, reduced time to complete a strategic plan, and increased satisfaction with the strategic planning process. The results did not indicate increased commitment to implement the strategic plans developed by a group using GSS facilitation. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
- Briggs, R. O., Vreede, G. D., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2003). Collaboration engineering with thinklets to pursue sustained success with group support systems. Journal of Management Information Systems, 19(4), 31-64.More infoAbstract: Field research and laboratory experiments suggest that, under certain circumstances, people using group support systems (GSS) can be significantly more productive than people who do not use them. Yet, despite their demonstrated potential, GSS have been slow to diffuse across organizations. Drawing on the Technology Transition Model, the paper argues that the high conceptual load of GSS (i.e., understanding of the intended effect of GSS functionality) encourages organizations to, employ expert facilitators to wield the technology on behalf of others. Economic and political factors mitigate against facilitators remaining long term in GSS facilities that focus on supporting nonroutine, ad hoc projects. This especially hampers scaling GSS technology to support distributed collaboration. An alternative and sustainable way for organizations to derive value from GSS lies in an approach called "collaboration engineering": the development of repeatable collaborative processes that are conducted by practitioners themselves. To enable the development of such processes, this paper proposes the thinkLet concept, a codified packet of facilitation skill that can be applied by practitioners to achieve predictable, repeatable patterns of collaboration, such as divergence or convergence. A thinkLet specifies the facilitator's choices and actions in terms of the GSS tool used, the configuration of this tool, and scripted prompts to accomplish a pattern of collaboration in a group. Using thinkLets as building blocks, facilitators can develop and transfer repeatable collaborative processes to practitioners. Given the limited availability of expert facilitators, collaboration engineering with thinkLets may become a sine qua non for organizations to effectively support virtual work teams.
- Briggs, R. O., Vreede, G. D., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Sprague Jr., R. H. (2003). Special issue: Information systems success. Journal of Management Information Systems, 19(4), 5-8.
- Burgoon, J. K., Blair, J. P., Qin, T., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2003). Detecting deception through linguistic analysis. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 2665, 91-101.More infoAbstract: Tools to detect deceit from language use pose a promising avenue for increasing the ability to distinguish truthful transmissions, transcripts, intercepted messages, informant reports and the like from deceptive ones. This investigation presents preliminary tests of 16 linguistic features that can be automated to return assessments of the likely truthful or deceptiveness of a piece of text. Results from a mock theft experiment demonstrate that deceivers do utilize language differently than truth tellers and that combinations of cues can improve the ability to predict which texts may contain deception. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003.
- Cao, J., Crews, J. M., Lin, M., Burgoon, J., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2003). Designing Agent99 Trainer: A learner-centered, web-based training system for deception detection. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 2665, 358-365.More infoAbstract: Research has long recognized that humans have many biases and shortcomings that severely limit our ability to accurately detect deception. How can we improve our deception detection ability? One possible method is to train individuals to recognize cues of deception. To do this, we need to create effective training curricula and educational tools. This paper describes how we used existing research to guide the design and development of a Web-based, multimedia training system called Agent99 Trainer to provide effective deception detection training. The Agent99 Trainer system integrates explicit instruction on the cues of deception, detection experience through practice, and immediate feedback with anytime, anywhere Web access. Our initial experiments show that our training improves human deception detection accuracy and the Agent99 Trainer system provides training as effective as instructor-led lecture-based training. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003.
- George, J. F., Biros, D. P., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2003). Training professionals to detect deception. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 2665, 366-370.More infoAbstract: Humans are not very good at detecting deception in normal communication. One possible remedy for improving detection accuracy is to educate people about various indicators of deception and then train them to spot these indicators when they are used in normal communication. This paper reports on one such training effort involving over 100 military officers. Participants received training on deception detection generally, on specific indicators, and on heuristics. They completed pre- and post-tests on their knowledge in these areas and on their ability to detect deception. Detection accuracy was measured by asking participants to judge if behavior in a video, on an audiotape, or in a text passage was deceptive or honest. Trained individuals outperformed those who did not receive training on the knowledge tests, but there were no differences between the groups in detection accuracy. © Spnnger-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003.
- Lowry, P. B., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2003). Using Internet-Based, Distributed Collaborative Writing Tools to Improve Coordination and Group Awareness in Writing Teams. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 46(4), 277-297.More infoAbstract: This paper argues for using specialized collaborative writing (CW) tools to improve the results of distributed, internet-based writing teams. The key features of collaborative tools that support enhanced coordination and group awareness are compared to existing writing tools. The first internet-based CW tool, Collaboratus, is introduced, and its group features are compared with those of Microsoft Word. Next, theoretical propositions, hypotheses, and constructs are formulated to predict outcomes of distributed groups that use CW tools. A four-week-long synchronous-distributed experiment then compares the outcomes of Collaboratus and Word groups. Innovative measures show that Collaboratus groups generally experience better outcomes than Word groups, in terms of productivity, document quality, relationships, and communication, but not in terms of satisfaction. The results buttress the conclusion that internet-based CW teams can benefit from specialized collaborative technologies that provide enhanced coordination, group awareness, and CW activity support.
- Lowry, P. B., Albrecht, C. C., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Lee, J. D. (2003). Evolutionary development and research on Internet-based collaborative writing tools and processes to enhance eWriting in an eGovernment setting. Decision Support Systems, 34(3), 229-252.More infoAbstract: The Center for the Management of Information (CMI) at the University of Arizona has been actively involved in research with various U.S. government organizations for nearly 20 years. This article details the years of evolutionary development and research conducted by CMI in an eGovernment setting that resulted in the creation of an Internet-based collaborative writing ((eWriting) tool, called Collaboratus. By embracing persistence, serendipity, and years of multi-methodological research in the field and in the lab, CMI has built on the foundation of eWriting research that was largely abandoned at the beginning of the eBusiness revolution. This research shows the promising potential for Collaboratus and eWriting tools to help improve digital government through improved document production and collaboration, and highlights many future research opportunities. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
- Zhang, D., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2003). Powering e-Learning in the new millennium: An overview of e-Learning and enabling technology. Information Systems Frontiers, 5(2), 207-218.More infoAbstract: In today's new economy characterized by industrial change, globaliiation, increased intensive competition, knowledge sharing and transfer, and information technology revolution, traditional classroom education or training does not always satisfy all the needs of the new world of lifelong learning. Learning is shifting from instructor-centered to learner-centered, and is undertaken anywhere, from classrooms to homes and offices, E-Learning, referring to learning via the Internet, provides people with a flexible and personalized way to learn. It offers learning-on-demand opportunities and reduces learning cost. This paper describes the demands for e-Leaming and related research, and presents a variety of enabling technologies that can facilitate the design and implementation of e-Learning systems. Armed with the advanced information and communication technologies, e-Learning is having a far-reaching impact on learning in the new millennium.
- Briggs, R. O., Vreede, G. D., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Sprague Jr., R. H. (2002). Special issue: Decision-making and a hierarchy of understanding. Journal of Management Information Systems, 18(4), 5-.
- Hender, J. M., Dean, D. L., Rodgers, T. L., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2002). An examination of the impact of stimuli type and GSS structure on creativity: Brainstorming versus non-brainstorming techniques in a GSS environment. Journal of Management Information Systems, 18(4), 59-85.More infoAbstract: Of the techniques available for idea generation with group support systems (GSS), little research attention has been given to techniques that challenge problem assumptions or that use unrelated stimuli to promote creativity. When implementing such techniques with GSS, choices must be made regarding how to configure the GSS to deploy the initial creative stimuli and to present the pool of emerging ideas that act as additional stimuli. This paper reports the results of an experiment that compares Electronic Brain-storming (few unnamed rotating dialogues) with Assumption Reversals (many related stimuli, many named dialogues, free movement among dialogues) and Analogies (many unrelated stimuli, many named dialogues, free movement among dialogues). Analogies produced creative, but fewer, ideas, due to the use of unrelated stimuli. Assumption Reversals produced the most, but less creative, ideas, possibly due to fragmentation of the group memory and cognitive inertia caused by lack of forced movement among dialogues.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Romano Jr., N. C., & Briggs, R. O. (2002). Increasing Intellectual Bandwidth: Generating value from Intellectual Capital with information technology. Group Decision and Negotiation, 11(2), 69-86.More infoAbstract: An organization's Intellectual Bandwidth (IB) is its capacity to transform External Domain Knowledge (EDK) into Intellectual Capital (IC), and to convert IC into Applied Knowledge (AK), from which a task team can create value. An organization's IB is an upper boundary on its ability to solve complex problems. To create value, members of an organization must search for knowledge, share it, and, bring it to bear on the issue at hand. The Intellectual Bandwidth of an organization must therefore be, to a certain extent, a function of the ability of its members to access data, information, and knowledge that is relevant in the context of the task at hand in order to understand the causes and consequences of their problem. They must reason about possible solutions and their potential consequences. Throughout the task they must communicate with other stakeholders and subject matter experts as they make a joint effort toward their goal. This paper develops a model of IB based on these and other concepts. It posits that IB is the product of a Hierarchy of Understanding and a Hierarchy of Collaboration. The paper suggests that the model may be useful for analyzing and deploying IT in ways that reduce the cognitive load of bringing EDK and IC to bear on the task at hand. Future research must focus on refining and validating constructs and developing measures of IB, and using those measures to find ways to increase the value derived from EDK and IC.
- Adkins, M., Kruse, J., Damianos, L., Brooks, J., Younger, R., Rasmussen, E., Rennie, Y., Oshika, B., & J., J. N. (2001). Experience using collaborative technology with the United Nations and multi-national militaries: Rim of the Pacific 2000 Strong Angel exercise in humanitarian assistance. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 36-.More infoAbstract: The Center for the Management of Information (CMI) at The University of Arizona engaged in a joint research project with the U.S. Navy's Commander Third Fleet (Third Fleet) and The MITRE Corporation (MITRE) to use and evaluate collaborative technology during Strong Angel, a humanitarian assistance/disaster relief (HA/DR) exercise. Strong Angel was a part of RIMPAC 2000, a five-week multinational exercise that involved seven nations with over 22,000 people, fifty ships, and 200 aircraft. RIMPAC 2000's Strong Angel set out to satisfy three goals: (1) Develop a mutual understanding of respective capabilities, limitations and expectations among multinational militaries and the main United Nations relief agencies; (2) Create a replicable system for the safe conduct of Strong Angel and subsequent exercises in civil-military interaction for humanitarian support; and (3) Deliver a coordinated response to a population in crisis. CMI, Third Fleet, and MITRE teamed to achieve four objectives: (1) provide a collaborative environment both at sea and ashore within an austere environment; (2) use collaborative technology to establish a forum for the exchange of relevant information between civilian humanitarian organizations and the military; (3) document the flux of combined activities each day; and (4) evaluate the utility of collaborative technology during a civil-military exercise in humanitarian relief. The team met each objective and reports the results in this paper.
- Briggs, R., J., J. N., & Tobey, D. (2001). The technology transition model: A key to self-sustaining and growing communities of GSS users. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 34-.More infoAbstract: If Group Support Systems (GSS) are so good, why isn't everybody using them? A vast wealth of lab and field research shows that when the right GSS tool is applied to the right task, team productivity can be significantly enhanced (See Fjermestad & Hiltz, 1998; forthcoming for an exhaustive compendium of GSS lab and field research). Field studies of teams with tasks ranging from strategic planning (Adkins, et al., 1998; Dennis et al., 1997; Quaddus, Atkinson, and Levy, 1992) to IT requirements definition (Davison, 2000;) to military intelligence (Briggs, et al., 1998-99) can routinely achieve cycle time reductions of 75 - 90 % and labor savings of 30 - 50%. Yet an informal survey of GSS vendors suggests that there are fewer than 5,000 active GSS installations worldwide.
- Briggs, R., Vreede, G. D., J., J. N., & Tobey, D. (2001). ThinkLets: Achieving predictable, repeatable patterns of group interaction with Group Support Systems (GSS). Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 32-.More infoAbstract: Over the past decade, Group Support Systems (GSS) has shown that, under certain circumstances, teams using GSS can be far more productive than teams who do not use GSS. However, research results are not unequivocal; they have been ambiguous, and sometimes conflicting, which makes it difficult for GSS research to inform GSS practice. One cause of the conflict and ambiguity in GSS research results may be the result of focusing on a less-than-useful level of abstraction: GSS itself. This paper argues that in GSS research, the thinkLet may be a more useful unit of comparison than the GSS. A thinkLet encapsulates three components of a GSS stimulus: The tool, its configuration, and the script. Field experience shows that thinkLets may be used to create repeatable, predictable patterns of thinking among people making an effort toward a goal. To date we have documented about 60 thinkLets that map to seven basic patterns of thinking: Diverge, Converge, Organize, Elaborate, Abstract, Evaluate, and Build Consensus. Each thinkLet creates some unique variation on its basic pattern. By focusing research on thinkLets, rather than GSS, field and laboratory research may be more controllable, more replicable, and better able to inform GSS development and use.
- Hender, J., Dean, D., Rodgers, T., & J., J. N. (2001). Improving group creativity: Brainstorming versus non-brainstorming techniques in a GSS environment. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 37-.More infoAbstract: Creativity is increasingly important in today's fast changing world. The use of Group Support Systems has bee shown to improve the quantity and quality of ideas produced by groups during idea generation. Similarly, creative techniques may be used to increase creativity. Therefore, the use of creative techniques together with a GSS may help groups think more creatively. Brainstorming is the most used and studied of the techniques. However, to further increase creativity, other types of creative techniques may be used. This paper presents a theory addressing structural aspects of both creative techniques and GSS, including testable hypotheses. A laboratory experiment is described that tests these hypotheses for three creative techniques (Brainstorming, Assumption Reversals and Analogies) implemented using a GSS. Results support the proposed theory. Analogies produced fewer but more creative ideas. Assumption Reversals produced the most ideas, but these ideas were less creative than ideas produced by Analogies and Brainstorming.
- J., J. N., N., J. R., & Briggs, R. (2001). A framework for collaboration and Knowledge Management. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 34-.More infoAbstract: Two of the most heralded recent Information Technology (IT) advances are Knowledge Management (KMS) and Collaborative Information Systems (CIS), yet neither has become a mainstream part of how many companies and knowledge workers (KWs) accomplish real work on a daily basis. We propose here two conceptual hierarchies for each of these new technologies that we believe independently may provide a structure for organizations and individuals to assess their current level of capability in each area. Further, we assert that the two hierarchies are complementary and can be integrated to provide a framework for IT capability in terms of Intellectual Bandwidth (IB.) In this paper we describe the two hierarchies and then present the integrated framework and introduce the concept of IB as the sum of an organizations' CIS and KMS capabilities. Finally we map sample technologies into the framework and explain how the technologies enable individuals, teams and oganizations to achieve various levels of KIS and CIS capability. Future research in this area will focus on developing and validating constructs and measures of IB in terms of both KMS and CIS.
- J.F., J. N. (2001). Collaboration systems and technology track. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 1-.
- J.F., J. N. (2001). User experience: Collaboration systems and knowledge management. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 30-.
- Lee, J., Albrecht, C., & J., J. N. (2001). Experiences with collaborative applications that support distributed modeling. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 41-.More infoAbstract: Awareness of the need for business analysis has grown faster than the evolution of tools to support collaborative development of business analysis models. Involvement of key personnel is important for model accuracy and buy-in, which is not trivial, especially if they are distributed geographically. Traditionally, models have been developed by individuals or small groups because of the complexity of collaborative modeling. Researchers at the Center for the Management of Information (CMI) at the University of Arizona have created specialized electronic meeting systems tools and methods to support several types of collaborative business models. This paper discusses the creation of a collaborative server created to support the development of distributed, collaborative electronic meeting systems tools. The server and collaborative tools serve as "proof-of-concept" that web-based tools can support collaborative meeting processes in face-to-face and distributed settings. Flexibility integrated into the tools and the server enables them to support a wide range of tasks.
- N., J. R., & J., J. N. (2001). Meeting analysis: Findings from research and practice. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 39-.More infoAbstract: "Almost every time there is a genuinely important decision to be made in an organization, a group is assigned to make it - or at least to counsel and advise the individual who must make it." Hackman . Meeting analysis, that is the study of meeting expenses, productivity, processes, and outcomes, is relevant to GSS practice And research for several reasons. Many reviews and surveys [1, 2, 3, 15, 21, 52, 53, 57, 75, 82] reveal that meetings dominate workers' and managers' time and yet are considered to be costly, unproductive and dissatisfying. Studies [13, 52, 53, 56, 57] show that meetings are essential and that the number of meetings and their duration has been steadily increasing. Studies of Managers and knowledge workers [1, 13, 21, 51, 52, 53, 68, 75, 79, 89, 90, 92] reveal that they spend between 25%-80% of their time in meetings, suggesting that meetings are an important part of one's working life. Estimates of meeting expenses [1, 13, 39, 53] range from costs of $30 million to over 100 million per year to losses between $54 million and 3.7 billion annually! Self estimates of meeting productivity [15, 21, 53, 75] by managers in many different functional areas range from 33% - 47%.
- Adkins, M., Kruse, J., McKenna, T., Cuyugan, A., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Miller, S., Rasmussen, E., & Younger, R. (2000). Experiences developing a virtual environment to support disaster relief with the United States Navy's commander third fleet. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 18-.More infoAbstract: The Center for the Management of Information (CMI) at the University of Arizona worked with the US Navy Commander, Third Fleet (Third Fleet) to overcome limitations of performing closely coordinated staff work on board a US Navy ship. Third Fleet is required to collaborate with hundreds of people internally and with military and civilian organizations both nationally and internationally. Third Fleet has staff officers and enlisted personnel embarked from Canada, Chile, Japan, Australia, Peru, and Britain. In addition, Third Fleet regularly works with representatives from South Korea and Mexico. This physical separation raises significant barriers to collaboration and cooperation. This research presented in this paper details the efforts of CMI, SPAWAR Systems Center and Third Fleet to introduce a virtual workspace on board the Third Fleet Command Ship USS CORONADO (AGF-11), a seagoing command and control platform berthed in San Diego, California. The virtual environment was developed and implemented to afford the staff unfettered collaboration between two different spaces aboard the ship.
- McQuaid, M. J., Briggs, R. O., Gillman, D., Hauck, R., Lin, C., Mittleman, D. D., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Ramsey, M., & Romano, N. (2000). Tools for distributed facilitation. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 21-.More infoAbstract: We have extensive experience with distributed facilitation of synchronous virtual meetings since 1992. More recently, we have gained experience in asynchronous virtual meetings and have learned lessons from which best practices have been distilled. Best practices for synchronous and asynchronous distributed facilitation give insight into requirements for toolsets. Our experience with toolsets, including (1) widely available unstructured toolsets, (2) virtual reality offices, and (3) persistent visualization, provide direction for further tool development.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Briggs, R. O., Vreede, G. D., & Sprague Jr., R. H. (2000). Special Issue: Enhancing Organizations' Intellectual Bandwidth: the Quest for Fast and Effective Value Creation. Journal of Management Information Systems, 17(3), 3-8.
- Briggs, R. O., Adkins, M., Mittleman, D., Kruse, J., Nunamaker, J. F., & Miller, C. S. (1999). Lessons learned using a technology transition model with the US Navy. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 29-.More infoAbstract: There are several thousand group support systems (GSS) installations worldwide, and while that number is growing, This article presents a 32-month qualitative field investigation of an effort to introduce GSS into the daily work of the staff of the US Navy's Commander, Third Fleet (C3F). Using the principles of action research, the project began with interventions based on the precepts of Davis'  Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The goal of the interventions was to engender sufficient acceptance for GSS to create a self-sustaining, growing community of GSS users. TAM was revised based on insights that emerged in the field. The resulting model, the Technology Transition Model (TTM), frames acceptance as a multiplicative function of the magnitude and frequency of the perceived net-value of a proposed change, moderated by the perceived net-value associated with the transition period itself.
- Briggs, R. O., J.F., J. N., & Sprague, R. (1999). Exploring the outlands of the MIS discipline. Journal of Management Information Systems, 16(3), 5-.
- Hickey, A. M., Dean, D. L., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1999). Setting a foundation for collaborative scenario elicitation. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 26-.More infoAbstract: Eliciting requirements from users remains a major challenge for systems developers. The Collaborative Software Engineering Methodology addresses this challenge by combining the use of scenarios with Group Support Systems (GSS) technologies. This paper reports results of an experiment conducted to analyze definition of those scenarios using a general-purpose GSS. Scenario quality and productivity were evaluated and then compared for three textual scenario formats. Results highlighted the productivity of the unstructured format as well as the scenario completeness problems of all formats. Recommendations for an iterative collaborative scenario process and a special-purpose GSS scenario tool were developed to address these problems.
- Mickey, A. M., Dean, D. L., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1999). Establishing a foundation for collaborative scenario elicitation. Data Base for Advances in Information Systems, 30(3-4), 92-109.More infoAbstract: Eliciting and integrating requirements from large groups of diverse users remains a major challenge for the software engineering community. Scenarios are becoming recognized as valuable means of identifying actions taken by users when executing a business process and interacting with an information system, and therefore have great potential for addressing requirements elicitation problems. A review of the scenario literature indicates that, although there is widespread agreement on the usefulness of scenarios, there are many unanswered questions about how to elicit scenario definitions from individual users and user groups efficiently. This research examines how increasing the structure of scenario definitions affects scenario quality and the efficiency of scenario definition by individual users. During a laboratory experiment, subjects defined scenarios using a general-purpose GSS, GroupSystems Group Outliner, with one of three textual scenario formats that ranged from unstructured to very structured. Scenario quality and the efficiency of scenario definition by users were compared across the formats. Results highlighted the efficiency of the unstructured format but revealed that all formats produced incomplete scenario definitions. Recommendations are made for an iterative collaborative scenario process and a special-purpose GSS scenario tool that may overcome some of these problems.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1999). Group support systems user experience. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 28-.More infoAbstract: The Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS) has a long history of support of evolving areas of research, such as groupware and group support systems, and the nurturing of these new concepts and ideas. Groupware is one of the research areas that has benefited from the interaction of researchers and practitioners at HICSS during the formal paper sessions, the informal `birds of a feather' gatherings and at the daily receptions to discuss `pros' and `cons' and to share insights and information. Over the years these researchers and practitioners have led the way in their organizations to dramatically improve productivity, organizational efficiency and effectiveness. This mini-track will focus on user experience from real organizations and real problems. The technological and process advances gained through years of research and practical experience are shared by the authors of the papers in this session. The papers in this minitrack describe the recent advances in groupware development and experiences. We are fortunate to assemble this group of authors and experts who are willing to share insights and knowledge gained from their experiences.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1999). Introduction to the collaboration systems and technology track. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 3-.More infoAbstract: The focus of the collaboration systems and technology track is information systems and technology support for interaction among groups of people in organizations. The track consists of twelve minitracks: adoption and diffusion of collaborative systems and technology; asynchronous learning networks; theory and methodology of collaborative systems; group support systems (GSS); dynamics of business systems engineering; distributed GSS; GSSs user experiences; GSS for learning; judge advisory systems; negotiation support systems frameworks; implementations and evaluations; organizational memory and knowledge management and technologies for knowledge construction.
- Romano Jr., N. C., Briggs, R. O., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Mittleman, D. (1999). Distributed GSS facilitation and participation: Field action research. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 35-.More infoAbstract: The lessons learned from four years of experience with virtual teams and a three year case study with the US Navy at sea on board the USS Coronado are presented. Field action research is used to study the domain of distributed group support systems (GSS) facilitation and participation. Distributed teams worked together using GSS tools from their work desktops, homes or where every they found themselves to solve complex problem and complete work together that they could not do without distributed GSS technology and facilitation. The results of the research have lead to valuable lessons learned and a set of guidelines for effective distributed facilitation and participation.
- Adkins, M., Shearer, R., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Romero, J., & Simcox, F. (1998). Experiences using group support systems to improve strategic planning in the Air Force. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 1, 515-524.More infoAbstract: Strategic planning is an essential part of establishing the Air Force's direction. Using a group support system for strategic planning is one avenue to make effective use of technology and improve the strategic planning process. This research implements a group support system (GSS) as a facilitation tool to improve the strategic planning process at Mountain Home Air Force Base in Idaho with the support of the 366th Wing. The project focused on learning multiple lessons when a group support system (GSS) augmented the current strategic planning process. Implementation of a GSS on the strategic planning process was expected to: (1) improve the quality of the strategic plan, (2) reduce time to completion, (3) increase satisfaction with the process, and (4) increase commitment to the strategic plans developed. Overall, computer-supported strategic planning improved the quality of the strategic plans, reduced time to completion, and increased the satisfaction with the process. There was not a statistically significant increase in the level of commitment to implementation.
- Briggs, R. O., Adkins, M., Mittleman, D., Kruse, J., Miller, S., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1998). A Technology Transition Model derived from field investigation of GSS use aboard the U.S.S. CORONADO. Journal of Management Information Systems, 15(3), 151-195.More infoAbstract: There are several thousand group support systems (GSS) installations worldwide, and, while that number is growing, GSS has not yet achieved critical mass. One reason may be that it can take one to three years for an organization to complete a transition to GSS. Studying GSS transition in the field could yield insights that would allow for faster, lower-risk transitions elsewhere. This article presents a thirty-two-month qualitative field investigation of an effort to introduce GSS into the daily work of the staff of the U.S. Navy's Commander, Third Fleet. Using the principles of action research, the project began with interventions based on the precepts of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The goal of the interventions was to engender sufficient acceptance for GSS to create a self-sustaining, growing community of GSS users. Throughout the study, building on a base of experience developed in other private-and public-sector transition projects, we revised and extended TAM based on insights that emerge d in the field. The resulting model, the Technology Transition Model (TTM), frames acceptance as a multiplicative function of the magnitude and frequency of the perceived net value of a proposed change, moderated by the perceived net value associated with the transition period itself. TTM frames net value as having a number of dimensions, including cognitive, economic, political, social, affective, and physical. It posits that cognitive net value derives from at least three sources: changes in access, technical, and conceptual attention loads. GSS transition proceeded at different speeds in different segments of the Third Fleet; the intelligence and battle staffs became self-sustaining within weeks, while others are still not self-sustaining. TTM appears to explain the differences that emerged in the Navy community. The article presents TAM, then argues the propositions of TTM. It then presents background information about Third Fleet, and describes critical incidents in the transition effort that gave rise t o the model. It summarizes the lessons learned in the field by comparing the differing transition trajectories among Fleet staff segments in light of the model.
- Briggs, R. O., J.F., J. N., & R.H., J. S. (1998). GSS insights: A look back at the lab, a look forward from the field. Journal of Management Information Systems, 15(3), 3-.
- Briggs, R. O., Mittleman, D. D., Weinstein, N., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Adkins, M. E. (1998). Collaborative technology for the sea-based warfighter: A field study of GSS adoption and diffusion. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 1, 505-514.More infoAbstract: Group Support Systems (GSS) technology is still in the early stages of its diffusion process. There are several thousand GSS installations worldwide, and that number is growing, but GSS have not yet achieved a mass market. It may be that studying adoption and diffusion of GSS within a single organization could yield insights that would help speed the process elsewhere. This paper presents an 18-month field study of an effort to introduce GSS into the daily work efforts of several components of the staff of the U.S. Navy's Commander, Third Fleet (COMTHIRDFLT). An internal champion spearheaded the innovation effort with the assistance of a team of outside GSS experts. The paper presents background COMTHIRDFLT, and then describes the steps the team took to create a self-sustaining community of GSS users. The paper presents a summary of the causes of and the barriers to adoption observed during the study in a causal model of adoption and diffusion, and concludes with implications for practitioners and researchers.
- Briggs, R. O., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Reinig, B. A., Romano Jr., N. C., & Sprague Jr., R. R. (1998). Group support systems: A cornucopia of research opportunities. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 1, 495-504.More infoAbstract: For many years we have heard rumors of the downfall and death of GSS research. In this paper we will argue that the nay-sayers are wrong, as many have been in other disciplines in the past and that they would propose to stop seeking answers before the most important questions may have even been asked. We describe some of the many unanswered research questions left to be addressed in Group Support Systems research. We identify potentially 250 additional doctoral dissertations, each of which would make a substantial contribution to our understanding of GSS, and likely reveal deeper and even more insightful questions than those which we pose here as mere examples. There is a veritable `cornucopia' of GSS research opportunities within these questions that are yet to be answered. We hope to broaden the readers' perspective on GSS research opportunities and convince our audience that GSS research, far from being dead, is not even comatose, but in fact is alive and thriving.
- Genuchten, M. v., Vogel, D., & Nunamaker, J. (1998). Group support systems in primary processes. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 1, 580-587.More infoAbstract: Software has migrated from large main frame based support to personal computer support and more recently to groupware or, more specifically, group support systems (GSS). GSS products (e.g., GroupSystems) have undergone transitions or waves over the past ten years as application has evolved. This paper examines the waves that have occurred and are occurring with application and diffusion of GSS in organizational contexts. We suggest that GroupSystems has experienced three waves of users: 1st: scientists (innovation driven), 2nd: consultants (facilitator driven) and 3rd: into primary processes (application driven). Examples are provided to illustrate application. Special attention is given to the use of GSS for software inspection and the use of GSS in the classroom. The paper also provides an explanation for the discrepancy between the potential of GSS technology and its rather limited use to date.
- Romano Jr., N. C., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1998). Project-centered course: Collaborative computing. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 1, 4-13.More infoAbstract: This paper describes four years of experience designing and teaching a project-centered course in collaborative computing that seeks to integrate new experiences into the MIS curriculum. The course grew out of our desire to expose students to collaborative computing in a fashion that we hope will help them to bridge their knowledge from the classroom to the realities they will face throughout their careers. We have become increasingly aware that collaborative computing technology, often termed `Groupware', is changing how people work. We are also aware that research in this area has been ongoing for over thirty years; yet we also feel that many MIS students, especially undergraduates, have little or no practical exposure to this technology, prior to graduation. We developed a project-centered course in collaborative computing and as a result it has become a popular elective in our MIS curriculum and of benefit to our students.
- Briggs, R. O., J.F., J. N., & R.H., J. S. (1997). 1001 Unanswered research questions in GSS. Journal of Management Information Systems, 14(3), 3-.
- Dean, D. L., Lee, J. D., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1997). Group tools and methods to support data model development, standardization, and review. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2, 386-395.More infoAbstract: The need for tools and meeting methods to provide effective support during data model development meetings has been an elusive goal. Researchers at the University of Arizona have developed collaborative tools and methods to support groups during these meetings. This paper discusses meeting methods to support such meetings. A process is described that orchestrates the work in a way that gives non-analyst participants an ordered set of tasks that they can complete. Use of this approach with a group data modeling tool provides a means for larger groups to effectively participate during data model development and review. Users can see and contribute model content in parallel. The approach manages complexity, supports comprehension, and fosters agreement among participants.
- Dean, D. L., Lee, J. D., Pendergast, M. O., Hickey, A. M., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1997). Enabling the effective involvement of multiple users: Methods and tools for collaborative software engineering. Journal of Management Information Systems, 14(3), 179-222.
- Dennis, A. R., Tyran, C. K., Vogel, D. R., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1997). Group Support Systems for Strategic Planning. Journal of Management Information Systems, 14(1), 155-184.More infoAbstract: Strategic planning is typically performed by groups of managers. Group support systems (GSS), an information technology designed to improve group work, may therefore have useful application to strategic planning. In this paper, the application of GSS is examined with respect to four dimensions: process support, process structure, task support, and task structure. A GSS may assist the communication aspects of group meetings by providing process support to improve interaction among participants and process structure to direct the pattern or content of the discussion. GSS may also provide task structure, such as structured analysis and modeling techniques, and task support, such as access to important task information. This paper reports on the use of a GSS in the strategic planning processes of thirty organizations. The ability of the GSS to provide process support was found to be the most important contributor to strategic planning success, with task structure and process structure secondary. Task support contributed little. Those organizations that made greater use of electronic communication, structured problem analysis techniques, and structured meeting processes reported greater success.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1997). Future research in group support systems: Needs, some questions and possible directions. International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 47(3), 357-385.More infoAbstract: Group support systems (GSS) represent one of the real success stories of research by the MIS academic community. There is no doubt that GSS academic research has had an impact on practice in the MIS field. This paper discusses the future of GSS research in terms of what is needed, some important research questions, and offers some possible directions. Section 1 describes what a GSS is and explains the underlying fundamental background. Section 2 explains why GSS research is needed. Section 3 describes the multimethodological approach that is needed for well-grounded GSS research programs. Section 4 discusses some of the major issues in applying GSS in organizational settings. Section 5 explores the scope of GSS research and the questions that need to be answered. Section 6 provides keys to successful distributed collaboration from our experience. Section 7 starts to answer the difficult question "what is needed for a distributed workspace?" Section 8 begins to clarify just what virtual reality can offer for distributed collaboration. Section 9 explains the justification for a virtual reality representation of the distributed office. Section 10 explores what we need to get real work done in a virtual workspace including: support for sense making during the process, automating bottle-necks in the process, modeling through simulation and animation, multiple languages, education, crisis response and software inspection. Research in GSS is just beginning and thousands of questions must be answered before we can have an understanding of the field. © 1997 Academic Press Limited.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Burgoon, J., Walsh, K. R., & Glynn, M. S. (1997). Vision for a new discipline. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2, 3-11.More infoAbstract: Dramatic changes in technology and how it affects people demand that we rethink how we teach and conduct research in the information and communication sciences. Technology is changing in kind rather than just in magnitude and demands new approaches to its understanding. Industry mega-mergers show one approach. We in academia need to look for our own approach in order to continue to provide effective education and research. The proposed curriculum in a college of Communication and Information Sciences (CIS) develops an integrated vision to address information, technology, human interaction, and applications.
- Orwig, R., Chen, H., Vogel, D., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1997). A Multi-Agent View of Strategic Planning Using Group Support Systems and Artificial Intelligence. Group Decision and Negotiation, 6(1), 37-59.More infoAbstract: The strategic planning process is dynamic and complex. Including a Group Support System (GSS) in the problem-solving process can improve the content quality of the strategic plan by allowing increased participation by more members of the organization. However, it can also add to the complexity of the problem by increasing the quantity of textual information that can result from group activity. Added complexity increases cognitive overload and frustrations of those participants negotiating the contents of the strategic plan. This article takes a multi-agent view of the strategic planning process. It considers group participants as multiple agents concerned with the content quality of the strategic plan. The facilitator agent is responsible for guiding groups in the strategic plan construction process as well as for solving process problems such as cognitive overload. We introduce an AI Concept Categorizer agent, a software tool that supports the facilitator in addressing the process problem of cognitive overload associated with convergent group activities by synthesizing group textual output into conceptual clusters. The implementation of this tool reduces frustrations which groups encounter in the process of classifying textual output and provides more time for discussion of the concepts themselves. Because of the large amount of convergent activity necessary for strategic planning, the addition of the AI Concept Categorizer to the strategic planning process should increase the quality of the strategic plan and the buy-in of the participants in the strategic planning process.
- Reinig, B. A., Briggs, R. O., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1997). Flaming in the electronic classroom. Journal of Management Information Systems, 14(3), 45-59.More infoAbstract: Research has shown that group support systems (GSS) can be used to substantially improve learning at all levels of formal education. However, some instructors are reluctant to adopt GSS because they are concerned that learners will engage in flaming, or verbal attacks intended to offend either persons or organizations and often charactrized by profanity, obscenity, and insults. This paper posits that flaming is caused by hostility engendered by a perception that vested interests have been or are about to be violated. It further posits that the relationship between hostility and flaming is moderated by personal values and risk of reprisal. A longitudinal experiment is presented that provides empirical support for the model. The paper then reports five field cases highlighting various strategies used by instructors for reducing or eliminating flaming.
- Reinig, B. A., Briggs, R. O., Brandt, S. A., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1997). Electronic classroom on fire: Why it happens, and how to put out the flames. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2, 639-647.More infoAbstract: Research has shown that group support systems can improve the classroom experience. However, some teachers are reluctant to adopt the technology due to student flaming. We define flaming as the launching of vitriolic personal attacks, often anonymously and often with the use of profane or obscene language. This paper posits a theoretical causal model for flaming based on deindividuation and extended cognitive learning theory. It then presents a longitudinal experiment, the results of which support our model of flaming. The paper describes three cases from the field where student flaming occurred in new electronic classroom installations, and discusses five successful strategies from these cases for eliminating flaming without losing the benefits of student anonymity. The paper concludes with implications for researchers and practitioners on how to limit flaming in the electronic classroom.
- Romano Jr., N. C., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Briggs, R. O. (1997). User driven design of a Web-based group support system. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2, 366-375.More infoAbstract: This paper describes the need for virtual workspaces and focuses on the user driven design of GroupSystems for the World Wide Web (Web) (GSWeb) GSWeb is a Web Based Group Support System (GSS) that was initially designed based on GroupSystems for Windows. The original Web based GSS was found to provide inadequate support for virtual work teams, that is real groups of people who used the system to collaborate although they were separated in space and time. To extend and redesign GSWeb to meet the needs expressed by users we drew upon feedback from users, interviews with hundreds of people, and over 10 years of experience with group support research, design, and development.
- J.F., J. N., & Briggs, R. O. (1996). Information technology and its organizational impact. Journal of Management Information Systems, 13(3), 3-.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Briggs, R. O., Mittleman, D. D., Vogel, D. R., & Balthazard, P. A. (1996). Lessons from a Dozen Years of Group Support Systems Research: A Discussion of Lab and Field Findings. Journal of Management Information Systems, 13(3), 163-207.More infoAbstract: During the past dozen years, researchers at the University of Arizona have built six generations of group support systems software, conducted over 150 research studies, and facilitated over 4,000 projects. This article reports on lessons learned through that experience. It begins by presenting a theoretical foundation for the Groupware Grid, a tool for designing and evaluating GSS. It then reports lessons from nine key domains: (1)GSS in organizations; (2) cross-cultural and multicultural issues; (3) designing GSS software; (4) collaborative writing; (5) electronic polling; (6) GSS facilities and room design; (7) leadership and facilitation; (8) GSS in the classroom; and (9) business process reengineering.
- Reinig, B. A., Briggs, R. O., Shepherd, M. M., Yen, J., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1996). Affective reward and the adoption of group support systems: Productivity is not always enough. Journal of Management Information Systems, 12(3), 171-185.More infoAbstract: Research shows that group support systems (GSS) have dramatically increased group productivity. However, researchers in the field discovered that users sometimes find themselves feeling emotionally unfulfilled despite exceptionally good results; users report a loss of the affective reward often associated with a challenging meeting where they struggle and succeed. This lack of engagement has been shown to be a cause of user resistance to adopting GSS technology. Team effectiveness may be reduced over time as users seek less-effective but more-gratifying alternatives. This paper frames affective reward as a function of excitation transfer. It describes the development and validation of an instrument to measure affective reward, and presents the results of the first laboratory investigation of the construct. Copyright © 1996 M.E. Sharpe, Inc.
- Shepherd, M. M., Briggs, R. O., Reinig, B. A., Yen, J., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1996). Invoking social comparison to improve electronic brainstorming: Beyond anonymity. Journal of Management Information Systems, 12(3), 155-170.More infoAbstract: This paper presents a study of electronic brainstorming (EBS) that begins with theory building, tool development, and experimentation, and ends with practical guidance for facilitators and developers. The paper argues that social loafing impairs the productivity of EBS groups, and that social comparison is a way to decrease the effect(s) of social loafing. The literature on brainstorming productivity suggests that there is a correlation between the quantity of ideas produced and the number of high-quality ideas produced. By inducing social comparison with a graphical feedback tool and increasing the salience of that social comparison with facilitation techniques, we increased the productivity of EBS groups by 63 percent. Copyright © 1996 M.E. Sharpe, Inc.
- Amaravadi, C. S., George, J. F., R., O., & Nunamaker, J. F. (1995). The Adequacy of Office Models. Advances in Computers, 40(C), 181-253.More infoAbstract: An office model is an abstraction of the office with the mechanism for representing it. Models have two aspects: the domain being modeled, and the representation mechanisms used to express them. In their evolution, several generations of office models can be distinguished. They can be classified as forms/data/information, procedures/activities/tasks, functions/policies/goals, agents/roles, communications, decisions/problems/exceptions, applications, and finally integrative approaches. Several representative models have been reviewed. The measure of completeness of a model is provided by the concepts of domain adequacy and representational adequacy. Domain adequacy captures the extent to which a model is faithful to reality while representational adequacy is concerned with architectural completeness. A model is considered representationally adequate if it provides features for all three levels of the three schema architectures in database theory. The adequacy of office models is evaluated along these dimensions with the help of several tables. The research also references the NIST models for software environments. The survey identifies the need for integrated models, the need for models to provide better conceptual and external level features, and the need for empirical studies of offices. Further progress in office modeling requires more detailed definitions of the conceptual level for all domains, supported by field research. ACM Categories and Subject Descriptors: D.2.1 [Software Engineering]: Requirements/Specifications; E. I. [Data Structures];H.2.1 [Database Management]: Logical Design-data models; schema and subschema; H.4.1 [Office Automation]; 1.2.1 [Artificial Intelligence]: Applications and Expert Systems; 1.2.4 [Artificial Intelligence]: Knowledge Representation Formalisms and Methods; General Terms: Office models, office procedures. Additional Key Words and Phrases: Conceptual office models, evaluation of office models, review of office models, classification of office models, evolution of office models, integrated office models, directions for office models. © 1995 Academic Press Inc.
- Phan, D. D., Vogel, D. R., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1995). Empirical studies in software development projects: Field survey and OS/400 study. Information and Management, 28(4), 271-280.More infoAbstract: Despite ongoing efforts to enhance the processes and techniques used in the development of software projects at all stages, software development projects continue to suffer problems in meeting user expectations, schedule, and budget. The purpose of this paper is to address the issues of management and control in large development projects and to present the results of our independent study on the development of the OS/400 RA development project, a very large software development project at IBM Corporation, Rochester, MN. The results of a field survey of software development professionals are summarized and compared with those of the OS/400 development. Furthermore, experience gained from the OS/360 development project is revisited and new insights are discussed. The paper concludes with lessons learned and project success factors. © 1995.
- Chen, H., Hsu, P., Orwig, R., Hoopes, L., & Nunamaker, J. F. (1994). Automatic concept classification of text from electronic meetings. Communications of the ACM, 37(10), 56-73.More infoAbstract: Collaborative work groups are now utilizing specialized computer aids known as groupware which have been gaining the admiration of corporations. One of their applications, electronic meeting software, helps improve meeting quality by permitting anonymous comments over networked computer and by encouraging equal membership participation during a meeting. A major advantage of this software is its ability to let meeting participants brainstorm ideas in parallel mode, i.e., they can sit around a table and 'talk' at the same time using their keyboards. However, the overwhelming volume of brainstorming comments from using meeting software creates a burden during idea organization, thus becoming a bottleneck; counteracts productivity gains; and reduces meeting participant satisfaction. With the adoption of Artificial Intelligence, an automatic classification tool for electronic brainstorming output was designed to generate a tentative list of the important ideas and topics represented in meeting comment.
- R., O., Motiwalla, L. F., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Vogel, D. R. (1994). A framework to support managerial activities using office information systems. Journal of Management Information Systems, 11(3).More infoAbstract: Office systems have traditionally been effective in automating well-defined and structured office tasks that are performed by personnel who account for a minor share of the office payroll. To make an impact on office environments, office systems must be able to support effectively semi-structured or unstructured office tasks that are generally performed by managers and professionals. This paper provides a conceptual focus through a framework for analyzing the office functions of managers, and a technological focus and direction through a design and architecture of an Integrated Office Information System (IOIS) for implementing such a concept that supports the less structured activities of managers.
- Vogel, D. R., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Martz Jr., W. B., Grohowski, R., & McGoff, C. (1994). Electronic meeting system experience at IBM. Journal of Management Information Systems, 11(3), 25-43.More infoAbstract: Electronic meeting systems (EMS) have been introduced inside IBM in a cooperative effort between IBM and the University of Arizona to address the demands of an increasingly competitive and turbulent business environment. This paper presents and integrates the results of two field studies intended to evaluate the implications of electronic meeting system use at IBM. The first study focused on session process and outcome effectiveness, efficiency, and user satisfaction at a single IBM site. The second study collected data on EMS tool use and facilitation approach within sessions at four IBM sites. The two studies are complementary in reflecting the impact of computer-based support on group process and outcome. Effectiveness, efficiency, and user satisfaction are generally enhanced independent of type of activity supported or perspective, e.g., participant, facilitator, or session initiator. Facilitation training is a critical requirement for successful integration and application of electronic meeting system software and procedures in the group processes this paper addresses.
- Carmel, E., Herniter, B. C., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1993). Labor-management contract negotiations in an electronic meeting room: A case study. Group Decision and Negotiation, 2(1), 27-60.More infoAbstract: We present perhaps the first case study of labor-management contract talks conducted in an electronic meeting room supported by a computer Negotiation Support System (NSS). The organization's union and management representatives spent a total of 57 hours (13 sessions) in the electronic meeting room; their efforts resulted successfully in a contract ratified by both sides. The NSS described comprised three tools from the Group Systems electronic meeting system and three ad hoc tools. Besides the NSS, three other intervention factors were introduced in tandem with the NSS: new negotiation process techniques, the active involvement of third party mediators, and a unique negotiation setting. The new process techniques were introduced based on the goals of integrative bargaining and the Win-Win techniques. The negotiation process was divided into three distinct stages: strategy, issues, and bargaining. © 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.
- Dennis, A. R., Daniels Jr., R. M., Hayes, G., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1993). Methodology-Driven use of automated support in business process re-engineering. Journal of Management Information Systems, 9(4), 117-138.More infoAbstract: This article describes a three-month pilot project to model and re-engineer an internal business unit of a major multinational firm using Enterprise Analyzer, a methodology and supporting group software tool for modeling and analyzing business processes. The methodology combines collaborative model building with creative problem refraining to enable multilevel, cross-functional business teams to quickly examine and redesign business processes. The tools developed for this project extend the capabilities of existing electronic meeting system technology to help groups build complex representations of their organization. The results of this pilot project suggest that the methodology and supporting tools can be effectively applied to re-engineer business processes, but also suggest the need for better ways to help groups accept innovative ideas. Many innovative ideas were generated, but few made it past the participants' evaluation and into the project's final recommendations.
- Liou, Y. I., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1993). An investigation into knowledge acquisition using a group decision support system. Information and Management, 24(3), 121-132.More infoAbstract: Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) previously have been used to facilitate a variety of group activities. This study explores the use of a GDSS to facilitate knowledge acquisition from multiple experts to build a help-service expert system for an information center. Observations from this study indicate that a GDSS can facilitate knowledge acquisition from a group of experts by documenting knowledge electronically, supporting parallel knowledge extraction from several experts, offering a structured process, and providing a collaborative atmosphere which facilitates group interactions, resolves conflicts, and enriches the domain of expertise. The findings show that structured analysis techniques are useful in planning for knowledge acquisition, the participation of end users is important, and that a designated primary expert is helpful when multiple experts are involved. © 1993 - Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. All rights reserved.
- Amaravadi, C. S., R., O., George, J. F., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1992). AEI: A knowledge-based approach to integrated office systems. Journal of Management Information Systems, 9(1), 133-163.More infoAbstract: Although various attempts have been made in the past to introduce office systems and office models, they have been limited in one or several ways: they have not been based on integrated views; no models were developed or the models were artificial; they have been limited in scope; they used restrictive representation schemes; they were not intelligent; they were not user-friendly. Our research attempts to address these issues with: an integrated view of the office; a model tied to the nature of office activity; integration across various office domains; and a knowledge base. Intelligence is supplied from the interface and from the planner, as well as from the domain knowledge. An important component of the domain knowledge is the functional structure which captures activity relationships with a uniform representation scheme. Users can access explanations about functions of the office and can add comments on them. The realization of these concepts in a prototype system is discussed. © 1992, M.R Sharpe, Inc.
- Briggs, R. O., Dennis, A. R., Beck, B. S., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1992). Whither the pen-based interface?. Journal of Management Information Systems, 8(4), 71-90.More infoAbstract: This paper reports the results of six experiments to investigate the kinds of applications for which a pen-based interface might be useful, the kinds of users who might adopt pen-based interfaces, and the features or components of the pen-based interface that users find acceptable. The experiments revealed a strong user acceptance of pen-based systems for software navigation and position control across a range of applications, and showed that the responses of current nonusers were very similar to those of experienced users when using pen-based systems. The results also suggest that, contrary to conventional wisdom, handwriting recognition is unlikely to be widely accepted as a direct keyboard substitute for general-purpose computing. The paper discusses alternatives to handwriting recognition for pen-based character input, and ends with a brief discussion of future directions in pen-based interface research. © M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 1993.
- Davis, G. B., Nunamaker, J. F., Watson, H. J., & Wynne, B. E. (1992). Use of a collaborative work system for the study of the key issues facing information systems managers: a comparison of issues and data collection methods from previous studies. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 4, 46-59.More infoAbstract: The key issues facing information systems managers were explored using a collaborative work system. The issues generated were compared with those identified in five previous studies. This study confirmed the trend toward more concern about issues that are outward looking from the IS department and less concern about inward-looking issues. The concern about new technology and information services issues has remained relatively constant. The efficacy of using a CWS session for tasks that require generating, consolidating, and ranking issues was demonstrated by the key issues study. The advantages and disadvantages of CWS relative to mail questionnaires, interviews, and the Delphi method are discussed.
- Easton, A. C., Vogel, D. R., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1992). Interactive versus stand-alone group decision support systems for stakeholder identification and assumption surfacing in small groups. Decision Support Systems, 8(2), 159-168.More infoAbstract: As we begin to see evidence that Group Decision Support Systems can be beneficial, it becomes increasingly important to investigate the effect of different GDSS designs on decision making processes. This study investigated the effect of a GDSS based on the Strategic Assumption Surfacing and Testing model for strategic planning impact analysis. A controlled laboratory experiment compared the results of 4-person groups that had either Stand-Alone GDSS support (one personal computer per group) or Interactive GDSS support (4 networked personal computers per group). Measures were taken on decision outcomes (quality, time and satisfaction with the outcomes) and decision process variables (quantity of unique alternatives, distribution of individual participation, and satisfaction with the process). We found that the interactive GDSS groups generated a higher number of unique ideas and had more even participation rates. However they were less satisfied with both the process and the outcomes. We also found no significant difference between the groups in terms of decision quality and decision time. © 1992.
- George, J. F., Dennis, A. R., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1992). An experimental investigation of facilitation in an EMS decision room. Group Decision and Negotiation, 1(1), 57-70.More infoAbstract: Electronic meeting systems (EMS) provide a way for information technology to support groups meeting together for a variety of tasks. Some systems have been designed to depend on facilitators to guide groups through EMS use, whereas others have been designed to be used without facilitators. Yet little empirical research has been conducted to determine the differences between facilitated and nonfacilitated EMS use. This article describes an experiment that compared facilitated and nonfacilitated EMS groups. No differences were found between these two modes of EMS use for the number of alternatives generated, decision quality, ability to reach consensus, or satisfaction with the group process. However, if the number of alternatives generated is treated as a covariate, facilitated groups made better decisions, but nonfacilitated groups were more likely to reach consensus. © 1992 Kluwer Academic Publishers.
- George, J. F., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Valacich, J. S. (1992). Electronic meeting systems as innovation: A study of the innovation process. Information and Management, 22(3), 187-195.More infoAbstract: Electronic Meeting Systems (EMS) are slowly moving out of university environments into work organizations. They constitute an innovative method of supporting group meetings. This paper reports on the innovation process in one organization that recently adopted and implemented an EMS. The paper traces the innovation process through four stages: conception of an idea; proposal; decision to adopt; and implementation. Important factors from the innovation literature are considered as an explanation of the innovation process involving EMS in this particular organization. © 1992 - Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. All rights reserved.
- George, J. F., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Valacich, J. S. (1992). Information technology for organizational change. Decision Support Systems, 8(4), 307-315.More infoAbstract: The interrelationships between organization structure and information systems have attracted the attention of researchers since the 1950s. We propose three different architectures for organizational decision support systems (ODSS), each of which is tailored to an emerging change in organization structures: Downsizing; a focus on teams; and outsourcing. We argue that no single ODSS architecture can adequately meet the challenges of each structural change. Rather, each proposed architecture relies to a lesser or greater degree on five types of information technology: Communication; co-ordination; filtering; decision making; and monitoring technologies. © 1992.
- Martz Jr., W. B., Vogel, D. R., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1992). Electronic meeting systems. Results from the field. Decision Support Systems, 8(2), 141-158.More infoAbstract: The findings of an exploratory field study concerning the effects of implementing an Electronic Meeting System (EMS) at an IBM manufacturing site are presented. A comparison of an electronic work group infrastructure with its corresponding manual practice is the primary basis of the study. The first section summarizes the University of Arizona's background in the EMS field and goes on to describe the particular EMS used in this study. The next section details the experimental background, the research model, and the data collection methods used. The effects of the implementation were measured by their impacts on the technology, work group performance, group and task characteristics, and the organization. A summary of the contributions made to the knowledge accrual process in terms of insights concerning the implementation and future study of EMS concludes this study. © 1992.
- R., O., Amaravadi, C. S., Aiken, M. W., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1992). IOIS: A knowledge-based approach to an integrated office information system. Decision Support Systems, 8(3), 269-286.More infoAbstract: Research on organizational decision making, cooperative work, and relevant technological support such as group decision support systems, model management, artificial intelligence, and expert systems,has falled to provide a functional architecture of the integrated, automated office environment which is essential to support knowledge workers in the office of the future. Previous research has been fragmented, focusing only on certain office tasks, or theoretical, lacking the concrete architecture of a working prototype. This paper describes an integrated office information system architecture which uses knowledgebased techniques to assist managerial and clerical workers in a complete spectrum of tasks ranging from group process support to resource management. The use of this system is illustrated with a scenario incorporating typical tasks found in many organizations. Problems encountered in the design and implementation of the system are described, and future research directions are listed. © 1992.
- Tyran, C. K., Dennis, A. R., Vogel, D. R., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1992). The application of electronic meeting technology to support strategic management. MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems, 16(3), 313-334.More infoAbstract: Strategic management is often performed by groups of managers. By improving the com-munication process of such groups, strategic management might be enhanced. This paper investigates the application of electronic meeting systems (EMS) technology to support strategic management. Eight cases involving five organizations using an EMS facility are examined to: (1) determine how organizational groups use EMS for strategic management, (2) assess the overall effectiveness and efficiency of the EMS approach to strategic management, and (3) assess the capability of an EMS to address a variety of group process and communication issues in an organizational context. The findings indicate that EMS technology can address a number of the theoretical and practical concerns associated with strategic management meetings involving large heterogeneous groups of managers. Implications for the design of EMS to support strategic management are discussed, and opportunities for future research are identified.
- Valacich, J. S., Dennis, A. R., Jessup, L. M., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1992). Conceptual framework of anonymity in group support systems. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 4, 101-112.More infoAbstract: As the development and use of automated systems for collaborative work grows, the need for a better understanding of these systems becomes more important. Our focus is on one type of system, a Group Support System (GSS), and in particular, on one important aspect of a GSS, anonymity. A conceptual framework for the study of anonymity in a GSS is presented, which describes the general classes of variables and their relationships. These variables include the factors that influence anonymity in a GSS, types of anonymity and the effects of anonymity on a message sender, receiver, group process and outcome. Each of these variables is discussed with working propositions presented for important group process and outcome measures. The objectives of this paper are to highlight the importance and complexity of anonymity, to act as a guide for empirical investigations of anonymity, and to influence future GSS development and use.
- Valacich, J. S., Jessup, L. M., Dennis, A. R., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1992). A conceptual framework of anonymity in Group Support Systems. Group Decision and Negotiation, 1(3), 219-241.More infoAbstract: As the development and use of automated systems for collaborative work grows, the need for a better understanding of these systems becomes more important. Our focus is on one type of system, a Group Support System (GSS) and, in particular, on one important aspect of a GSS-anonymity. A conceptual framework for the study of anonymity in a GSS is presented, which describes the general classes of variables and their relationships. These variables include the factors that influence anonymity in a GSS, types of anonymity, and the effects of anonymity on a message sender, receiver, group process, and outcome. Each of these variables is discussed with working propositions presented for important group process and outcome measures. The objectives of this article are to highlight the importance and complexity of anonymity, to act as a guide for empirical investigations of anonymity, and to influence future GSS development and use. © 1992 Kluwer Academic Publishers.
- Vinze, A. S., Heltne, M. M., Chen, M., Konsynski, B. R., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1992). Design for change: Knowledge-based system support for information centers. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 22(3), 498-512.More infoAbstract: The applicability of a knowledge-based system for resource management in the context of information centers (ICs) is discussed. The Information Center Expert (ICE) system has been developed to support the consultation process of IC personnel. The system determines the (software) resource requirements of the end users and makes appropriate recommendations. ICE further aids the management of IC software resources by keeping track of user consultations and the recommendations made. Issues of knowledge requirements, acquisition and representation and implementation of ICE are discussed. An evaluation of ICEs which focused on maintainability and transportability was conducted at two corporate locations and a university setting. Based on the informal feedback, the implications of this approach for future research are discussed.
- Dennis, A. R., Abens, T., Ram, S., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1991). Communication requirements and network evaluation within electronic meeting system environments. Decision Support Systems, 7(1), 13-31.More infoAbstract: One of the key issues in the design and implementation of Electronic Meeting Systems (EMS) is the identification of appropriate support for computer communications. Lack of adequate communication support can create a bottleneck in the use of EMS. Our objective is to identify the communication needs of several different EMS environments and to discuss an approach that can be used to evaluate the required communication support. We then use this approach to benchmark the performance of two Local Area Network (LAN) operating systems (IBM LAN program and Novell Netware) and three network servers(IBM PS/2 models 50, 60 and 80) in one EMS environment. While network operating systems have received comparatively less attention in LAN evaluation and design, fully 75% of the response time in some configurations was due solely to the network operating system. The Novell Netware software running on the IBM PS/2 model 50 server provided at least as great speed at lower cost than any other configuration tested. For the small files common to one style of EMS environment (i.e. under 2.5K), response time was not affected by the size of the file but rather was determined by the fixed overhead imposed by the network operating system. © 1991.
- Dennis, A. R., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Paranka, D. (1991). Supporting the search for competitive advantage. Journal of Management Information Systems, 8(1), 5-36.More infoAbstract: Managers are beginning to realize that the search for opportunities to create competitive advantage should be included as one part of the overall strategic planning process. Since the search for competitive advantage is often undertaken by large groups of managers drawn from many departments and organizational levels within the firm, recent developments in information technology to support group work may be useful. In this paper, we examine the ability of this technology to support the search for competitive advantage. Building on prior research on competitive advantage and group processes, we propose a three-stage process to guide the search for competitive advantage, describe an information system to support this process, and examine the experiences of five groups from three firms that have used this system to support this process. In general, the experiences of these groups suggest that this technology can be useful in supporting the search for competitive advantage. © 1991,M.E. Sharpe.Inc.
- Valacich, J. S., Dennis, A. R., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1991). Electronic meeting support: the GroupSystems concept. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 34(2), 261-282.More infoAbstract: In recent years, there has been a rapidly growing interest in the use of information technology to support face-to-face group meetings. Such Electronic Meeting System (EMS) environments represent a fundamental shift in the technology available for group meetings. In this paper, we describe the development and evaluation research conducted at the University of Arizona that has led to the installation of one EMS at more than 30 corporate and university sites around the world. Based on our experiences in working with student groups in controlled laboratory experiments and with organizational work groups in the field, we are convinced that EMS technology has the potential to dramatically change the way people work together by effectively supporting larger groups, reducing meeting and project time, and enhancing group member satisfaction. © 1991.
- Vinze, A. S., Vogel, D. R., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1991). Performance evaluation of a knowledge-based system: A validation study. Information and Management, 21(4), 225-235.More infoAbstract: To demonstrate the usefulness of a system, it is important to test it within the boundaries of its limitations. In the case of expert systems, the premise is that the goal of the technology is to enable a non-expert to complete the steps of solving a problem in a way similar to that of an expert. If computer-based systems are to take the lead in problem solving, they must inevitably be subjected to appropriate and adequate validation. In this paper, we present results from a validation study conducted on a knowledge-based system called ICE (Information Center Expert). The ICE system was developed to determine the software requirements of end-users and make appropriate recommendations. It incorporates the expertise of consultants from IBM/Endicott, IBM Tucson and the Center for the Management of Information (CMI) at the University of Arizona. The results reported here are based on the validation exercise conducted for the ICE implementation at the University of Arizona. © 1991 - Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. All rights reserved.
- Yellen, R. E., & Nunamaker, J. F. (1991). Increasing the willingness of novices to use computer application software. The Journal of Systems and Software, 15(3), 279-285.More infoAbstract: The use of computer application software could be increased. The goal of this research was to determine which instruction module format most effectively motivates potential users to use the software. When incorporated into software such as decision support tools, this better instruction module would increase the willingness of novices to use the software for problem solving. We examined four instruction module formats, resulting from combining two types of media presentation (electronic and print) with two types of educational approaches (programmed learning and a help facility) in a laboratory experiment. Seventy-two subjects learned to use a financial decision support tool by accessing two of the four instruction modules. Throughout the experiment, we collected behavioral and attitudinal data concerning the subjects' willingness to use the instruction modules. The electronic programmed learning instruction module appears to be the format of choice. The research methodology successfully provides input for instruction module format for computer application software such as decision support tools. © 1991.
- Aiken, M. W., Motiwalla, L. F., Sheng, O. R., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1990). ESP: An expert system for pre-session group decision support systems planning. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 3, 279-286.More infoAbstract: The authors present a prototype expert system, the Expert Session Planner (ESP), which is designed to support GDSS (group decision support systems) session facilitators during critical pre-session planning. Its major components are a group selection module, a calendar scheduling module, and a tool selection module. ESP's advantages are that it allows scarce human facilitator knowledge to be distributed and provides consistency across sessions, provides training for novice session facilitators in the selection of GDSS software, and offers a foundation upon which to build further intelligent support software for group meeting processes. A case study illustrates the use of the expert system for planning a typical group meeting.
- Dennis, A. R., Easton, A. C., Easton, G. K., George, J. F., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1990). Ad hoc versus established groups in an electronic meeting system environment. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 3, 23-29.More infoAbstract: Most experimental group research (whether conducted in an Electronic Meeting System (EMS) environment or not) has used ad hoc groups (i.e., randomly assembled groups of individuals that have no history and no future) rather than established groups that have a history and probable future of working together. This may be one factor that partially accounts for the differences in research findings between prior EMS experimental and field research. The present study, which examined otherwise similar ad hoc and established groups working in similar EMS environments, found that, while the total amount of communication within both types of groups was similar, there were significant differences in the type of communication that occurred. Established groups made more uninhibited comments and more process-oriented comments, had a less equal distribution of participation among the group members, and perceived a lesser focus on the task. While there were similar levels of direct conflict within the two types of groups, members of ad hoc groups were more likely to 'sugar-coat negative comments. For ad hoc groups, conflict was negatively correlated with the quality of meeting outcomes. Perhaps the most interesting finding for future research is that there was a significantly higher degree of variability among the established groups across virtually all measures, i.e., ad hoc groups tended to be more similar, while established groups exhibited distinct personalities.
- Dennis, A. R., Heminger, A. R., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Vogel, D. R. (1990). Bringing automated support to large groups: The Burr-Brown experience. Information and Management, 18(3), 111-121.More infoAbstract: The area of computer-assisted support for group work has significant practical implications for most areas of organizational practice. The ability to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of group efforts while meeting with user satisfaction would be a valuable plus for nearly all organizations. However, early research into computer support for group work indicated that such systems would likely be limited in their effectiveness to groups of 3 to 5 persons. Later development showed that electronic meeting support (EMS) technology could be effectively used with groups of 8 to 16 participants. The session here demonstrates that EMS technology can be effectively implemented with a planning group of 31 participants. The company, Burr-Brown, used the EMS developed at the University of Arizona MIS Department to carry out its annual strategic planning. Measures of effectiveness, efficiency, and user satisfaction all indicated that the system provided the intended group support during the three day planning session. © 1990, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.
- Dennis, A. R., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Vogel, D. R. (1990). A comparison of laboratory and field research in the study of electronic meeting systems. Journal of Management Information Systems, 6(4), 107-135.More infoAbstract: Research into the use of Electronic Meeting Systems (EMS) has rapidly increased over the past few years. However, EMS laboratory experiments have often drawn very different conclusions about the effects of EMS use than have EMS field studies-conclusions that at first appear inconsistent. By examining the differences in the design of prior EMS studies, we attempt to better understand the factors that affect the use of EMS technology. It is our contention that these differences in findings are not inconsistent, but rather they reflect different situations that researchers have studied. We identify 24 potentially important differences in organizational contexts, group characteristics, tasks, and EMS environments. In planning future research, EMS researchers need to make explicit design decisions for each of these aspects, and to consider how those choices may affect research results. An analysis of these differences suggests several approaches to enhance the design of future laboratory experiments and field studies. © 1991, M. E Shaipe, Inc.
- Dennis, A. R., Valacich, J. S., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1990). An experimental investigation of the effects of group size in an electronic meeting environment. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 20(5), 1049-1057.More infoAbstract: This research used a laboratory experiment to investigate the effects of group size on idea-generation performance and member satisfaction in an electronic meeting room in which computer-supported electronic communication replaced direct verbal communication. Three group sizes were studied: small (three-member), medium (nine-member) and large (18-member). The findings of this study contradict those of prior non-computer-supported idea-generation studies: in this electronic meeting environment, larger groups generated more ideas of greater quality, and were more satisfied than smaller groups.
- Easton, G. K., George, J. F., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Pendergast, M. O. (1990). Using two different electronic meeting system tools for the same task: An experimental comparison. Journal of Management Information Systems, 7(1).More infoAbstract: Various aspects of the design and use of Electronic Meeting Systems (EMS) have been investigated in laboratory and field studies, but until now no one has systematically investigated the role of EMS software on group performance. The current study compares two different EMS software tools in a controlled experiment. Dependent variables are decision quality, number of unique alternatives generated, satisfaction, and consensus. The study found that one software tool produced better quality solutions to a combination creativity and intellective task, but the other helped generate more unique alternatives. Each tool worked best on the task for which it was designed. The findings support the authors' premise that there should be a match between the EMS software tool and the task to be performed. The findings have several implications for the design of EMS software.
- George, J. F., Easton, G. K., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Northcraft, G. B. (1990). A study of collaborative group work with and without computer-based support. Information Systems Research, 1(4), 394-415.More infoAbstract: As organizational environments become more turbulent and as managers spend more time in meetings in an effort to deal with that turbulence, using information technology to support meetings has become more important. This paper reports on an experiment that compared meetings supported by information technology to meetings with conventional manual support only. The experiment differs from most previous group decision support system (GDSS) experiments in that solutions to the task it used could be objectively scored, it introduced assigned leadership as an independent variable, and it is the first GDSS experiment to compare use of a subset of the University of Arizona GroupSystems GDSS tools to manual group methods. In addition to a communication condition (GDSS or manual) and assigned leadership, the experiment also investigated the effects of anonymity on group process and outcomes. The experiment found that GDSS groups were less likely to reach consensus, took more time to reach a decision, and had more equal levels of member participation than manual groups. No main effects were found for assigned leadership or anonymity. Copyright © 1990, The Institute of Management Sciences.
- Grohowski, R., McGoff, C., Vogel, D., Martz, B., & Nunamaker, J. (1990). Implementing electronic meeting systems at IBM: Lessons learned and success factors. MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems, 14(4), 369-382.More infoAbstract: Businesses of the future will rely more than ever on the work of teams. Making better use of the time teams spend in meetings will be a high priority, as will being able to adapt rapidly to change. Electronic meeting systems (EMS), which apply information technology to support the meeting process, can help accomplish these goals. This paper describes and discusses the implementation of EMS at IBM in an alliance with the University of Arizona. During the past three years, the project has grown from initial support fora single site to 33 IBM sites, with more on the way. Over 15,000 people have used the ever-expanding and evolving EMS tool kit. Use of EMS has improved group performance by an average of 55 percent, with even more dramatic reductions in project calendar time. The lessons learned and success factors at IBM can assist managers in effectively introducing EMS to their organizations.
- Liou, Y. I., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1990). Using a group decision support system environment for knowledge acquisition: A field study. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 3, 40-49.More infoAbstract: A field study using a GDSS (group decision support systems) environment to acquire knowledge from multiple experts to build an expert system for an information center was conducted. This field study indicated that a GDSS environment facilitates the acquisition of knowledge from a group of experts by documenting knowledge electronically, by supporting knowledge extraction from individual experts in a parallel fashion, by offering possibilities to resolve conflicts during the knowledge extraction phase, and by providing a group interaction atmosphere to enrich the domain of expertise. In addition, it was found that structured analysis techniques were useful in planning for knowledge acquisition and that a designated primary expert was of great help when dealing with multiple experts.
- Liou, Y. I., Weber, E. S., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1990). A methodology for knowledge acquisition in a group decision support system environment. Knowledge Acquisition, 2(2), 129-144.More infoAbstract: A Group Decision Support System (GDSS) environment provides computer and group-process support to individuals working together toward common goals. Knowledge acquisition from multiple experts can be structured as a group activity. This paper discusses a methodology of employing a GDSS environment to facilitate the acquisition of knowledge from a group of experts. Observations of a field study which utilized the methodology to develop an expert system for an information centre are discussed. © 1990 Academic Press Limited.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Chen, M. (1990). Systems development in information systems research. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 3, 631-640.More infoAbstract: The authors critically review systems development in information systems (IS) research. Several classification schemes of research are described and systems development is identified as a developmental, engineering, and formulative type of research. A framework of research is proposed to explain the dual nature of systems development as a research methodology and a research domain in IS research. Progress in several disciplinary areas is reviewed to provide a basis to argue that systems development is a valid research methodology. A systems development research process is presented from a methodological perspective. Software engineering, the basic method in applying the systems development research methodology, is then discussed. A framework to classify IS research domain and various research methodologies in studying systems development is presented. It is suggested that systems development and empirical research methodologies are complementary to each other. It is further proposed that an integrated multidimensional and multimethodological approach will generate fruitful research results in IS research.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Chen, M., & D., T. (1990). Systems development in information systems research. Journal of Management Information Systems, 6(4), 89-106.More infoAbstract: In this paper, the use of systems development as a methodology in information systems (IS) research is described and defended. A framework to explain the nature of systems development as a research methodology in IS research is proposed. Use of this methodology in the engineering field in general is compared with its use specifically in computer science and computer engineering. An integrated program for conducting IS research that incorporates theory building, systems development, experimentation, and observation is proposed. Progress in several application domains is reviewed to provide a basis upon which to argue that systems development is a valid research methodology. A systems development research process is presented from a methodological perspective. Software engineering, which is the basic method of applying the systems development research methodology, is then discussed. It is the authors' belief that systems development and other research methodologies are complementary and that an integrated multi-dimensional and multimethodological approach will generate fruitful IS research results. The premise is that research contributions can result from systems development, experimentation, observation, and performance testing of the systems under development and that all of these research approaches are needed to investigate different aspects of the research question. © 1991, M. E Shaipe, Inc.
- Vinze, A. S., Vogel, D. R., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1990). Validation of a knowledge-based system: The ICE case. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 3, 239-246.More infoAbstract: The authors present results from a validation study conducted on a knowledge-based system called ICE (Information Center Expert). The ICE system was developed to determine the software requirements of end-users and make appropriate recommendations. It incorporates the expertise of consultants from IBM/Endicott, IBM Tucson and the Center for the Management of Information (CMI) at the University of Arizona. It is found that the performance of ICE is comparable to that of the consultants at CMI. It is noted that the real use for ICE is as a front end to the consulting process that will enable CMI consultants to restrict their efforts to exceptional cases, i.e., cases that are not adequately covered by the ICE system. This alteration to the consulting process would enhance the effectiveness of the software selection process for users and also prove helpful to the consultants by reducing the number of situations requiring their attention.
- Vogel, D., & Nunamaker, J. (1990). Group Decision Support System impact: Multi-methodological exploration. Information and Management, 18(1), 15-28.More infoAbstract: This paper documents multi-methodological exploration of the impact of Group Decision Support Systems. Examples of our studies are used to illustrate the use of six methodologies: mathematical simulation, software engineering, case, survey, field study, lab experiment, and conceptual (subjective/ argumentative) based on an established taxonomy of MIS research methods. Examples of synergism attained through use of a multi-methodological approach are provided. © 1990.
- Weber, E., Liou, Y. I., Chen, M., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1990). Toward more intelligent organizations. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 4, 290-299.More infoAbstract: To explicate the belief that learning is key to the development of human intelligence, a triarchic theory of human intelligence is presented and its implications are explored. Specifically, group knowledge-acquisition techniques for capturing and using human expertise are explored. To illustrate the ideas that a synthesis of human expertise and information technology is key to the creation of more intelligent organizations, a collaborative metasystem is proposed as a mechanism to help individuals and organizations manage personal and corporate knowledge systems and thereby deal intelligently with environmental uncertainty and equivocality.
- Chen, M., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1989). Integration of organization and information systems modeling: an object-oriented approach. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 3, 70-79.More infoAbstract: The authors present an object-oriented approach to integrating organization and information system modeling. Characteristics and applications of object-oriented systems are first reviewed to show the evolution of the application of an object-oriented approach from an implementation and programming level to conceptual modeling of organization and information systems. The need to integrate organization and information systems is then discussed. MedaPlex, a metasystem implemented in Smalltalk language to support high-level object-oriented modeling is described in detail. Case studies defining critical success factors in MetaPlex and creating a structured electronic brainstorming system to support collaborative work are used to demonstrate the use of MetaPlex in integrating organization and information-system modeling at both individual and group levels.
- Chen, M., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1989). MetaPlex. An integrated environment for organization and information systems development. Array, 141-151.More infoAbstract: This paper presents an integrated environment, called MetaPlex, for organization and information systems development. The kernel of MetaPlex is a knowledge base management system which captures the semantic primitives of a domain at the meta level and uses these primitives to describe target systems. Three levels of abstraction are used in MetaPlex for representing knowledge: the axiomatic, median, and instance levels. The MetaPlex Language Definition System is used to name the object types in the domain of interest and to define the attributes, relations, and descriptions which can be used by these object types. The structural knowledge of the domain in general is thus captured at the median level. Knowledge of the domain captured at the median level is used by the MetaPlex Specification System to define a target system at the instance level. A rule-based inference engine is embedded in the MetaPlex environment as an intelligent assistant to help end users.
- Chen, M., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Weber, E. (1989). Use of integrated organization and information systems models in building and delivering business application systems. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, 1(3), 406-409.More infoAbstract: The use of integrated organization and information systems models in building and delivering business application systems is proposed. The concept of integrated organization and information systems modeling is discussed and illustrated by means of an extended critical success factors model. A flexible metasystem, MetaPlex, designed and implemented to support high-level organization and information systems modeling, is described in detail. The use of integrated models with executive information systems to support the delivery of information is discussed. Directions for future research are also suggested.
- Easton, A. C., Vogel, D. R., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1989). Stakeholder identification and assumption surfacing in small groups: an experimental study. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 3, 344-352.More infoAbstract: The authors investigated the impact of a GDSS (group decision support systems) based on the Stakeholder Identification and Assumption Surfacing model for strategic planning impact analysis. A controlled laboratory experiment was used to compare the results of four-person groups which had GDSS support, comparable manual support, and no support. Measures were taken on decision outcomes (quality, time, and satisfaction with the outcomes) and decision process variables (quantity of unique alternatives, distribution of individual participation, and satisfaction with the process). Observational data was recorded through the use of videotape of the sessions. Results of the experiment are presented.
- Hong, I. B., Vogel, D., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1989). Knowledge-based DSS for supporting ill-structured multiple criteria decisions. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 3, 229-240.More infoAbstract: Focusing on qualitative reasoning processes as a key area of AI (aritifical intelligence) application for decision support, the authors propose an architecture for designing an intelligent DSS (decision-support system) that is intended to aid in MCDM (multiple-criteria decision-making) in ill-structured situations. An MCDM DSS, for its maximum contribution to organizational problem-solving, must be capable of lending effective support to high-level as well as low-level management decisions. A commercial loan approval judgement case is described to illustrate the real-world situation where decisions usually require a high degree of intuition and subjective judgment. Development of a prototype intended to partially represent application of the architecture is described. The authors conclude with suggestions for research extensions.
- Motiwalla, L. F., Higa, K., Sheng, O. R., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1989). Knowledge-based mail system to support managerial activities. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 3, 650-659.More infoAbstract: The authors provide a framework to analyze the communication activities of the managers, discuss some of the problems inhibiting the growth of EMS (electronic mail systems) in organization, and present functionality of knowledge-based mail systems (KMS) to expand the role of EMS in organizations. The architecture and components of the prototype Executive Communication System (EXECOMS), which is based on the functionality of KMS, are presented to illustrate the support of KMS functions.
- Norman, R. J., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1989). CASE productivity perceptions of software engineering professionals. Communications of the ACM, 32(9), 1102-1108.More infoAbstract: Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) is moving into the problem-solving domain of the systems analyst. The authors undertook a study to investigate the various functional and behavioral aspects of CASE and determine the impact it has over manual methods of software engineering productivity. They describe their research methodology and present their results. The latter form the basis for several recommendations.
- Norman, R. J., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1989). Integrated development environments: technological and behavioral productivity perceptions. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 2, 996-1003.More infoAbstract: An empirical study of computer-aided software-engineering (CASE) technology productivity perceptions of information systems professionals. In a PC-based survey fifteen CASE technological functions were compared along with two behavioral functions using the method of paired comparison. A rank ordering of the results revealed that data-flow diagramming and the data dictionary maintenance technological functions were perceived to most improve the respondent's productivity over comparable manual methods. Two behavioral functions, communication with other team members and adherence to the enterprise's information systems development standards, were regarded as providing significantly less productivity improvement compared to 47.75% of the other stimuli or significantly more productivity improvement compared to 47.75% of the other stimuli, respectively is described.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1989). Experience with and future challenges in GDSS (group decision support systems): Preface. Decision Support Systems, 5(2), 115-118.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1989). Group decision support systems (GDSS): present and future. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 2, 6-16.More infoAbstract: Experience with an automated system of support (PLEXSYS), to make meetings more productive through improved communication, decision making, consensus building, negotiation and deliberation, is discussed. Observations, case studies, and experiments indicate that there is high potential for improving the performance of group meetings. Six group work systems are briefly described. Findings are discussed in terms of anonymity of participation, facility design, need for multiple public screens, organizational memory, communications network speed, methodological approach, software design, mixing of manual and electronic sessions, group size and composition, and satisfaction of the users.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1989). MIS research program at the University of Arizona. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 3, 852-862.More infoAbstract: Following a description of the Management Information Systems (MIS) department, the author examines the director of the PhD program in MIS and details departmental research activities. The history and foundation of the PLEXSYS information systems development research is outlined. Research philosophy and systems development perspectives are also addressed.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Chen, M. (1989). Software productivity: a framework of study and an approach to reusable components. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 2, 959-968.More infoAbstract: A framework in which to study software productivity is presented. Approaches to understanding software development processes and improving software productivity also discussed include using and designing automated software development tools, studying human factors in software development, and applying software productivity measurement and evaluation techniques. An environment to facilitate the reuse of software components in described. Such an environment supports the identification, creation, categorization, storage, selection, usage, and maintenance of reusable components. A metasystem environment that allows users to define functionalities, structures, and constraints of various software components is discussed. Information about these components is used by a knowledge-based system to support the selection, configuration, and distribution of reusable components. Reasons for the slow progress in software productivity research and ways to improve it are given.
- Nunamaker, J. F., Vogel, D., Heminger, A., Martz, B., Grohowski, R., & McGoff, C. (1989). Group support systems in practice: experience at IBM. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 3, 378-386.More infoAbstract: The authors present the results of a group support system field study conducted at an IBM site. Data collected included session pre- and postquestionnaires and facilitator observations plus follow-up interviews with managers and participants. Process and outcome effectiveness, efficiency, and user satisfaction were consistently higher with group support systems. A comparison of man-hours expended showed a 56% savings attributable to group support system use. The results of this field study contradict some laboratory experiment findings and support others. Directions for future field and experimental research to solve apparent differences and provide further clarification are identified.
- Nunamaker, J., Vogel, D., & Konsynski, B. (1989). Interaction of task and technology to support large groups. Decision Support Systems, 5(2), 139-152.More infoAbstract: There are multiple, and occasionally conflicting, prespectives regarding what Group Support Systems are, what they should be, and what directions research related to them should take. The purpose of this paper is to focus on the factors involved in Group Support Systems, with particular attention to the ways in which these factors interact. A University of Arizona implementation of automated group decision support is described as an example of an established Group Support System, based upon a philosophy that recognizes the critical importance of environment, hardware and software to the successful operation of the system. Research conducted at University of Arizona facilities has involved experience with many groups brought together to address real problems. This research has resulted in identification of three interacting factors deemed to be essential to a successful Group Support System: user profile, task domain, and technology. Each of these is defined and its relationships with the others are described. Aspects of benefits to larger groups, task dynamics, interaction among group tasks and technology, multiple session benefits, integration of information technology and impacts upon group process also are explored. Multiple-methodological research approaches and opportunities for future research are addressed. © 1989.
- Nunamaker, J., Vogel, D., Heminger, A., Martz, B., Grohowski, R., & McGoff, C. (1989). Experience at IBM with group support systems: A field study. Decision Support Systems, 5(2), 183-196.More infoAbstract: Although numerous laboratory studies have been conducted, virtually no attention has been given to how well an operational Group Support System functions in a real-world, organizational setting. This paper presents the results of a Group Support System field study conducted at an IBM site. Data collected included session pre- and post-session questionnaires and facilitator observations plus followup interviews with managers and participants. Process and outcome effectiveness, efficiency,, and user satisfaction were consistently higher for Group Support Systems compared to no automated support. Further, those who had used the automated system before consistently had a higher mean score on questions of process effectiveness. A comparison of man-hours expended resulted in a reported 56% savings attributable to Group Support System use. The overwhelmingly positive results of this field study contradict some laboratory experiment findings and support others. Directions for future field and experimental research to resolve apparent differences and provide further clarification are identified. © 1989.
- Ram, S., Hayne, S., Carlson, D., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1989). Integration of information systems technologies to support consultation in an Information Center. Array, 67-77.More infoAbstract: This paper presents an approach for integrating different types of information systems technologies to support the functions of an Information Center (IC). A knowledge based system, Information Center Expert/Help Service (ICE/H), has been developed to provide support for the help services of an IC. A general process model to represent the consultation process in an IC is described. Based on this model, an architecture to support the consultation process has been developed. The architecture depicts the use of a knowledge management system, a data management system and a communication (E-mail) system to emulate the consultation process. The ICE/H system has been implemented using this architecture to support an IC with 5000 users.
- Sheng, O. R., Motiwalla, L. F., Nunamaker, J. F., & Vogel, D. (1989). Framework to support managerial activities using office information systems. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 3, 532-540.More infoAbstract: A broad discussion is presented of the problems and issues involved in the development of integrated office systems to support higher-level tasks of the managers. The authors provide conceptual integration by establishing a framework for office activities of managers. They discuss the technological integration of disparate office systems through architecture and design of an integrated office automation system (IOIS). The IOIS described was developed from the integration of four IOISs at the University of Arizona: the Integrated Spreadsheet Based Inferencing System (ISBIS); PLEXsys planning softWARE (PLEXWARE); the Resource Management Expert (RME); and an intelligent mail system (AIMAIL).
- Valacich, J. S., Vogel, D. R., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1989). Integrating information across sessions and between groups in group decision support systems. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 3, 291-299.More infoAbstract: The authors elaborate on the opportunities for integration of relevant information across sessions and between groups by the effective application of GDSS (group decision support systems). The construction of a GDSS database is presented. Aspects of the system described include real-time analysis of group activity and the use of a data browsing system to ease the viewing of external information and/or previous meeting information during a GDSS meeting.
- Vogel, D. R., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1989). Automated planning support. Using computers to enhance group decision making.. Administrative radiology : AR, 8(9), 54-56, 59.More infoPMID: 10294847;
- Choobineh, J., Mannino, M. V., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Konsynski, B. R. (1988). EXPERT DATABASE DESIGN SYSTEM BASED ON ANALYSIS OF FORMS.. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 14(2), 242-253.More infoAbstract: A form model and an expert database system that analyzes instances of the form model to derive a conceptual schema are proposed. The form model describes the properties of form fields such as their origin, hierarchical structure, and cardinality. The expert database design system creates a conceptual schema by incrementally integrating related collections of forms. The rules of the expert system are divided into six phases: (1) form selection; (2) entity identification; (3) attribute attachment; (4) relationship identification; (5) cardinality identification; and (6) integrity constraints. The rules of the first phase use knowledge about the form flow to determine the order in which forms are analyzed. The rules in other phases are used in conjunction with a designer dialog to identify the entities, relationships, and attributes of a schema that represents the collection of forms.
- Dennis, A. R., George, J. F., Jessup, L. M., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Vogel, D. R. (1988). Information technology to support electronic meetings. MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems, 12(4), 591-618.More infoAbstract: As managers spend more of their time in meetings, the study of information technology to support meetings becomes increasingly important. Several unique systems to support meetings electronically have been developed in industry and universities. The PLEXSYS systems at the University of Arizona have been operational since 1985 and are now being implemented in industrial sites. This article proposes and defines a new term for information technology systems that support group meetings: electronic meeting systems (EMS). EMSs are more than group decision support systems (GDSS): they support more tasks than just decision making; they focus on communication. They move beyond the GDSS decision room, where groups must meet at the same time in the same place, to meetings that can be conducted across time and space. The article then presents a model of the EMS concept, which has three components: group process and outcomes; methods; and environment. Each of these components is explained in turn, and the implications derived from their study to date are discussed. Finally, the implementation of information technology for meeting support and its use in corporate settings will be addressed, as it has implications for productivity, meeting size, group member participation, and the role of the IS department.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Konsynski, B. R., Chen, M., Vinze, A. S., Chen, Y. L., & Helme, M. M. (1988). KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS SUPPORT FOR INFORMATION CENTERS.. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 96-105.More infoAbstract: The Information Center Expert (ICE) project, which attempts to provide knowledge-based support for information centers (ICs), is described. The project has three divisions, corresponding to the three areas of responsibility for information centers: Information Center Expert for Consultation, Distribution, and Help-Service (ICE/C, ICE/D, and ICE/H). The authors present the ICE/C architecture and discuss functional extensions to ICE/C, i. e. , ICE/D and ICE/H, for supporting the other responsibilities of the IC. An approach to knowledge elicitation using a group decision support environment is presented. The use of an object-oriented approach as a representation technique is discussed.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Weber, E. S., & Chen, M. (1988). Organizational crisis management systems: Planning for intelligent action. Journal of Management Information Systems, 5(3).More infoAbstract: Intelligent behavior requires being able to acquire information and to use it to make and implement effective decisions. In exploring ways to help organizations function intelligently in crisis situations, a group decision support environment has been developed and a set of crisis planning tools designed. Intended to complement strategic planning systems, these tools are expected to help planners develop and communicate an understanding of high-priority issues so that intelligent decisions can be made and implemented during crises. The paper characterizes intelligent organizations, defines organizational crises, discusses the consequences of crises, and presents a crisis-management framework. Finally, the use of the tools is illustrated with a crisis planning case.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Weber, E., Smith, C. A., & Chen, M. (1988). CRISIS PLANNING SYSTEMS: TOOLS FOR INTELLIGENT ACTION.. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 25-34.More infoAbstract: The characteristics of intelligent organizations are discussed. Organizational crises are defined, and their effects are discussed. A framework for crisis management is presented, and the crisis planning systems are described; these are based on a group decision-support environment and a set of crisis planning tools. The use of the tools is illustrated by means of a crisis planning case.
- Nunamaker, J. F., Applegate, L. M., & Konsynski, B. R. (1988). Computer-aided deliberation: model management and group decision support. Operations Research, 36(6), 826-848.More infoAbstract: The management of a variety of models utilized in organizational planning is discussed. Descriptions of the features and functions of the hardware and software environment, along with scenarios for use of the environment, illustrate critical issues in group deliberation. A particular model, stakeholder identification and assumption surfacing, is used to illustrate aspects of model management and planning process implementation. Findings of the group decision support system (GDSS) research are discussed in terms of anonymity of participation, facility design, need for multiple public screens, use of knowledge and data bases, communication network speed, methodological approach, software design, mixing of manual and electronic sessions, group size, composition, satisfaction of the users and model management systems.
- Applegate, L. M., Chen, T. T., Konsynski, B. R., & Nunamaker, J. F. (1987). KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN ORGANIZATIONAL PLANNING.. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 1, 487-496.More infoAbstract: This paper describes the requirements for knowledge management in organizational planning. A knowledge-based planning system that has been implemented by the authors is presented. The system integrates data management, model management and process management systems within a group decision support system environment. Knowledge management tools for describing, classifying and storing the output of the planning process are described. Use of the system in the MIS Planning and Decision Laboratory with a group of city planners is discussed.
- Nunamaker, J. F., Applegate, L. M., & Konsynski, B. R. (1987). FACILITATING GROUP CREATIVITY: EXPERIENCE WITH A GROUP DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM.. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 1, 422-430.More infoAbstract: Aa a management tool, the focus of computer support has progressed from simple data storage and calculation to multi-faceted support for information management and communication. This paper presents the design of a group decision support system (GDSS) to support idea generation and analysis in organizational planning. Results of research conducted in the MIS Planning and Decision Laboratory on the use of Electronic Brainstorming with over 100 planners from a variety of organizations are presented and discussed.
- Applegate, L. M., Konsynski, B. R., & Nunamaker, J. F. (1986). Model management systems: Design for decision support. Decision Support Systems, 2(1), 81-91.More infoAbstract: Changes in computer technology have provided decision makers with the necessary tools for the design and implementation of computerized models for decision support. These models are frequently developed to solve a specific problem for a specific user and lack the flexibility and generalizability necessary to solve unstructured, strategic problems. In addition, problems of model redundancy, inconsistency, integrity and security have prompted an increased interest in the design of model management systems (MMS) that provide for centralized management of organizational models. This paper describes the use of a framework, developed by the authors, to design an MMS for support of planning decisions within an organization. The architecture of the MMS is described in detail and the rationale for the design decisions is presented. © 1986.
- Choobineh, J., Mannino, M. V., Nunamaker, J. F., & Konsynski, B. R. (1986). ARCHITECTURE OF A RULE-BASED SYSTEM FOR DATABASE DESIGN BASED ON FORMS.. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 1 a, 581-588.More infoAbstract: The architecture of a rule-based expert system for logical database design which uses descriptions of business forms as its primary method of requirements specification is described. The system incrementally builds a conceptual schema through analysis of a collection of forms. The analysis of individual forms is based on the properties of form fields such as their hierarchical structure, origin, and relative position on the form. Form analysis rules are applied in a forward direction against a base of facts consisting of form descriptions, an evolving conceptual of facts consisting of form descriptions, an evolving conceptual schema, and a design history. Some of the form analysis rules prompt the designer for missing information and confirmation.
- McIntyre, S. C., Konsynski, B. R., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1986). KNOWLEDGE INTEGRATION AND MODEL SCRIPTING IN PLEXPLAN: AN AUTOMATED ENVIRONMENT FOR IS PLANNING.. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 1 a, 397-404.More infoAbstract: Progress has been limited in understanding the nature of IS planning and accomplishing its goals. Two problems which contribute fundamentally are the dynamism of IS and the difficulty of integrating multiple perspectives on IS planning. Automated environments which support the IS planning process must address these two issues, dynamism and integration. In this paper, three perspectives on the IS planning process are reviewed. Knowledge-based techniques using Semantic Inheritance Nets are described as useful for view integration and for providing a flexible, dynamic, automated model of the IS planning environment which is accessible to IS tools. The use of scripting in IS planning models is examined as a way to address the issue of IS dynamism. Implementation of these techniques is described in PLEXPLAN, a knowledge-based environment for IS planning.
- Nunamaker, J. F., & Konsynski, B. R. (1986). Productivity tools in the development and transfer of computer applications: State of the art and practice. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 11(1-2), 51-64.More infoAbstract: Two aspects of system productivity exist: productivity of the system development process and the system's impact on the productivity of the organization as a whole. The theory and practice in measuring both aspects of systems productivity is discussed. Over the past decades generations of development tools have evolved. The goal of these tools is to improve the productivity of system development. More recently, the role of development tools in improving organizational productivity is being addressed. Attributes and usage of current tools are discussed. A new generation of development tools, which are integrated, friendly, and intelligent, is discussed. Finally, a representative sample of the new generation tools is discussed along with related theory. © 1986.
- Nunamaker, J. F. (1984). CURRICULUM EXPERIENCE ON INFORMATION SYSTEMS.. Proceedings - Canadian Information Processing Society, 235-242.
- Chiasson, P., Konsynski, B., & Nunamaker, J. (1983). THINKING STYLE ASSESSMENT IN COMPUTER PERSONNEL EVALUATION.. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 665-676.More infoAbstract: Information systems is a rapidly expanding and changing field with an ever increasing need for qualified analysts. Since the educational component of analyst training is lengthy and expensive, it is important to determine from the outset a particular individual's potential for success and to identify characteristics which may need strengthening during the training process. Within the range of job classifications in this field there are cognitive styles which are either appropriate or inappropriate for the requirements of a particular profession. The cognitive style system described utilizes a unique non-verbal assessment tool which bypasses such factors as prior experience, language and culture in determining style.
- Konsynski, B., & Nunamaker, J. (1983). MBA AND MIS: THE INTEGRATION OF MIS AND MANAGEMENT EDUCATION.. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association for Computing Machinery, 251-261.
- Couger, J., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1982). DELINEATION OF LEVEL OF COVERAGE FOR EACH TOPIC IN THE ACM RECOMMENDED INFORMATION SYSTEMS DEGREE PROGRAMS.. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems, 311-333.
- Nunamaker, J. F., & Konsynski, B. (1982). MIS education in the U.S.: Private sector experiences and public sector needs. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 7(1-2), 129-139.More infoAbstract: Private sector experience with management information systems (MIS) education points to the need for a formalized educational curriculum to train those going into systems management in the public sector. Current studies indicate that systems management personnel lack a balanced combination of technical and organizational skills. It is revealed that college and business school curriculum requirements are inadequate in preparing students for the organizational aspects of the systems analyst's job. Suggestions are made to implement a system laboratory approach that will prepare students for both technical and organizational problems in the 'real world' of the public sector. © 1982.
- Konsynski, B. R., & Nunamaker, J. F. (1980). AUTOMATION OF SYSTEMS ANALYSIS, DESIGN, AND CONSTRUCTION PROCESS.. Electric Power Research Institute (Report) EPRI NP, 239-249.More infoAbstract: The PLEXSYS Methodology is a systems building system, developed to transform a very high level language problem statement to executable code for a target hardware configuration. Creation of a system using PLEXSYS includes the generation of a non-procedural statement of requirements, selection of file and data structures based on data utilization, determination of the interfaces with a data management system, and generation of code for the target system in COBOL, FORTRAN, PL/1, etc. In addition, automatic program production procedures permit PLEXSYS to interact with a data management control facility. The PLEXSYS Methodology is designed to aid in the development of transaction oriented systems, its primitive-code translation mechanisms enhance the portability of the developed systems.
- Konsynski, B., & Nunamaker, J. (1980). MIS LABORATORY CONCEPT. THE INTEGRATION OF MIS AND MANAGEMENT EDUCATION.. Array, 197-202.
- Nunamaker, J. F. (1980). PUBLICATIONS AND THE USE OF THE SCIENCE CITATION INDEX.. Array, 217-219.
- Konsynski, B. R., & Nunamaker, J. F. (1977). MODEL FOR DEFINITION AND ANALYSIS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS.. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 109-111.More infoAbstract: Three concepts related to definition and analysis of information processing systems are discussed: development of a specification model, consistency and completeness analysis, and the use of two different languages for definition of the different levels of logic operating in a system.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Konsynski Jr., B. R., Thomas, H. o., & Singer, C. (1976). COMPUTER-AIDED ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS.. Communications of the ACM, 19(12), 674-687.More infoAbstract: This paper describes the use of computer-aided analysis for the design and development of an integrated financial management system by the Navy Material Command Support Acitivty (NMCSA). Computer-aided analysis consists of a set of procedures and computer programs specifically designed to aid in the process of applications software design, computer selection and performance evaluation. There are four major components: Problem Statement Language, Problem Statement Analyzer, Generator of Alternative Designs, and Performance Evaluator. The statement of requirements was written in ADS (Accurately Defined Systems) and analyzed by a Problem Statement Analyzer for ADS. The analyzed problem statement was translated to the form necessary for use by the SODA (Systems Optimization and Design Algorithm) program for the generation of alternative specifications of program modules and logical database structures.
- Haseman, W. D., Nunamaker, J. F., & Whinston, A. B. (1975). PARTIAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CODASYL DBTG REPORT AS AN EXTENSION TO FORTRAN.. Manage Datamatics, 4(5), 167-175.More infoAbstract: This paper describes a FORTRAN implementation of the CODASYL Data Base Task Group report of 1971. The implementation can also be viewed as an extension of the capabilities of FORTRAN in the area of data and file manipulation. The Data Descripition Language is used to generate a schema, which is the logical description of the data base. Application programs access the data base by calling subroutines which are part of the Data Manipulation Language. These commands perform the necessary data manipulation on the data base and provide all the bookkeeping tasks for the links and pointers within the data base. Design, implementation and operating experience with the Data Base Management System are discussed.
- Blosser, P., Konsynski Jr., B., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1974). MODEL OF THE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS FOR AUTOMATIC CODE GENERATION.. Array, 1107-1112.More infoAbstract: The necessary procedures are examined for transformation of a problem statement in a high level language to executable code on a target hardware configuration. In addition to generation of process code, the code generation procedures are designed to interact with a data management control facility. The model is designed for application in the generation of transaction oriented systems.
- Dahl, W. J., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1974). INTERACTIVE INFORMATION SYSTEMS DESIGN SOFTWARE.. Array, 1095-1100.More infoAbstract: A computer system which aids the analyst in exploring a large number of alternative designs during the early phases of a systems development has been developed. The system consists of a control program and a set of performance models programmed in Fortran.
- Haseman, W. D., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Whinston, A. B. (1974). FORTRAN IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CODASYL DATA BASE TASK GROUP REPORT.. Array, 307-312.More infoAbstract: Description of the Data Base Description Language is used to generate the schema, which is the logical description of the data base. The application programs access the data base by calling subroutines which are part of the Data Base Command System. These commands perform the necessary data manipulation on the data base and provide all the bookkeeping tasks for the links and pointers within the data base. Design, implementation and operating experience with the Data Base Management System are discussed.
- Iverson Jr., J. A., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1974). PORTABILITY OF DATA ASSOCIATED WITH MODELS.. Array, 325-330.More infoAbstract: A procedure is described which will transform a magnetic tape generated on a source computer to one that is acceptable on a target computer. The implementation has shown that tape transformation can be removed from requiring the user to revert to the level of assembly language programming. Aside from transforming tapes, the implementation was useful in identifying and locating special graphic symbols.
- Nunamaker, J. F., & Wright, G. P. (1974). PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION AND PLANNING MODEL.. Array, 313-318.More infoAbstract: The model was developed for a major corporation in the extractive industry. Solutions of the model were computed for various problems in 100 to 1600 constraints and 50,000 to 75,000 variables. The basic model is presented with some comments on the computer and mathematical programming techniques used to generate optimal production and distribution decisions.
- Thomas, H. o., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (1974). FUNCTIONAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR A REQUIREMENTS STATEMENT ANALYZER.. Array, 1089-1094.More infoAbstract: A model of an information system is developed. This model provides the framework for statement of the criteria for requirements statement facilities of an RSL (Requirements Statement Language) and for the logical capabilities of an RSA (Requirements Statement Analysis).
- Haseman, W. D., Nunamaker, J. F., & Whinston, A. B. (1973). DATA BASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR POLLUTION CONTROL.. Array, 370-375.More infoAbstract: This paper is concerned with the design of a water pollution control planning system. The two main components of that system are a group of models for relating environmental variables, and a data base. The paper concentrates on discussing the second component; that is a data base system designed for environmental planning.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Swenson, D. E., & Whinston, A. B. (1973). GPLAN: A GENERALIZED DATA BASE PLANNING SYSTEM.. Array, 37-41.More infoAbstract: A Generalized Data Base Planning System (GPLAN), being developed at Purdue University, is described. A number of systems contain some of the components of GPLAN, and a survey of these systems is presented with details of their contribution to GPLAN design. Research on two systems at Purdue University is directly leading to the development of GPLAN. One application is concerned with the development of a regional water pollution control panning system, and the other application is an interactive information system design package.
- Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Swenson, D. E., & Whinston, A. B. (1973). SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A GENERALIZED DATA BASE PLANNING SYSTEM.. AFIPS Natl Comput Conf Expo Conf Proc, 4, 259-270.More infoAbstract: This article proposes to generalize data base planning systems. In order to take advantage of the knowledge that can be gained from the consideration of specific systems, a regional water pollution control planning system is described briefly and used for some examples. This system is discussed in order to develop the proper motivation for a Generalized Planning System.
- Nunamaker, J. F., & Whinston, A. (1973). A Macro Approach to the Allocation of Computer Costs. Management Informatics, 2(4), 177-189.More infoAbstract: The problems of allocating costs of a computer system are discussed, and a procedure is presented to solve these problems. A rational approach to planning and cost allocation of computer facilities is developed in the concept of a Responsibility Center. By such a scheme, users of a computer facility are influenced to adjust their demands for processing to a level most beneficial to the overall organization in question. The developed cost allocation formula provides a rational way to distribute costs; it allocates greater costs to the user whose alternative costs are greater.
- Nunamaker, J. F., & Briggs, R. O. (2018, January). Introduction to the Collaboration Systems and Technology Track. In Proceedings of the 51st Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS) in Kona, HI, January 2018.
- Nunamaker, J. F., Pentland, S., Spitzley, L., Dorn, B., & Walls, B. (2019, January). System for Multi-Person, Multi-Modal Data Collection in Behavioral Informatics: Successes, Failures, and Lessons Learned. In Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
- Pentland, S., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2019, January). Vocalic Indicators of Group Relationships and Deceptive Intent in Group Negotiations. In Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
- Proudfoot, J., Jenkins, J. L., Twyman, N., Burgoon, J. K., Valacich, J. S., Nunamaker, J. F., & Grimes, M. (2018, January). Controlled Realism in Behavioral Research: Nine lessons for designing experiments that maximize both control and realism. In Hawaii International Conference on Computer and Systems Sciences. Symposium on Rapid Screening Technologies, Deception Detection, and Credibility Assessment.
- Reinig, B., Elkins, A., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2019, January). Applying the Game-Theoretical Concept of Dominance for Sensor-based Credibility Assessment. In Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
- Schuetzler, R. M., Grimes, G. M., Giboney, J. S., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2018, January). The Influence of Conversational Agents on Socially Desirable Responding. In Proceedings of the 51st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2018, 283-292.
- Spitzley, L., Pentland, S., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2019, Winter). Speech Transcription for Large Groups. In Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
- Jenkins, J. L., Proudfoot, J. G., Valacich, J. S., Grimes, G. M., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2017, January). Sleight of hand: Identifying malicious insider threats through the monitoring of mouse-cursor movements. In Hawaii International Conference on Computer and Systems Sciences. Symposium on Rapid Screening Technologies, Deception Detection, and Credibility Assessment..
- Jensen, M. L., Meservy, T. O., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2017, January). Introduction to Credibility Assessment and Screening Technologies Symposium. In Proceedings of the 50th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS).
- Nunamaker, J. F. (2017, January). Future Directions in Deception and Credibility Research. In 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS).
- Nunamaker, J. F., & Briggs, R. O. (2017, January). Introduction to the Collaboration Systems and Technology Track. In Proceedings of the 50th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
- Nunamaker, J. F., Burgoon, J. K., Dunbar, N., & Subrahmanian, V. S. (2017, January). Evaluation of the Socio-Cultural Attitudinal Networks Project for Eliciting Diagnostic Indicators of Deceit. In 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS).
- Nunamaker, J. F., Burgoon, J. K., Dunbar, N., & Subrahmanian, V. S. (2017, January). Introduction to the Socio-Cultural Attitudinal Networks Project for Eliciting Diagnostic Indicators of Deceit. In 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS).
- Proudfoot, J. G., Elkins, A. C., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2017, January). It's Not the Answer, It's the Question: Exploring the Impact of Question Relevance on User Perceptions and Behavior in Automated Deception Detection Interactions. In 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS).
- Jensen, M. L., Meservy, T. O., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2016, January). Introduction to Credibility Assessment and Screening Technologies Symposium. In Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences.
- Nunamaker, J. F. (2016, January). How to Build High Impact Research Programs. In Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
- Nunamaker, J. F. (2016, Winter). Four Stages of AVATAR Development. In Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences Symposium on Credibility Assessment and Screening Technology 2016.
- Nunamaker, J. F., & Briggs, R. O. (2016, January). Introduction to the Collaboration Systems and Technology Track. In 49th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS).
- Pentland, S. J., Twyman, N. W., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2016, Winter). In Search of Reliable Facial Cues for Deception Detection. In Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Symposium on Credibility Assessment and Screening Technologies.
- Wilson, D., Jenkins, J. L., Twyman, N., Jenson, M., Valacich, J. S., Dunbar, N., Wilson, S., Miller, C., Adame, B., Lee, Y., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2016, January). Serious Games for Reducing Bias in Credibility Decisions: An Evaluation Framework and Case Study. In Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences.
- Nunamaker, J. F., & Briggs, R. O. (2015, Winter). Introduction to the Collaboration Systems and Technology Track. In Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
- Byrd, M., Grimes, M., Marquardson, J., Burgoon, J., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2015, January). The Misclassification of Deceptive Behavior: An Analysis of data from Multiple Experiments. In HICSS Symposium on on Credibility Assessment and Information Quality in Government and Business.
- Elkins, A. A., Nikolaos, S., Zafeiriou, S., Burgoon, J. K., Pantic, M., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2014, Spring). Do Liars Blink Differently? Automated Blink Detection During Deceptive Interviews. In 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Symposium on Deception Detection.
- Giboney, J. S., Birk, S., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2015, Spring). Development and Application of an Online Tool for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalyses. In Proceedings of the 47th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Symposium on Deception Detection.
- Golob, E., Nunamaker, J. F., & Grimes, G. M. (2014, January). Reasons and Resolve to Cross the Border: A Post-Apprehension Survey of Undocumented Immigrants Along the U.S. and Mexico Border. In Proceedings of the 47th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS) Symposium on Deception Detection.
- Grimes, G. M., Proudfoot, J. G., Valacich, J. S., Jenkins, J. L., Twyman, N., Burgoon, J. K., Marquardson, J., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2015, January). Lessons Learned from Successive Deception Experiments. In Proceedings of the 48th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS).
- Jenkins, J., Golob, E., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2014, January). Interior Inspections: An Assessment of U.S. Border Patrol Checkpoint Operations. In Proceedings of the 47th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS)Symposium on Deception Detection and Credibility Assessment.
- Marquardson, J., Dorn, B., Wilson, D. W., Burgoon, J. K., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2015, Spring). The Discriminant Validity of Deception Indicators: An Analysis of Data from Multiple Experiments. In Proceedings of the 48th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS).
- Nunamaker, J. F. (2014, Spring). Introduction to the Collaboration Systems and Technology Track. In Proceedings of the 47th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS).
- Nunamaker, J. F. (2015, January). The AVATAR Research Program. In 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Symposium on Deception Detection.
- Nunamaker, J. F., & Burgoon, J. K. (2015, January). Next Steps in Deception Research. In Proceedings of the 48th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS).
- Nunamaker, J. F., Elkins, A. A., Nunamaker, Jr., J. F., Burgoon, J. K., & Derrick, D. (2015, January). Appraising the AVATAR for Automated Border Control Results of a European Union Field Test of the AVATAR System for Interviewing adn Passport Control. In Proceedings of the 48th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS).
- Pentland, S. J., Burgoon, J. K., Twyman, N. W., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2015, January). Face and Head Movement Analysis Using Automated Feature Extraction Software. In Proceedings of the 48th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS).
- Spitzley, L., Schuetzler, R., Yueh, R., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2015, Spring). Effective Question Types for Detecting Deception: An Analysis of Data from Multiple Experiments. In Proceedings of the 48th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS).
- Giboney, J. S., Brown, S. A., & Nunamaker Jr., J. F. (2012, January). User acceptance of knowledge-based system recommendations: Explanations, arguments, and fit - Research in progress. In HICSS.More infoAbstract: Knowledge-based systems (KBS) can potentially enhance individual decision making. Yet, recommendations from these systems continue to be met with resistance. This is particularly troubling in professions associated with deception detection (e.g., border control), where humans are accurate only about half the time. In this research-in-progress, we examine how the fit between KBS explanations and users' internal explanations influences acceptance of system recommendations. To describe the explanations, we rely on Toulmin's argument classifications. We leverage cognitive fit theory as the theoretical explanation as to why fit is important for user acceptance of the system's evaluation. We describe a two-phased research approach in which we first develop the arguments, evaluate their relative strength, and validate their fit with key argument types. This is followed by a description of an experiment in which we examine the processing of explanations provided by KBS, focusing on explanations in a credibility assessment task. © 2012 IEEE.
- Dennis, A. R., Nunamaker Jr., J. F., & Vogel, D. R. (1989, January). GDSS laboratory experiments and field studies: closing the gap. In Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Science, 3, 300-309.More infoAbstract: The authors highlight key differences between previous experimental use of GDSS (group decision support systems) and the previous use of GDSS by business groups, and to discuss the implications that these differences have for researchers in designing future GDSS research. The authors examine previous GDSS laboratory studies and field studies. They then highlight key differences for researchers between these experimental sessions and business group sessions. These differences include organizational context, group characteristics, group size, task, GDSS support, information management needs, and group work process. They discuss two sets of implications for researchers that follow these key differences. First, the need to embark on a synergistic program of research that combines experimental research with field studies is examined. Secondly, the authors present a series of suggestions for enhancing experimental and field study GDSS research.