Joe S Valacich
- Professor, Management Information Systems
Joseph (Joe) S. Valacich is the Eller Professor of MIS within the Eller College of Management at the University of Arizona. He is also the Chairman, co-founder, and Chief Science Officer (CSO) of Neuro-ID, Inc. Dr. Valacich is a prolific scholar, publishing more than 250 scholarly articles in numerous prestigious journals and conferences, including: Academy of Management Journal, Communications of the ACM, Decision Sciences, Information Systems Research, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of the AIS, Journal of MIS, MIS Quarterly, Management Science, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, The Accounting Review, and many others.
His primary research interests include human-computer interaction, deception detection, cyber security, and e-business. His scholarly work has had a tremendous impact not only on the IS field, but also on several other disciplines, including computer science, cognitive and social psychology, marketing, and management. In June 2020, Google Scholar lists his citation counts at more than 28,000, with an h-index of 77.
He has multiple issued and pending patents focused on analyzing fine-grained human-computer interaction data to infer user intent, confidence, and emotional state. Software based on this work, commercialized by Neuro-ID, is being used by many of the world’s leading online platforms, processing millions of customer interactions per month.
He is a Senior Member of the National Academy of Inventors (2020), a Fellow of the Association for Information Systems (2009) and a Distinguished Alumnus of the University of Montana (2012). He was the general conference co-chair for the 2003 International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS) and the 2012 Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS); both were held in Seattle. He is the Honorary Chair for ICIS 2021 to be held in Austin, Texas.
- Ph.D. Management Information Systems
- University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA
- Group Size and Proximity Effects on Computer Mediated Idea Generation: A Laboratory Investigation
- M.B.A. General Management
- University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, USA
- B.S. Computer Science
- University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, USA
- Neuro-ID (2014 - Ongoing)
- University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (2011 - Ongoing)
- Washington State University, Pullman, Washington (1996 - 2011)
- Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana (1990 - 1996)
- University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (1986 - 1990)
- PACCAR Financial (1986)
- City University (1985 - 1986)
- Ascend Systems (1985 - 1986)
- Seattle Computer Products (1983 - 1985)
- CIONET European Research Paper of the Year
- http://www.cionet.com/erpoty/, Summer 2018
- Best Research Paper
- American Accounting Association, Spring 2018
- Innovation & Impact Award for Information Technology
- University of Arizona, Tech Launch Arizona, Spring 2016
Systems Analysis and Design; Information Systems Management; IT Project Management; Lean Startup and Entrpreneurship
Human-Computer Interaction; Fraud and Deception Detection; Cyber Security; Technology-mediated group decision making; Electronic Commerce and Digital Business
Independent StudyMIS 699 (Spring 2021)
Strategic Mgmt Info SystMIS 585 (Spring 2021)
Independent StudyMIS 699 (Fall 2020)
Strategic Mgmt Info SystMIS 585 (Fall 2020)
Independent StudyMIS 699 (Spring 2020)
Info Sys Analysis & DesignMIS 541 (Spring 2020)
Strategic Mgmt Info SystMIS 585 (Spring 2020)
DissertationMIS 920 (Fall 2019)
Independent StudyMIS 699 (Fall 2019)
DissertationMIS 920 (Spring 2019)
Honors ThesisMIS 498H (Spring 2019)
Independent StudyMIS 699 (Spring 2019)
Strategic Mgmt Info SystMIS 585 (Spring 2019)
DissertationMIS 920 (Fall 2018)
Honors ThesisMIS 498H (Fall 2018)
Independent StudyMIS 699 (Fall 2018)
Strategic Mgmt Info SystMIS 585 (Summer I 2018)
DissertationMIS 920 (Spring 2018)
Master's Report ProjectsMIS 696H (Spring 2018)
Strategic Mgmt Info SystMIS 585 (Spring 2018)
DissertationMIS 920 (Fall 2017)
Independent StudyMIS 599 (Fall 2017)
DissertationMIS 920 (Spring 2017)
Independent StudyMIS 699 (Spring 2017)
Strategic Mgmt Info SystMIS 585 (Spring 2017)
DissertationMIS 920 (Fall 2016)
Independent StudyMIS 699 (Fall 2016)
Info Sys Analysis & DesignMIS 541 (Fall 2016)
Honors ThesisMIS 498H (Spring 2016)
Strategic Mgmt Info SystMIS 585 (Spring 2016)
- Schneider, C., Fuller, M., George, J. F., & Valacich, J. S. (2020). Information Systems Project Management (2nd Edition). Prospect Press.
- Fuller, M., Valacich, J. S., George, J. F., & Schneider, C. (2018). Information System Project Management. Burlington, VT.: Prospect Press.
- ValacichJS, ., & GeorgeJF, . (2017). Modern Systems Analysis and Design (8th Edition). Prentice Hall: Englewood. Prentice Hall.
- ValacichJS, ., & SchneiderC, . (2018). Information Systems Today (8th Edition). Prentice Hall.
- ValacichJS, ., GeorgeJF, ., & HofferJA, . (2015). Essentials of Systems Analysis and Design. Prentice Hall.
- Hoffer, J. A., George, J. F., & Valacich, J. S. (2014). Modern Systems Analysis and Design. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice hall.
- Valacich, J. S., & Schneider, C. (2014). Information Systems Today, 6th Edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
- Valacich, J. S., Looney, C., Wright, R., & Wilson, D. (2014). Mobile Computing and Collaboration. In Collaboration Systems: Concept, Value, and Use. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, Inc..
- Nunamaker, J. F., Burgoon, J. K., Lee, Y., Valacich, J. S., Twyman, N., Jenkins, J., Wilson, S., Straub, D., Bessabarova, E., Miller, C., Jensen, M., & Dunbar, N. (2014). Mitigating cognitive bias through the use of serious games: Effects of feedback. In Persuasive Technology. Springer.
- Benjamin, V., Valacich, J. S., & Chen, H. (2019). DICE-E: A Framework for Conducting Darknet Identification, Collection, Evaluation, with Ethics. MIS Quarterly, 43(1), 1-22. doi:10.25300/MISQ/2019/13808
- Benjamin, V., Valacich, J. S., & Chen, H. (2019). DICE-E: A Framework for Conducting Darknet Identification, Collection, Evaluation, with Ethics. MIS Quarterly.
- Jenkins, J. L., Proudfoot, J. G., Valacich, J. S., Grimes, M. G., & Nunamaker, J. F. (2019). Sleight of Hand: Identifying Concealed Information by Monitoring Mouse-Cursor Movements. Journal of the Association for Information Systems: Vol. 20, Iss. 1, Article 3. doi:10.17705/1jais.00527
- Basoglu, K. A., Fuller, M. A., & Valacich, J. S. (2018). Open Materials Discourse: Enhancement of Recall within Technology-Mediated Teams Through the Use of Online Visual Artifacts. AIS Transactions on Replication Research, 4(11). doi:10.17705/1CAIS.04314
- Nunamaker, J. F., Grimes, G. M., Valacich, J. S., Proudfoot, J. G., & Jenkins, J. L. (2019). Sleight of Hand: Identifying Concealed Information by Monitoring Mouse-Cursor Movements. Journal of the Association for Information Systems.
- Valacich, J. S., Dennis, A. R., & Brown, S. A. (2018). A Comment on Is Information Systems a Science?. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 43(14). doi:10.17705/1CAIS.04314
- Valacich, J. S., Wang, X., & Jessup, L. M. (2018). Did I Buy the Wrong Gadget? How Easy and Difficult to Evaluate Technology Features Influence Product Choice. MIS Quarterly, 42(2), 633-644.
- Wilson, D., Proudfoot, J. G., Valacich, J. S., & Byrd, M. D. (2018). Saving face on Facebook: Privacy concerns, social benefits, and impression management. Behavior & Information Technology, 37(1).
- Hibbein, M., Jenkins, J., Schneider, C., Valacich, J. S., & Weinmann, M. (2017). Inferring Negative Emotions from Mouse Cursor Movements. MIS Quarterly, 41(1), 1-21.
- Williams, P. A., Jenkins, J. L., Valacich, J. S., & Byrd, M. D. (2017). Measuring Actual Behaviors in HCI Research – A call to Action and an Example. AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction, 9(4), 339-352.
- Givoney, J. S., Proudfoot, J. G., Goel, S., & Valacich, J. S. (2016). The Security Expertise Assessment Measure (SEAM): Developing a Scale for Hacker Expertise.. Computers & Security., 60, 37-51.
- Jensen, M. L., Dunbar, N. E., Piercy, C., Elizondo, J., Lee, Y., Bessarabova, E., Twyman, N. W., Burgoon, J. K., Valacich, J. S., Adame, B., Miller, C., & Wilson, S. (2016). Engagement in a Complex Digital Training Game: A Multi-Method Examination. AIS Transactions on Human Computer Interaction, 8(1), 1-20.
- Lee, Y. H., Dunbar, N. E., Miller, C. H., Lane, B. L., Jensen, M. L., Bessarabova, E., Burgoon, J. K., Adame, B. J., Valacich, J. S., Arterburn, E. N., Bostwick, E., Piercy, C. W., King, S., Elizondo, J., & Wilson, S. (2017). Anchoring and Representativeness Bias Mitigation through a Digital Game: Media mode and effectiveness. Simulation & Gaming: An International Journal of Theory, Practice and Research.
- Chatterjee, S., Valacich, J. S., & Sarker, S. (2015). Unethical Use of Information Technology: A Two-Country Study. Journal of Management Information Systems, 31, 49-87.
- Wang, X., Schneider, C., & Valacich, J. S. (2015). Enhancing Creativity in Group Collaboration: How Performance Targets and Feedback Shape Perceptions and Idea Generation Performance. Computers in Human Behavior, 42, 187-195.
- Dunbar, N. E., Miller, C. H., Adame, B. J., Elizondo, J., Wilson, S. N., Lane, B. L., Kauffman, A. A., Bessarabova, I., Jenson, M. L., Straub, S. K., Lee, S. K., Burgoon, J. K., Valacich, J. S., Jenkins, J., & Zhang, J. (2014). Implicitly and explicitly training in the mitigation of cognitive bias through the use of a serious game. Computers in Human Behavior, 37, 307-318.
- Ko, Y. J., Chang, Y., Rhee, Y., Valacich, J. S., Hur, Y., & Park, C. (2014). Value-based stakeholder loyalty toward sport technology A case of the electronic body protector and scoring system in Taekwondo events. RICYDE. Revista internacional de ciencias del deporte, 10(35), 46-62.More infoAbstract: Only a few studies have examined issues related to sport stakeholders' (e.g., athletes', spectators', and coaches') perceived value of technology products and its influence on the purchase intention of sport technology. The model of value-based stakeholders' loyalty toward sport technology (MVLST) is offered to inform customer purchase intentions of technology-based products by proposing theoretical relationships between perceived value, brand attitude, and purchase intention. The MVLST leverages core aspects of the technology acceptance model (TAM) and salient product attributes as quality, price, and innovativeness to develop the perceived value of sport technology (PVST). To test the theoretical relationships proposed in MVLST, a structural equation model was performed. Finally, multi-group SEM was employed to examine the moderating effect of consumer involvement. A total of 341 useful cases were collected from key stakeholders (e.g., spectators, coaches, and athletes) attending the 2010 US Open Taekwondo Championship; the technology-based product assessed by these survey participants was the electronic body protector and scoring system. The results of this analysis demonstrate that: (i) Usefulness, quality, and price are important value dimensions for attitude; (ii) conative loyalty (i.e., purchase intention) toward a sport technology occurs as consumers develop positive value perceptions and attitude toward the product; and (iii) the purchase intention of high vs. low involvement groups is dissimilarly influenced by the proposed value dimensions. From a theoretical perspective, the current study sheds light on the importance of attitude as a mediating variable and involvement as a moderating variable.
- Looney, C. A., Firth, D., Koch, H., Cecez-Kecmanovic, D., Ph-An Hsieh, J. J., Valacich, J. S., & Whitley, E. A. (2014). The Credibility Crisis in IS: A Global Stakeholder Perspective. Communications of AIS, 34(61).
- Tang, F., Hess, T. J., Valacich, J. S., & Sweeney, J. T. (2014). The Effects of Visualization and Interactivity on Calibration in Financial Decision Making. Behavioral Research in Accounting, 36(1), 25-38.
- Campbell, D. E., Wells, J. D., & Valacich, J. S. (2013). Breaking the ice in B2C relationships: Understanding pre-adoption e-commerce attraction. Information Systems Research, 24(2), 219-238.More infoAbstract: This research proposes that the forming of a business-to-consumer (B2C) customer relationship is part of a multiphased technology adoption process where attraction is the first step in this sequence. A conceptual model, called the electronic commerce (e-commerce) attraction model (eCAM), offers a theoretical foundation for guiding two empirical studies (N D345 and N D240, respectively) investigating how initial customer perceptions of a website influence attraction toward this website. The results support the eCAM as a new theoretical lens for understanding electronic commerce-based attraction. Comparisons are made between the proposed eCAM and previously established adoption models (i.e., the Technology Acceptance Model and WebQual) as well as the discriminant validity of the constructs in these models. Results demonstrate that the eCAM provides additional insights for understanding how website design influences e-commerce attraction and adoption. The implications of these results for future research and website design are discussed. © 2013 INFORMS.
- George, J. F., Carlson, J. R., & Valacich, J. S. (2013). Media selection as a strategic component of communication. MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems, 37(4), 1233-1251.More infoAbstract: Why do people select the media they choose for a particular type of communication? The media choice literature has considered myriad contextual factors that influence media choice, from proximity of the communication partners, to the urgency of the situation, to time pressure, and so on. From this body of work, a contingency-based theory of media choice has emerged. An alternative approach is to investigate how communication strategies and media characteristics affect choice. We identified two approaches for investigating these issues: Te'eni's (2001) model of organizational communication and Dennis et al.'s (2008) media synchronicity theory. Using a scenario-based methodology, we asked respondents which medium they would use for a deceptive communication task and why they made that choice. We analyzed the data from the perspective of both the Te'eni and MST frameworks, enabling us to compare the extent to which each was able to explain our respondents' media choices. Both frameworks, at differing levels of communication granularity, suggest that the intent of the communication drives a strategy that ultimately informs media choice. The results suggest that the prior contingency-based explanations of media choice could be improved by not only understanding the intent of the communication, but also the strategy used by an individual to execute this communication. Additionally, we found that the more finely grained view of communication contained in MST explained more of the outcomes and was more parsimonious as well.
- Grimes, G. M., Jenkins, J. L., & Valacich, J. S. (2013). Exploring the effect of arousal and valence on mouse interaction. International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS 2013): Reshaping Society Through Information Systems Design, 2, 1634-1648.More infoAbstract: Determining a user's affective state can be an important element when trying to understand human-computer interactions. Accurately assessing affect during system use, however, can be very difficult, especially in a non-laboratory setting. Extensive previous research in neuroscience has shown that arousal and valence influence motor control. In this research, the prior relevant neuroscience findings inform the investigation of mouse movement behavior under conditions of low and high arousal as well as positive and negative valence. A controlled laboratory experiment was conducted, providing support for hypotheses predicting that arousal and valence may be inferred by monitoring for differences in the distance, speed, and trajectory of mouse movement. Implications of these results for future research and practice are explored. © (2013) by the AIS/ICIS Administrative Office All rights reserved.
- Valacich, J. S., Wright, R. T., & Dimoka, A. (2013). Introduction to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) minitrack: Informing Design Choices Utilizing Behavioral, Neurophysiological, and Design Science Methods. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 406-.
- Basoglu, K. A., Fuller, M. A., & Valacich, J. S. (2012). Enhancement of recall within technology-mediated teams through the use of online visual artifacts. ACM Transactions on Management Information Systems, 3(1).More infoAbstract: Given the distributed nature of modern organizations, the use of technology-mediated teams is a critical aspect of their success. These teams use various media that are arguably less personal than face-to-face communication. One factor influencing the success of these teams is their ability to develop an understanding of who knows what during the initial team development stage. However, this development of understanding within dispersed teams may be impeded because of the limitations of technology-enabled communication environments. Past research has found that a limited understanding of team member capabilities hinders team performance. As such, this article investigates mechanisms for improving the recall of individuals within dispersed teams. Utilizing the input-process-output model to conceptualize the group interaction process, three input factors-visual artifacts (i.e., a computer-generated image of each team member), team size, and work interruptions-are manipulated to assess their influence on a person's ability to recall important characteristics of their virtual team members. Results show that visual artifacts significantly increase the recall of individuals' information. However, high-urgency interruptions significantly deteriorate the recall of individuals, regardless of the visual artifact or team size. These findings provide theoretical and practical implications on knowledge acquisition and project success within technology-mediated teams. © 2012 ACM.
- Schneider, C., Valacich, J. S., Weinmann, M., & Robra-Bissantz, S. (2012). Detecting users' psychological states through mouse cursor movements. 18th Americas Conference on Information Systems 2012, AMCIS 2012, 4, 3048-.More infoAbstract: Behavioral research in information systems is testing increasingly complex models using sophisticated statistical methodologies. As the inputs into these models are often unobservable constructs, they are subject to various biases such as social desirability or demand effects. Responding to such problems, IS researchers have recently turned to the use of psychophysiological tools to get a deeper understanding of the constructs of interest. However, such tools also have a number of drawbacks, such as high costs or increased artificiality of the setting, potentially limiting external validity. To this end, we propose augmenting the use of traditional measurement scales and psychophysiological tools with other, readily observable phenomena. As a case in point, we propose mouse cursor movements as having the potential to provide online retailers with possibilities to infer users' state of flow, and discuss the potential of using mouse cursor movements for inferring users' psychological states in other settings and contexts.
- Valacich, J. S. (2012). Designing effective web sites: How academic research influences practice. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Technology Interfaces, ITI, 15-19.More infoAbstract: A consumer has different expectations or goals when visiting different Web sites at different times. Indeed, consumers visit sites not only to search for and purchase products/services, but also to have rich, entertaining experiences. These goals or objectives determine what type of tasks the consumer performs at a site; different tasks and goals require a different human-computer interactive experience. This program of research has demonstrated that rich behavioral theories can provide clear guidance to system designers. Consequently, it is fundamental that system designers understand why a person is at a website and the theoretical factors that drive improved interaction experiences and stronger customer relationships . © 2012 SRCE UNIV.
- Wilson, D. W., & Valacich, J. S. (2012). Unpacking the privacy paradox: Irrational decision-making within the privacy calculus. International Conference on Information Systems, ICIS 2012, 5, 4152-4162.More infoAbstract: Understanding privacy is important to individuals and organizations. This research in progress develops a theoretical model that incorporates both actual disclosure behavior and the potential for irrational behavior induced by overriding situational factors presented at the time of the privacy disclosure decision. Actual disclosure behavior is seldom measured in privacy research, and most prior work has assumed the disclosure decision to be a fully rational one. This research challenges that assumption, and the eventual completion of the project will contribute uniquely to our understanding of the privacy calculus in online transactions. © 2012 by the AIS/ICIS Administrative Office All rights reserved.
- Chatterjee, S., Valacich, J. S., & Sarker, S. (2011). Unethical use of information technology: A two-country study. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 3071-3080.More infoAbstract: This paper investigates the phenomenon of unethical use of information technology (IT) by developing and testing a model that postulates multiple influencing factors of unethical IT use. Results from two studies of young adult participants in USA and Finland show that unethical IT use is primarily influenced by social (e.g., subjective norms), situational (e.g., moral intensity), and technological (e.g., technological facilitation) considerations. Differences between the two countries regarding this phenomenon also surface. The results suggest that multiple interventions at various levels may be required to combat the growth of unethical IT use, showcasing the practical significance of these research results. © 2012 IEEE.
- Hur, Y., Ko, Y. J., & Valacich, J. (2011). A Structural model of the relationships between sport website quality, e-satisfaction, and e-loyalty. Journal of Sport Management, 25(5), 458-473.More infoAbstract: The Internet website has become an effective marketing vehicle for sport organizations. The purpose of this study was to examine theoretical relationships between key variables of online sport consumption behavior such as sport consumers' perceptions of sport website quality, satisfaction, and behavioral loyalty to the websites. In addition, the mediating effect of e-satisfaction between website quality and e-loyalty was examined. The results of data analyses using structural equation model tests revealed that loyalty to a sport team's website was more likely to occur as sport fans developed positive perceptions and satisfaction with the website. The results also suggested that consumer e-satisfaction is an important mediating variable between sport website quality and e-loyalty. © 2011 Human Kinetics, Inc.
- Looney, C. A., Firth, D., Koch, H., Cecez-Kecmanovic, D., Hsieh, J. P., Soh, C., Valacich, J. S., & Whitley, E. (2011). The credibility crisis in IS: A global stakeholder perspective. International Conference on Information Systems 2011, ICIS 2011, 5, 4426-4430.More infoAbstract: The purpose of this panel involves helping the IS community devise strategies for augmenting the field's credibility. Representing different continents, educational systems, and roles, our panelists will provide a global perspective on IS credibility. Using stakeholder theory as an organizing framework, this panel will identify the key stakeholders that positively and negatively influence the IS discipline as well as strategies for leveraging these stakeholders. Spirited debates will occur concerning the role of regulators, funding sources, faculty, administrators, students, and employers in shaping the credibility of the IS discipline. © (2011) by the AIS/ICIS Administrative Office All rights reserved.
- Valacich, J. S., Wright, R. T., & Dimoka, A. (2011). Introduction to human-computer interaction (HCI) minitrack. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 503-.
- Wang, X., Schneider, C., & Valacich, J. S. (2011). Fine-tuning group collaboration environments: How differences in general causality orientation and performance targets shape interaction and performance. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 553-561.More infoAbstract: Technology-supported work teams are increasingly used by organizations to support various business processes. Previous literature has examined the influence of various factors on team performance; yet, differences in participants' individual motivational orientation have received little attention. In this study, we aim to understand the effects of differences in motivational orientation on performance; this will allow for the design of information systems to account for such individual differences, increasing performance within the context of computer-mediated collaboration. Using computer-mediated idea generation as an instantiation of collaboration systems, we test the interacting effects of performance targets and differences in motivational orientation in a controlled laboratory experiment. Overall, our results provide support for the importance of considering individual differences in the design of human-computer interfaces of collaboration environments, and we conclude our study with a discussion of implications for the design of human-computer interfaces for computer-mediated collaboration. © 2012 IEEE.
- Wells, J. D., Parboteeah, D., & Valacich, J. S. (2011). Online impulse buying: Understanding the interplay between consumer impulsiveness and website quality. Journal of the Association of Information Systems, 12(1), 32-56.More infoAbstract: With the proliferation of e-commerce, there is growing evidence that online impulse buying is an emerging phenomenon, which has been the focus of researchers from a variety of disciplines. This paper reports on two empirical studies that examine the interplay between a consumer's inherent impulsiveness to buy and website quality. Specifically, consistent with past online impulse buying research, website quality manifests as an environmental cue that directly influences the likelihood that a consumer will experience an urge to buy impulsively. Further, highly impulsive consumers can be both positively and negatively influenced by varying degrees of website quality. Thus, while the objective quality of an e-commerce website is important, the inherent impulsiveness of a consumer is also a critical factor for understanding how and why individuals react impulsively to varying degrees of website quality. The implications of the results for both future research and the design of electronic commerce websites are discussed.
- Wells, J. D., Valacich, J. S., & Hess, T. J. (2011). What signal are you sending? How website quality influences perceptions of product quality and purchase intentions. MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems, 35(2), 373-396.More infoAbstract: An electronic commerce marketing channel is fully mediated by information technology, stripping away much of a product's physical informational cues, and creating information asymmetries (i.e., limited information). These asymmetries may impede consumers' ability to effectively assess certain types of products, thus creating challenges for online sellers. Signaling theory provides a framework for understanding how extrinsic cues-signals-can be used by sellers to convey product quality information to consumers, reducing uncertainty and facilitating a purchase or exchange. This research proposes a model to investigate website quality as a potential signal of product quality and consider the moderating effects of product information asymmetries and signal credibility. Three experiments are reported that examine the efficacy of signaling theory as a basis for predicting online consumer behavior with an experience good. The results indicate that website quality influences consumers' perceptions of product quality, which subsequently affects online purchase intentions. Additionally, website quality was found to have a greater influence on perceived product quality when consumers had higher information asymmetries. Likewise, signal credibility was found to strengthen the relationship between website quality and product quality perceptions for a high quality website. Implications for future research and website design are examined.
- Jung, J. H., Schneider, C., & Valacich, J. (2010). Enhancing the motivational affordance of information systems: The effects of real-time performance feedback and goal setting in group collaboration environments. Management Science, 56(4), 724-742.More infoAbstract: Increasing globalization has created tremendous opportunities and challenges for organizations and societies. Consequently, a broad range of information technologies to better support the collaboration of diverse, and increasingly distributed, sets of participants is ever more utilized. Arguably, the success of such technologymediated collaboration is dependent upon the quality of each individual's contributions; however, although individuals' motivations to do their best could be significantly influenced by the design of a system's human-computer interface, this area has received little attention within the context of group collaboration environments. We fill this gap by integrating research from human-computer interaction, motivation, and technologysupported group work to theoretically derive mechanisms for increasing each individual's motivation within a collective setting. Specifically, we manipulate the interface of a computer-mediated idea generation system (a widely used collaboration tool) to enhance the system's motivational affordance, i.e., the system's properties that fulfill users' motivational needs. Results from two studies demonstrate that by embedding the theoretically derived mechanisms "providing feedback" and "designing for optimal challenge" into the collaboration environment, significant performance gains were realized. The results suggest that even slight manipulations of the human-computer interface can contribute significantly to the successful design of a wide variety of group collaboration environments. © 2010 INFORMS.
- Ko, Y. J., Kim, Y. K., & Valacich, J. (2010). Martial arts participation: Consumer motivation. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 11(2), 105-123.More infoAbstract: Although the martial arts industry is rapidly evolving into a mature and highly competitive marketplace, only a few studies have been conducted to understand why people participate in martial arts. The purpose of this study is to examine motivation factors that influence an individual's participation in martial arts to provide leaders of the industry with meaningful managerial implications. The researchers collected data from the 2004 Battle of Columbus Martial Arts World Games IV, one of the most popular martial arts events in the US. The results of a series of MANOVA tests revealed that these martial arts participants (N = 307) are highly motivated by growth-related motivation (e.g. value development and actualisation). In addition, the findings indicate that motivation of martial arts practitioners varies across types of martial arts disciplines, competition orientation and past experiences. Given these results, implications for future research and practice are discussed. © 2010 International Marketing Reports.
- Sarker, S., & Valacich, J. S. (2010). An alternative to methodological individualism: A non-reductionist approach to studying technology adoption by groups. MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems, 34(4), 779-808.More infoAbstract: Studies on groups within the MIS discipline have largely been based on the paradigm of methodological individualism. Commentaries on methodological individualism within the reference disciplines suggest that studies embracing this paradigm can lead to potentially misleading or incorrect conclusions. This study illustrates the appropriateness of the alternate non-reductionist approach to investigating group- related phenomenon, specifically in the context of technology adoption. Drawing on theories of group influence, prior research on conflict, technology characteristics, task-technology fit, group communication media, and recent theoretical work surrounding group technology adoption, the paper proposes and empirically tests a new non-reductionist model for conceptualizing technology adoption by groups. Further, the study also empirically compares this nonreductionist model with a (hypothetical) methodological individualist model of technology adoption by groups. Results strongly support most of the assertions of the non-reductionist model and highlight that this model provides a more robust explanation of technology adoption by groups than a methodological individualist view. Further, the study also highlights some conditions wherein the methodological individualist view fails to provide correct explanations. The implications of the study's findings for future research are discussed.
- Sarker, S., Campbell, D. E., Ondrus, J., & Valacich, J. S. (2010). Mapping the need for mobile collaboration technologies: A fit perspective. International Journal of e-Collaboration, 6(4), 32-53.More infoAbstract: With the growing popularity of mobile technologies and the increasing use of groups within organizations, it is important to understand the collaboration contexts where mobile collaboration technologies (MCTs) are essential. This is especially critical given the high cost associated with the acquisition and implementation of MCTs and the need to make an informed decision regarding the appropriateness of MCTs. In this paper, the authors address this issue by first drawing on real life-based collaboration scenarios and examining the technology requirements of groups; second, comparing the features offered by MCTs with those of FTF and two types of CMCTs; third, proposing a collaboration environment-technology fit perspective in realizing optimal usage of a collaboration technology; and fourth, creating the Group Collaboration Technology Repertoire Grid, which maps the "ideal" collaboration technology(s) repertoire for each type of collaboration environment. The grid highlights the collaboration environments that would need MCTs and provides managers or organizational group leaders the ability to map their collaboration environments into a specific category and thus more easily decide on the particular collaboration technology repertoire that would be most beneficial. © 2010, IGI Global.
- Sarker, S., Sarker, S., Chatterjee, S., & Valacich, J. S. (2010). Media Effects on Group Collaboration: An Empirical Examination in an Ethical Decision-Making Context. Decision Sciences, 41(4), 887-931.More infoAbstract: Even though it is widely acknowledged that collaboration underlies much of the decision-making efforts in contemporary organizations, and that organizational groups are increasingly making decisions that have ethical implications, few studies have examined group ethical decision-making processes and outcomes. In addition, while there is increasing evidence that groups often collaborate/communicate using different mediating technologies, few studies have examined the effect of the characteristics of the media in group ethical decision-making contexts. Finally, there is a clear paucity of studies that have investigated group decision making pertaining to information technology (IT)-related ethical dilemmas, an area of rising importance for information systems (IS) and decision science researchers. This article seeks to address the gaps described above through an experimental study where groups collaborating either in a face-to-face context or in a computer-mediated context (using NetMeeting or Wiki) were required to make a decision with respect to a scenario with an IT-related ethical dilemma. Results indicate that media characteristics (e.g., anonymity, immediacy of feedback, parallelism) do not have an effect on whether groups make ethical (or unethical) decisions. However, several media characteristics were found to play a significant role on downstream variables, such as the quality of a follow-up task (i.e., creation of a decision justification document), and overall process satisfaction of the group members. © 2010 The Authors Decision Sciences Journal © 2010 Decision Sciences Institute.
- Topi, H., Wright, R. T., Donnellan, B., Schiano, W. T., Valacich, J. S., & Venkataraman, R. (2010). Future of master's level education in information systems panel presentation. 16th Americas Conference on Information Systems 2010, AMCIS 2010, 7, 5005-5009.More infoAbstract: Panels concerning Information System (IS) education issues and curriculum recommendations are part of a rich tradition and they have been well attended at past AIS conferences. This panel hopes to continue build on this foundation by focusing on master's level programs and curricula in IS. Specifically, this panel will: 1) give the members of the audience an opportunity to review state-of-the-art practices in and innovative ideas related to master's level education in IS, 2) start to engage the IS community in the process of revising the graduate level model curriculum and 3) present a number of alternative approaches to master's level graduate programs in IS and to stimulate a discussion that will encourage the audience to consider different options for their programs.
- Wells, J. D., Campbell, D. E., Valacich, J. S., & Featherman, M. (2010). The Effect of Perceived Novelty on the Adoption of Information Technology Innovations: A Risk/Reward Perspective. Decision Sciences, 41(4), 813-843.More infoAbstract: A fundamental characteristic of any innovation is its novelty, the newness or freshness of the innovation in the eyes of the adopter. Past research has often considered novelty to be inherent to an information technology (IT) innovation, yet it is also likely that perceptions of novelty differ widely across individuals. Nevertheless, the role that the novelty of an IT innovation plays in adoption is not well understood. The primary goal of this research effort is to frame the perceived novelty of an IT innovation as a salient affective belief in the nomological network related to adoption. Further, we examine how perceived novelty influences the way individuals reconcile their perceptions of risk versus reward when considering the adoption of an IT innovation. Two empirical studies with 424 and 138 participants, respectively, examine the effect of perceived novelty on IT innovations from a risk/reward perspective. Results indicate that perceived novelty is a salient affective belief that plays a significant role in the adoption of IT innovations. Implications for both theory and organizational decision making are examined. © 2010 The Authors Decision Sciences Journal © 2010 Decision Sciences Institute.
- Chatterjee, S., & Valacich, J. (2009). A conceptual model of practitioners' attitude toward unethical IT use. 15th Americas Conference on Information Systems 2009, AMCIS 2009, 1, 340-.More infoAbstract: Given the growing concerns about unethical usage of Information Technology (IT) becoming a major security concern, this research-in-progress paper conceptually models IS practitioner (professional) attitude toward unethical IT use. Based on the ethical notions of universalism and particularism, it argues for a two-dimensional analysis to judge development of attitude toward using IT unethically: understand the IS professional as a human being subscribing to universal principles and understand the IS professional as rooted to an organizational community of practice. Through its articulation of two powerful lenses of universalism and particularism, this paper contributes by understanding how philosophical perspectives of ethics can inform our understanding of IS security. Finally, the paper discusses future research and practice implications arising out of this conceptual treatment.
- McNab, A. L., Hess, T. J., & Valacich, J. S. (2009). Designing interfaces for faster information processing: Examination of the effectiveness of using multiple information cues. 15th Americas Conference on Information Systems 2009, AMCIS 2009, 9, 5764-5773.More infoAbstract: One of the problems studied in human-computer interaction (HCI) research is the design of interfaces that improve user information selection and processing performance. Based on prior research findings this study proposes that information selection can be improved by using multiple, supplementary cues to encode information in interface design. The research is motivated by cue-summation theory. Color and information location are proposed as relevant, supplementary cues that can improve processing performance by enhancing the reliance on a fast and automatic associative processing. Most prior studies examining the benefits of color have not controlled for information location. Our study describes a laboratory experiment in which both color and information location are employed as supplementary cues in a customer account management application. The results suggest that color and location cues significantly improve information selection and processing speed, along with user satisfaction, with the best results obtained when both cues are used. © (2009) by the AIS/ICIS Administrative Office All rights reserved.
- Mcnab, A. L., Hess, T. J., & Valacich, J. S. (2009). Designing emergency response applications for better performance. ICIS 2009 Proceedings - Thirtieth International Conference on Information Systems.More infoAbstract: Emergency responders often work in time pressured situations and depend on fast access to key information. One of the problems studied in human-computer interaction (HCI) research is the design of interfaces to improve user information selection and processing performance. Based on prior research findings this study proposes that information selection of target information in emergency response applications can be improved by using supplementary cues. The research is motivated by cue-summation theory and research findings on parallel and associative processing. Color-coding and location-ordering are proposed as relevant cues that can improve ERS processing performance by providing prioritization heuristics. An experimental ERS is developed users' performance is tested under conditions of varying complexity and time pressure. The results suggest that supplementary cues significantly improve performance, with the best results obtained when both cues are used. Additionally, the use of these cues becomes more beneficial as time pressure and complexity increase.
- Parboteeah, D. V., Valacich, J. S., & Wells, J. D. (2009). The influence of website characteristics on a consumer's urge to buy impulsively. Information Systems Research, 20(1), 60-78.More infoAbstract: With the proliferation of e-commerce, there is growing evidence that online impulse buying is occurring, yet relatively few researchers have studied this phenomenon. This paper reports on two studies that examine how variations in a website influence online impulse buying. The results reveal some relevant insights about this phenomenon. Specifically, although many participants had the urge to buy impulsively, regardless of website quality, this behavior's likelihood and magnitude was directly influenced by varying the quality of taskrelevant and mood-relevant cues. Task-relevant cues include characteristics, such as navigability, that help in the attainment of the online consumer's shopping goal. Conversely, mood-relevant cues refer to the characteristics, such as visual appeal, that affect the degree to which a user enjoys browsing a website but that do not directly support a particular shopping goal. The implications of the results for both future research and the design of human-computer interfaces are discussed. © 2009 INFORMS.
- Valacich, J. S., Sarker, S., Pratt, J., & Groomer, M. (2009). Understanding risk-taking behavior of groups: A "decision analysis" perspective. Decision Support Systems, 46(4), 902-912.More infoAbstract: Past research has extensively investigated the effect of media, especially focusing on how anonymity increases risk-related behaviors of groups when using computer-mediated communication (CMC). This study extends prior research by examining the differences in group risk-taking behaviors between face-to-face groups and completely non-anonymous CMC groups (i.e., groups working in a fully identified, synchronous CMC environment similar to popular instant messaging systems utilized widely within organizations). Drawing on the "decision analysis" perspective, a key framework for understanding organizational decision-making, the study also examines the effects of the firm's risk preferences as well as the type of information distribution among group members (i.e., full information known to all group members versus partial information know by only some of the members) on the groups' risk-taking behaviors. Results from a laboratory experiment using student subjects found no differences in risk-taking behaviors between CMC and face-to-face groups; additionally, no differences were found related to how information was distributed among group members. A significant effect was found, however, for the risk preference of the firm, showing that risk-neutral firms influenced groups to make riskier decisions than groups from risk-averse firms. Finally, groups within risk-neutral firms receiving partial information made riskier decisions than groups receiving full information. The implications of these results for future research and practice are examined. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- Dennis, A. R., Fuller, R. M., & Valacich, J. S. (2008). Media, tasks, and communication processes: A theory of media synchronicity. MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems, 32(3), 575-600.More infoAbstract: This paper expands, refines, and explicates media synchronicity theory, originally proposed in a conference proceeding in 1999 (Dennis and Valacich 1999). Media synchronicity theory (MST) focuses on the ability of media to support synchronicity, a shared pattern of coordinated behavior among individuals as they work together. We expand on the original propositions of MST to argue that communication is composed of two primary processes: conveyance and convergence. The familiarity of individuals with the tasks they are performing and with their coworkers will also affect the relative amounts of these two processes. Media synchronicity theory proposes that for conveyance processes, use of media supporting lower synchronicity should result in better communication performance. For convergence processes, use of media supporting higher synchronicity should result in better communication performance. We identify five capabilities of media (symbol sets, parallelism, transmission velocity, rehearsability, and reprocessability) that Influence the development of synchronicity and thus the successful performance of conveyance and convergence communication processes. The successful completion of most tasks involving more than one individual requires both conveyance and convergence processes, thus communication performance will be improved when individuals use a variety of media to perform a task, rather than just one medium.
- Schneider, C., Valacich, J. S., & Jung, J. H. (2008). Osborne revisited: Is there no such thing as a bad idea? The effects of electronic junk on computermediated idea generation performance. 16th European Conference on Information Systems, ECIS 2008.More infoAbstract: Conventional thought in idea generation suggests that there is no such thing as a bad idea. This paper challenges this assumption, arguing that task-irrelevant comments (electronic junk) can significantly influence the performance of computer-mediated idea generation groups. While the results of a controlled laboratory experiment using a group simulator show that electronic junk can create a downward spiral, leading to the creation of even more task-irrelevant comments, the results also support the hypothesis of an inverted-u-shaped relationship between the amount of junk comments and ideation performance, suggesting that moderate amounts of junk comments can aid performance, whereas large amounts of junk comments can be detrimental to performance. Further, the results show that members of groups producing no junk comments perceive their individual performances to be lower than members of groups with moderate or high amounts of junk comments. The implications of these results on the design of human-computer interfaces are discussed and avenues for future research are suggested.
- Sidorova, A., Evangelopoulos, N., Valacich, J. S., & Ramakrishnan, T. (2008). Uncovering the intellectual core of the information systems discipline. MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems, 32(3), 467-482.More infoAbstract: What is the intellectual core of the information systems discipline? This study uses latent semantic analysis to examine a large body of published IS research in order to address this question. Specifically, the abstracts of all research papers over the time period from 1985 through 2006 published in three top IS research journals-MIS Quarterly, Information Systems Research, and Journal of Management Information Systems-were analyzed. This analysis identified five core research areas: (1) information technology and organizations; (2) IS development; (3) IT and individuals; (4) IT and markets; and (5) IT and groups. Over the time frame of our analysis, these core topics have remained quite stable. However, the specific research themes within each core area have evolved significantly, reflecting research that has focused less on technology development and more on the social context in which information technologies are designed and used. As such, this analysis demonstrates that the information systems academic discipline has maintained a relatively stable research identity that focuses on how IT systems are developed and how individuals, groups, organizations, and markets interact with IT.
- Topi, H., Valacich, J. S., & Sipior, J. (2008). Introducing a draft version of the revised ACM/AIS undergraduate is curriculum recommendation. AIS SIGed: IAIM - Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Informatics Education.More infoAbstract: The purpose of this panel is to present a draft of the revised undergraduate IS curriculum recommendation document to the IS community. The panel presentation will focus on the key changes compared to the current curriculum recommendation (IS 2002), including a) the significantly modified outcome expectations, b) the revised structure, which separates the core topics from the elective topics, c) the key elements of the revised core topics, d) a revised course structure, and e) the task force recommendations regarding the use of web-based collaboration technologies and an editorial structure for the ongoing maintenance of the curriculum. The panelists will all be members of the ACM/AIS undergraduate curriculum revision task force.
- Valacich, J. S., & Looney, C. A. (2008). Introduction to Mobile Technologies and Collaboration minitrack. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
- Valacich, J. S., & Wells, J. D. (2008). Introduction to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) minitrack. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
- Xin, L. i., Hess, T. J., & Valacich, J. S. (2008). Why do we trust new technology? A study of initial trust formation with organizational information systems. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 17(1), 39-71.More infoAbstract: Recent trust research in the information systems (IS) field has described trust as a primary predictor of technology usage and a fundamental construct for understanding user perceptions of technology. Initial trust formation is particularly relevant in an IS context, as users must overcome perceptions of risk and uncertainty before using a novel technology. With initial trust in a more complex, organizational information system, there are a number of external determinants, trusting bases, that may explain trust formation and provide organizations with the needed levers to form or change individuals' initial trust in technology. In this study, a research model of initial trust formation is developed and includes trusting bases, trusting beliefs, trusting attitude and subjective norm, and trusting intentions. Eight trusting base factors are assessed including personality, cognitive, calculative, and both technology and organizational factors of the institutional base. The model is empirically tested with 443 subjects in the context of initial trust in a national identity system (NID). The proposed model was supported and the results indicate that subjective norm and the cognitive-reputation, calculative, and organizational situational normality base factors significantly influence initial trusting beliefs and other downstream trust constructs. Factors from some of the more commonly investigated bases, personality and technology institutional, did not significantly affect trusting beliefs. The findings have strategic implications for agencies implementing e-government systems and organizational information systems in general.
- Chakraborty, S., Sarker, S., & Valacich, J. S. (2007). Understanding analyst effectiveness in requirements elicitation: A gestalt fit perspective. Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Information Systems, ECIS 2007, 771-782.More infoAbstract: Analyst effectiveness has been viewed as a critical success factor for information systems development (ISD) projects, especially for the requirements elicitation phase. Prior literature on analyst effectiveness has primarily focused on examining (and understanding) the specific set of capabilities an analyst needs to possess in order to be effective. We argue that such an assumption may not necessarily provide us with a comprehensive view of this critical issue, as capabilities of an analyst are necessary but not a sufficient condition leading to their effectiveness. Consistent with this view, in this paper we propose a fit perspective, and argue that analyst effectiveness is dependent on a fit between the contextual factors and the analyst's capability. Specifically, the manuscript argues for two gestalt fit constructs: analyst-project fit and analyst process fit for understanding analyst effectiveness, and explicates on the nature of the gestalt fit. Further drawing on the two gestalt perspective, we also propose a resourcing strategy, which may be used by organization and ISD project managers in recruiting suitable analysts for their projects.
- Hur, Y., Ko, Y. J., & Valacich, J. (2007). Motivation and concerns for online sport consumption. Journal of Sport Management, 21(4), 521-539.More infoAbstract: The purpose of this study was to propose and test a conceptual model of online sport consumption motivation and concerns when using the Internet for sport information and shopping. The proposed model is based on current conceptualization of motivation and concerns when using the Internet. The proposed model consists of five types of motivation (i.e., convenience, information, diversion, socialization, and economic) and four types of concern (i.e., security and privacy, delivery, product quality, and customer service). To test this model, the scale of motivation for online sport consumption was developed. A structural equation model test with a convenience sample of 222 sports participants supported the conceptualization of motivation and concerns. Motivation positively influenced sport fans' actual usage of sport-related Web sites, but no significant path coefficient was found from concerns to motivation and actual usage. Given these results, implications for future research and practice are discussed. © 2007 Human Kinetics, Inc.
- Jung, J. H., Looney, C. A., & Valacich, J. S. (2007). Fine-tuning the human-computer interface: Verbal versus keyboard input in an idea generation context. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.More infoAbstract: Voice recognition technologies are rapidly evolving to help humans interact with computers more efficiently and effectively. Despite their potential advantages, their impact on system usability has not received sufficient empirical attention. To this end, this study applies voice recognition technologies in a setting where the speed and volume of human input is critical - small group idea generation. Rather than forcing group members to input ideas via keyboard, a novel idea generation technique is introduced whereby ideas are captured directly through verbalization. The results indicate that inputting ideas verbally enhances system usability, providing a more efficient and effective mechanism for generating ideas in a computer-mediated environment. Verbalizing ideas appears to help group members focus on analytical thinking and leverage others' ideas, ultimately facilitating the creation of idea pools that are vastly superior in terms of quantity and quality. As expected, these effects are robust across nominal and small interacting groups. © 2007 IEEE.
- Nicholson, J. A., Nicholson, D. B., & Valacich, J. S. (2007). Computer-mediated learning: Leveraging technology attributes to enhance learning outcomes. SIGED: IAIM 2007, Proceedings - 22nd Annual Conference.More infoAbstract: In today's knowledge economy, technology is utilized more than ever to deliver instructional material to the learner. Nonetheless, information may not always be presented in a manner that maximizes the learning experience resulting in a negative impact on learning outcomes. Drawing on the Task-Technology Fit model, a research model was developed to investigate the influence of various factors on learning outcomes in computer-mediated learning environments. Specifically, a laboratory experiment was conducted to examine the influence of vividness, interactivity, task complexity, and learning style on learning outcomes in the context of learning procedural knowledge. Overall, strong support was found in support of the proposed research model. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.
- Topi, H., Valacich, J. S., & Sipior, J. (2007). Introducing a new way to revise and maintain the undergraduate information systems model curriculum. SIGED: IAIM 2007, Proceedings - 22nd Annual Conference.More infoAbstract: This panel presents the current status of the undergraduate IS model curriculum revision project and discusses four key aspects of the process: The wiki-based platform developed for an ongoing revision process, the expansion of the model curriculum domain to include institutions beyond North American business schools, the curriculum content, and possible conceptual links between the IS model curriculum and other computing curricula. The panel will be highly interactive and designed to encourage audience involvement.
- Valacich, J. S., & Looney, C. A. (2007). Mobile technologies and collaboration. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
- Valacich, J. S., & Wells, J. D. (2007). Introduction: Human-Computer Interaction (HCl) minitrack. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
- Valacich, J. S., Parboteeah, D. V., & Wells, J. D. (2007). The online consumer's hierarchy of needs. Communications of the ACM, 50(9), 84-90.More infoAbstract: An overview of various interface characteristics of Online Consumer's Hierarchy of Needs (OCHN) framework is presented to optimize the selection and prioritization of online consumer experience characteristics. The framework is built by applying microcategories for organizing various Web interface characteristics according to their importance in a purchasing process. The OCHN framework provides two key goals for Web site design such as a Web site that meets online consumers expectations for minimal levels of each interface category and nature of task executed by online consumers. Based on this framework a Web site designer emphasizes on interface categories that are congruent with the fundamental nature of the consumers task. OCHN framework provides guidance to Web site designers regarding maximization of interface characteristics that strengthen structural firmness.
- Campbell, D. E., Sarker, S., & Valacich, J. S. (2006). Collaboration using mobile technologies (MCTs): When is it essential?. International Conference on Mobile Business, ICMB 2006.More infoAbstract: With the growing popularity of mobile technologies and the increasing use of groups within organizations (with members often distributed globally, and constantly "on-the-go"), question remains as to whether mobile collaboration technologies (MCTs) provide any additional benefits (over face-to-face and conventional CMC technologies) to such collaborations. We attempt to address this specific question by comparing features of MCTs with those of F2F and CMC technologies, and creating a typology of group collaboration that would benefit (or need) MCTs. Overall, the paper hopes to highlight the benefits of MCTs, and the contexts in which it will be most beneficial (perhaps even essential). © 2006 IEEE.
- DeLuca, D., & Valacich, J. S. (2006). Virtual teams in and out of synchronicity. Information Technology and People, 19(4), 323-344.More infoAbstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of process improvement team member perceptions regarding the effectiveness of asynchronous e-collaboration. Design/methodology/approach - A field-based, two-phase canonical action research study was conducted at two different sites. Data were obtained from observations and interviews of all team members. Media synchronicity theory was utilized to hypothesize the interplay of media capabilities, task communication processes, and team functions. Findings - Eight primarily virtual teams solved complex problems and provided feedback on the effectiveness of various communications media. The results support media synchronicity theory. Research limitations/implications - Media synchronicity theory provides an alternative explanation for studies both supporting and contradicting media richness theory. The teams in this study were newly formed. Further investigation of established teams and other contexts is warranted. Practical implications - For complex problem-solving tasks performed by newly formed teams, communications media with low synchronicity (e.g. listserv, e-mail, bulletin board) may be appropriate for conveyance of information; whereas media with high synchronicity (e.g. face-to-face, telephone) may be more desirable for convergence on shared meaning. Originality/value - As geographic, temporal, and cost constraints move organizations toward virtual team work for increasingly complex tasks, research is warranted on effective utilization of available communication technology for solving business problems without face-to-face communication. This research paper examines the issue through an emerging theoretical lens, media synchronicity theory, and suggests a new proposition. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
- Dennis, A. R., Valacich, J. S., Fuller, M. A., & Schneider, C. (2006). Research standards for promotion and tenure in information systems. MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems, 30(1), 1-12.More infoAbstract: What constitutes excellence in information systems research for promotion and tenure? This is a question that is regularly addressed by members of promotion and tenure committees and those called upon to write external letters. While there are many elements to this question, one major element is the quality and quantity of an individual's research publications. An informal survey of senior Information Systems faculty members at 49 leading U.S. and Canadian universities found 86 percent to expect three or more articles in elite journals. In contrast, an analysis of publication performance of Ph.D. graduates between the years of 1992 and 2004 found that approximately three individuals in each graduating year of Ph.D.s (about 2 percent) published 3 or more articles in a set of 20 elite journals within 6 years of graduation. Only 15 individuals from each graduating year (11 percent) published one or more articles. As a discipline, we publish elite journal articles at a lower rate than Accounting, yet our promotion and tenure standards are higher, similar to those of Management, Marketing, and Finance. Thus, there is a growing divergence between research performance and research standards within the Information Systems discipline. As such, unless we make major changes, these differences will perpetuate a vicious cycle of increasing faculty turnover, declining influence on university affairs, and lower research productivity. We believe that we must act now to create a new future, and offer recommendations that focus on the use of more appropriate standards for promotion and tenure and ways to increase the number of articles published.
- Featherman, M. S., Valacich, J. S., & Wells, J. D. (2006). Is that authentic or artificial? Understanding consumer perceptions of risk in e-service encounters. Information Systems Journal, 16(2), 107-134.More infoAbstract: As companies race to digitize physical-based service processes repackaging them as online e-services, it becomes increasingly important to understand how consumers perceive the digitized e-service alternative. We theorize that consumers often perceive e-services as being artificial and non-authentic, and that consumers must perform this assessment when deciding whether new e-services are viable alternatives to traditional service methods. This research investigates whether consumer perceptions of artificiality increase perceptions of e-service risk, which has been shown to hamper consumer acceptance in a variety of online settings. An empirical study operationalized perceived artificiality (PA) within a controlled laboratory experiment that manipulated the risk of a specific e-service class (e-payments). For a specific e-service brand, PA is reduced when the web interface is viewed as easy to use; alternatively, PA is increased when consumers have relatively high risk perceptions about the overall e-service class. Furthermore, consumers who were rated as information technology innovators had lower overall artificiality perceptions, however, exposure to negatively framed e-service efficacy information removed this artificiality reducing effect. The theoretical linkages between PA and perceived risk, and the two antecedents - ease of use and e-service class risk - were confirmed by survey results. The implications of these results for future research as well as the design and marketing of e-services are examined. © 2006 Blackwell publishing Ltd.
- Hardin, A. M., Fuller, M. A., & Valacich, J. S. (2006). Measuring group efficacy in virtual teams: New questions in an old debate. Small Group Research, 37(1), 65-85.More infoAbstract: Group efficacy has received renewed attention in the group literature. Although the relationship between group efficacy and group performance is well established, debate continues on how best to measure the construct. Although most research has explored this issue using collocated groups, this article examines the measurement of group efficacy in virtual teams and explores why some measurement methods may be more appropriate for use in noncollocated groups. Fifty-three senior-level university students involved in virtual team projects were administered questionnaires over the course of their project. As theorized, data analyses revealed that group efficacy beliefs reached by consensus were significantly higher than those measured by surveys administered to individual virtual team members. In addition, support for the greater predictability of an aggregated method over a group consensus method was demonstrated. Follow-up analyses show that group outcome perceptions were significantly related to team performance. Implications and future research are discussed. © 2006 Sage Publications.
- Looney, C. A., Valacich, J. S., Todd, P. A., & Morris, M. G. (2006). Paradoxes of online investing: Testing the influence of technology on user expectancies. Decision Sciences, 37(2), 205-246.More infoAbstract: At an increasing rate, individual investors are taking personal control over their financial destinies by investing their money online. Compared to offline do-it-yourself approaches, evidence suggests that investors exhibit lofty expectations and perform significantly worse after going online. However, little is understood about the mechanisms fueling expectancies, the role technologies play in their formation, or how technologies shape investment decisions. Therefore, this article explores the paradoxical nature of online investing technologies, which can give rise to a heightened state of conviction in one's capability to invest successfully. Drawing on Social Cognitive Theory, the concepts of encapsulation and combination are introduced to develop a research model describing how functional and technical self-efficacy judgments independently and collectively shape and influence outcome expectancies. The results suggest that perceptions about what one can accomplish through online investing technologies can lead investors to exaggerate their capabilities, which, in turn, produces elevated expectancies of financial payoffs and nonmonetary rewards. These findings carry important implications. In tasks requiring both computing and functional skills, the principals of encapsulation and combination highlight the importance of comprehensively capturing self-efficacy beliefs across skill domain boundaries. Moreover, online investing represents a para-doxical case that challenges the traditional assumption that fostering a robust sense of efficacy represents a purely noble enterprise. In fact, strong self-efficacy beliefs can prove counterproductive, leading to severe, irreversible, and unintended consequences. Going forward, these discoveries provide a solid foundation to enhance systems designs and facilitate a deeper understanding of user psychology. © 2006, Decision Sciences Institute.
- Schneider, C., Parboteeah, D. V., & Valacich, J. S. (2006). The effects of motivation and computer usage policies and procedures on task performance. Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Information Systems, ECIS 2006.More infoAbstract: Self-regulation is the situation where an individual attempts to control or alter his/her behavior. Research in social psychology has demonstrated that the act of self-regulation during one task can lead to impaired performance on a subsequent, unrelated task, because individuals have limited cognitive resources. In situation where companies are trying to limit the effect of interruptions due to persistent conversation by establishing workplace policies and regulations, the employees' performance might be thus adversely affected. This state of fatigue which results from the depletion of cognitive resources is termed ego depletion. The current study analyzes the effects of self-regulating behavior and motivation on task performance in a simulated organizational setting. Consistent with the findings in social psychological research, the results of this experiment support an adverse effect of self-regulating behavior on task performance. Although the directions of the means suggest a moderating role of motivation, no statistical support was found. However, ego-depleted participants in the high-motivation condition did not display weaker performance than participants in the nondepleted conditions. The implications of these results on organizational computer use policy and future research are discussed.
- Valacich, J. S., & Looney, C. A. (2006). Mobile technologies and collaboration. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 1, 21-.
- Valacich, J. S., Fuller, M. A., Schneider, C., & Dennis, A. R. (2006). Publication opportunities in premier business outlets: How level is the playing field?. Information Systems Research, 17(2), 107-125.More infoAbstract: This paper reports an analysis of the proportion of faculty publishing articles in premier business journals (i.e., the ratio of authors of premier business journal articles to total faculty of a discipline) across the disciplines of accounting, finance, management, marketing, and information systems (IS) for the years 1994-2003. This analysis revealed that over this period the management discipline had on average the highest proportion of faculty publishing in premier journals (12.7 authors per 100 management faculty), followed by finance (9.4 authors per 100 faculty), marketing (9.2 authors per 100 faculty), IS (5.5 authors per 100 faculty), and accounting (4.8 authors per 100 faculty). A further analysis examined these ratios for the different disciplines over time, finding that the ratios of authors to faculty have actually decreased for the disciplines of marketing and IS over this time period but have remained stable for the disciplines of accounting, management, and finance. Given steady growth in faculty size of all disciplines, the proportion of faculty publishing articles in premier journals in 2003 for all disciplines is lower than their 10-year averages, with IS having the lowest proportion in 2003. A sensitivity analysis reveals that without substantial changes that would allow more IS faculty to publish in the premier journals (e.g., by increasing publication cycles, number of premier outlets, and so on), IS will continue to lag far below the average of other disciplines. The implications of these findings for IS researchers, for institutions and administrators of IS programs, and for the IS academic discipline are examined. Based on these implications, recommendations for the IS discipline are presented. © 2006 INFORMS.
- Valacich, J. S., Jung, J. H., & Looney, C. A. (2006). The effects of individual cognitive ability and idea stimulation on idea-generation performance. Group Dynamics, 10(1), 1-15.More infoAbstract: A computer-based group idea-generation simulator was used to measure the performance of individuals with high and low cognitive ability who received high- or low-quality stimulation; high- and low-quality stimulation was operationalized by presenting controlled idea submissions from simulated group members throughout the idea-generation session. Cognitive ability and stimuli quality interacted such that the high cognitive ability/high-quality stimuli treatment achieved the highest performance. The results suggest that the performance of individuals with high cognitive ability can be enhanced when given high-quality stimuli or be inhibited when exposed to low-quality stimuli. The performance of individuals with low cognitive ability, in contrast, is consistently meager regardless of stimuli quality. The findings suggest that group composition cannot only significantly influence the overall ideational performance of a group, but also that of individual group members. The implications of these findings for future research, as well as the implications for the design of group idea-generation procedures, are discussed. Copyright 2006 by the American Psychological Association.
- DeLuca, D., & Valacich, J. S. (2005). Outcomes from conduct of virtual teams at two sites: Support for media synchronicity theory. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 50-.More infoAbstract: As geographic, temporal, and cost constraints move organizations toward virtual teamwork for increasingly complex tasks, research on the impact of groups attempting to solve business problems without face-to-face communication becomes more critical. In two independent studies in two different organizations, virtual groups provided feedback related to choice of communications media. The results of the studies lend support to Media Synchronicity Theory which suggests that communications media with low synchronicity (e.g. e-mail, bulletin board) may be appropriate for "conveyance" of information, whereas media with high synchronicity (e.g. face-to-face, video conference) may be more desirable for "convergence" on shared meaning. For researchers. Media Synchronicity Theory provides an alternative explanation for the variety of studies both supporting and contradicting Media Richness and Social Presence theories. For practitioners, the results suggest an approach to communications media choices that may improve the effectiveness of team problem solving.
- Gorgone, J. T., Gray, P., Valacich, J. S., Stohr, E. A., & Wigand, R. T. (2005). Joint AIS-ACM MSIS 2006 curriculum draft report. Association for Information Systems - 11th Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2005: A Conference on a Human Scale, 6, 3031-.More infoAbstract: This panel will present the final draft report of the Joint ACM/AIS Committee on the MS Curriculum in Information Systems. The committee, chaired by John T. Gorgone and Paul Gray, held several public meetings at AMCIS 2003, ICIS 2003, AMCIS 2004, IAIM/ICIS 2004, and ICECON 2004 to solicit feedback on proposed curriculum changes and to hear about the experiences of the MSIS community. We have listened to the MSIS community and have made modifications to the curriculum. The committee has conducted several virtual conferences, and met at Claremont Graduate University the spring of 2005 to develop the final draft Curriculum Guidelines for the remainder of this decade. The panelists are the members of the Committee and will be present to interact with the audience for feedback. Attendance and participation in this panel is particularly important for faculty in departments offering MS degrees in Information Systems. The publication target is January 2006.
- Jung, J. J., Schneider, C., & Valacich, J. S. (2005). The effects of real-time individual performance feedback and goal setting on computermediated group idea generation. Association for Information Systems - 26th International Conference on Information Systems, ICIS 2005: Forever New Frontiers, 885-896.More infoAbstract: Prior computer-mediated group idea generation research has concluded that social loafing is likely an important factor in reducing individual and group task performance. Group researchers-both focusing on non-technology and technology-mediated groups-have theorized that loafing could be minimized if individuals and groups were given either clear feedback on their task performance or if given clear and attainable performance goals. To examine the efficacy of these interventions on task performance, a computer-mediated idea generation environment was constructed that provided performance feedback for all group members where each member could view how many ideas every group member produced throughout an experimental session. In addition, this environment supported the ability to set a challenging, but attainable, performance goal for each group member (i.e., throughout a session, each member was able to track their performance toward a pre-set performance goal). Using this computer-mediated environment, a laboratory experiment was conducted with five-member groups that examined the influence of both goal setting (i.e., explicit-difficult versus do your best) and performance feedback (i.e., performance feedback versus no-performance feedback) in a 2 × 2 factorial design on group task performance. Providing performance feedback was found to significantly improve task performance. Additionally, performance feedback and goal setting interacted, such that groups in the performance feedback/explicit-difficult goal treatment had the highest performance. The implications of these results for future research, as well as the implications for the design of the human-computer interface in electronic group idea generation systems, are discussed.
- Jung, J. J., Schneider, C., & Valacich, J. S. (2005). The influence of real-time identifiability and evaluability performance feedback on group electronic brainstorming performance. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 30-.More infoAbstract: This study addresses the question of how to mitigate productivity losses in Electronic Brainstorming (EBS) due to social loafing. This article posits that loafing in the context of EBS may occur due to the combined effect of random group composition and anonymity in conjunction with unregulated individual performance behavior, not anonymity per se, and presents real-time, objective performance feedback as a plausible solution to combat social loafing. An automated real-time performance feedback system was incorporated into an existing EBS system and its effect on performance was empirically examined. Consistent with the suggestions of prior loafing research, in a controlled laboratory experiment groups given the identifiability treatment outperformed other treatments. Similarly, groups given the evaluability treatment outperformed other treatments. Furthermore, groups in the Identifiability and Evaluability treatment showed competitiveness among participants, promoting upward social comparison, and in turn outperforming all other groups in terms of idea quality.
- Nicholson, D. B., Nicholson, J. A., Parboteeah, D. V., & Valacich, J. S. (2005). Using distraction-conflict theory to measure the effects of distractions on individual task performance in a wireless mobile environment. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 33-.More infoAbstract: Mobile wireless computing is changing the way in which people work. It is believed that mobile environments contain various distractions that can affect the performance of knowledge workers. This paper draws on distraction-conflict theory to propose a model that explains the effects of distraction on individual performance in a wireless mobile environment. Initial findings indicated that even a low-level distraction can lead to a reduction in performance. Our findings have important implications for organizations proposing wireless initiatives.
- Topi, H., Valacich, J. S., & Hoffer, J. A. (2005). The effects of task complexity and time availability limitations on human performance in database query tasks. International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 62(3), 349-379.More infoAbstract: Prior research on human ability to write database queries has concentrated on the characteristics of query interfaces and the complexity of the query tasks. This paper reports the results of a laboratory experiment that investigated the relationship between task complexity and time availability, a characteristic of the task context not investigated in earlier database research, while controlling the query interface, data model, technology, and training. Contrary to expectations, when performance measures were adjusted by the time used to perform the task, time availability did not have any effects on task performance while task complexity had a strong influence on performance at all time availability levels. Finally, task complexity was found to be the main determinant of user confidence. The implications of these results for future research and practice are discussed. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Valacich, J. S., & Looney, C. A. (2005). Mobile technologies and collaboration. Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 31-.
- Xin, L. i., Hess, T. J., & Valacich, J. S. (2005). An empirical investigation of trusting bases in initial trust formation with national identity systems. Association for Information Systems - 11th Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2005: A Conference on a Human Scale, 4, 1703-1706.More infoAbstract: Recent research indicates that trust is important in helping users overcome perceptions of risk and uncertainty as well as promoting the acceptance of a specific technology. While prior studies have investigated different underlying bases of trust, little research has empirically tested all bases in one comprehensive model and evaluated the relative effect of various bases on subsequent trusting intentions. This research empirically investigates these trusting bases within an extended initial trust model in the context of a national identity (NID) system. Research on understanding the role of initial trust will not only be of assistance to the successful implementation of an NID system, but also provide guidance for understanding the role of initial trust in the deployment of other types of information systems.
- Cumberland, B. C., Valacich, J. S., & Jessup, L. M. (2004). Understanding meteor burst communications technologies. Communications of the ACM, 47(1), 89-92.More infoAbstract: The meteor burst communications (MBC) technologies to identify, develop and utilize, amazing and essentially freely available communication resources, are discussed. A MBC network is organized with large base station (master station) with approximately 5,000 watts of radio power and a large antenna arrays is used in conjunction with any number of remote sites. The master station transmits a continuous, coded signal in a certain direction and angle, at a predetermined power level. It has been observed that, when a meteor appears with appropriate speed, size and trajectory (SST), it reflects the signal from the master station back down at the earth to the remote station.
- Looney, C. A., Jessup, L. M., & Valacich, J. S. (2004). Emerging business models for mobile brokerage services. Communications of the ACM, 47(6), 71-77.More infoAbstract: The developments made on business models that are being designed specifically for the mobile arena are discussed. The ways in which mobile e-commerce (MEC) differs from the traditional approach are described and an analysis of the various business models that have emerged in the MEC environment is presented. The relative strengths and weaknesses of the models, and the implications of the developing trends for MEC in the brokerage industry are also discussed. It is found that though MEC has altered the competitive landscape even further, the technology needs to become severely standardized so that firms are able to design and deploy mobile brokerage services (MBS) more efficiently and effectively.
- Looney, C. A., Valacich, J. S., & Akbulut, A. Y. (2004). Online investment self-efficacy: Development and initial test of an instrument to assess perceived online investing abilities. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 37, 2885-2893.More infoAbstract: This paper develops and tests an instrument to measure online investment self-efficacy, defined as an individual's perceived ability to utilize online technologies to accomplish investing-related tasks. A series of empirical studies were conducted to establish the measure's psychometric properties. The results suggest that the measure exhibits admirable levels of reliability, as well as convergent, discriminant, and nomological validity. As predicted by theory, computer self-efficacy was found to serve as an important precursor to online investment self-efficacy. Furthermore, online investment self-efficacy played a significant role in fueling investor preference for the traditional (full-service) or online investing approach. More efficacious investors tended to prefer Web-based technologies as a vehicle for investing, whereas less efficacious individuals favored the traditional method.
- Xin, L. i., Valacich, J. S., & Hess, T. J. (2004). Predicting user trust in information systems: A comparison of competing trust models. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 37, 4103-4112.More infoAbstract: The concept of trust has recently emerged in the MIS field, with a focus on interpersonal or inter-organizational trust in the contexts of e-commerce and virtual teams. The inclusion of the trust concept within IS acceptance models provides further evidence that MIS researchers recognize the relevance of IS trust. While simple trust constructs have been incorporated into existing IS models, and trust models have been developed to address e-commerce issues, a comprehensive model of trust formation for a new information system has not been published. The goal of this research is to advance IS trust research by investigating the trust formation process with new IS. In this study, two initial trust formation models, applicable to information systems, are reviewed and compared at both the conceptual and empirical levels. The first model was proposed by McKnight, Choudhury and Kacmar in an e-commerce context in 2002. The second model is based on the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB), and was developed to predict people's trust in national identification (NID) systems. Based upon the conceptual comparison, the TRA/TPB-based trust model appears to be more powerful at predicting user trust in IS. An experimental study has been designed to compare these two models in the same context, predicting people's trust in NID systems. This empirical comparison will provide more insights for understanding user trust towards IS.
- Gorgone, J. T., Davis, G. B., Valacich, J. S., Topi, H., Feinstein, D. L., & Longenecker Jr., H. E. (2003). IS 2002: Model curriculum and guidelines for undergraduate degree programs in information systems. Data Base for Advances in Information Systems, 34(1), 1-52.
- Sarker, S., & Valacich, J. (2003). Virtual Team Trust. Information Resources Management Journal, 16(2).
- Sarker, S., Valacich, J. S., & Sarker, S. (2003). Virtual team trust: Instrument development and validation in an IS educational environment. Information Resources Management Journal, 16(2), 35-55.More infoAbstract: Trust is a major factor influencing the cohesiveness among virtual team members. While recent research in the fields of information systems and management has examined this construct, there are no existing instruments that measure all the different bases of trust. Drawing on the literature, three different bases of trust applicable to virtual teams have been identified: personality-based, institutional-based, and cognitive trust, with cognitive trust further subdivided into three dimensions: stereotyping, unit grouping, and reputation categorization. This paper reports on the development of an instrument to capture these three bases of trust. Using exploratory, and thereafter, confirmatory factor analysis, the instrument is validated, and the psychometric properties of the construct(s) are verified in the context of U.S.-Canadian student virtual teams engaged in systems development projects. In addition to confirming the conceptual bases of trust, the instrument validation process found that stereotyping in virtual teams can be of three distinct types: message-based, physical appearance/behavior-based, and technology-based. The development and validation of this instrument should enable future researchers to measure virtual team trust in a broad range of technology and team configurations.
- Speier, C., Vessey, I., & Valacich, J. S. (2003). The Effects of Interruptions, Task Complexity, and Information Presentation on Computer-Supported Decision-Making Performance. Decision Sciences, 34(4), 771-797.More infoAbstract: Interruptions are a frequent occurrence in the work life of most decision makers. This paper investigated the influence of interruptions on different types of decision-making tasks and the ability of information presentation formats, an aspect of information systems design, to alleviate them. Results from the experimental study indicate that interruptions facilitate performance on simple tasks, while inhibiting performance on more complex tasks. Interruptions also influenced the relationship between information presentation format and the type of task performed: spatial presentation formats were able to mitigate tghe effects of interruptions while symbolic formats were not. The paper presents a broad conceptualization of interruptions and interprets the ramifications of the experimental findings within this conceptualization to develop a program for future research.
- Topi, H., Valacich, J. S., & Rao, M. T. (2002). The effects of personality and media differences on the performance of dyads addressing a cognitive conflict task. Small Group Research, 33(6), 667-701.More infoAbstract: Prior information systems research has found that numerous contextual factors, including individual differences, can influence which communication technologies are chosen for various situations. Because the adaptability of information and communication technologies to individual preferences and different environments is continuously improving, it has become increasingly feasible and important to investigate the relationships between individual characteristics (such as personality) and features of technology. In this study, the communication environment (face to face vs. synchronous computer mediated) and partners' personality types (extraversion-introversion) in two-person groups were contrasted in a laboratory experiment. Dyads addressed a cognitive conflict task - allocation of limited funds to controversial social causes. Contrary to the hypotheses, introverts exerted influence over extraverts. As expected, extraverts were more satisfied with the process than introverts, and face-to-face dyads required less time, were more satisfied, and perceived less conflict than computer-mediated dyads. Given the ease with which some modern technologies can be melded to each individual's preferences and that prior research has shown that individual differences influence the selection of technologies, these results have important implications for future information systems researchers and technology designers.
- Valacich, J., & Dennis, A. (2001). Group Support Systems. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 18-.
- Easley, R. F., Valacich, J. S., & Venkataramanan, M. A. (2000). Capturing group preferences in a multicriteria decision. European Journal of Operational Research, 125(1), 73-83.More infoAbstract: This paper examines the extent to which methods used for analyzing judgments from a group of decision makers result in preference rankings which are consistent with the group member's subjective beliefs about their preferences. In a laboratory group decision setting, the Analytic Hierarchy Process, a newly developed probabilistic extension to the AHP, and two pairwise voting methods are used to develop separate preference rankings based on input from the group members. The probabilistic version of the AHP, in its first independent test, is found to provide more insight into the group decision while requiring fewer a priori assumptions. A commonly used and easily implemented pairwise voting procedure is found to be significantly inferior to the other methods in its ability to capture the group's preference rankings. This underscores the importance of using appropriate decision models for developing a full understanding of group preferences.
- Mennecke, B. E., Valacich, J. S., & Wheeler, B. C. (2000). The Effects of Media and Task on User Performance: A Test of the Task-Media Fit Hypothesis. Group Decision and Negotiation, 9(6), 507-529.More infoAbstract: This research was designed to examine the task-media fit hypothesis, an extension to media richness theory that predicts the objective performance of various media for a number of task types. To examine this model, dyads communicating through face-to-face, videophone, telephone (i.e., audio-only communication), or synchronous computer-mediated communication worked in a laboratory experiment to address an intellective or negotiation task. The intellective task required that each dyad member effectively share factual information that each individual independently held. The negotiation task required that each dyad member effectively share preferences based on personal values and reach an agreement. The results of the study provide mixed support for the task-media fit hypothesis. In general, the results for the negotiation task largely supported the theory while the results for the intellective task did not support the theory. These results help to clarify limitations and provide extensions to the theory by demonstrating how variations in task processes and communication media act to mediate task performance. The implications of these results for future research and practice are discussed.
- Dennis, A. R., & Valacich, J. S. (1999). Research Note. Electronic Brainstorming: Illusions and Patterns of Productivity. Information Systems Research, 10(4), 375-377.
- Dennis, A. R., & Valacich, J. S. (1999). Rethinking media richness: Towards a theory of media synchronicity. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 12-.More infoAbstract: This paper describes a new theory called a theory of media synchronicity which proposes that a set of five media capabilities are important to group work, and that all tasks are composed of two fundamental communication processes (conveyance and convergence). Communication effectiveness is influenced by matching the media capabilities to the needs of the fundamental communication processes, not aggregate collections of these processes (i.e., tasks) as proposed by media richness theory. The theory also proposes that the relationships between communication processes and media capabilities will vary between established and newly formed groups, and will change over time.
- Speier, C., Valacich, J. S., & Vessey, I. (1999). The influence of task interruption on individual decision making: An information overload perspective. Decision Sciences, 30(2), 337-356.More infoAbstract: Interruptions are a common aspect of the work environment of most organizations. Yet little is known about how interruptions and their characteristics, such as frequency of occurrence, influence decision-making performance of individuals. Consequently, this paper reports the results of two experiments investigating the influence of interruptions on individual decision making. Interruptions were found to improve decision-making performance on simple tasks and to lower performance on complex tasks. For complex tasks, the frequency of interruptions and the dissimilarity of content between the primary and interruption tasks was found to exacerbate this effect. The implications of these results for future research and practice are discussed.
- Valacich, J. S., & Dennis, A. R. (1999). Group Support Systems. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 24-.More infoAbstract: The objectives in coordinating this year's Group Support System (GSS) mini-track was to encourage a wide range of papers that touched on a variety of important issues. It has included research from a broad range of perspectives. It includes discussion, development and refinement of research on the use of information technology to support group work.
- Dennis, A. R., Valacich, J. S., Speier, C., & Morris, M. G. (1998). Beyond media richness: An empirical test of media synchronicity theory. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 1, 48-57.More infoAbstract: One widely accepted theory on media use is media richness theory. However, media richness theory was developed without consideration of new electronic media and the many social factors that can influence media selection, communication processes, and outcomes. Recent empirical investigations have raised questions about media richness theory's applicability to these new media. Therefore, this paper presents a new theory called media synchronicity theory (MST) which proposes that all tasks are composed of two fundamental communication processes (conveyance and convergence). Thus, communication effectiveness is influenced by matching the media capabilities to the needs of the fundamental communication processes, not aggregate collections of these processes (i.e., tasks) as tested in examinations of media richness theory. A laboratory experiment was conducted to provide an initial investigation into the theoretical underpinnings of MST. This study examined the influence of different media on conveyance and convergence effectiveness. Results from this study provide preliminary support for the concepts embodied in MST.
- Mennecke, B. E., & Valacich, J. S. (1998). Information is what you make of it: The influence of group history and computer support on information sharing, decision quality, and member perceptions. Journal of Management Information Systems, 15(2), 173-197.More infoAbstract: Researchers have proposed that the contradictions observed between past group support system (GSS) laboratory and field research may be partially accounted for by the ad-hoc nature of the groups that are often used in the laboratory. To examine this, a laboratory experiment examining the influence of group history (i.e., established versus ad-hoc groups) and the level of computer support (i.e., communicating via a computer-mediated system versus face-to-face) was conducted. Dependent variables examined in the research include information-sharing performance, decision quality, and member perceptions. Subjects completed a hidden profile task - a task where some information is held by all group members prior to the meeting, while other information is held only by a subset of the group. As expected, established groups discussed less unique information than ad-hoc groups. In addition, information sharing was positively related to the quality of group decisions. Members of established groups were more satisfie d than members of ad-hoc groups; members using the computer-mediated system were less satisfied than those communicating face-to-face. In addition, group cohesion was positively related to satisfaction and decision quality. The results are discussed in the context of prior theory and research. Opportunities for future research are also described.
- Dennis, A. R., Valacich, J. S., Carte, T. A., Garfield, M. J., Haley, B. J., & Aronson, J. E. (1997). Research Report: The Effectiveness of Multiple Dialogues in Electronic Brainstorming. Information Systems Research, 8(2), 203-211.More infoAbstract: Members of brainstorming groups often pursue the same set of ideas rather than considering a wide and diverse range of ideas, which may reduce the number of ideas they produce. One way to reduce this cognitive inertia may be to encourage groups to engage in several simultaneous discussions or dialogues. This experiment, which studied groups brainstorming electronically, found that groups generated more ideas, more high-quality ideas, and more novel ideas when using multiple dialogues than when using single dialogues.
- Dennis, A. R., Valacich, J. S., Connolly, T., & Wynne, B. E. (1996). Process Structuring in Electronic Brainstorming. Information Systems Research, 7(2), 268-277.More infoAbstract: One aspect of brainstorming that has received little research attention is how the brainstorming problem should be presented to the group, whether as one all-encompassing question or as a series of separate questions each focusing on one aspect of the problem. This paper reports the results of two experiments in which subjects (MBAs in the first, senior executives in the second) electronically brainstormed on intact problems (where all parts of the problem were presented simultaneously) or on decomposed problems (where three subcategories of the problem were sequentially posed to the groups). In both experiments, groups using the decomposed process generated 60% more ideas. We attribute these differences to the ability of time constraints to increase the rate of idea generation, and the ability of problem decomposition to refocus members' attention more evenly across the entire problem. (.
- Gorgone, J. T., Davis, G. B., Valacich, J. S., Topi, H., Feinstein, D. L., & Longenecker Jr., H. E. (1996). IS 2002 Model curriculum and guidelines for undergraduate degree programs in information systems. Angewandte Makromolekulare Chemie, 239, XI-52.
- Wheeler, B. C., & Valacich, J. S. (1996). Facilitation, GSS, and Training as Sources of Process Restrictiveness and Guidance for Structured Group Decision Making: An Empirical Assessment. Information Systems Research, 7(4), 429-450.More infoAbstract: Structured decision techniques have been a mainstay of prescriptive decision theory for decades. Group Support Systems (GSSs) automate many of the features found in decision techniques, yet groups often choose to ignore both the technique and the technology in favor of more familiar decision processes. This research empirically tests propositions and hypotheses for a specific instantiation of Adaptive Structuration Theory. A controlled laboratory experiment tests the ability of three appropriation mediators (e.g., facilitation, GSS configuration, and training) to directively affect group decision making through guidance and restrictiveness. The experiment used a hidden-profile task and structured decision technique which directed group members to reach a decision by identifying the problem, choosing criteria, and selecting a solution. The results supported the proposition that appropriation mediators can increase the faithful use of structured decision techniques and that faithful use can improve decision quality.
- Alavi, M., Wheeler, B. C., & Valacich, J. S. (1995). Using IT to reengineer business education: An exploratory investigation of collaborative telelearning. MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems, 19(3), 293-311.More infoAbstract: This longitudinal field study (three work sessions plus an initial training session) investigates the efficacy of a new technology - desktop videoconferencing (DVC) - in support of collaborative telelearning (i.e., collaborative learning among non-proximate team members). Two types of collaborative telelearning environments are considered: One involves local groups (i.e., students on the same campus), and the other involves non-proximate distant groups (i.e., students on two separate campuses). The collaborative telelearning environments are compared to each other and to a traditional face-to-face collaborative learning environment. The study found that the three environments are equally effective in terms of student knowledge acquisition; however, higher critical-thinking skills were found in the distant DVC environment. The subjects in the three learning environments were equally satisfied with their learning process and outcomes. At the conclusion of the longitudinal assessment, the distant students using DVC were more committed and attracted to their groups compared to local students who worked face-to-face or through DVC.
- Couger, J. D., Davis, G. B., Dologite, D. G., Feinstein, D. L., Gorgone, J. T., Jenkins, A. M., Kasper, G. M., Little, J. C., Longenecker Jr., H. E., & Valacich, J. S. (1995). IS'95: Guideline for undergraduate IS curriculum. MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems, 19(3), 341-356.More infoAbstract: This paper provides an overview report of the first joint curriculum development effort for undergraduate programs in information systems. The curriculum recommendations are a collaborative effort of the following organizations: ACM, AIS, DPMA, and ICIS. After a summary of the objectives and rationale for the curriculum, the curriculum model is described. Input and output attributes of graduates are delineated. Resource requirements for effective IS programs are then identified. Lastly, there is a proposal for maintaining currency of the curriculum through electronic media.
- Valacich, J. S., & Schwenk, C. (1995). Devil′s Advocacy and Dialectical Inquiry Effects on Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Group Decision Making. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 63(2), 158-173.More infoAbstract: For more than 20 years, researchers have investigated the effects of cognitive conflict techniques on the decision making performance of groups and individuals. Past research on two techniques, devil′s advocacy and dialectical inquiry, has shown that both techniques improve group performance over nonconflictual, expert-based approaches. More recently, researchers have begun to investigate how advanced decision and communication technologies can be used to enhance group processing and outcomes. In this paper, we extend both streams of research by reporting the results of a laboratory experiment on the effects devil′s advocacy and dialectical inquiry within face-to-face and computer-mediated groups. The results suggest that groups given the devil′s advocacy treatment developed and considered more alternative solutions to a case problem and selected a higher quality recommendation than those in the dialectical inquiry and expert-based treatments. Computer-mediated groups developed and considered more solution alternatives but required more voting rounds to reach agreement than did face-to-face groups. Computer-mediated groups were more satisfied with the process than face-to-face groups; no differences were found in satisfaction with decision outcome. The implications of the results for future research and practice are discussed. © 1995 Academic Press. All rights reserved.
- Valacich, J. S., Wheeler, B. C., Mennecke, B. E., & Wachter, R. (1995). The Effects of Numerical and Logical Group Size on Computer-Mediated Idea Generation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 62(3), 318-329.More infoAbstract: A laboratory experiment investigated the effects of numerical group size and logical group size (i.e., group heterogeneity in regard to task demands) on the performance of groups addressing an idea generation task while using computer-mediated communication. Six different numerical group sizes were studied, which ranged from 5 to 10 members. Logical size was manipulated by varying the amount of task-relevant information given to a particular group member. Larger logical group sizes (heterogeneous groups) were induced by distributing unique task-relevant information among group members; smaller logical group sizes (homogeneous groups) were induced by providing all task information to all members. A significant main effect for numerical group size showed that larger groups outperformed smaller groups. Numerical group size interacted with logical group size resulting in greater performance gains for increased numerical group size within heterogeneous groups. Average contributions per group member diminished with increased numerical group size for homogeneous groups and increased for heterogeneous groups. © 1995 Academic Press. All rights reserved.
- Dennis, A. R., & Valacich, J. S. (1994). Group, sub-group, and nominal group idea generation: New rules for a new media?. Journal of Management, 20(4), 723-736.More infoAbstract: How should a group organize itself to generate ideas? Should all group members work together as one intact group, should they form several smaller sub-groups that work independently, or should all members work separately as individuals without communicating? Research with verbal media presents a clear answer: all members should work separately without communicating. This paper examines this question for computer-mediated idea generation. In two separate studies, intact groups generated more ideas (with higher quality) than those working as individuals or in several smaller sub-groups. We attribute these differences to reduced blocking, and different social processes adopted in the different sized groups. © 1994.
- Schwenk, C., & Valacich, J. S. (1994). Effects of Devil′s Advocacy and Dialectical Inquiry on Individuals versus Groups. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 59(2), 210-222.More infoAbstract: There is a long history of research that has investigated the effects of cognitive conflict on group and individual decision making. No study has simultaneously compared the effects of two techniques, devil′s advocacy and dialectical inquiry, on the performance of individuals versus groups. In this paper, we report the results of a laboratory experiment that makes this comparison. Artificial groups (groups formed by pooling individuals working independently) obtained an overall lower-quality solution for a case analysis problem than intact groups. However, there were no performance differences between intact groups and the performance of the best member of artificial groups. When artificial and intact groups were examined together, those given the devil′s advocacy treatment produced higher-quality solutions than those given the dialectical inquiry treatment and a simpler expert-based approach involving no conflict. Intact groups given the devil′s advocacy treatment produced higher-quality solutions than those given the expert treatment. Artificial groups given devil′s advocacy produced higher-quality solutions than those given the expert or dialectical inquiry treatment. Overall, the results suggest that the devil′s advocacy treatment has a slightly greater advantage over the dialectical inquiry with individuals than with groups. © 1994 Academic Press. All rights reserved.
- Valacich, J. S., & Dennis, A. R. (1994). A mathematical model of performance of computer-mediated groups during idea generation. Journal of Management Information Systems, 11(1), 59-72.More infoAbstract: As the use of computer-mediated systems for group work grows, the need for a better understanding of the impact of such systems becomes more important. Studies of non-computer-mediated group work have long been guided by mathematical models of group interaction and performance, but recent research suggests that these models do not fit the unique capabilities of computer-mediated systems. This article builds on previous group research to create a mathematical model of computer-mediated group performance which is then tested using data from two prior studies. This testing enabled us to conclude that models of computer-mediated groups run counter to the many guiding models of non-computer-mediated groups. We therefore discuss the implications of these differences in relation to users of this technology and to future developmental and empirical research. © 1994, ME Sharpe, Inc.
- Valacich, J. S., Dennis, A. R., & Connolly, T. (1994). Idea Generation in Computer-Based Groups: A New Ending to an Old Story. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 57(3), 448-467.More infoAbstract: Previous research on brainstorming and related idea-generating techniques has generally found interacting groups to produce fewer ideas than equivalent numbers of individuals working alone whose ideas are later pooled (i.e., nominal groups). In this paper we report four experiments. The first three contrast groups of various sizes using a computer-based idea generation system to equivalently sized nominal groups. The results of these experiments were consistent; large groups using a computer-based idea generation system outperformed equivalent nominal groups in idea-generating tasks. A fourth experiment is then reported which tests the primary hypothesis as to why groups using the computer-based idea generation system outperformed nominal groups. This study concluded that the elimination of production blocking in the computer-based groups (a problem common in groups that communicate verbally where only one member of the group can speak at a time) accounts for a significant portion of the enhanced productivity for the computer-based groups. © 1994 Academic Press. All rights reserved.
- Valacich, J. S., Mennecke, B. E., Wachter, R. M., & Wheeler, B. C. (1994). Extensions to media richness theory: a test of the task-media fit hypothesis. Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 4, 11-20.More infoAbstract: The richness of the communication environment and the type of task performed by dyads was contrasted in a laboratory experiment. Dyads communicated using face-to-face, video phone, telephone, and synchronous computer-mediated communication. One task was an intellective task while the other was a value-laden cognitive conflict task (McGrath, 1984). For the intellective task, subjects were given different information (i.e., one subject received a directory from the yellow pages and the other a city map) and asked to locate the closest doctor's office listed in the yellow pages directory to a location marked on the map. For the value laden task, subjects were asked to allocate limited funds to one or more of six controversial social causes. The results of this study help to provide theoretical extensions to normative views of media richness theory by discussing how variations in task processes may act to mediate both perceptions and performance.
- Dennis, A. R., & Valacich, J. S. (1993). Computer Brainstorms: More Heads Are Better Than One. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(4), 531-537.More infoAbstract: Research has consistently found nominal group brainstorming (in which members work separately without communicating) to be superior to brainstorming in which group members interact verbally. This article presents the results of an experiment that found the reverse to be true for computer-mediated electronic brainstorming. In this experiment, 12-member electronically interacting groups generated more ideas than did 12-member nominal groups, and there were no differences between 6-member electronic and 6-member nominal groups. The authors attribute these results to the ability of electronic brainstorming to introduce few process losses (production blocking, evaluation apprehension, and free riding) while enabling process gains (synergy and the avoidance of redundant ideas).
- Byrd, M. D., Jenkins, J. L., Kim, D., Kumar, M., Schwartz, A. W., Valacich, J. S., Williams, P. A., & Wright, R. T. (2019, December). Understanding Unauthorized Access using Fine-Grained Human-Computer Interaction Data. In Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Workshop on HCI Research in MIS.
- Jenkins, J. L., Valacich, J. S., & Kirk, H. (2019, August). Improving Compassion Measurement in the Workforce by Analyzing Users’ Mouse-Cursor Movements. In The Americas Conference on Information Systems.
- Zhang, X., Li, W., Valacich, J. S., & Jenkins, J. L. (2019, December). How online patient-physician interaction influences patient satisfaction. In International Conference on Information Systems.
- Grimes, M., Nunamaker, J. F., Valacich, J. S., Burgoon, J. K., Twyman, N., Jenkins, J. L., & Proudfoot, J. (2018, January). Controlled Realism in Behavioral Research: Nine lessons for designing experiments that maximize both control and realism. In Hawaii International Conference on Computer and Systems Sciences. Symposium on Rapid Screening Technologies, Deception Detection, and Credibility Assessment.
- Valacich, J. S., Byrd, M. D., Williams, P., & Jenkins, J. L. (2018, December). Creating a Realistic Experimental Scenario for HCI-Based Deception Detection Research with Ground Truth and Un-Sanctioned Malicious Acts. In 2018 Pre-ICIS SIG HCI Workshop.
- Valacich, J. S., Byrd, M. D., Williams, P., & Jenkins, J. L. (2018, January). A research protocol for examining countermeasures: Developing ground truth and motivating an Adequate Malicious baserate. In Hawaii International Conference on Computer and Systems Sciences. Symposium on Credibility Assessment and Screening Technologies..
- Zhang, x., Valacich, J. S., Jenkins, J. L., & Guo, X. (2018, December). The influence of buying vs. receiving an IT-based Devise on User Commitment. In 2018 Pre-ICIS SIG HCI Workshop.
- Grimes, G. M., Proudfoot, J. G., Valacich, J. S., Jenkins, J. L., Twyman, N. W., & Burgoon, J. K. (2017, January). Controlled Realism in Deception Research.. In Hawaii International Conference on Computer and Systems Sciences. Symposium on Rapid Screening Technologies, Deception Detection, and Credibility Assessment..
- Jenkins, J. L., Jenkins, J. L., Nunamaker, J. F., Grimes, G. M., Proudfoot, J. G., Proudfoot, J. G., Valacich, J. S., Valacich, J. S., Valacich, J. S., Proudfoot, J. G., Nunamaker, J. F., Nunamaker, J. F., & Jenkins, J. L. (2017, January). Sleight of hand: Identifying malicious insider threats through the monitoring of mouse-cursor movements. In Hawaii International Conference on Computer and Systems Sciences. Symposium on Rapid Screening Technologies, Deception Detection, and Credibility Assessment..
- Grimes, G. M., Proudfoot, J. G., Valacich, J. S., Jenkins, J. L., Twyman, N. W., Burgoon, J. K., & Marquardson, J. (2016, January). Lesson Learned from Successive Deception Experiments. In Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Symposium on Rapid Screening Technologies, Deception Detection, and Credibility Assessment.
- SchuetzlerRM, ., SchuetzlerRM, ., GrimesGM, ., GrimesGM, ., ElkinsAC, ., ElkinsAC, ., BurgoonJK, ., BurgoonJK, ., ValacichJS, ., & ValacichJS, . (2016). Talking and Typing: of Vocalic and Keystroke Dynamics Features for Deception Detection.. In Hawaii International Conference on Computer and Systems Sciences Symposium on Rapid Screening Technologies, Deception Detection, and Credibility Assessment.
- ValacichJ, ., ValacichJ, ., JenkinsJL, ., JenkinsJL, ., ByrdM, ., & ByrdM, . (2016). Suspicion Detection in the Wild: Lessons Learned from an Early Stage Company. In Hawaii International Conference on Computer and Systems Sciences Symposium on Rapid Screening Technologies, Deception Detection, and Credibility Assessment.
- Williams, P. A., Jenkins, J. L., & Valacich, J. S. (2016, December). Real-time hand tremor detection via mouse cursor movements for improved human-computer interactions: An exploratory Study.. In Fifteenth Annual Workshop on HCI Research in MIS--ICIS Pre-Conference.
- Wilson, D., Wilson, D., Jenkins, J. L., Jenkins, J. L., Twyman, N., Twyman, N., Jenson, M., Jenson, M., Valacich, J. S., Valacich, J. S., Dunbar, N., Dunbar, N., Wilson, S., Wilson, S., Miller, C., Miller, C., Adame, B., Adame, B., Lee, Y., , Lee, Y., et al. (2016, January). Serious Games for Reducing Bias in Credibility Decisions: An Evaluation Framework and Case Study. In Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences.
- GrimesGM, ., & ValacichJS, . (2015, Annual). Mind Over Mouse: The Effect of Cognitive Load on Mouse Movement Behavior.. In International Conference on Information Systems.
- Jenkins, J., Larsen, R., Valacich, J. S., Bodily, R., Sandberg, D., Williams, P., Stokes, S., & Harris, S. (2015, August). A Multi-Experimental Examination of Analyzing Mouse Cursor Trajectories to Gauge Subject Uncertainty. In Americas Conference on Information Systems.
- JenkinsJL, ., & ValacichJS, . (2015, Annual). Behaviorally Measuring Ease-of-Use by Analyzing Users’ Mouse Cursor Movements. In Fourteenth Annual Workshop on HCI Research in MIS.
- LeeY, ., DunbarN, ., MillerC, ., LaneB, ., JensenM, ., BessarabovaE, ., BurgoonJ, ., AdameB, ., ValacichJ, ., ArterburnE, ., BostwickE, ., PiercyC, ., KingS, ., ElizondoJ, ., & WilsonS, . (2015, Annual). Anchoring and representativeness bias mitigation through a digital game: Effectiveness and delivery format.. In Annual Conference of the International Communication Association.
- WilsonDW, ., SchuetzlerRS, ., DornB, ., ProudfootJP, ., & ValacichJS, . (2015, Annual). When disclosure is involuntary: Empowering users with control to reduce concerns. In International Conference on Information Systems.
- Hibbeln, M., Jenkins, J. L., Schneider, C., Valacich, J. S., & Weinmann, M. (2014, December). Investigating the Effect of Insurance Fraud on Mouse Usages in Human-Computer Interactions. In International Conference on Information Systems.
- Wilson, D., Proudfoot, J., & Valacich, J. S. (2014, December). Saving face on Facebook: Privacy concerns, social benefits, and impression management. In International Conference on Information Systems.