Pamela G Reed
- Professor, Nursing
Dr. Pamela G. Reed is Professor at The University of Arizona College of Nursing where she also served as Associate Dean for Academic Affairs. Her research has focused on well-being and mental health across the lifespan, spirituality at end-of-life, and moral distress and ethical concerns of frontline caregivers and terminally ill individuals. Her current scholarship focuses on nursing theory, philosophy, and scientific knowledge development, and work on intermodernism as a philosophy of nursing science. Dr. Reed’s self-transcendence theory is published in nursing theory textbooks and articles for research and practice, and her Spiritual Perspective Scale and Self-Transcendence Scale have been used by researchers around the world. In addition, she and a colleague have authored several editions of two books, Perspectives on Nursing Theory and Nursing Knowledge and Theory Innovation: Advancing the Science of Practice. Dr. Reed teaches philosophy of nursing science & practice, and theory development & evaluation to PhD and DNP nursing students. She holds a BSN, MSN (in Child/Adol PMH) and PhD (major in nursing) from Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan, and an MA in philosophy from The University of Arizona. She has been a Visiting Scholar at several institutions including New York University and Duke University and is a member of the University of California-Irvine Center for Nursing Philosophy Steering Committee. Dr. Reed is a Fellow in the American Academy of Nursing.
- Best Paper of the Year
- Nursing Science Quarterly, Spring 2017
- Extraordinary Faculty Alumni Award
- UA College of Nursing Alumni Organization, Summer 2016
- Master of Arts in Philosophy degree
- The University of Arizona, Spring 2016
No activities entered.
DissertationNURS 920 (Fall 2020)
Phil of Nursing Science & PracNURS 705 (Fall 2020)
Philosophy& Theory for the DNPNURS 704 (Fall 2020)
DissertationNURS 920 (Summer I 2020)
Independent StudyNURS 799 (Summer I 2020)
Research PreceptorshipNURS 791A (Summer I 2020)
DissertationNURS 920 (Spring 2020)
Theory Develop+EvaluatNURS 706 (Spring 2020)
DissertationNURS 920 (Fall 2019)
Phil of Nursing Science & PracNURS 705 (Fall 2019)
Philosophy& Theory for the DNPNURS 704 (Fall 2019)
Acd Fclty Role:Thry+ApplNURS 602 (Summer I 2019)
DissertationNURS 920 (Summer I 2019)
PracticumNURS 694 (Summer I 2019)
DissertationNURS 920 (Spring 2019)
Research PreceptorshipNURS 791A (Spring 2019)
Theory Develop+EvaluatNURS 706 (Spring 2019)
DissertationNURS 920 (Fall 2018)
Phil of Nursing Science & PracNURS 705 (Fall 2018)
Philosophy& Theory for the DNPNURS 704 (Fall 2018)
PracticumNURS 694 (Fall 2018)
Acd Fclty Role:Thry+ApplNURS 602 (Summer I 2018)
DissertationNURS 920 (Summer I 2018)
Independent StudyNURS 799 (Summer I 2018)
Research PreceptorshipNURS 791A (Summer I 2018)
DissertationNURS 920 (Spring 2018)
Research PreceptorshipNURS 791A (Spring 2018)
Theory Develop+EvaluatNURS 706 (Spring 2018)
DNP ProjectNURS 922 (Fall 2017)
DissertationNURS 920 (Fall 2017)
Independent StudyNURS 799 (Fall 2017)
Phil of Nursing Science & PracNURS 705 (Fall 2017)
Philosophy& Theory for the DNPNURS 704 (Fall 2017)
PracticumNURS 694 (Fall 2017)
Acd Fclty Role:Thry+ApplNURS 602 (Summer I 2017)
DNP ProjectNURS 922 (Summer I 2017)
DissertationNURS 920 (Summer I 2017)
DNP ProjectNURS 922 (Spring 2017)
DissertationNURS 920 (Spring 2017)
PracticumNURS 694 (Spring 2017)
Research PreceptorshipNURS 791A (Spring 2017)
Theory Develop+EvaluatNURS 706 (Spring 2017)
DissertationNURS 920 (Fall 2016)
Independent StudyNURS 799 (Fall 2016)
Phil of Nursing Science & PracNURS 705 (Fall 2016)
PracticumNURS 694 (Fall 2016)
Acd Fclty Role:Thry+ApplNURS 602 (Summer I 2016)
DNP ProjectNURS 922 (Summer I 2016)
DNP ProjectNURS 922 (Spring 2016)
DissertationNURS 920 (Spring 2016)
Research PreceptorshipNURS 791A (Spring 2016)
Theory Develop+EvaluatNURS 706 (Spring 2016)
- Reed, P. G., & Shearer, N. B. (2018). Nursing Knowledge and Theory Innovation: Advancing the Science of Practice. New York: Springer.
- Reed, P. G. (2018). A Paradigm for the Production of Practice-Based Knowledge: Philosophical and Practical Considerations. In Nursing Knowledge and Theory Innovation: Advancing the Science of Practice(pp 199-214). New York: Springer.
- Reed, P. G. (2018). A Philosophy of Nursing Science and Practice: Intermodernism. In Nursing Knowledge and Theory Innovation: Advancing the Science of Practice(pp 21-46). New York: Springer.
- Reed, P. G. (2018). Pamela G Reed: Self-Transcendence Theory. In Nursing Theorists and Their Work (9th ed.)(pp 463-476). St. Louis: Mosby/Elsevier.
- Reed, P. G. (2018). Practitioner as Theorist: A Nurse's Toolkit for Theoretical Thinking in Nursing. In Nursing Knowledge and Theory Innovation: Advancing the Science of Practice(pp 135-148). New York: Springer.
- Reed, P. G. (2018). Self-Transcendence Theory. In Middle Range Theory for Nursing (4th ed.)(pp 119-146). New York: Springer.
- Reed, P. G. (2018). The Practice Turn and Nursing Theory Innovation. In Nursing Knowledge and Theory Innovation: Advancing the Science of Practice(pp 231-238). New York: Springer.
- Reed, P. G. (2018). The Spiral Path of Nursing Knowledge. In Nursing Knowledge and Theory Innovation: Advancing the Science of Practice(pp 1-20). New York: Springer.
- Reed, P. G., & Brewer, B. B. (2018). Generating Knowledge in Practice: Philosophical and Methodological Considerations.. In Nursing Knowledge and Theory Innovation: Advancing the Science of Practice.(pp 167-186). New York: Springer.
- Reed, P. G., & Shearer, N. B. (2018). Steps in Reformulating a Nursing Practice Concept: Empowerment as an Example. In Nursing Knowledge and Theory Innovation: Advancing the Science of Practice(pp 215-230). New York: Springer.
- Reed, P. G., Ruel, J., & McArthur, D. B. (2018). The DNP Project: Translating Research into Knowledge for Practice.. In Nursing Knowledge and Theory Innovation Advancing the Science of Practice.(pp 93-106). New York: Springer.
- Reed, P. G. (2017). Peplau's Theoretical Model by J.J. Fitzpatrick (Ed.).. In Encyclopedia of Nursing Research (4th ed)(pp 564-567). New York: Springer Pub.
- Reed, P. G., & Brewer, B. B. (2018). Generating Knowledge in Practice: Philosophical and Methodological Considerations. In Nursing Knowledge and Theory Innovation. Springer.
- Ruel, J., Mcarthur, D., & Reed, P. G. (2018). The DNP Project: Translating Research into Knowledge for Practice. In Nursing Knowledge and Theory Innovation Advancing the Science of Practice. Springer Publishing Co.
- Reed, P. G. (2019). Adaptive Preferences: A philosophical issue raised by an expanded model of health. Nursing Science Quarterly, 32(3), 201-206.
- Reed, P. G. (2019). Healing Pattern: A natural kind in nursing?. Nursing Science Quarterly, 32(1), 39-42.
- Reed, P. G. (2019). Intermodernism: A philosophical perspective for development of scientific nursing theory.. Advances in Nursing Science, 42(1), 17-27.
- Reed, P. G. (2019). Self-Transcendence Theory (blog post). Nursology Website - see https://nursology.net/nurse-theorists-and-their-work/self-transcendence-theory/.
- Reed, P. G., & Nibblelink, C. W. (2019). Deriving the Practice-Primed Decision Model from a naturalistic decision-making perspective.. Applied Nursing Research, 46, 20-23.
- Reed, P. G. (2018). Entanglement and the relevance of method in qualitative research.. Nursing Science Quarterly, 31(3), 243-244.
- Reed, P. G. (2018). Philosophical issues and nursing science. Nursing Science Quarterly, 31(1), 31-35.
- Reed, P. G., Bajjani-Gebara, J. (., Insel, K., Badger, T., Moore, K., & Hinds, P. (2018). The well-being of parental caregivers of children in active cancer treatment: Where do we go from here?. Cancer Nursing.
- Reed, P. G. (2017). Philosophical Clarity and Justifying the Scope of Advanced Practice Nursing. Nursing Science Quarterly, 30(1), 73-76.
- Reed, P. G. (2017). Translating Nursing Philosophy for Practice and Healthcare Policy. Nursing Science Quarterly, 30(3), 260-261.
- Bajjani-Gebara, J., & Reed, P. G. (2016). Nursing theory as a guide into uncharted waters: Research with parents of children undergoing cancer treatment. Applied Nursing Research : ANR, 32, 14-17.More infoBeing a parental caregiver for a child who is undergoing cancer treatment profoundly impacts significant numbers of parental caregivers and their well-being. This article focuses on the use of theory, philosophy, and empirical knowledge in guiding research designed to both describe and explain influences on well-being of parental caregivers of children undergoing cancer treatment. Other aspects of the research are discussed as well, including practice-relevant findings. Findings indicated the co-existence of both positive and negative well-being and that each has unique predictors. Self-transcendence mediated the relationship between resilience and well-being in parental caregivers. Clinical implications for these findings are also presented.
- McRee, L., & Reed, P. G. (2016). Nurse Practitioners: Knowledge, Skills, and Leadership for the End-of-Life Conversation in Intensive Care. Nursing science quarterly, 29(1), 78-81.More infoAn impending policy change in Medicare will provide reimbursement for the end-of-life conversation. The rise in numbers of older adults who face serious illness coupled with advances in healthcare technology are increasing the need for providers to address end of life issues in the acute care setting. Doctoral-level nurse practitioners who specialize in acute care of older adults are poised to be leaders and facilitators of this conversation in a particularly challenging context-the intensive care unit. The focus of this article is the new end-of-life policy in relation to the particular contributions that adult gerontology acute care nurse practitioners offer in the acute care setting.
- Reed, P. G. (2016). Epistemic Authority in Nursing Practice vs. Doctors' Orders. Nursing science quarterly, 29(3), 241-6.More infoThe practice policy of doctors' orders is still deeply embedded in 21st century professional nurse practice, despite its profound incongruence with nursing's perspective, standards of practice, and advanced knowledge. The author in this article elaborates on the doctors' orders policy in relation to nursing's disciplinary perspective and epistemic authority in professional practice.
- Reed, P. G. (2016). Spacetime symmetry: Rogerian encounters with Einstein.. Visions: Journal of Rogerian Nursing Science, 3, 25-34.
- DuBois, J. C., & Reed, P. G. (2014). The Nurse Practitioner and Policy in End-of-Life Care. Nursing Science Quarterly, 27(1), 70-76.More infoAbstract: The focus of this column is the interface between policy and end-of-life care, particularly as provided by advanced nurse practitioners. The complexities of end-of-life along with barriers in practice can diminish quality of life for patients and their families. Changes in policy are needed to enable nurse practitioners their full scope of practice in a way that benefits patients and families at end-of-life. Three areas particularly relevant to policy for nursing practitioners and end-of-life care are addressed: scope of practice, reimbursement, and prescribing practices. Other recommendations for policy and end-of-life care are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.
- Reed, P. G. (2014). Bridging Gaps for Policy: The Doctorally-Prepared Nurse Practitioner and End-of-Life Care. Nursing Science Quarterly, 27(1), 68-69.
- Gephart, S. M., Effken, J. A., Mcgrath, J. M., & Reed, P. G. (2013). Expert Consensus Building using e-Delphi for Necrotizing Enterocolitis Risk Assessment. JOGNN - Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 42(3), 332-347.More infoPMID: 23600525;PMCID: PMC3660429;Abstract: Objective: To confirm content validity of GutCheckNEC, a risk index for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and to determine the level of agreement among experts about NEC risk factors in premature infants. Design: Electronic Delphi method (e-Delphi). Setting: Online electronic surveys and e-mail communication supported by an interactive study website. Participants: Nurses and physicians (N = 35) from four countries and across the United States who rated themselves as at least moderately expert about NEC risk. Methods: e-Delphi involved three rounds of surveys and qualitative thematic analysis of experts' comments. Surveys continued until criteria for consensus and/or stability were met. Results: Of 64 initial items, 43 were retained representing 33 risk factors (final GutCheckNEC Content Validity Index [CVI] = .77). Two broad themes about NEC risk emerged from 242 comments: the impact of individual physiologic vulnerability and variation in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) clinicians' practices. Controversy arose over the impact of treatments on NEC, including probiotics, packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions, and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) management using indomethacin. Conclusion: GutCheckNEC achieved borderline content validity for a new scale. The e-Delphi process yielded a broad perspective on areas in which experts share and lack consensus on NEC risk. Future testing is underway to reduce the number of risk items to the most parsimonious set for a clinically useful risk tool and test reliability. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
- Hsu, Y., Badger, T. A., Reed, P. G., & Jones, E. G. (2013). Factors associated with depressive symptoms in older Taiwanese adults in a long-term care community. International Psychogeriatrics, 25(6), 1013-1021.
- Reed, P., & Reed, P. G. (2006). Commentary on neomodernism and evidence-based nursing: implications for the production of nursing knowledge. Nursing outlook, 54(1).
- Reed, P., Reed, P. G., Gephart, S. M., Effken, J. A., & McGrath, J. M. (2013). Expert consensus building using e-Delphi for necrotizing enterocolitis risk assessment. Journal of obstetric, gynecologic, and neonatal nursing : JOGNN / NAACOG, 42(3).More infoTo confirm content validity of GutCheck(NEC) , a risk index for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and to determine the level of agreement among experts about NEC risk factors in premature infants.
- Kim, S., Reed, P. G., Kang, Y., & Jina, O. h. (2012). Translation and psychometric testing of the Korean versions of the spiritual perspective scale and the self-transcendence scale in Korean elders. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 42(7), 974-983.More infoPMID: 23377593;Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to translate the Spiritual Perspective Scale (SPS) and Self-transcendence Scale (STS) into Korean and test the psychometric properties of the instruments with Korean elders. Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was used to implement the three stages of the study. Stage I consisted of translating and reviewing the scales by six experts. In Stage II, equivalence was tested by comparing the responses between the Korean and English versions among 71 bilingual adults. Stage III established the psychometric properties of the Korean versions SPS-K and STS-K among 154 Korean elders. Results: Cronbach's alpha of the SPS-K and the STS-K.97, and.85 respectively with Korean elders. Factor analysis showed that the SPS-K had one factor; the STS-K had four factors with one factor clearly representing self-transcendence as theorized. Both scales showed good reliability and validity for the translated Korean versions. However, continued study of the construct validity of the STS-K is needed. Conclusion: Study findings indicate that the SPS-K and the STS-K could be useful for nurses and geriatric researchers to assess a broadly defined spirituality, and to conduct research on spirituality and health among Korean elders. Use of these scales within a theory-based study may contribute to further knowledge about the role of spirituality in the health and well-being of Korean people facing health crises. © 2012 Korean Society of Nursing Science.
- Reed, P. G. (2012). Theory connections. Applied Nursing Research, 25(3), 129-130.More infoPMID: 22818975;
- Kim, S., Reed, P. G., Hayward, R. D., Kang, Y., & Koenig, H. G. (2011). Spirituality and psychological well-being: Testing a theory of family interdependence among family caregivers and their elders. Research in Nursing and Health, 34(2), 103-115.More infoPMID: 21246570;Abstract: The family spirituality-psychological well-being model was developed and tested to explore how spirituality influences psychological well-being among elders and caregivers in the context of Korean family caregiving. The sample consisted of 157 Korean elder-family caregiver dyads in Seoul, Korea. The intraclass correlation coefficient and the actor-partner interdependence statistical model were used to analyze the data. There were significant correlations between elders' and caregivers' spirituality and between elders' and caregivers' psychological well-being. Elders' and caregivers' spirituality significantly influenced their own psychological well-being. The caregiver's spirituality significantly influenced the elder's psychological well-being, but the elder's spirituality did not significantly influence the caregiver's psychological well-being. Findings suggest that elders' and caregivers' spirituality should be assessed within the family to provide holistic nursing interventions. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Res Nurs Health.
- LeBaron, V. T., Bohnenkamp, S. K., & Reed, P. G. (2011). A community partnership approach to building and empowering a palliative care resource nurse team. Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing, 13(1), 31-40.More infoAbstract: Although mandates issued by the World Health Organization and the International Council of Nurses call for increased healthcare provider knowledge of palliative care, current education does not adequately prepare clinicians to provide comprehensive care to the seriously ill and dying. Despite the rising acuity of hospitalized patients with increasingly complex care needs, the majority of nurses working today have had no formal palliative care education. This is particularly unfortunate, as nurses are in a unique and powerful position to influence the quality of palliative care delivered at the bedside. Our intervention attempts to shrink the "palliative care education gap" by designing, implementing, and evaluating a program of advanced training of a palliative care resource nurse team at a tertiary-care university medical center. Quantitative and qualitative data collected suggest that palliative care resource nurse teams can help improve the frontline delivery of palliative care in the acute care setting and that hospital-based nurses are eager for this information and recognize its relevance to their clinical practice. This article details an experience of palliative care nursing curriculum development, implementation, and evaluation that may be applicable to other institutions who wish to enhance nursing knowledge and delivery of palliative care.
- Guo, G., Phillips, L. R., & Reed, P. G. (2010). End-of-life caregiver interactions with health care providers: Learning from the bad. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 25(4), 334-343.More infoPMID: 20375703;Abstract: This qualitative study examined caregivers' perceptions of and stories about their interactions with nonhospice health care providers. The sample included 27 family caregivers who provided the majority of in-home physical care and emotional support to the elders for at least 6 months. Caregivers described some startling interactions that suggest the need to reevaluate health care professionals abilities and attitudes concerning their treatment and communication with family caregivers and their elders dying from life-limiting illnesses.Copyright © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
- Hess, L. M., Malone, D. C., Reed, P. G., Skrepnek, G., & Weihs, K. (2010). Preferences of patients and oncologists for advanced ovarian cancer treatment-related health States. Health Outcomes Research in Medicine, 1(1), e51-e59.More infoAbstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare expected utility preferences of various health outcomes of chemotherapy treatment among ovarian-cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, ovarian cancer patients who were post-treatment (eg, under surveillance), and oncologists who treat this disease. Methods: Participants were asked to score 6 hypothetical ovarian cancer treatment-related health states using both a rating scale and the standard gamble. Scores were obtained in the range of 0.0 (death) to 1.0 (perfect health) for each hypothetical health state, with a difference of 0.10 being practically meaningful, and were analyzed by analysis of variance. Results: Seventy-five eligible participants were included in this study (41 ovarian-cancer patients and 34 oncologists). Patients and physicians reported similar responses in the rating scale exercise (F = 0.854, P = .43). However, when the health states were presented with an element of uncertainty via the standard gamble exercise, patients who were under surveillance reported significantly different expected utilities of the health states from physicians and from patients who were receiving treatment, demonstrating greater risk aversion than the other groups (F = 4.270, P = .018). Conclusions: This study suggests that there are significant differences in expected utility preferences among patients who are under surveillance as opposed to oncologists or patients receiving treatment, despite similarities in rating scale values. These findings suggest a need to further evaluate these differences in expected utility preferences in the context of decision in the setting of recurrent disease, where a patient under surveillance must make decisions related to re-initiation of therapy at a time when her preferences are likely to significantly differ from those of oncologists. ©2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- Hess, L. M., Malone, D. C., Skrepnek, G. H., Reed, P. G., Armstrong, E., & Coons, S. J. (2010). Oncologist preferences for health states associated with the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer. Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, 8(4), 217-223.More infoPMID: 20578777;Abstract: Background: For advanced epithelial ovarian cancer, oncologists are faced with multiple treatment options that differ in terms of possible clinical and patient-reported outcomes. Objective: To explore oncologists preferences for hypothetical outcome scenarios (i.e. health states) resulting from various treatment options. Methods: Six hypothetical health states reflecting varying levels of toxicity, treatment efficacy and emotional well-being were developed representing advanced ovarian cancer treatment. During face-to-face interviews, oncologists provided their relative preferences for these health states using a visual analogue scale and Standard Gamble exercise. Results: The 34 participating oncologists consistently preferred health states reflecting high treatment efficacy over low efficacy for patients with newly diagnosed disease, regardless of toxicity or emotional well-being. In the setting of recurrent disease, physicians preferred a heath state only if it reflected both high efficacy and positive emotional well-being. Conclusions: These data suggest that oncologists may choose treatments that maximize clinical efficacy only when not associated with severe toxicities or low emotional well-being unless associated with a large improvement in efficacy. Physicians may prefer a more toxic chemotherapy regimen that improves survival, and are more willing to compromise emotional well-being for a large survival advantage in the setting of newly diagnosed disease. Slight improvements in clinical efficacy may not be acceptable to oncologists unless associated with higher emotional well-being for the patient. © 2010 Adis Data Information BV.
- Palmer, B., T., M., Reed, P., & Fitzpatrick, J. J. (2010). Self-transcendence and Work Engagement in Acute Care Staff Registered Nurses. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 33(2), 138-147.More infoPMID: 20234203;Abstract: The ability of human beings to find meaning by being directed toward something, or someone, other than themselves is termed "self-transcendence. " Previous research indicated that the ability of nurses to self-transcend and thus derive positive meaning from patient-caring experiences increased work commitment and fostered work engagement. However, the relationship between self-transcendence and work engagement had not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to explore the levels and relationships of self-transcendence and work engagement in acute care staff registered nurses (ACSRNs). This was a descriptive correlational study using Reed's theory of self-transcendence. The Self-transcendence Scale, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and a demographic questionnaire were completed by a convenience sample of 84 ACSRNs who attended an annual acute care nursing conference in northern Illinois. ACSRNs level of self-transcendence was high, similar to that of other nurses, but higher than that of nonnurses. ACSRNs level of work engagement was at the high end of the "average" range. There was a significant positive correlation between self-transcendence and work engagement. Nurses with higher levels of self-transcendence had more energy toward and were more dedicated and absorbed in their work. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health.
- Phillips, L. R., & Reed, P. G. (2010). End-of-life caregiver's perspectives on their role: Generative caregiving. Gerontologist, 50(2), 204-214.More infoPMID: 19651667;PMCID: PMC2838409;Abstract: Purpose: To describe caregivers' constructions of their caregiving role in providing care to elders they knew were dying from life-limiting illnesses.Design and Methods: Study involved in-depth interviews with 27 family caregivers. Data were analyzed using constant comparative analysis.Results: Four categories were identified: centering life on the elder, maintaining a sense of normalcy, minimizing suffering, and gift giving. Generative caregiving was the term adopted to describe the end-of-life (EOL) caregiving role. Generative caregiving is situated in the present with a goal to enhance the elder's present quality of life, but also draws from the past and projects into the future with a goal to create a legacy that honors the elder and the elder-caregiver relationship.Implications: Results contribute to our knowledge about EOL caregiving by providing an explanatory framework and setting the caregiving experience in the context of life-span development. © The Author 2009.
- B, N., Fleury, J. D., & Reed, P. G. (2009). The rhythm of health in older women with chronic illness.. Research and theory for nursing practice, 23(2), 148-160.More infoPMID: 19558029;Abstract: Trends in population growth indicate that nurses increasingly will be caring for older adults, especially older women, who are at risk for less than optimal health due to chronic illnesses. The purpose of this qualitative study was to obtain a better understanding of the meaning of health from the perspective of older women. Focus group interviews with 51 women, aged 55 to 93, were held. Data were analyzed using directed qualitative content analysis. A Rogerian perspective of human health provided the broad conceptual lens for the study. Three themes explicating the meanings of health emerged from the data: realizing the potential for purpose, listening to energy flow, and purposefully participating in health-related changes. The three themes represented ways in which the women dealt with the paradoxes posed by their chronic illness. Findings captured the hopeful, although sometimes conflicting, meanings of health among the women as brought forth by experiences with chronic illness and the challenges of aging.
- Phillips, L. R., & Reed, P. G. (2009). Into the abyss of someone else's dying: The voice of the end-of-life caregiver. Clinical Nursing Research, 18(1), 80-97.More infoPMID: 19208822;Abstract: This study was undertaken to better understand family caregivers' perspectives of providing end-of-life (EOL) care to elders facing expected deaths from life-limiting, chronic illnesses, and the study involved understanding the nature of EOL caregiving using caregivers' own words. The study employed a cross-sectional, exploratory descriptive design. The data source was intensive interviews with 27 EOL caregivers. Eight themes were extracted from data that exemplify the core characteristics of EOL caregiving. The themes intersected at a central idea expressed in the voice of one caregiver as ĝ€ jumping... into the abyss of someone else's dying.ĝ€ Data suggested that caregivers of elders with life-limiting illnesses needed nursing guidance about EOL care earlier than it is usually provided and that all nurses providing care to elders in any setting should be ready to offer early education in the practical, technical, and emotional dimensions of end-of-life caregiving. © 2009 SAGE Publications.
- Reed, P. G. (2009). Demystifying Self-Transcendence for Mental Health Nursing Practice and Research. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 23(5), 397-400.More infoPMID: 19766931;Abstract: Because human development is an integral aspect of life, pathways to mental health necessarily involve developmentally based issues or resources. This column provides an overview of self-transcendence as one developmentally based resource for mental health. The Self-Transcendence Scale is presented to encourage its use in mental health nursing practice and research. © 2009 Elsevier Inc.
- Reed, P., & Reed, P. G. (2009). Demystifying self-transcendence for mental health nursing practice and research. Archives of psychiatric nursing, 23(5).More infoBecause human development is an integral aspect of life, pathways to mental health necessarily involve developmentally based issues or resources. This column provides an overview of self-transcendence as one developmentally based resource for mental health. The Self-Transcendence Scale is presented to encourage its use in mental health nursing practice and research.
- Hunnibell, L. S., Reed, P. G., Quinn-Griffin, M., & Fitzpatrick, J. J. (2008). Self-transcendence and burnout in hospice and oncology nurses. Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing, 10(3), 172-179.More infoAbstract: Self-transcendence is both a developmental point and an innate coping resource that allows one to overcome one's own ego concerns in a search for new perspectives and meaning. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in self-transcendence between hospice and oncology nurses and identify relationships between self-transcendence and the three aspects of burnout syndrome: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Reed's theory of self-transcendence was used. The sample included 563 nurses, 244 hospice nurses, and 319 oncology nurses in the United States who completed mailed surveys. There were significant differences in self-transcendence between hospice and oncology nurses (P < .001). Significant correlations existed between self-transcendence and the three aspects of burnout for both groups of nurses (P < .01). Additional study is needed to further explore self-transcendence in nurses and identify effective ways to promote and nurture nurses' self-transcendence.
- Reed, P. G. (2008). Adversity and advancing nursing knowledge.. Nursing science quarterly, 21(2), 133-134.More infoPMID: 18378823;Abstract: This column reports the theme of adversity addressed in reference to theoretical and metatheoretical considerations for advancing nursing knowledge. The development and content of three classic nursing theories are presented by Neuman representatives, and by theorists King and Roy. Topics for continued dialogue are identified as derived from the interface between philosophy of science issues and these theories.
- Reed, P. G. (2008). Commentary on "Spiritual care perspectives of Danish registered nurses": spiritual care as nursing care.. Journal of holistic nursing : official journal of the American Holistic Nurses' Association, 26(1), 15-16.More infoPMID: 18332354;
- Reed, P. G. (2008). Nursing time: Research, practice, and theory dmensions. Nursing Science Quarterly, 21(3), 222-223.More infoPMID: 18544784;Abstract: Perspectives on time are relevant to knowledge development and professional practice within a discipline. Two scholars present their work on time as related to their programs of nursing research, theory development, and professional practice. © 2008 Sage Publications.
- Reed, P. G. (2008). Practitioner as theorist: A reprise. Nursing Science Quarterly, 21(4), 315-321.More infoPMID: 18953010;Abstract: This column addresses the idea of practitioner as theorist as it may inspire new paths of theory development in practice for nursing. Historical and philosophical dimensions of theory development are discussed. Extant theory development strategies as well as new approaches for practice-based theory development are proposed. © 2008 Sage Publications.
- Reed, P. G., & Lawrence, L. A. (2008). A paradigm for the production of practice-based knowledge. Journal of Nursing Management, 16(4), 422-432.More infoPMID: 18405259;Abstract: Aim The aim of this paper was to explore trends, arguments and issues surrounding knowledge production and nursing practice, and to propose a paradigm of practice-based knowledge along with strategies to promote theory-based knowledge development in practice. Background: Practice-based knowledge has been marginalized in the current practice and research paradigms. Several reasons for this are presented, some of which may be addressed to facilitate a more inclusive approach to knowledge that can potentially advance patient care and the discipline. Evaluation Classic and contemporary scholarly sources in nursing, philosophy, education, social sciences and other areas were critically reviewed and applied to support the argument and propose a paradigm of practice-based knowledge production. Key issues: A key point identified in the paper is that theory, meaning conceptualizations at all levels of abstraction, is an important tool of knowledge development in nursing practice as it is in traditional research. Conclusions Various strategies exist that can be employed to promote development and use of practice-based knowledge in the clinical setting. The strategies are innovative yet practical, and require the support and encouragement of nursing management for their successful implementation. Implications for nursing management: Nursing managers can influence if not facilitate all of the strategies to promote practice-based knowledge development identified in the paper. These efforts could give voice to the caregiver's knowledge and, in turn, enhance patient care and the satisfaction and retention of nurses. © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
- Reed, P., & Reed, P. G. (2008). Adversity and advancing nursing knowledge. Nursing science quarterly, 21(2).More infoThis column reports the theme of adversity addressed in reference to theoretical and metatheoretical considerations for advancing nursing knowledge. The development and content of three classic nursing theories are presented by Neuman representatives, and by theorists King and Roy. Topics for continued dialogue are identified as derived from the interface between philosophy of science issues and these theories.
- Reed, P., & Reed, P. G. (2008). Commentary on "Spiritual care perspectives of Danish registered nurses": spiritual care as nursing care. Journal of holistic nursing : official journal of the American Holistic Nurses' Association, 26(1).
- Reed, P., & Reed, P. G. (2008). Nursing time: research, practice, and theory dimensions. Nursing science quarterly, 21(3).More infoPerspectives on time are relevant to knowledge development and professional practice within a discipline. Two scholars present their work on time as related to their programs of nursing research, theory development, and professional practice.
- Reed, P., & Reed, P. G. (2008). Practitioner as theorist: a reprise. Nursing science quarterly, 21(4).More infoThis column addresses the idea of practitioner as theorist as it may inspire new paths of theory development in practice for nursing. Historical and philosophical dimensions of theory development are discussed. Extant theory development strategies as well as new approaches for practice-based theory development are proposed.
- Reed, P., & Reed, P. G. (2008). The practice of nursing science: crossing boundaries. Nursing science quarterly, 21(1).More infoThis column presents descriptions of how four nurse researchers practice science, based upon a framework constructed to depict key dimensions in the practice of nursing science. Emphasis is given to the role of theory in science.
- Reed, P. G., & Rousseau, E. (2007). Spiritual inquiry and well-being in life-limiting illness. Journal of Religion, Spirituality and Aging, 19(4), 81-98.More infoAbstract: Introduction: End of life, as a developmental phase, is accompanied by inner resources as well as losses. Spirituality is a potential inner resource for integrating illness that often occurs during this time. Despite the increase in spirituality research, how spiritual perspectives are used in life-limiting illness remains under-investigated. Better knowledge about this process may be useful for health care providers, family caregivers and patients themselves to enhance well-being at end of life. This study describes the process of how patients and family caregivers use their spiritual resources to facilitate well-being at the end of life. Method: A qualitative study was designed, based upon the grounded theory method, that entails theoretical sampling of concepts (not sampling of people as in quantitative designs), and the analytic technique of constant comparison of the data until conceptual categories are saturated with supporting data and a theory can be identified. The sample consisted of 12 respondents: 6 dyads of elderly patients with a life-limiting illness and family caregivers. Interviews occurred over a 2-year period. Results: Data analysis generated a theory about a process called "transcending life-limiting illness," which derived from two related themes: spiritual inquiry and end-of-life dimensions. © by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.
- Reed, P. G., & Runquist, J. J. (2007). Reformulation of a methodological concept in grounded theory. Nursing Science Quarterly, 20(2), 118-122.More infoPMID: 17442859;Abstract: Although the grounded theory method was not designed with nursing science in mind, it is one of the most prevalent and theory-producing qualitative methods in nursing. Changes in the grounded theory methodology have been debated in numerous articles. What has not received much attention, however, is a central idea of the grounded theory method-the basic social process. The goal here is to raise for consideration the idea that change is needed in nurse researchers' understanding of the basic social process; there is a need to reformulate this substantive concept of the grounded theory method so as to render it more congruent with nursing ontology and productive of nursing knowledge. © 2007 Sage Publications.
- Runquist, J. J., & Reed, P. G. (2007). Self-transcendence and well-being in homeless adults.. Journal of holistic nursing : official journal of the American Holistic Nurses' Association, 25(1), 5-13; discussion 14-15.More infoPMID: 17325307;Abstract: This study examines the relationships of spiritually and physically related variables to well-being among homeless adults. A convenience sample of 61 sheltered homeless persons completed the Spiritual Perspective Scale, the Self-Transcendence Scale, the Index of Well-Being, and items measuring fatigue and health status. The data were subjected to correlational and multiple regression analysis. Positive, significant correlations were found among spiritual perspective, self-transcendence, health status, and well-being. Fatigue was inversely correlated with health status and well-being. Self-transcendence and health status together explained 59% of the variance in well-being. The findings support Reed's theory of self-transcendence, in which there is the basic assumption that human beings have the potential to integrate difficult life situations. This study contributes to the growing body of evidence that conceptualizes homeless persons as having spiritual, emotional, and physical capacities that can be used by health care professionals to promote well-being in this vulnerable population.
- Reed, P. G. (2006). Commentary on neomodernism and evidence-based nursing: Implications for the production of nursing knowledge. Nursing Outlook, 54(1), 36-38.More infoPMID: 16487778;
- Reed, P. G. (2006). The dialogue within nursing theory-guided practice: A frontier of knowledge development. Nursing Science Quarterly, 19(4), 328-329.More infoPMID: 17034071;
- Reed, P. G. (2006). The force of nursing theory-guided practice. Nursing Science Quarterly, 19(3), 225-.More infoPMID: 16757786;Abstract: This column is the first of two that features summaries of the papers presented by nursing theory-guided practice experts at the American Academy of Nursing meeting in Scottsdale, Arizona, in November 2005. Their presentations inform us about the diversity of nursing processes that facilitate human health and define the discipline. In this column, the focus is on the Roy adaptation model, King's transaction process and concept of goal attainment, and the concept of trust as a pattern manifestation of Rogers' human-environment process. © 2006 Sage Publications.
- Reed, P. G. (2006). The practice turn in nursing epistemology. Nursing Science Quarterly, 19(1), 36-38.More infoPMID: 16407598;Abstract: This column presents the perspectives of two authors, Pamela Reed and Gary Rolfe, on the topic of knowledge production in nursing practice. The articles were written independent of each other, but readers may note areas of remarkable similarity as well as differences in emphasis between the two authors. The column concludes with a dialogue between Pamela Reed and Gary Rolfe. © 2006 Sage Publications.
- Reed, P. G., & Rolfe, G. (2006). Nursing knowledge and nurses' knowledge: A reply to mitchell and bournes. Nursing Science Quarterly, 19(2), 120-122.
- Reed, P., & Reed, P. G. (2006). The force of nursing theory-guided practice. Nursing science quarterly, 19(3).More infoThis column is the first of two that features summaries of the papers presented by nursing theory-guided practice experts at the American Academy of Nursing meeting in Scottsdale, Arizona, in November 2005. Their presentations inform us about the diversity of nursing processes that facilitate human health and define the discipline. In this column, the focus is on the Roy adaptation model, King's transaction process and concept of goal attainment, and the concept of trust as a pattern manifestation of Rogers' human-environment process.
- Reed, P., & Reed, P. G. (2006). The practice turn in nursing epistemology. Nursing science quarterly, 19(1).
- Rolfe, G., & Reed, P. (2006). Nursing praxis and the science of the unique. Nursing Science Quarterly, 19(1), 39-43.More infoPMID: 16447332;
- Decker, I. M., & Reed, P. G. (2005). Developmental and contextual correlates of elders' anticipated end-of-life treatment decisions. Death Studies, 29(9), 827-846.More infoPMID: 16220617;Abstract: The purpose of this study was to gain insight into developmental and contextual correlates of the aggressiveness in treatment that community-based elders anticipate they will desire at the end of life. Elders completed questionnaires to measure 4 developmental factors (integrated moral reasoning, self-transcendence, past experience with life-threatening illness, and age) and five contextual factors (education level, gender, ethnicity, current health status, and completion of a living will). The variance in desired aggressiveness in treatment was explained by both developmental and contextual correlates. Integrated moral reasoning emerged as a new variable to consider in gaining understanding of the process of end-of-life decisions. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Inc.
- B., N., & Reed, P. G. (2004). Empowerment: Reformulation of a non-rogerian concept. Nursing Science Quarterly, 17(3), 253-259.More infoPMID: 15200729;Abstract: The authors present a reformulation of empowerment based upon historical and current perspectives of empowerment and a synthesis of existing literature and Rogerian thought. Reformulation of non-Rogerian concepts familiar to nurses is proposed as a strategy to accelerate the mainstreaming of Rogerian thought into nursing practice and research. The reformulation of empowerment as a participatory process of well-being inherent among human beings may provide nurses with new insights for practice. This paper may also serve as a model for reformulating other non-Rogerian concepts and theories for wider dissemination across the discipline.
- Jesse, D. E., & Reed, P. G. (2004). Effects of spirituality and psychosocial well-being on health risk behaviors in Appalachian pregnant women. JOGNN - Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 33(6), 739-747.More infoPMID: 15561662;Abstract: Objective: To determine the relationships of spirituality and psychosocial well-being to health risk behaviors in pregnant Appalachian women. Method: Descriptive study of 120 women between 16 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. The instruments used were the Spiritual Perspective Scale and religiosity items from the Jarel Well-Being Scale. Psychosocial well-being was measured by the Prenatal Psychosocial Profile. Four items measured health risk behaviors. Results: Higher levels of spirituality (spiritual perspective and religiosity) were significantly correlated with greater satisfaction with social support, higher levels of self-esteem, and decreased levels of smoking. Sociodemographic, psychosocial, and spiritual variables explained 25% of the variance in frequency of smoking, and in the logistic regression analysis, psychosocial stress was the only variable that significantly predicted substance use. Conclusion: Higher levels of spirituality and lower levels of stress are associated with decreased health risk behaviors among pregnant women from Appalachia. Increasing spiritual resources and decreasing stress during pregnancy offer the potential to improve health promotion efforts in pregnancy with women from Appalachia.
- Ellermann, C. R., & Reed, P. G. (2001). Self-transcendence and depression in middle-age adults. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 23(7), 698-713.More infoPMID: 11675796;Abstract: Self-transcendence has been found to be an important correlate of mental health in older adults and adults facing the end of life. This study extends current theory by examining the relationship of transcendence and other transcendence variables to depression in middle-age adults (N = 133). Reed's Self-Transcendence Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, and measures of parenting, acceptance and spirituality were administered. Findings indicating significant inverse correlations between self-transcendence and depression, as well as between other measures of transcendence and depression support Reed's (1991b) theory, Multiple regression analysis indicated that acceptance may be another significant correlate of depression. Significant gender differences and age-related patterns of increased levels of self-transcendence were found. Study results illuminate the need to continue research into developmentally based transcendence variables related to various experiences of health and well-being across the life span.
- Reed, P. G. (2000). Nursing Reformation: Historical Reflections and Philosophic Foundations. Nursing Science Quarterly, 13(2), 129-136.More infoPMID: 11847697;
- Reed, P. G. (1998). A holistic view of nursing concepts and theories in practice.. Journal of holistic nursing : official journal of the American Holistic Nurses' Association, 16(4), 415-419.More infoPMID: 10347438;Abstract: This article offers an alternative view to Hall's statements concerning concepts and theories in nursing practice. This article also represents an example of how journal articles can be forums for ongoing dialogue about the complex matters related to developing nursing knowledge. New ideas are presented by which the concept of self-transcendence, developmental theory, and theory in general are viewed from a holistic perspective rather than the perspectives offered in Hall's article. In contrast to Hall's claims about theory and about developmental theory in particular, theory is discussed as integral to holistic nursing practice.
- Reed, P. G. (1997). Nursing: The ontology of the discipline. Nursing Science Quarterly, 10(2), 76-79.More infoPMID: 9197720;Abstract: The purpose of this article is to contribute to clarifying the ontology of the discipline by extending existing meanings of the term nursing to propose a substantive definition. In this definition, nursing is viewed as an inherent human process of well-being, manifested by complexity and integration in human systems. The nature of this process and theoretical implications of the new nursing are presented. Nurses are invited to continue the dialogue about the meaning of the term and explore the implications of nursing, substantively defined, for their practice and science. © 1997 Chestnut House Publications.
- Coward, D. D., & Reed, P. G. (1996). Self-transcendence: A resource for healing at the end of life. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 17(3), 275-288.More infoPMID: 8707546;Abstract: An emerging body of theoretical and empirical knowledge links the concepts of self-transcendence and healing in persons facing end-of-life issues related to aging or life-threatening illness. Self-transcendence is postulated to be a resource for healing in that reaching beyond self-boundaries may lead to a sense of well-being derived from an intensified awareness of wholeness and integration among all dimensions of one's being. This paper proposes a link between self-transcendence and healing, based on clinical and empirical literature. Suggestions for approaches nurses may use to facilitate self-transcendence are included.
- Reed, P. G. (1996). Transcendence: Formulating nursing perspectives. Nursing Science Quarterly, 9(1), 2-4.More infoPMID: 8710298;
- Reed, P. G. (1996). Transforming practice knowledge into nursing knowledge - A revisionist analysis of Peplau. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 28(1), 29-33.More infoPMID: 8907659;Abstract: Nursing practice typically has been viewed as applying knowledge. However, currently, there is increasing awareness that nursing practice is also a process of knowledge development. Still, research and practice are not always connected. Analysis of Peplau's works illuminates a scholarship of nursing practice that is relevant today. This paper focuses on a specific strategy and philosophic perspective, as derived from Peplau, for integrating nursing practice more fully into today's knowledge development. Emphasis is on the need for nursing practice-based theory, as well as nursing theory-based practice. ©1996, Sigma Theta Tau International.
- Reed, P. G. (1995). A treatise on nursing knowledge development for the 21st century: beyond postmodernism.. ANS. Advances in nursing science, 17(3), 70-84.More infoPMID: 7778892;Abstract: This article explicates a framework for nursing knowledge development that incorporates both modernist and postmodernist philosophies. The framework derives from an "open philosophy" of science, which links science, philosophy, and practice in development of nursing knowledge. A neomodernist perspective is proposed that upholds modernist values for unified conceptualizations of nursing reality while recognizing the dynamic and value-laden nature of all levels of theory and metatheory. It is proposed that scientific inquiry extend beyond the postmodern critique to identify nursing metanarratives of nursing philosophy and nursing practice that serve as external correctives in the critique process. Philosophic positions related to the science, philosophy, and practice domains are put forth for continued dialogue about future directions for knowledge development in nursing.
- Young, C. A., & Reed, P. G. (1995). Elders' perceptions of the role of group psychotherapy in fostering self-transcendence. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 9(6), 338-347.More infoPMID: 8561514;Abstract: Psychotherapeutic goals and interventions for older adults, like those for children and other age groups, need to be developmentally appropriate. Past clinical research has shown that self-transcendence is a resource for mental health in later life. The effectiveness of group psychotherapy in facilitating self-transcendence in elders was examined, applying a method of analysis in which a small, intact clinical sample could be used to generate data for research purposes. Results, based on a matrix analysis of group members' perceptions, indicated that group psychotherapy enhanced self-transcendence in various ways. Group psychotherapy may be used not only as a cost-effective treatment modality, but also as a theory-based intervention that is developmentally-appropriate for elders. © 1995 W.B. Saunders Comany. All rights reserved.
- Reed, P. G. (1992). An emerging paradigm for the investigation of spirituality in nursing.. Research in nursing & health, 15(5), 349-357.More infoPMID: 1529119;Abstract: A paradigm is presented as a perspective for the investigation of spirituality in nursing. Elements in the paradigm include assumptions about the self-transcendent nature of human beings as derived from the developmental-contextual worldview, a description of spirituality in terms of various forms of connectedness integral to human development and health, and assumptions about the empirical and multidimensional nature of spirituality. Extant sources of conceptual, empirical, and clinical knowledge are utilized to support the ideas put forth in the emerging paradigm. It is concluded that the study of spirituality from the perspective of the paradigm would entail examination of the multiple expressions of connectedness intrapersonally, interpersonally, and transpersonally as related to human health and well-being.
- Reed, P. G. (1991). Preferences for spiritually related nursing interventions among terminally ill and nonterminally ill hospitalized adults and well adults. Applied Nursing Research, 4(3), 122-128.More infoPMID: 1897921;Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine terminally ill and nonterminally ill hospitalized patients' preferences for spiritually related nursing interventions and to identify differences between the two groups. Additionally, preferences of well adults were examined in comparison to the hospitalized groups. Clinical knowledge in nursing as well as empirical work provided background for the study. Three hundred adults participated in the study by responding to structured and open-ended questions about specific nursing interventions that they thought would help meet their spiritual needs. Significant differences were found across the groups, including a higher preference for more direct, spiritually related nursing interventions and more negativity about the nurse's role in caregiving as expressed by the nonterminally ill group. © 1991 W.B. Saunders Company.
- Reed, P. G. (1991). Self-transcendence and mental health in oldest-old adults.. Nursing Research, 40(1), 5-11.More infoPMID: 1987557;Abstract: Patterns of self-transcendence that older adults report as being important to their emotional well-being are described in this study, and the relationship between self-transcendence and mental health symptomatology in oldest-old adults is investigated. The sample consisted of 55 independent-living older adults, 80 to 97 years old. Methodological trianglulation was used whereby qualitative data together with quantitative findings were examined. Four patterns of self-transcendence, congruent with the investigator's definition, were identified by the participants as being important to their sense of well-being: Generativity, Introjectivity, Temporal Integration, and Body-Transcendence. Results of Pearson correlation analysis and matrix analysis of data supported a relationship between self-transcendence and mental health found in previous research, thus demonstrating the importance of the expansion of self boundaries in older adults.
- Reed, P. G. (1991). Toward a nursing theory of self-transcendence: deductive reformulation using developmental theories.. ANS. Advances in nursing science, 13(4), 64-77.More infoPMID: 2059006;Abstract: The purpose of this article is to explicate the development of an emerging middle-range nursing theory of self-transcendence. The process of developing the theory was based largely on the method of "deductive reformulation." Using this strategy, theoretic knowledge derived from life span developmental psychology was reformulated based on Rogers' conceptual system. Clinical experience and empirical investigations were also important in the theory development process. The theory of self-transcendence is potentially useful for application in various nursing settings where clients' well-being may be compromised by end-of-life issues.
- Reed, P. G. (1989). Mental health of older adults.. Western journal of nursing research, 11(2), 143-157; discussion 158.More infoPMID: 2728423;
- Reed, P. G. (1989). Nursing theorizing as an ethical endeavor.. ANS. Advances in nursing science, 11(3), 1-9.More infoPMID: 2496646;Abstract: This article addresses the ethical dimensions of nursing theorizing. Nursing theorizing, whether it occurs primarily at the outset or emerges during the process of inquiry, is inescapably linked to the theorist's value choices and beliefs about human beings, the environment, and health. These choices are reflected in the conceptual frame of one's research. The normative commitment of the conceptual frame is explored using examples from nursing and nonnursing research. Elements of critical ethical reflection are outlined. It is suggested that the discipline's understanding of what constitutes health and how best to promote health, as well as solutions to ethical dilemmas posed by research, may be enhanced by purposeful ethical inquiry that occurs as an integral component of theorizing activities.
- Reed, P. G., & Leonard, V. E. (1989). An analysis of the concept of self-neglect.. ANS. Advances in nursing science, 12(1), 39-53.More infoPMID: 2506798;Abstract: A dimension of self-care that has rarely been studied but that nonetheless poses serious problems for efforts to enhance health is self-neglect. Self-neglect here refers to clients who display a pattern of intentionally neglecting prescribed self-care activities despite available resources and knowledge. This article presents the results of a concept analysis of self-neglect as a first step toward further theory development, research, and eventual practical applications. The literature review addresses suicidology and noncompliance as areas significant to analysis of the concept. Ethical, personal, and esthetic as well as empirical sources of knowledge are included as relevant to the conceptualization of self-neglect. Several case examples are constructed to distinguish self-neglect from other health-related behaviors that are potentially harmful. Measures designed to address the complexity of the concept are outlined as the empirical referents. It is concluded that the concept analysis of self-neglect can help to extricate nurse theoreticians and clinicians from conceptual ruts so that new answers to old but challenging problems related to self-care will be discovered.
- Reed, P. G. (1988). Promoting research productivity in new faculty: A developmental perspective of the early postdoctoral years. Journal of Professional Nursing, 4(2), 119-125.More infoPMID: 3397448;Abstract: The years immediately after attainment of the doctorate can be conceptualized as an adult development phase. Four developmental principles operate to influence scholarly productivity in these early postdoctoral years. The first, rhythmicity, which involves the rhythm of learning and the way faculty pattern their roles throughout the research process, can be divided into three stages: romance, the exploration of and attachment to research ideas; precision, the focusing on methodologic details; and generalization, the addressing of pragmatic issues of knowledge building. The second principle, the contextualdialectic, suggests contextual factors are important in developing the research career, especially factors that produce conflict. The third principle, unidirectionality, refers to the forward movement of professional development and incorporates trading-away of certain roles and concepts and a retrogression in development. The final principle, multidimensionality, can be understood in terms of developmental precursors and vestiges as decisions and actions of the early postdoctoral years that influence later career success. The four principles are presented as a framework for understanding and facilitating research productivity during the early postdoctoral years but may also be useful to other phases of the research career. © 1988 the W.B. Saunders Company. All rights reserved.
- Reed, P. G., & Verran, J. A. (1988). Cross-lagged panel correlation analysis.. Western journal of nursing research, 10(5), 671-676.More infoPMID: 3188524;
- Reed, P. G. (1987). Constructing a conceptual framework for psychosocial nursing.. Journal of psychosocial nursing and mental health services, 25(2), 24-28.More infoPMID: 3644929;
- Reed, P. G. (1987). Liberal arts and professional nursing education: integrating knowledge and wisdom.. Nurse educator, 12(4), 37-40.More infoPMID: 3649616;
- Reed, P. G. (1987). Spirituality and well-being in terminally ill hospitalized adults.. Research in nursing & health, 10(5), 335-344.More infoPMID: 3671781;Abstract: Initial research into the significance of spirituality among terminally ill adults was extended. Two hypotheses were examined using three groups of 100 adults matched on age, gender, education, and religious background: a) Terminally ill hospitalized adults indicate a greater spiritual perspective than nonterminally ill hospitalized adults and healthy nonhospitalized adults. b) Spiritual perspective is positively related to well-being among terminally ill hospitalized adults. All 300 participants completed the Spiritual Perspective Scale, Index of Well-Being, and other information. Planned comparisons analysis results supported the first hypothesis; low but significant correlation lent support to the second hypothesis. Differences among groups on recent change in spiritual views also were examined; a significantly larger number of terminally ill adults indicated a change toward increased spirituality than did nonterminally ill or healthy adults.
- Reed, P. G. (1986). A model for constructing a conceptual framework for education in the clinical specialty.. The Journal of nursing education, 25(7), 295-299.More infoPMID: 3020197;Abstract: A "Process Model" is described as an approach to developing and refining conceptual frameworks for education in the clinical specialties. A major characteristic of this approach is the borrowing of concepts from selected nursing models to construct the framework. Conceptual and empirical phases of the Model are discussed as they relate to clarifying the conceptual base of the clinical specialty. Applications of the Process Model to undergraduate and graduate education are presented.
- Reed, P. G. (1986). Death perspectives and temporal variables in terminally ill and health adults. Death Studies, 10(6), 467-478.
- Reed, P. G. (1986). Developmental resources and depression in the elderly. Nursing Research, 35(6), 368-374.More infoPMID: 3640355;Abstract: A longitudinal study was carried out with 28 clinically depressed and 28 mentally healthy older adults, matched on age, sex, and years of education. Developmental resources and depression were measured on three occasions using the Developmental Resources of Later Adulthood and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scales. A 2 X (3) repeated measures factorial analysis of variance indicated that the depressed group had significantly lower developmental scores across all three time periods. Results of cross-lagged panel correlation analyses suggested that the direction of the relationship between developmental resources and depressive symptoms differed markedly between the two groups. The mentally healthy group showed a significant causal tendency for developmental resources to influence level of depression; a reverse trend was noted in the depressed group.
- Reed, P. G. (1986). Religiousness among terminally ill and healthy adults.. Research in nursing & health, 9(1), 35-41.More infoPMID: 3634417;Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare terminally ill with healthy adults for differences in religiousness; sense of well-being also was explored. This study was based upon a conceptualization of dying as a developmental phase of life. It was hypothesized that terminally ill adults report greater religiousness than healthy adults. A terminally ill and a healthy group with 57 adults each were matched on four key variables: age, gender, education, and religious affiliation. All 114 participants completed two questionnaires: the Religious Perspective Scale and the Index of Well-Being. A t-test of differences between the group means supported the hypothesis (t (112) = 3.11, p less than .001). There was no difference between the groups on sense of well-being; both indicated moderately high levels of well-being. A positive relationship between religiousness and well-being was found in the healthy group (r = .43, p less than .001), but not in the terminally ill group.
- Reed, P. G. (1985). Strategies for teaching nursing research. Theory and metatheory in an undergraduate research course.. Western journal of nursing research, 7(4), 482-486.More infoPMID: 3853399;
- Reed, P. G. (1983). Implications of the life-span developmental framework for well-being in adulthood and aging.. ANS. Advances in nursing science, 6(1), 18-25.More infoPMID: 6416149;Abstract: This article addresses the significance of the life-span developmental framework for nursing. Essential characteristics of the framework are defined and explained. Adult development is presented as a progressive rather than a decremental phenomenon, involving a series of "trade-offs" from one phase to the next. The role of person-environment interactions is emphasized as a major factor in the adult's well-being and approach to life's problems and conflicts, including health-related events. The life-span developmental framework is identified as consistent with nursing conceptual models on human health and development.
- Reed, P. G. (1982). The idea of health: a philosophical inquiry.. ANS. Advances in nursing science, 4(3), ix-xi.More infoPMID: 6808896;
- Fitzpatrick, J. J., & Reed, P. G. (1980). Stress in the crisis experience: nursing interventions.. Occupational Health Nursing, 28(12), 19-21.More infoPMID: 6904935;
- Reed, P. G. (2019, March). Intermodernism: A Philosophical Perspective for Nursing Science. Nursing Theory: A 50-Year Perspective Past and Future. Cleveland, OH: Case Western Reserve University.
- Reed, P. G. (2019, March). Nursing Theory: The Next 50 Years. Nursing Theory: A 50-Year Perspective Past and Future. Cleveland, OH: Case Western Reserve University.
- Reed, P. G. (2017, November). Philosophy of Science & Nursing Theory: Historic issues, present contexts, and future paths: Post-Postmodern Perspectives and the Future of Nursing Theory. 50th Anniversary of Case Western Reserve University Nursing Theory Conference - Theory Think Tank and Planning Meeting. Cleveland, Ohio: Case Western Reserve University Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing.
- Reed, P. G. (2017, October). Keynote Address - Rogerian Nursing Inquiry: A Path to Scientific Knowledge. Society for Rogerian Scholars 2017 National Research Conference. Flagstaff, Arizona: American Holistic Nurses' Association and SRS.
- Rosenfeld, A. G., Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Carrington, J. M., Gephart, S. M., Insel, K. C., Loescher, L. J., Reed, P. G., Rosenfeld, A. G., Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Carrington, J. M., Gephart, S. M., Insel, K. C., Loescher, L. J., & Reed, P. G. (2016, January). Defying the skeptics! Strategies and successes of an online PhD program.. AACN Doctoral Education Conference. Florida: AACN.More infoI was the sole presenter.
- Reed, P. G., & Shea, K. (2019, April). Symposium: Analyzing Concepts to Theorize in the Human Spirit of Palliative Care.. WIN Regional Research Conference 2019.
- Rosenfeld, A. G., Crawford, R. S., Insel, K. C., & Reed, P. G. (2016, Spring). Health beliefs related to physical activity in patients living with implantable cardioverter defibrillators.. Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association 22nd Annual SymposiumPreventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association.More infoWinning Abstracts: Poster Abstracts. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 31, 483-487. doi:10.1097/JCN.0000000000000363