Ruth E Taylor-Piliae
- Associate Professor, Nursing
Dr. Ruth Taylor-Piliae is an Associate Professor in the College of Nursing at the University of Arizona. The goal of her research is to increase physical activity among older adults with heart disease and stroke through the implementation of innovative interventions such as Tai Chi, to improve physical functioning, reduce fall rates and improve quality of life. Dr. Taylor-Piliae received her B.S.N. from California State University Fresno, her M.N. from the Chinese University of Hong Kong, and her Ph.D. from the University of California San Francisco. She completed a 2-year post-doctoral fellowship in cardiovascular epidemiology and prevention at Stanford University. Dr. Taylor-Piliae has received funding as a principal investigator from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association, Hospital Authority of Hong Kong, National Institute of Health, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. She reviews for professional journals and has had over 50 peer-reviewed manuscripts published in top-tiered journals both within nursing and inter-professional journals. She is highly cited for her work (citations>2600, h-index=27, i10-index=44).
- Ph.D. Nursing
- University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States
- Tai Chi as an alternative exercise for ethnic Chinese with cardiovascular disease risk factors
- M.S.N. Nursing
- The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
- An exploration of the relationships between uncertainty, psychological distress and coping among Chinese men after cardiac catheterization
- B.S.N. Nursing
- California State University, Fresno, Fresno, California, United States
- University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (2013 - Ongoing)
- University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona (2007 - 2013)
- Stanford University, Stanford, California (2005 - 2007)
- Fellow, American Academy of Nursing
- American Academy of Nursing, Fall 2019
- Suzanne Van Ort Award for Teaching
- College of Nursing, University of Arizona, Spring 2019
- University of Arizona, College of Nursing, Spring 2018 (Award Nominee)
- 3rd place Poster Presentation Innovation Award
- El Rio Research Fair, Spring 2018
- Award of Distinction: Excellence in Research
- Sigma Theta Tau International, Beta Mu Chapter, Spring 2018
- 2017 Annual Service Awards
- The University of Arizona, Spring 2017
- Distinguished Alumni Award
- Nethersole School of Nursing, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Fall 2016
- Mathy Mezey Excellence in Aging Award
- Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing Council, American Heart Association/American Stroke Association, Fall 2016
- Top Nurse in Tucson
- International Nurses Association, Spring 2016
Licensure & Certification
- Registered Nurse, California Board of Registered Nursing (1980)
- Registered Nurse, Arizona State Board of Nursing (2007)
- Public Health Nurse, California Board of Registered Nursing (1981)
No activities entered.
Evidence Based PracticeNURS 751 (Spring 2021)
DissertationNURS 920 (Fall 2020)
Integrative Health TopicsNURS 744 (Fall 2020)
Mng Conseq Chronic IllsNURS 727 (Fall 2020)
DNP ProjectNURS 922 (Fall 2019)
Mng Conseq Chronic IllsNURS 727 (Fall 2019)
ResearchPHSC 900 (Fall 2019)
DNP ProjectNURS 922 (Summer I 2019)
Research PreceptorshipNURS 791A (Summer I 2019)
DNP ProjectNURS 922 (Spring 2019)
DissertationNURS 920 (Spring 2019)
Mthds Scholarly InquiryNURS 652 (Spring 2019)
PracticumNURS 694 (Spring 2019)
DissertationNURS 920 (Fall 2018)
Mng Conseq Chronic IllsNURS 727 (Fall 2018)
DissertationNURS 920 (Summer I 2018)
DNP ProjectNURS 922 (Spring 2018)
DissertationNURS 920 (Spring 2018)
Mthds Scholarly InquiryNURS 652 (Spring 2018)
DNP ProjectNURS 922 (Fall 2017)
DissertationNURS 920 (Fall 2017)
Mng Conseq Chronic IllsNURS 727 (Fall 2017)
DNP ProjectNURS 922 (Summer I 2017)
DNP ProjectNURS 922 (Spring 2017)
Mthds Scholarly InquiryNURS 652 (Spring 2017)
DNP ProjectNURS 922 (Fall 2016)
Integrative Health TopicsNURS 744 (Fall 2016)
Mng Conseq Chronic IllsNURS 727 (Fall 2016)
DNP ProjectNURS 922 (Summer I 2016)
DNP ProjectNURS 922 (Spring 2016)
Mthds Scholarly InquiryNURS 652 (Spring 2016)
Research PreceptorshipNURS 791A (Spring 2016)
- Davis, L. L., Fink, A. M., & Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2019). American Heart Association Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing Liaison Report From the Development Committee. The Journal of cardiovascular nursing, 34(5), 361-363.
- Fink, A. M., & Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2019). Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing Liaison Report. The Journal of cardiovascular nursing, 34(1), 9-10.
- Dolan, H., & Taylor-Piliae, R. (2019). Selecting a theoretical framework to guide a research study of older adults' perceptions and experiences of falling in the hospital. Applied nursing research : ANR, 47, 38-40.More infoA paucity of research has explored the older adult's experience of falling in the hospital. Understanding the central concepts associated with a fall while hospitalized is essential for further fall prevention research and practice. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of selecting a theoretical framework to guide a qualitative study exploring the older adult's experience of falling while hospitalized. An analysis of six established illness self-management theories and models from nursing and psychology was conducted using Walker and Avant's framework for theory analysis. The Health Belief Model was selected as the most appropriate theoretical framework, as it entails concepts applicable to the experience of falling and captures the complexity of the phenomenon of inpatient falls, which is important for nursing.
- Hayman, L. L., Taylor-Piliae, R. E., & Fink, A. M. (2020). Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing Liaison Report on Global Engagement Activities. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 35(1), 4-5.
- Leung, L. Y., Chan, A. W., Sit, J. W., Liu, T., & Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2019). Tai Chi in Chinese adults with metabolic syndrome: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Complementary therapies in medicine, 46, 54-61.More infoTo determine the feasibility, acceptability and effects of a 12-week Tai Chi exercise program on cardiometabolic risk factors and quality of life in community-dwelling Chinese adults with metabolic syndrome.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Hsu, C., Toosizadeh, N., & Mohler, M. J. (2019). A Novel Dual-Task Balance Challenge to Prevent Falls in Older Adults: A Randomized Pilot Study. Journal of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, 5, 075. doi:Doi:10.23937/2469-5858/1510075
- Wang, Q., Chair, S. Y., Wong, E. M., Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Qiu, X. C., & Li, X. M. (2019). Metabolic Syndrome Knowledge among Adults with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: a cross-sectional study.. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(1), 159. doi:doi:10.3390/ijerph16010159
- Chair, S. Y., Chan, C. W., Yu, D. S., & Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2018). Changes in nursing education in Hong Kong - Progressive or regressive?. Nurse education today, 64, 150-152.
- Chan, A. W., Chair, S. Y., Lee, D. T., Leung, D. Y., Sit, J. W., Cheng, H. Y., & Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2018). Tai Chi exercise is more effective than brisk walking in reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors among adults with hypertension: A randomised controlled trial. International journal of nursing studies, 88, 44-52.More infoPhysical inactivity is a major modifiable lifestyle risk factor associated with cardiovascular disease. Tai Chi is a safe and popular form of physical activity among older adults, yet direct comparisons are lacking between Tai Chi and brisk walking in their ability to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors and improve psychosocial well-being.
- Chan, A. W., Tang, F. W., Choi, K. C., Liu, T., & Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2018). Clinical learning experiences of nursing students using an innovative clinical partnership model: A non-randomized controlled trial. Nurse education today, 68, 121-127.More infoClinical practicum is a major learning component for pre-registration nursing students. Various clinical practicum models have been used to facilitate students' clinical learning experiences, employing both university-based and hospital-based clinical teachers. Considering the strengths and limitations of these clinical practicum models, along with nursing workforce shortages, we developed and tested an innovative clinical partnership model (CPM) in Hong Kong.
- Miller, S., & Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2018). The association between Tai Chi exercise and safe driving performance among older adults: An observational study. Journal of sport and health science, 7(1), 83-94.More infoAge-related cognitive and physical decline can impair safe driving performance. Tai Chi exercise benefits cognitive and physical function and may influence safe driving performance in older adults. The primary aim of this observational study was to compare cognitive processes and physical function related to safe driving performance among older adult Tai Chi practitioners to normative reference values. Secondary aims were to examine relationships between Tai Chi exercise habits, cognitive processes, and physical function related to safe driving performance and to explore potential predictors of safe driving performance.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., & Fink, A. M. (2018). Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing Liaison Report. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 33(3), 202-203.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., & Fink, A. M. (2018). Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing Liaison Report. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 33(4), 304-305. doi:10.1097/JCN.0000000000000502
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Fink, A. M., & Kitko, L. (2018). Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing Liaison Report. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 33(3), 202-203. doi:10.1097/JCN.0000000000000479
- Webber-Ritchey, K. J., Taylor-Piliae, R. E., & Loescher, L. J. (2018). Physical Activity in Parents of Young African American Children: The Application of Social Cognitive Theory. Research and Theory for Nursing Practice, 32(1), 63-81. doi:10.1891/0000-000Y.32.1.63.
- Liu, T., Chan, A. W., Liu, Y. H., & Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2017). Effects of Tai Chi-based cardiac rehabilitation on aerobic endurance, psychosocial well-being, and cardiovascular risk reduction among patients with coronary heart disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing : Journal of the Working Group on Cardiovascular Nursing of the European Society of Cardiology. doi:doi: 10.1177/1474515117749592More infoTai Chi is an attractive exercise to improve cardiovascular health. This review aimed to synthesize articles written both in Chinese and in English to evaluate the effects of Tai Chi-based cardiac rehabilitation on aerobic endurance, psychosocial well-being and cardiovascular diseases risk reduction for coronary heart disease patients.
- Sit, J. W., Chair, S. Y., Choi, K. C., Chan, A. W., Qiu, X., & Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2017). Strategies for Enhancing Stroke Self-management Among Older Stroke Survivors: A Mixed Methods Inquiry.. Stroke, 48, ANS7.More infoSit, J.W., Chair, S.Y., Choi, K.C., Chan, C.W., Chan, A.W., Qiu, X. & Taylor-Piliae, R.E. Strategies for Enhancing Stroke Self-management Among Older Stroke Survivors: A Mixed Methods Inquiry. Stroke, 48:ANS7, 2017.
- Taylor, E., & Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2017). The effects of Tai Chi on physical and psychosocial function among persons with multiple sclerosis: A systematic review. Complementary therapies in medicine, 31, 100-108.More infoConduct a systematic review to evaluate the effects of Tai Chi on physical and psychosocial function among individuals with Multiple Sclerosis.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Peterson, R., & Mohler, M. J. (2017). Clinical and Community Strategies to Prevent Falls and Fall-Related Injuries among Community-Dwelling Older Adults.. Nursing Clinics of North America, 52(3), 489-497.
- Ćwiękała-Lewis, K. J., Gallek, M., & Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2017). The effects of Tai Chi on physical function and well-being among persons with Parkinson's Disease: A systematic review. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 21(2), 414-421.More infoCurrent medical treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) are mainly palliative, though research indicates Tai Chi exercise improves physical function and well-being. An electronic database search of PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO and Embase was conducted, to examine current scientific literature for potential benefits of Tai Chi on physical function and well-being among persons with PD. A total of 11 studies met the inclusion criteria: 7 randomized clinical trials and 4 quasi-experimental studies. PD participants (n = 548) were on average age 68 years old and 50% women. Overall, participants enrolled in Tai Chi had better balance and one or more aspect of well-being, though mixed results were reported. Further research is needed with more rigorous study designs, larger sample sizes, adequate Tai Chi exercise doses, and carefully chosen outcome measures that assess the mechanisms as well as the effects of Tai Chi, before widespread recommendations can be made.
- Argenbright, C. A., Taylor-Piliae, R. E., & Loescher, L. J. (2016). Bowenwork for symptom management of women breast cancer survivors with lymphedema: A pilot study. Complementary therapies in clinical practice, 25, 142-149.More infoThe objectives of this pilot study for women breast cancer survivors with lymphedema was 1) to evaluate recruitment rates, retention rates, adherence to Bowenwork (a noninvasive complementary therapy involving gentle muscle movements), home exercises, safety and comfort; 2) determine the effect of Bowenwork on quality of life (QOL), functional status, perceived pain, range of motion (ROM), arm/ankle circumference (to assess for localized and systemic changes).
- Giroud, X., Miramontes, M., Powell, M., Heasley, B., Taylor-Piliae, R. E., & Mohler, M. J. (2016). Dual Task Challenge- A Novel Addition to Community-Based Fall Intervention Programs.. Arizona Geriatrics Society Journal, 21(1), 8-11.More infoGiroud, X., Miramontes, M., Powell, M., Heasley, B., Taylor-Piliae, R. & Mohler, J. Dual Task Challenge- A Novel Addition to Community-Based Fall Intervention Programs. Arizona Geriatrics Society Journal, 21(1): 8-11, 2016.
- Miller, S. M., Taylor-Piliae, R. E., & Insel, K. C. (2016). The Association of Physical Activity, Cognitive Processes and Automobile Driving Ability in Older Adults: A Review of the Literature.. Geriatric Nursing, 37(4), 313-20. doi:10.1016/j.gerinurse.2016.05.004.More infoMiller, S.M., Taylor-Piliae, R.E. & Insel, K. C. The Association of Physical Activity, Cognitive Processes and Automobile Driving Ability in Older Adults: A Review of the Literature. Geriatric Nursing, 37(4):313-20, 2016.
- Miller, S. M., Taylor-Piliae, R. E., & Insel, K. C. (2016). The association of physical activity, cognitive processes and automobile driving ability in older adults: A review of the literature. Geriatric nursing (New York, N.Y.), 37(4), 313-20.More infoAs the number of older adults in the United States grows, the number of automobile drivers over the age of 65 will also increase. Several cognitive processes necessary for automobile driving are vulnerable to age-related decline. These include declines in executive function, working memory, attention, and speed of information processing. The benefits of physical activity on physical, psychological and particular cognitive processes are well-documented; however few studies have explored the relationship between physical activity and driving ability in older adults or examined if cognitive processes mediate (or moderate) the effect of physical activity on driving ability. The purpose of this paper is to review the existing literature regarding physical activity, cognition and automobile driving. Recommendations for further research and utility of the findings to nursing and the health care team are provided.
- Mohler, M. J., Wendel, C. S., Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Toosizadeh, N., & Najafi, B. (2016). Motor Performance and Physical Activity as Predictors of Prospective Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults by Frailty Level: Application of Wearable Technology. Gerontology, 62(6), 654-664.More infoFew studies of the association between prospective falls and sensor-based measures of motor performance and physical activity (PA) have evaluated subgroups of frailty status separately.
- Sit, J. W., Chair, S. Y., Choi, K. C., Chan, C. W., Lee, D. T., Chan, A. W., Cheung, J. L., Tang, S. W., Chan, P. S., & Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2016). Do empowered stroke patients perform better at self-management and functional recovery after a stroke? A randomized controlled trial. Clinical interventions in aging, 11, 1441-1450.More infoSelf-management after a stroke is a challenge because of multifaceted care needs and complex disabling consequences that cause further hindrance to patient participation. A 13-week stroke patient empowerment intervention (Health Empowerment Intervention for Stroke Self-management [HEISS]) was developed to enhance patients' ability to participate in self-management.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2016). Tai Chi Exercise for Fall Prevention in Older Adults.. Arizona Geriatrics Society Journal, 21(1), 14-20.More infoTaylor-Piliae, R.E. Tai Chi Exercise for Fall Prevention in Older Adults. Arizona Geriatrics Society Journal, 21(1): 14-20, 2016.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Mohler, M. J., Najafi, B., & Coull, B. M. (2016). Objective fall risk detection in stroke survivors using wearable sensor technology: a feasibility study. Topics in stroke rehabilitation, 23(6), 393-399.More infoStroke survivors often have persistent neural deficits related to motor function and sensation, which increase their risk of falling, most of which occurs at home or in community settings. The use of wearable technology to monitor fall risk and gait in stroke survivors may prove useful in enhancing recovery and/or preventing injuries.
- Webber-Ritchey, K. J., Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Insel, K. C., & Loescher, L. J. (2016). Physical Activity among African American Parents of Young Children: Roles of Personal and Environmental Factors.. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 47(6), 523-544. doi:doi: 10.7352/IJSP 2015.46.523More infoOBJECTIVES: To assess the factors that influence self-reported physical activity(PA).METHODS: African American (AA) parents/caregivers (n=96; M age=36years) completed an online survey to describe PA, personal (PA knowledge, exerciseself-efficacy-SE and outcome expectations-OE) and environmental factors (socialeconomic status-SES, neighborhood safety-NS, and culture).RESULTS: Moderate (30%, n=29) to high (54%, n=52) levels of PA werereported. There were significant correlations between PA and NS (rs=.25) and PAknowledge and PA (rs =-.30). Significant predictors of PA included SE (β=.21,t(84)=2.20, p=.030), NS (=.33, t(84)=3.56, p=.001), and an unexpected inverse ofPA knowledge (β=-.25, t(84)=-2.42, p=.018).CONCLUSIONS: Unlike prior studies, we found AA parents of young childrenwere physically active, knowledgeable of the PA guidelines, with moderate-highexercise SE, high SES, felt safe in their neighborhoods with a positive cultural identity.Future research examining the influence of AA parents’ PA on health indicatorsamong their children is needed next.
- Kraus, W. E., Bittner, V., Appel, L., Blair, S. N., Church, T., Després, J. P., Franklin, B. A., Miller, T. D., Pate, R. R., Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Vafiadis, D. K., Whitsel, L., & , A. H. (2015). The National Physical Activity Plan: a call to action from the American Heart Association: a science advisory from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 131(21), 1932-40.
- Schwenk, M., Mohler, J., Wendel, C., D'Huyvetter, K., Fain, M., Taylor-Piliae, R., & Najafi, B. (2015). Wearable sensor-based in-home assessment of gait, balance, and physical activity for discrimination of frailty status: baseline results of the Arizona frailty cohort study. Gerontology, 61(3), 258-67.More infoFrailty is a geriatric syndrome resulting from age-related cumulative decline across multiple physiologic systems, impaired homeostatic reserve, and reduced capacity to resist stress. Based on recent estimates, 10% of community-dwelling older individuals are frail and another 41.6% are prefrail. Frail elders account for the highest health care costs in industrialized nations. Impaired physical function is a major indicator of frailty, and functional performance tests are useful for the identification of frailty. Objective instrumented assessments of physical functioning that are feasible for home frailty screening have not been adequately developed.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Keller, M. L., & Gallek, M. J. (2015). Predictors of Stroke Survivors’ Enrollment in an Exercise Study.. Healthy Aging Research, 4, 18-. doi:doi:10.12715/har.2014.4.18More infoKeller, M.L, Gallek, M.J. & Taylor-Piliae, R.E. Predictors of Stroke Survivors’ Enrollment in an Exercise Study. Healthy Aging Research 4:18, 2015. (doi:10.12715/har.2014.4.18)
- Miller, S. M., & Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2014). Effects of Tai Chi on cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults: A review. Geriatric Nursing, 35(1), 9-19.More infoAbstract: As the population of the United States ages, activities to maintain or improve cognitive function will become increasingly important to preserve functional ability, independence and health-related quality of life. This article is a review of recent research on Tai Chi and cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults. Of the 12 studies reviewed, 10 reported improvement in measures of executive function, language, learning, and/or memory. Several design features make comparisons across studies challenging. As a moderate-intensity, low-impact form of exercise, Tai Chi is appropriate for older adults and seems to offer positive cognitive benefits. Recommendations for future research are provided. © 2014 Mosby, Inc.
- Miller, S. M., & Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2014). Effects of Tai Chi on cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults: a review. Geriatric nursing (New York, N.Y.), 35(1), 9-19.More infoAs the population of the United States ages, activities to maintain or improve cognitive function will become increasingly important to preserve functional ability, independence and health-related quality of life. This article is a review of recent research on Tai Chi and cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults. Of the 12 studies reviewed, 10 reported improvement in measures of executive function, language, learning, and/or memory. Several design features make comparisons across studies challenging. As a moderate-intensity, low-impact form of exercise, Tai Chi is appropriate for older adults and seems to offer positive cognitive benefits. Recommendations for future research are provided.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2014). Tai Ji Quan as an exercise modality to prevent and manage cardiovascular disease: A review. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 3(1), 43-51.More infoAbstract: Background: Regular exercise is beneficial for adults with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD risk factors. Tai Ji Quan is popular among older adults and may offer additional exercise options. The present article aims to review the scientific literature published within the past decade on Tai Ji Quan as an exercise modality to prevent and manage CVD. Methods: An electronic literature search of four databases (PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and AMED) was conducted from April 2003 through March 2013. Studies that examined Tai Ji Quan, were published in English, and specified a target study population of participants with a known CVD condition (e.g., coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, or stroke) or studies conducted among participants with a CVD risk factor (e.g., hypertension, dyslipidemia, or impaired glucose metabolism) were included. Results: A total of 20 studies met the inclusion criteria: 11 randomized clinical trials, seven quasi-experimental studies and two cross-sectional studies. The effect of Tai Ji Quan was examined on more than 20 different study variables among persons with coronary artery disease (n=5 studies), chronic heart failure (n=5 studies), stroke (n=4 studies), and CVD risk factors (n=6 studies). These studies were conducted primarily in Asia (n=9, 45%) or the United States (n=8, 40%). Overall, participants enrolled in Tai Ji Quan had better outcomes, though mixed results were reported. Conclusion: Collectively, these studies indicate that Tai Ji Quan is a safe form of exercise to prevent and manage CVD. Further research is needed with more rigorous study designs, larger sample sizes, adequate Tai Ji Quan exercise doses, and carefully chosen outcome measures that assess the mechanisms as well as the effects of Tai Ji Quan, before widespread recommendations can be made. © 2014 Shanghai University of Sport.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Boros, D., & Coull, B. M. (2014). Strategies to improve recruitment and retention of older stroke survivors to a randomized clinical exercise trial. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, 23(3), 462-468.More infoAbstract: Background: Relatively few exercise randomized clinical trials (RCTs) among stroke survivors have reported the effectiveness of recruitment and retention strategies, despite its central importance to study integrity. Objective: Our objective is to examine recruitment and retention strategies used among a group of older community-dwelling stroke survivors for an exercise RCT. Methods: Recruitment strategies were multidimensional using both paid (ie, newspaper, radio and, television) and unpaid advertisements (ie, staff visits, flyers, and brochures placed at outpatient rehabilitation centers, physician offices, and community facilities working with older adults; free media coverage of the study, presentations at stroke support groups, relatives/friends, and study Web site) to obtain referrals. Retention strategies centered on excellent communication, the study participants' needs, and having dedicated study staff. Attrition rates and adherence to the intervention were used to examine the effectiveness of these retention strategies. Results: A total of 393 referrals were received, 233 persons were screened, and 145 stroke survivors enrolled in the study. During 3 years of study recruitment, we achieved 97% of our enrollment target. We enrolled 62% of those screened. Study enrollment from paid advertising was 21.4% (n = 31), whereas unpaid advertisements resulted in 78.6% (n = 114) of our participants. Attrition was 10% (n = 14 dropouts), and adherence to the intervention was 85%. Conclusions: Recruitment and retention of participants in an exercise RCT are time and labor intensive. Multiple recruitment and retention strategies are required to ensure an adequate sample of community-dwelling stroke survivors. Many of these strategies are also relevant for exercise RCTs among adults with other chronic illnesses. © 2014 by National Stroke Association.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Hickey, K., Hodges, E., Thomas, T. L., Coffman, M. J., Johnson-Mallard, V. M., Goodman, J. H., Jones, R. A., Kuntz, S., Galik, E., Gates, M., & Casida, J. M. (2014). Initial Outcomes of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars. Nursing Outlook, 62(6), 394-401.More infoHickey, K., Hodges, E., Thomas, T. L., Coffman, M.J., Taylor-Piliae, R.E., Johnson-Mallard, V.M., Goodman, J.H., Jones, R. A., Kuntz, S., Galik, E., Gates, M.G., & Casida, J.M. Initial Outcomes of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars. Nursing Outlook, 62(6): 394-401, 2014.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Hoke, T. M., Hepworth, J. T., Latt, L. D., Najafi, B., & Coull, B. M. (2014). Effect of Tai Chi on Physical Function, Fall Rates and Quality of Life Among Older Stroke Survivors. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.More infoAbstract: Objective: To examine the effect of a 12-week Tai Chi (TC) intervention on physical function and quality of life. Design: Single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Setting: General community. Participants: Community-dwelling survivors of stroke (N=145; 47% women; mean age, 70y; time poststroke: 3y; ischemic stroke: 66%; hemiparesis: 73%) who were aged ≥50 years and were ≥3 months poststroke. Interventions: Yang style 24-posture short-form TC (n=53), strength and range of movement exercises (SS) (n=44), or usual care (UC) (n=48) for 12 weeks. The TC and SS groups attended a 1-hour class 3 times per week, whereas the UC group had weekly phone calls. Main Outcome Measures: Physical function: Short Physical Performance Battery, fall rates, and 2-minute step test; quality of life: Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results: During the intervention, TC participants had two thirds fewer falls (5 falls) than the SS (14 falls) and UC (15 falls) groups (χ2=5.6, P=.06). There was a significant group by time interaction for the 2-minute step test (F2,142=4.69, P
- Wayne, P. M., Walsh, J. N., Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Wells, R. E., Papp, K. V., Donovan, N. J., & Yeh, G. Y. (2014). Effect of tai chi on cognitive performance in older adults: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 62(1), 25-39.More infoAbstract: Objectives To summarize and critically evaluate research on the effects of Tai Chi on cognitive function in older adults. Design Systematic review with meta-analysis. Setting Community and residential care. Participants Individuals aged 60 and older (with the exception of one study) with and without cognitive impairment. Measurements Cognitive ability using a variety of neuropsychological testing. Results Twenty eligible studies with a total of 2,553 participants were identified that met inclusion criteria for the systematic review; 11 of the 20 eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), one was a prospective nonrandomized controlled study, four were prospective noncontrolled observational studies, and four were cross-sectional studies. Overall quality of RCTs was modest, with three of 11 trials categorized as high risk of bias. Meta-analyses of outcomes related to executive function in RCTs of cognitively healthy adults indicated a large effect size when Tai Chi participants were compared with nonintervention controls (Hedges' g = 0.90; P =.04) and a moderate effect size when compared with exercise controls (Hedges' g = 0.51; P =.003). Meta-analyses of outcomes related to global cognitive function in RCTs of cognitively impaired adults, ranging from mild cognitive impairment to dementia, showed smaller but statistically significant effects when Tai Chi was compared with nonintervention controls (Hedges' g = 0.35; P =.004) and other active interventions (Hedges' g = 0.30; P =.002). Findings from nonrandomized studies add further evidence that Tai Chi may positively affect these and other domains of cognitive function. Conclusion Tai Chi shows potential to enhance cognitive function in older adults, particularly in the realm of executive functioning and in individuals without significant impairment. Larger and methodologically sound trials with longer follow-up periods are needed before more-definitive conclusions can be drawn. © Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Hepworth, J. T., & Coull, B. M. (2013). Predictors of depressive symptoms among community-dwelling stroke survivors. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 28(5), 460-467.More infoPMID: 22710739;Abstract: Background: Depression is a common yet often unrecognized consequence of stroke, affecting between 25% and 70% of all survivors. Untreated depression post-stroke leads to a poorer prognosis and increased mortality. However, the pattern and profile of post-stroke depression in chronic stroke are poorly understood. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the independent predictors of depressive symptoms in chronic stroke. Methods: Community-dwelling stroke survivors (n = 100) completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Functional disability and cognitive impairment were assessed using standardized procedures. Multiple linear regression was conducted to explore potential independent predictors of depressive symptoms. Results: Subjects were, on average, 70 ± 10 years old and 39 ± 49 months post-stroke. The majority were white/European-American (78%), college educated (79%), and retirees (77%). Annual income was $50 000 or greater for 32%. Hemiparesis was common (right side, 39%; left side, 42%); 35% had a Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale score of 16 or higher, and 21% had a history of major depression. Approximately 64% of the variance in depressive symptoms could be explained by the independent variables in the model: quality of life, sleep quality, social support, cognitive impairment, functional disability, months post-stroke, age, gender, history of major depression, and lesion location (R = 0.64, F12,87 = 12.97, P < .01). Only poor quality of life (t1,87 =-6.99, P < .01) and low social support (t1,87 =-2.14, P = .04) contributed uniquely and significantly to the severity of depressive symptoms among these stroke survivors. Conclusion: Depressive symptoms are prevalent in chronic stroke survivors, even among an educated and economically advantaged population. Our findings are similar to reports by others that poor quality of life and low social support are major contributors to depressive symptoms in chronic stroke and should be routinely assessed and monitored to improve long-term rehabilitation efforts and promote wellness and community reintegration. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., & Coull, B. M. (2012). Community-based Yang-style Tai Chi is safe and feasible in chronic stroke: A pilot study. Clinical Rehabilitation, 26(2), 121-131.More infoPMID: 21937523;Abstract: Objective: Examine the safety and feasibility of a 12-week Tai Chi intervention among stroke survivors.Design: Two-group, prospective pilot study with random allocation.Setting: Outpatient rehabilitation facility.Subjects: Stroke survivors ≥50 years and at ≥three months post-stroke.Interventions: Tai Chi subjects attended group-based Yang Style classes three times/week for 12-weeks, while Usual Care subjects received weekly phone calls along with written materials/resources for participating in community-based physical activity.Main outcome measures: Indicators of study safety and feasibility included recruitment rates, intervention adherence, falls or adverse events, study satisfaction, drop-outs, and adequacy of the outcomes measures.Results: Interested persons pre-screened by phone (n = 69) were on average 68 years old, (SD = 13) years old, 48% (n = 33) women, 94% (n = 65) were at least three months post-stroke. A total of 28 subjects aged 69 (SD = 11) years enrolled in this pilot study. Intervention adherence rates were very high (≥92%). There were no falls or other adverse events. The dose of Tai Chi exercise (≥150 minutes/week) was well tolerated. Overall study satisfaction was high (8.3 (SD = 1.9); 1 = not satisfied, 10 = most satisfied), while drop-outs (n = 3, 11%) were unrelated to study intervention. Score distributions for the outcome measures were approximately normal, sensitive to change, and seemed to favor the Tai Chi intervention.Conclusions: Tai Chi is a safe, community-based exercise program for stroke survivors. Our data suggest that recruitment and retention of an adequate sample is feasible, and that in a full-scale study 52 subjects/group are needed to detect statistically significant between group differences (alpha = 0.05, power = 0.80). © SAGE Publications 2011.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Latt, L. D., Hepworth, J. T., & Coull, B. M. (2012). Predictors of gait velocity among community-dwelling stroke survivors. Gait and Posture, 35(3), 395-399.More infoPMID: 22119886;Abstract: Introduction: Gait velocity is an objective, fundamental indicator of post-stroke walking ability. Most stroke survivors have diminished aerobic endurance or paretic leg strength affecting their walking ability. Other reported underlying factors affecting gait velocity include functional disability, balance, cognitive impairment, or the distance they are required to walk. Objective: To examine the relationship between gait velocity and measures of physical and cognitive functioning in chronic stroke. Methods: Cross-sectional design using baseline data from community-dwelling stroke survivors enrolled in an exercise intervention study. Functional disability (modified Rankin Scale), aerobic endurance (2-min step-test), leg strength (timed 5-chair stand test), balance (single-leg stance) and cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental Status Exam) were assessed. Gait velocity was assessed using a timed 4-m walk test. Multiple linear regression was used to explore potential independent predictors of gait velocity. Results: Subjects had an average gait velocity of 0.75±0.23m/s, categorized as limited community walkers. Approximately 37% of the variance in gait velocity, could be explained by the 5 independent variables, functional disability, aerobic endurance, leg strength, balance, and cognitive impairment (R 2=0.37, F 5,74=8.64, p
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Silva, E., & Sheremeta, S. P. (2012). Tai Chi as an adjunct physical activity for adults aged 45 years and older enrolled in phase III cardiac rehabilitation. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 11(1), 34-43.More infoPMID: 21095159;Abstract: Background: Cardiac rehabilitation improves physical, cognitive and psychosocial functioning, yet services are greatly underutilized with increasing patterns of attrition over time. Tai Chi has been suggested as a possible adjunct to cardiac rehabilitation exercise training. Aim: To describe differences in physical, cognitive and psychosocial functioning among adults ≥ 45 years old attending phase III cardiac rehabilitation, who have or have not self-selected Tai Chi exercise as an adjunct physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional design compared subjects attending group-based Wu style Tai Chi classes plus cardiac rehabilitation, with cardiac rehabilitation only. Subjects had a battery of physical and cognitive functioning tests administered to examine aerobic endurance, balance, strength, and flexibility, verbal retrieval/recall, attention, concentration and tracking. Subjects completed a health survey to ascertain cardiac event information, medical history, and psychosocial functioning (i.e. health-related quality of life, stress, depressive symptoms, social support, and Tai Chi self-efficacy). Results: A total of 51 subjects (75% married, 84% college-educated, 96% White/European-American) participated. Subjects were on average 70 (± 8) years old and had attended cardiac rehabilitation for 45 (± 37) months. Approximately 45% (n = 23) attended Tai Chi classes plus cardiac rehabilitation, while 55% (n = 28) attended cardiac rehabilitation only. Subjects attending Tai Chi plus cardiac rehabilitation had better balance, perceived physical health, and Tai Chi selfefficacy compared to those attending cardiac rehabilitation only (p ≤ 0.03). Conclusion: Tai Chi can be easily implemented in any community/cardiac rehabilitation facility, and may offer adults additional options after a cardiac event. © The European Society of Cardiology 2012.
- Nguyen, P. K., Terashima, M., Fair, J. M., Varady, A., Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Iribarren, C., Go, A. S., Haskell, W. L., Hlatky, M. A., Fortmann, S. P., & McConnell, M. V. (2011). Physical activity in older subjects is associated with increased coronary vasodilation: The ADVANCE study. JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging, 4(6), 622-629.More infoPMID: 21679897;Abstract: Objectives: We investigated the association between physical activity and coronary vasodilation to nitroglycerin (NTG) in the ADVANCE (Atherosclerotic Disease, Vascular Function, and Genetic Epidemiology) cohort of older healthy subjects. Background: Physical activity may exert its beneficial effects by augmenting coronary responsiveness to nitric oxide. The relationship between physical activity and coronary vasodilatory response to NTG, an exogenous nitric oxide donor, has not been studied in a community-based population with typical activity levels. Methods: In 212 older adults (ages 60 to 72 years) without cardiovascular disease, we measured the coronary vasodilatory response to NTG using magnetic resonance angiography and physical activity using the Stanford Seven-Day Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire. The primary predictor measure was total physical activity (kcal/kg/day). The primary outcome measure was coronary vasodilatory response (percent increase of cross-sectional area post-NTG). Results: Coronary vasodilation was 27.6% in more active subjects (>35 kcal/kg/day, e.g., 1 h of walking per day) compared to 18.9% in less active subjects (p = 0.03). Regression analysis showed a significant positive correlation between coronary vasodilation and physical activity (p = 0.003), with a slope (beta) of 1.2% per kcal/kg/day. This finding remained significant after adjustment for cardiac risk factors, coronary calcium, the use of vasoactive or statin medications, and analysis of physical activity by quintiles (p < 0.05). Coronary vasodilation was also associated with physical activity intensity (p = 0.03). Conclusions: In an asymptomatic, community-based cohort of older adults, increased coronary vasodilatory response was independently associated with greater physical activity, supporting the benefits of exercise on the order of 1 h of walking per day. © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Fair, J. M., Varady, A. N., Hlatky, M. A., Norton, L. C., Iribarren, C., Go, A. S., & Fortmann, S. P. (2011). Ankle brachial index screening in asymptomatic older adults. American Heart Journal, 161(5), 979-985.More infoPMID: 21570532;Abstract: Background: Screening for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) by measuring ankle brachial index (ABI) in asymptomatic older adults is currently recommended to improve cardiovascular disease risk assessment and establish early treatment, but it is not clear if the strategy is useful in all populations. We examined the prevalence and independent predictors of an abnormal ABI (
- Taylor-Piliae, R., Hansen, C., & Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2011). What is Bowenwork®? A systematic review. Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.), 17(11).More infoThe objectives of this study were to systematically review the literature available on the complementary approach to healing known as Bowenwork(®) and to examine reported research methods.
- Palaniappan, L. P., Rosario, M., Assimes, T. L., Barrett-Connor, E. L., Carnethon, M. R., Criqui, M. H., Fung, G. L., Narayan, K. V., Patel, H., Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Wilson, P. W., & Wong, N. D. (2010). Call to action: Cardiovascular disease in Asian Americans: A science advisory from the American heart association. Circulation, 122(12), 1242-1252.More infoPMID: 20733105;
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Fair, J. M., Haskell, W. L., Varady, A. N., Iribarren, C., Hlatky, M. A., Go, A. S., & Fortmann, S. P. (2010). Validation of the Stanford Brief Activity Survey: Examining psychological factors and physical activity levels in older adults. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 7(1), 87-94.More infoPMID: 20231759;Abstract: Background: This study examined the construct validity and reliability of the new 2-item Stanford Brief Activity Survey (SBAS). Methods: Secondary analysis was conducted using data collected from the healthy older controls (n = 1023) enrolled in the Atherosclerotic Disease Vascular Function and Genetic Epidemiology (ADVANCE) study. Construct validity was examined by regression analyses to evaluate signifcant trends (P ≤.05) across the SBAS activity categories for the selected psychological health factors measured at baseline and year 2, adjusted for gender, ethnicity and education level. Test-retest reliability was performed using Spearman's rank correlation. Results: At baseline, subjects were 66 ± 2.8 years old, 38% female, 77% married, 61% retired, 24% college graduate, and 68% Caucasian. At baseline, lower self-reported stress, anxiety, depression, and cynical distrust, and higher self-reported mental and physical well-being were significantly associated with higher levels of physical activity (p trend ≤ 0.01). These associations held at year 2. The test-retest reliability of the SBAS was statistically significant (rs= 0.62, P
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Newell, K. A., Cherin, R., Lee, M. J., King, A. C., & Haskell, W. L. (2010). Effects of Tai Chi and Western exercise on physical and cognitive functioning in healthy community-dwelling older adults. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 18(3), 261-279.More infoPMID: 20651414;Abstract: To compare the effects of Tai Chi (TC, n = 37) and Western exercise (WE, n = 39) with an attention-control group (C, n = 56) on physical and cognitive functioning in healthy adults age 69 ± 5.8 yr, in a 2-phase randomized trial. Methods: TC and WE involved combined class and home-based protocols. Physical functioning included balance, strength, fexibility, and cardiorespiratory endurance. Cognitive functioning included semantic fuency and digit-span tests. Data were analyzed using intention-to-treat analysis. Results: At 6 mo, WE had greater improvements in upper body fexibility (F = 4.67, p =.01) than TC and C. TC had greater improvements in balance (F = 3.36, p =.04) and a cognitive-function measure (F = 7.75, p
- Gardner, C. D., Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Kiazand, A., Nicholus, J., Rigby, A. J., & Farquhar, J. W. (2008). Effect of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) on treadmill walking time among adults with peripheral artery disease: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention, 28(4), 258-265.More infoPMID: 18628657;PMCID: PMC2748261;Abstract: ■ PURPOSE: Medical therapies for treatment of peripheral artery disease (PAD) are limited. Ginkgo biloba has been reported to increase maximal and pain-free walking distance among patients with PAD; however, the evidence is inconsistent. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of 300 mg/d of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) versus placebo on treadmill walking time and related cardiovascular measures among patients with PAD. ■ METHODS: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design trial with a 4-month duration was used. Participants were 62 adults, aged 70 ± 8 years (mean ± SD), with claudication symptoms of PAD. The primary study outcomes were maximal and pain-free walking time on a treadmill. Secondary outcomes included flow-mediated vasodilation, a measure of antioxidant status as assessed by determining antibody levels to epitopes of oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and questionnaires addressing walking impairment and quality of life. ■ RESULTS: Maximal treadmill walking time increased by 20 ± 80 and 91 ± 242 seconds in the placebo and the EGb 761 groups, respectively (P = .12). Pain-free walking time increased by 15 ± 31 and 21 ± 43 seconds, respectively (P = .28). No significant differences were detected between groups for any of the secondary outcomes. ■ CONCLUSIONS: In older adults with PAD, Ginkgo biloba produced a modest but insignificant increase in maximal treadmill walking time and flow-mediated vasodilation. These data do not support the use of Ginkgo biloba as an effective therapy for PAD, although a longer duration of use should be considered in any future trials. © 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. (2008). The effectiveness of Tai Chi exercise in improving aerobic capacity: An updated meta-analysis. Medicine and Sport Science, 52, 40-53.More infoPMID: 18487885;Abstract: Purpose: To determine if Tai Chi exercise is effective in improving aerobic capacity. Methods: A computerized search of seven databases was conducted using the mesh term 'Tai Ji', published between January 1, 2000, and June 1, 2007, in order to update a previous meta-analysis examining the effect of Tai Chi on aerobic capacity. Effect sizes (ESs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using D-STAT software. The ES for each study was weighted by the sample size and pooled variance. The effects of Tai Chi exercise on aerobic capacity were calculated including study design, gender, age, and type of comparison group. Results: A total of 170 citations were obtained, with 7 new studies meeting the inclusion criteria and added to studies from the previous meta-analysis. Large significant effects of Tai Chi on aerobic capacity were found for subjects enrolled in the cross-sectional studies (ES = 1.33), in both women and men (1.09 and 0.86, respectively), among adults =55 years old (ES = 1.07), and when comparing sedentary subjects with those in Tai Chi exercise groups (ES = 0.99). Small to moderate effects, though nonsignificant, were found for subjects enrolled in the experimental studies (ES = 0.38), adults
- Taylor-Piliae, R., & Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2008). The effectiveness of Tai Chi exercise in improving aerobic capacity: an updated meta-analysis. Medicine and sport science, 52.More infoTo determine if Tai Chi exercise is effective in improving aerobic capacity.
- Lee, M. S., Pittler, M. H., Taylor-Piliae, R. E., & Ernst, E. (2007). Tai chi for cardiovascular disease and its risk factors: A systematic review . Journal of Hypertension, 25(9), 1974-1975.More infoPMID: 17762664;
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., & Froelicher, E. S. (2007). Methods to optimize recruitment and retention to an exercise study in Chinese immigrants. Nursing Research, 56(2), 132-136.More infoPMID: 17356444;Abstract: BACKGROUND:: To counter pervasive disparities in healthcare and guide public health prevention programs, culturally sensitive recruitment and retention strategies for Chinese immigrants participating in health-related research studies are needed. OBJECTIVES:: The aim of this study was to develop and implement recruitment and retention strategies with Chinese immigrants in a Tai Chi exercise study. METHODS:: After substantial project planning and incorporating community-based research principles, a multidimensional approach was used to ensure minimal loss to follow-up. Recruitment strategies included partnering with a community-based agency, distributing study information using a multimedia approach, communicating in the native language, and demonstrating cultural sensitivity. Retention strategies included establishing a tracking method during recruitment, providing personalized feedback, maintaining the same location for all aspects of the study, eliminating potential linguistic barriers, providing personal attention and encouragement, monitoring attendance, utilizing a charismatic Tai Chi instructor, respecting Chinese culture, providing appropriate incentives, and maintaining good communication. RESULTS:: Sixty persons showed interest in the study, 52 persons were screened, and 39 persons were enrolled. Recruitment was completed within 3 weeks. An advertisement in the Chinese newspaper was the most fruitful recruitment source, yielding approximately 60% of the study participants. Retention in the study was also very high (97%, n ≤ 38). DISCUSSION:: The successful recruitment and retention of Chinese immigrants in this Tai Chi exercise study are due to a variety of factors on many levels, including the participants, study investigator, and community-based agency. Copyright © Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., & Haskell, W. L. (2007). Tai Chi exercise and stroke rehabilitation. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 14(4), 9-22.More infoPMID: 17698454;Abstract: According to reported global estimates, 15 million people suffer from a stroke each year, resulting in 5.5 million deaths, with 5 million left permanently disabled. Typical disabilities following stroke include poor neuromuscular control, hemodynamic imbalance, and negative mood state. Tai Chi (TC) is associated with better balance, lower blood pressure, and improved mood, which are important for stroke survivors. An overview of the philosophy and principles of TC exercise is provided, followed by a literature review of reported TC studies examining balance, blood pressure, and mood. Finally, the potential application of TC exercise to stroke rehabilitation is discussed. © 2007 Thomas Land Publishers, Inc.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Haskell, W. L., Iribarren, C., Norton, L. C., Mahbouba, M. H., Fair, J. M., Hlatky, M. A., Go, A. S., & Fortmann, S. P. (2007). Clinical utility of the stanford brief activity survey in men and women with early-onset coronary artery disease. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention, 27(4), 227-232.More infoPMID: 17667019;Abstract: PURPOSE: To determine the utility of the Stanford Brief Activity Survey (SBAS) as a quick screening tool in a clinical population, where no other measure of physical activity was available. METHODS: The SBAS was administered to 500 younger cases in the Atherosclerotic Disease Vascular Function and Genetic Epidemiology (ADVANCE) study, a case-control genetic association study, between December 2001 and January 2004. Younger cases in the ADVANCE study included men (
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Haskell, W. L., & Froelicher, E. S. (2006). Hemodynamic responses to a community-based Tai Chi exercise intervention in ethnic Chinese adults with cardiovascular disease risk factors. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 5(2), 165-174.More infoPMID: 16314148;Abstract: Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among older adults worldwide, including Europe, Asia, and North America. In the United States (US), CVD is also the leading cause of death among Asian-Americans. Physical activity has been shown to reduce CVD risk factors. Reduction in blood pressure (BP) in response to Tai Chi (TC) exercise in persons with CVD risk factors have been reported, though not in ethnic Chinese living in the US. Aim: Hemodynamic responses to a 12-week community-based TC exercise intervention among ethnic Chinese with CVD risk factors were examined. Methods: Quasi-experimental design. Ethnic Chinese > 45 years old with at least 1 major CVD risk factor, living in the San Francisco Bay Area, attended a TC intervention three times a week for 12 weeks. A 2-min step-in-place test assessed aerobic endurance. BP and heart rate were measured at rest, and within 1-min after the step-test. Data were collected at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Results: A total of 39 subjects (69% women), 66 ± 8.3 years old, with hypertension (92%), hypercholesteremia (49%), and/or diabetes (21%), and 1 current smoker participated. Adherence to the intervention was high (87%). Subjects were sedentary at baseline, though had a statistically significant improvement in aerobic endurance over-time (eta2 = 0.39). At baseline, the average BP at rest was 150/86, while BP in response to the step-test was 178/99. Clinically and statistically significant reductions in BP at rest (131/77), and in response to the step-test (164/82) were found over 12 weeks of TC (p < 0.01). No significant change in heart rate was observed. Conclusions: This innovative, culturally relevant, community-based 12-week TC exercise intervention, appealed to Chinese adults with CVD risk factors, with significant reductions in BP and improvement in aerobic endurance. Given the number of persons estimated to have HTN and other CVD risk factors, the identification of new approaches to improve health, combined with risk factor reduction is needed. This is particularly important, given the rise in HTN among adults in the US and the associated public health burden of HTN. TC has the potential to reduce expenditures associated with CVD by facilitating a lifestyle that promotes physical activity, while remaining a low-tech, low-cost alternative to exercise. © 2005 European Society of Cardiology.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Haskell, W. L., Stotts, N. A., & Froelicher, E. S. (2006). Improvement in balance, strength, and flexibility after 12 weeks of Tai chi exercise in ethnic Chinese adults with cardiovascular disease risk factors. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 12(2), 50-58.More infoPMID: 16541997;Abstract: Context: Declines in physical performance are associated with aging and chronic health conditions. Appropriate physical activity interventions can reverse functional limitations and help maintain independent living. Tai chi is a popular form of exercise in China among older adults. Objective: To determine whether tai chi improves balance, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility over time. Design: Repeated measures intervention; data collected at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks. Setting: Community center in the San Francisco Bay Area. Participants: Thirty-nine Chinese adults with at least 1 cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. Interventions: A 60-minute tai chi exercise class 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Main Outcome Measures: A battery of physical fitness measures specifically developed for older adults assessed balance, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility. Results: Subjects were 65.7 (±8.3) years old, Cantonese-speaking (97%) immigrants, with 12 years or less of formal education (87%) and very low income (67%). Reported CVD risk factors were hypertension (92%), hypercholesteremia (49%), diabetes (21%), and 1 current smoker. Subjects were below the 50th percentile of fitness at baseline compared to age- and gender-specific normative US data. Statistically significant improvements were observed in all balance, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility measures after 6 weeks, and they increased further after 12 weeks. Conclusions: Tai chi is a potent intervention that improved balance, upper- and lower-body muscular strength and endurance, and upper- and lower-body flexibility in these older Chinese adults. These findings provide important information for future community-based tai chi exercise programs and support current public health initiatives to reduce disability from chronic health conditions and enhance physical function in older adults.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Haskell, W. L., Waters, C. M., & Froelicher, E. S. (2006). Change in perceived psychosocial status following a 12-week Tai Chi exercise programme. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 54(3), 313-329.More infoPMID: 16629916;Abstract: Aim. This paper reports a study to examine change in psychosocial status following a 12-week Tai Chi exercise intervention among ethnic Chinese people with cardiovascular disease risk factors living in the United States of America. Background. Regular participation in physical activity is associated with protection against cardioavascular disease, and improvements in physical and psychological health. Increasing amounts of scientific evidence suggests that mind-body exercise, such as Tai Chi, are related to improvements in mental health, emotional well-being, and stress reduction. No prior study has examined the effect of a Tai Chi exercise intervention on psychosocial status among people with cardiovascular disease risk factors. Methods. This was a quasi-experimental study. Participants attended a 60-minute Tai Chi exercise class three times per week for 12 weeks. Data were collected at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks following the intervention. Psychosocial status was assessed using Chinese versions of Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, Profile of Mood States, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and Tai Chi exercise self-efficacy. Results. A total of 39 participants, on average 66-year-old (±8·3), married (85%), Cantonese-speaking (97%), immigrants participated. The majority were women (69%), with ≤12 years education (87%). Statistically significant improvements in all measures of psychosocial status were found (P ≤ 0·05) following the intervention. Improvement in mood state (η2 = 0·12), and reduction in perceived stress (η2 = 0·13) were found. In addition, Tai Chi exercise statistically significantly increased self-efficacy to overcome barriers to Tai Chi (η2 = 0·19), confidence to perform Tai Chi (η2 = 0·27), and perceived social support (η2 = 0·12). Conclusions. Tai Chi was a culturally appropriate mind-body exercise for these older adults, with statistically significant psychosocial benefits observed over 12-weeks. Further research examining Tai Chi exercise using a randomized clinical trial design with an attention-control group may reduce potential confounding effects, while exploring potential mechanisms underlying the relaxation response associated with mind-body exercise. In addition, future studies with people with other chronic illnesses in all ethnic groups are recommended to determine if similar benefits can be achieved. © 2006 The Authors.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Norton, L. C., Haskell, W. L., Mahbouda, M. H., Fair, J. M., Iribarren, C., Hlatky, M. A., Go, A. S., & Fortmann, S. P. (2006). Validation of a new brief physical activity survey among men and women aged 60-69 years. American Journal of Epidemiology, 164(6), 598-606.More infoPMID: 16840522;Abstract: The Stanford Brief Activity Survey (SBAS), a new two-item physical activity survey, and the Stanford Seven-Day Physical Activity Recall (PAR) questionnaire were administered to men and women, aged 60-69 years, in the Atherosclerotic Disease VAscular functioN and genetiC Epidemiology (ADVANCE) Study. Frequency distributions of SBAS activity levels, as well as a receiver operating curve, were calculated to determine if the SBAS can detect recommended physical activity levels of 150 or more minutes/week at moderate or greater intensity, with PAR minutes/week. Data were collected between December 2001 and January 2004 from 1,010 participants (38% women) and recorded. Subjects were 65.8 (standard deviation: 2.8) years of age, 77% were married, 55% were retired, 23% were college graduates, and 68% were Caucasian. SBAS scores related significantly in an expected manner to PAR minutes/week (p < 0.01), energy expenditure (kcal/kg per day) (p < 0.01), and selected cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers (p < 0.01). The SBAS of physical activity at moderate intensity had a sensitivity of 0.73 and a specificity of 0.61. The SBAS is a quick assessment of the usual amount and intensity of physical activity that a person performs throughout the day. The SBAS needs further validation in other populations but demonstrated the potential of being a reasonably valid and inexpensive tool for quickly assessing habitual physical activity in large-scale epidemiology studies and clinical practice. Copyright © 2006 by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. (2004). Commentary. Evidence-based Cardiovascular Medicine, 8(3), 253-254.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., & Froelicher, E. S. (2004). Effectiveness of Tai Chi exercise in improving aerobic capacity: a meta-analysis.. The Journal of cardiovascular nursing, 19(1), 48-57.More infoPMID: 14994782;Abstract: PURPOSE: Meta-analysis involves the integration of several studies with small sample sizes, enabling the investigator to summarize research results into useful clinical information. Tai Chi exercise has recently gained the attention of Western researchers as a potential form of aerobic exercise. A goal of this meta-analysis was to estimate the effect of Tai Chi exercise on aerobic capacity. METHODS: A computerized search of 7 databases was done using key words and all languages. Sixteen study elements were critically appraised to determine study quality. D-STAT software was used to calculate the standardized mean differences (ESsm) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI), using means and standard deviations (SD) reported on aerobic capacity expressed as peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) (mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)). RESULTS: Of 441 citations obtained, only 7 focused on aerobic capacity in response to Tai Chi exercise (4 experimental and 3 cross-sectional). Older adults including those with heart disease participated (n = 344 subjects); on average men were aged 55.7 years (SD = 12.7) and women 60.7 years (SD = 6.2). Study quality scores ranged from 22 to 28 (mean = 25.1, SD = 2.0). Average effect size for the cross-sectional studies was large and statistically significant (ESsm = 1.01; CI = +0.37, +1.66), while in the experimental studies the average effect size was small and not significant (ESsm = 0.33; CI = -0.41, +1.07). Effect sizes of aerobic capacity in women (ESsm = 0.83; CI = -0.43, +2.09) were greater than those for men (ESsm = 0.65; CI = -0.04, +1.34), though not statistically significant. Aerobic capacity was higher in subjects performing classical Yang style (108 postures) Tai Chi (ESsm = 1.10; CI = +0.82, +1.38), a 52-week Tai Chi exercise intervention (ESsm = 0.94; C = +0.06, +1.81), compared with sedentary subjects (ESsm = 0.80; CI = +0.19, +1.41). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that Tai Chi may be an additional form of aerobic exercise. The greatest benefit was seen from the classical Yang style of Tai Chi exercise when performed for 1-year by sedentary adults with an initial low level of physical activity habits. Recommendations for future research are provided and the effect sizes generated provide information needed for sample size calculations. Randomized clinical trials in diverse populations, including those with chronic diseases, would expand the current knowledge about the effect of Tai Chi on aerobic capacity.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., & Froelicher, E. S. (2004). Measurement properties of Tai Chi exercise self-efficacy among ethnic Chinese with coronary heart disease risk factors: A pilot study. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 3(4), 287-294.More infoPMID: 15572017;Abstract: Improvement in aerobic capacity and reduction in blood pressure after Tai Chi exercise programs in persons with coronary heart disease (CHD) or with CHD risk factors have been reported. Self-efficacy has been shown to be a consistent predictor of behavioral outcomes, now being applied to Tai Chi exercise. To assess the utility and appropriateness of existing tools measuring aspects of Tai Chi exercise self-efficacy (TCSE) in a new population, ethnic Chinese with CHD risk factors. Specific objectives were: (1) examine acceptability and feasibility; (2) determine score distributions; (3) assess the reliability and known-groups validity; (4) translate tool into an equivalent Chinese version and determine if there were any differences between ethnic Chinese and non-Chinese. Following a review of the literature, two existing tools used with Caucasians were found and modified; a 9-item exercise self-efficacy tool developed by Resnick and Jenkins [Resnick B, Jenkins LS, Testing the reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise scale. Nurs. Res. 49(3) (2000) 154-159], and a 3-item tool developed by Li et al. [Li F, McAuley E, Harmer P, Duncan TE, Chaumeton NR, Tai Chi enhances self-efficacy and exercise behavior in older adults. J. Aging Phys. Act. 9 (2001) 161-171] to assess gradations of the challenge to perform Tai Chi among elderly populations. The modified TCSE tool was translated into Chinese and back-translated. A pilot study was conducted to pre-test the modified 14-item TCSE tool in ethnic Chinese and non-Chinese. A total of 18 subjects (mean age=60 years, S.D.=18.4) participated. Seven subjects (39%) identified themselves as ethnic Chinese. Ten subjects (56%) had experience performing Tai Chi, ranging from 3 months to 17 years (mean=5.0 years, S.D.=5.0). Half of the subjects reported having a history of hypertension (n=9, 50%), while nearly one-third reported having high cholesterol (n=5, 28%). No significant difference in TCSE mean scores was found between ethnic Chinese and non-Chinese (p>0.05). Internal consistency estimates were very high (TCSE Barriers, r=0.95; TCSE Performance, r=0.97). A statistically significant difference was found in the TCSE mean scores between Tai Chi practitioners and non-practitioners (TCSE Barriers, t=-3.3, p=0.01; TCSE Performance, t=-2.7, p=0.03), with Tai Chi practitioners reporting higher self-efficacy; thus providing initial evidence of known-groups validity. Measurement of self-efficacy to overcome barriers to Tai Chi exercise (TCSE Barriers) and self-efficacy to perform Tai Chi (TCSE Performance) functioned well in this sample. The acceptability and feasibility of this tool was established and known-groups validity was confirmed. Further research using this tool among ethnic Chinese with CHD or CHD risk factors, including those with less than high school education or low literacy, is recommended as the next step in development of TCSE. © 2004 European Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., & Wang, C. (2004). Response to the systematic review of Tai Chi  (multiple letters). Archives of Internal Medicine, 164(22), 2503-2504.More infoPMID: 15596651;
- Chair, S. Y., Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Lam, G., & Chan, S. (2003). Effect of positioning on back pain after coronary angiography. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 42(5), 470-478.More infoPMID: 12752867;Abstract: Background. Coronary angiography is a routine cardiac diagnostic procedure in Hong Kong. Patients are restricted to bedrest after the procedure due to potential vascular complications from using a femoral approach. Many patients are required to remain on bedrest for up to 24 hours after the procedure. The effects of reducing this bedrest time is still under investigation. In the meantime, nursing interventions aimed at decreasing patient discomfort due to prolonged bedrest are feasible to implement. Aims. The aims of this study were to evaluate the severity of back pain related to bedrest duration after coronary angiography and to compare the effects of changing patients' position in bed on their perceptions of back pain and on vascular complications. Methods. An experimental design was used, with patients randomly assigned either to a control or experimental group. The control group received the usual care, remaining supine and flat for 8-24 hours, with the affected leg straight. The experimental group changed their body position hourly, varying between supine, right side-lying, and left side-lying during the first 7 hours after coronary angiography. Results. A total of 419 patients participated in the study (control, n = 213; experimental, n = 206). Regardless of group assignment, back pain intensity increased with longer time on bedrest. In addition, the control group reported higher levels of pain at all five assessment times. Vascular complications in terms of bleeding at the femoral site were not significantly different between the control and experimental groups. Conclusion. The study findings suggest that patients may be able safely to change their position in bed earlier in the postcoronary angiography period than currently recommended in practice protocols. Changing position in bed may also reduce back pain, promote physical comfort, and possibly reduce patients' negative feelings toward coronary angiography.
- Holroyd, E. A., Taylor-Piliae, R. E., & Twinn, S. F. (2003). Investigating Hong Kong's Filipino domestic workers' healthcare behavior, knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards cervical cancer and cervical screening. Women & health, 38(1), 69-82.More infoThe aim of this study was to investigate Hong Kong Filipino domestic workers health behaviors, knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about cervical screening and cancer. A concurrent cross sectional survey design used a snowball method of recruitment was used because of the acknowledged problematic access to a random sample of immigrant women. A total of 98 female domestic helpers were actively recruited through designated recreation centers. The women were between 24-45 years old (mean = 37.9, SD = 7.7). The majority of these women were employed as full-time domestic helpers (91%), were earning less than dollar 4000 Hong Kong dollars/month (92%), were married (82%), with children (91%), were non-smokers (88%), and had at least a secondary level of education (100%), with 66% of these women having completed post-secondary education. While the majority of women had previously heard about cervical smears (78%) more than half (53%) reported never having a cervical smear taken. Women who had a prior cervical smear had significantly more knowledge about cervical smears and cervical cancer (mean = 51.34, SD = 2.5) than those who never had a cervical smear (mean = 49.72, SD = 3.2). Recommendations are made for culturally tailored mass screening programmers out of office hours and health information to be provided in both written and oral Tagalong. Doctors and nurse ideally of Filipino origin should be used to deliver health messages that prioritize the importance of self protection for the family and future fertility issues, culturally prized within Filipino society.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2003). Tai chi as an adjunct to cardiac rehabilitation exercise training. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation, 23(2), 90-96.More infoPMID: 12668929;Abstract: Heart disease is a chronic condition needing lifetime secondary prevention measures to decrease morbidity and mortality, and to improve quality of life. Cardiac rehabilitation exercise training, one aspect of cardiac recovery, traditionally includes some form of aerobic fitness and, more recently, muscle strength training to improve exercise tolerance. Tai chi, widely practiced in China for centuries, is a popular form of exercise among older Chinese persons associated with enhanced well-being and health among traditional Chinese practitioners. Recent research has reported improvement in cardiorespiratory function, balance and postural stability, fall prevention, and stress reduction. A review of the literature suggests potential benefits from tai chi exercise performed as an adjunct to cardiac rehabilitation exercise training. Tai chi is cost-effective and facilitates a lifestyle of health-related behavior practices.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. (2002). Commentary: Review: Music as a single session intervention reduces anxiety and respiratory rate in patients admitted to hospital. Evidence-Based Nursing, 5(3), 86-.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. (2002). Commentary: Review: Several techniques optimise oxygenation during suctioning of patients. Evidence-Based Nursing, 5(2), 51-.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., & Chair, S. (2002). The effect of nursing interventions utilizing music therapy or sensory information on Chinese patients' anxiety prior to cardiac catheterization: A pilot study. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 1(3), 203-211.More infoPMID: 14622675;Abstract: Background: Unrelieved anxiety can produce an increase in sympathetic nervous system activity leading to an increase in cardiac workload. Nursing interventions using music therapy or sensory information among patients with coronary artery disease has resulted in anxiety reduction, though results in Chinese subjects has not previously been published. Aims: To determine the effects of using nursing interventions of music therapy or sensory information, on reducing anxiety and uncertainty, and improving negative mood among Chinese subjects immediately prior to cardiac catheterization. Methods: An experimental three-group repeated measures design for this pilot study was used. Forty-five hospitalized adults (15/group) undergoing cardiac catheterization were randomly assigned to either (1) a music therapy intervention, (2) a sensory information intervention or (3) treatment as usual (control). Anxiety, uncertainty and mood state were measured using self-reported questionnaires and physiological measures were made at baseline, post-intervention to determine their effect and post-cardiac catheterization to determine whether these interventions had any long-lasting effect. Results: The control group was found to be significantly older (P=0.001) than the two experimental groups. Older age was associated with lower anxiety scores (r=-0.31, P=0.04 at baseline; r=-0.30, P=0.04 post-intervention; r=-0.22, P=0.15 post-cardiac catheterization). After controlling for age, the use of music therapy or sensory information did not significantly reduce anxiety, improve mood state, reduce uncertainty, decrease heart or respiratory rate among subjects undergoing cardiac catheterization. Conclusion: The non-significant result may have been affected by the small sample, and the social and cultural expectations regarding the public display of emotions among Chinese populations. © 2002 European Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
- Holroyd, E. A., Molassiotis, A., & Taylor-Pilliae, R. E. (2001). Filipino domestic workers in Hong Kong: health related behaviors, health locus of control and social support. Women & health, 33(1-2), 181-205.More infoA total of 290 female Filipino domestic helpers residing in Hong Kong completed a concurrent cross sectional survey designed to provide an initial report of basic data which measured mental health symptoms, health-related behaviors, health locus of control and social support. The four top ranking symptoms of mental distress reported included waking in the early hours, loneliness, worry and taking a long time to get to sleep. In general, the level of health related behaviors was high, with a satisfactory diet and low rates of alcohol, nicotine and coffee consumption. However, few women surveyed had previously had a Pap smear. There were also low scores for other preventive health practices. Reinforcement for health behaviors was seen as either a matter of chance or being influenced by powerful others for two thirds of the women. The conclusion highlights the intersection between gender, immigration and social class by drawing attention to issues of acceptance and accessibility of healthcare services for immigrant within host countries. In addition, cultural directions for immigrant health education are outlined.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., & Molassiotis, A. (2001). An exploration of the relationships between uncertainty, psychological distress and type of coping strategy among Chinese men after cardiac catheterization. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 33(1), 79-88.More infoPMID: 11155111;Abstract: The experience of cardiac catheterization (CC) has included feelings of uncertainty, stress, fear and anxiety in many patients. However, conflicting findings from previous research have been reported. Chinese patients who undergo CC may experience psychological distress in a different way to other cultures as a result of traditional beliefs. Moreover, little research examining the impact of CC among Hong Kong Chinese has been carried out. Therefore, the aim of the study was to explore relationships between uncertainty, psychological distress and coping strategy in Chinese men after CC, using Mishel's model of uncertainty in illness as a framework. A convenience sample of 27 men hospitalized for cardiac catheterization participated in this study using a descriptive, correlational research design. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Medical Faculty at the Chinese University of Hong Kong and from the Executive Committee of the hospital. Participation was on a voluntary basis with patient confidentiality assured. Self-report questionnaires included Chinese versions of Mishel's Uncertainty in Illness Scale (MUIS), the Profile of Mood States (POMS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Chinese Coping Scale (CCS) for data collection. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. High mean scores for uncertainty (mean = 1014, SD = 1149) and variables measuring psychological distress (mood disturbance mean = 36.6, SD = 33.6, state-anxiety mean = 39.1, SD = 8.95, trait-anxiety mean = 43.7, SD = 8.1) among these participants suggest that Hong Kong Chinese men experience uncertainty and psychological distress when undergoing cardiac catheterization. Strong relationships between uncertainty and mood disturbance (r = 0.57, P = 0.01), trait-anxiety and mood disturbance (r = 0.65, P = 0.01) and state-anxiety and external coping strategies (r = 0.50, P = 0.05) were found. These findings suggest that relationships between uncertainty, psychological distress and external coping strategies exist in Chinese men hospitalized for cardiac catheterization. Moreover, these findings may help nurses' design culturally specific interventions for their patients.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., & Molassiotis, A. A. (2000). Psychometric evaluation of the Chinese version of Mishel’s Uncertainty in Illness Scale. Hong Kong Nursing Journal, 36, 14-21.More infoTaylor-Piliae, R.E. & Molassiotis, A. Psychometric evaluation of the Chinese version of Mishel’s Uncertainty in Illness Scale. Hong Kong Nursing Journal, 36:14-21, 2000.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. (1999). Utilization of the Iowa Model in establishing evidence-based nursing practice.. Intensive & critical care nursing : the official journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses, 15(6), 357-362.More infoPMID: 11868583;Abstract: Clinical practice based on tradition or established rituals appears to be widespread amongst a variety of nurses and practice settings. However, tradition-based practice may not necessarily be based on sound scientific evidence and could potentially be harmful to patients or result in inappropriate utilization of resources. Conversely, evidence-based practice is the utilization of the best available empirical evidence in the practice setting, to facilitate sound clinical decision-making. Suctioning ventilated patients is a necessary and important aspect of patient care. However, normal saline instillation prior to suctioning, in order to loosen secretions, remains a common nursing procedure despite research suggesting that there is no clear benefit and in some instances may be harmful. Several models have been developed over the past few years to facilitate nursing practice that is based on research or the best available evidence. The Iowa Model, developed at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, serves as a framework to improve patient outcomes, enhance nursing practice and monitor health care costs. Moreover, it facilitates the application of empirical evidence to clinical practice. This paper will discuss the utilization of the Iowa Model to promote evidence-based nursing practice, with regard to normal saline instillation prior to suctioning, in the critical care unit of a 100-bed hospital in Hong Kong. Patient, staff and fiscal outcomes will also be reported.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Molassiotis, A. A., & Holroyd, E. (1999). Psychometric evaluation of the Chinese translation of the Profile of Mood States.. Hong Kong Nursing Journal, 35, 7-13.More infoMolassiotis, A., Holroyd, E. & Taylor-Piliae RE. Psychometric evaluation of the Chinese translation of the Profile of Mood States. Hong Kong Nursing Journal, 35:7-13, 1999.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (1998). Establishing evidence-based practice: Issues and implications in critical care nursing. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 14(1), 30-37.More infoPMID: 9652259;Abstract: Evidence-based practice is the application of the best available empirical evidence, including recent research findings to clinical practice in order to aid clinical decision-making. The implementation of these findings is vital for optimizing patient outcomes, improving clinical practice, providing cost-effective high quality care and enhancing the credibility of nurses. The use of research findings to improve practice has been discussed and promoted for the last 20 years. The author argues that Rogers' theoretical model of the Diffusion of Innovations may prove useful in understanding the problem of the slow diffusion of the application of research evidence in clinical nursing practice. Many authors have discussed potential barriers to using research in clinical practice in order to facilitate utilization of findings. However, recent studies all document that a gap between research findings and their implementation in clinical practice still exists. This appears to hold true across a variety of practice settings, including nurses working in critical care. The diffusion of innovations in current critical care nursing practice at each stage of Rogers' theory will be examined, with recommendations given to facilitate the establishment of evidence-based practice (EBP). © 1998 Harcourt Brace & Co. Ltd.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2020, Spring). Unintentional Falls and Injuries Among Older Adults. Healthy Pima 2020Pima County Department of Public Health.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2019, Fall). Tai Chi Exercise for Fall Prevention. Fall Prevention Community Event. Tucson, AZ: Banner-UMC Tucson and University of Arizona.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2019, Fall). The Effectiveness of Tai Chi Exercise for Chronic Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (Keynote Speaker). The 2019 International Taijiquan Health Science Conference. Beijing, China: International Society of Chinese Health Practices.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2019, Spring). Tai Chi Exercise for Health and Well-being.. Arizona Holistic Nursing Symposium. Tucson, AZ: American Holistic Nurses Association.
- Chan, A. W., Leung, D. Y., Chair, S. Y., Sit, J. W., & Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2018, March). Tai Chi Exercise is More Effective than Brisk Walking in Reducing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors. American Heart Association's 2018 EPI/Lifestyle Scientific Sessions. New Orleans, LA: American Heart Association.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2018, May). Tai Chi Exercise for Heart Failure: What is the Scientific Evidence?. Heart Failure 2018 Congress, CV Nursing Session: Alternative ways to Increase Physical Activity. Vienna, Austria: European Society of Cardiology.
- Sit, J. W., Chair, S. Y., Choi, K. C., Chan, C. W., Chan, A. W., Qiu, X., & Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2017, Feb 21). Strategies for Enhancing Stroke Self-management Among Older Stroke Survivors: A Mixed Methods Inquiry. International Stroke Conference. Houston, TX: American Heart Association/Amercan Stroke Association.More infoPodium Presentation
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2017, April 6). Meta-Analysis: A Research Method for Nursing Science. PhD Seminar. Jackson, MS: University of Mississippi Medical Center, School of Nursing.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2017, April 7). The Effectiveness of Tai Chi Exercise in Improving Health and Well-Being. The Dr. Barbara Rogers Endowed Lectureship and Oglevee Papers Keynote, Nursing Alumni Day. Jackson, MS: University of Mississippi Medical Center, School of Nursing.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2017, May 18-19). Tai Chi Exercise for Fall Prevention: What is the Scientific Evidence?. Western Arizona Conference on Aging. Yuma, AZ: Western Arizona Council of Governments.
- Rosenfeld, A. G., Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Carrington, J. M., Gephart, S. M., Insel, K. C., Loescher, L. J., & Reed, P. G. (2016, January). Defying the skeptics! Strategies and successes of an online PhD program.. AACN Doctoral Education Conference. Florida: AACN.
- Sit, J. W., Chair, S. Y., Choi, K. C., Chan Yip, C. W., Ching, R., Taylor-Piliae, R. E., & Tang, S. W. (2016, February). The Effects of a Theory-based Health Empowerment Intervention on Self-Management and Functional Recovery Post-Stroke. American Heart Association/American Stroke Association, State of the Science Stroke Nursing Symposium. Los Angeles, CA.More infoAbstractStroke 2016: 47 ANS7
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2016, November). Effects of Tai Chi on Physical, Cognitive, and Psychological Function: Review of the Best Evidence. Gerontological Society of America, 69th Annual Scientific Meeting. New Orelans, LA: East meets West Symposium Keynote Speaker.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2016, October). Tai Chi Exercise for Fall Prevention: A Meta-Analysis of the Scientific Evidence. Research Seminar. Hong Kong, SAR: Nethersole School of Nursing, The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2016, September). Tai Chi Exercise for Fall Prevention: What is the Scientific Evidence?. Advances in Aging Lecture Series. Tucson, AZ: UA College of Medicine, Arizona Reynolds Program of Applied Geriatrics, Arizona Geriatric Workforce Enhancement Program and the Arizona Center on Aging.
- Dolan, H. R., & Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2019, April). Embarrassment: A Concept Analysis. Western Institute of Nursing's 2019 Annual Communicating Nursing Research Conference. San Diego, CA: Western Institute of Nursing.
- Gallegos Jr., J. L., Gallegos Jr., J. L., Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Pace, T. W., Pace, T. W., Gallek, M., Gallek, M., Ritter, L. S., & Ritter, L. S. (2019, March). Hidden Risks: Relationship among visceral adipose tissue, interleukin - 18, and adiponectin in the development of type 2 diabetes in Filipino Americans. American Heart Association's 2019 EPI/Lifestyle Scientific Sessions. Houston, TX: American Heart Association.
- Jajoo, A., Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Killgore, W., Warlick, C., Alfonso-Miller, P., & Grandner, M. (2019, Spring). Types of Habitual Physical Activity Associated with Habitual Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality, and Daytime Sleepiness.. Sleep 2019: 33rd Annual Meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies.. San Antonio, TX..
- Marupuru, S., Bell, M. L., Grandner, M., & Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2019, Spring). The effect of physical activity on sleep quality among older stroke survivors: Secondary analysis from a randomized controlled trial.. International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. New Orleans, LA.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Hsu, C., Toosizadeh, N., & Mohler, M. J. (2019, March). Novel Dual-Task Balance Challenge to Prevent Falls in Older Adults with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors. American Heart Association's 2019 EPI/Lifestyle Scientific Sessions. Houston, TX: American Heart Association.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Zeimantz, M. A., & Rosenfeld, A. G. (2019, February). Stroke Survivors' Perceptions of Well-Being and Recovery after a Tai Chi Exercise Intervention. International Stroke Conference. Honolulu, HI: American Heart Association/Amercan Stroke Association.
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Zeimantz, M., Dolan, H. R., & Rosenfeld, A. G. (2019, Fall). Community-Dwelling Stroke Survivors’ Feelings and Perceptions of a Tai Chi Exercise Intervention.. The 2019 International Taijiquan Health Science Conference. Beijing, China: International Society of Chinese Health Practices.
- Taylor, E., & Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2017, April). The Effects of Tai Chi on Physical and Psychosocial Function among Persons with Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review. International Integrative Nursing Symposium. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, College of Nursing.
- Taylor, E., & Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2017, May 4). The Effects of Tai Chi on Physical and Psychosocial Function among Persons with Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review. 2017 Nurse Week Poster Showcase. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, College of Nursing.
- Miller, S. M., & Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2016, May). Tai Chi Exercise and Safe Driving Performance in Older Adults: An Observational Study. International Congress on Integrative Medicine and Health. Henderson, NV: International Congress on Integrative Medicine and Health.
- Webber-Ritchey, K. J., Webber-Ritchey, K. J., Loescher, L. J., Loescher, L. J., Taylor-Piliae, R. E., & Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2016, March). Predictors of Physical Activity Among African-American Parents of Young Children: Personal and Environmental Factors. American Heart Association/ American Stroke Association Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology and Prevention/Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health Scientific Sessions. Phoenix, AZ.More infoAbstractCirculation 2016: 33: AP135
- Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2017. Building Better Futures Video. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, College of Nursing. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pkm1wPposfo
- Mohler, M. J., & Taylor-Piliae, R. E. (2017, Sept). Assessing and Intervening in Fall Risk for Older Adults. Elder Care: A Resource for Interprofessional Providers. http://aging.arizona.edu/program/elder-care-resource-interprofessional-providers