Peter M Waller
- Associate Professor, Agricultural-Biosystems Engineering
- Ph.D. Agricultural Engineering
- University of California, Davis, Davis, California, United States
- Lateral Move Chemigation of Lorsban-4E on Field Corn
- M.S. Agricultural Engineering
- University of California, Davis, Davis, California, United States
- Changes in cracking, water content and bulk density of salinized swelling clay field soils
- B.S. Agricultural Engineering
- University of California, Davis, Davis, California, United States
- Bleyhl Farm Service (1983 - 1985)
Algae/biofuel research has funded by the DOE RAFT project - $8M/4yr DOE funded research program at University of Arizona, Dr. Kim Ogden PI. (Partners: Texas A&M, New Mexico State, Pacific Northwest National Lab). This research includes several graduate student projects: ARID (Algae Raceway Integrated Design) raceway oxidation (graduate student Said Attalah and visiting scholar Yaser al Mehdipour); Modeling nutrients and algae growth in algae raceways and bioreactors (graduate student Song Gao); Modeling the effects of shading on algae growth, temperature, and evaporation in outdoor open ponds (graduate student George Khawam). We also had a project funded by USDA-ARS that focuses on development of the WINDS (Water-use, Irrigation, Nitrogen, Drainage, and Salinity) model for web-based irrigation management (post doc Diaa El Deen El Shikha and graduate student Victoria Karlsson), and on quantification of guayule water requirements. I am one of the co-PIs on the new $15 M SBAR project funded by USDA-NIFA. My focus is on developing an online version of the WINDS model connected to an irrigation sensor and control system, as well as evaluating irrigation strategies in experiments
During the spring, I teach three courses: an online Natural Science course, ABE170A2 Science, Technology, and Environment (100 students); ABE423/523 Biosystems Analysis and Design (24); 3 weeks of a lower division class with online lectures and open lab, ABE205 Computational Methods for Engineers (30), and 12 weeks of ABE458/558, Soils, Wetlands, and Wastewater Reuse. During the fall, I teach 3 sections of the Natural Science course, ABE170A2 (80), in person.
Directed ResearchBE 492 (Fall 2020)
DissertationBE 920 (Fall 2020)
InternshipBE 493 (Fall 2020)
Master's ReportBE 909 (Fall 2020)
Sci, Techn+EnvironmentBE 170A2 (Fall 2020)
InternshipBE 493 (Summer I 2020)
Biosystems Analysis+DsgnBE 423 (Spring 2020)
Biosystems Analysis+DsgnBE 523 (Spring 2020)
DissertationBE 920 (Spring 2020)
InternshipBE 493 (Spring 2020)
Master's ReportBE 909 (Spring 2020)
Sci, Techn+EnvironmentBE 170A2 (Spring 2020)
DissertationBE 920 (Fall 2019)
InternshipBE 493 (Fall 2019)
Sci, Techn+EnvironmentBE 170A2 (Fall 2019)
Biosystems Analysis+DsgnBE 423 (Spring 2019)
Biosystems Analysis+DsgnBE 523 (Spring 2019)
DissertationBE 920 (Spring 2019)
InternshipBE 493 (Spring 2019)
Sci, Techn+EnvironmentBE 170A2 (Spring 2019)
DissertationABE 920 (Fall 2018)
InternshipABE 493 (Fall 2018)
InternshipABE 693 (Fall 2018)
Sci, Techn+EnvironmentABE 170A2 (Fall 2018)
DissertationABE 920 (Summer I 2018)
InternshipABE 493 (Summer I 2018)
Biosystems Analysis+DsgnABE 423 (Spring 2018)
Biosystems Analysis+DsgnABE 523 (Spring 2018)
DissertationABE 920 (Spring 2018)
Engr Anlytc Cmptr SkillsABE 205 (Spring 2018)
Independent StudyABE 499 (Spring 2018)
InternshipABE 393 (Spring 2018)
Sci, Techn+EnvironmentABE 170A2 (Spring 2018)
Soil Wtlnd Wstewatr ReusABE 458 (Spring 2018)
Soil Wtlnd Wstewatr ReusABE 558 (Spring 2018)
Soil Wtlnd Wstewatr ReusCE 458 (Spring 2018)
Soil Wtlnd Wstewatr ReusCE 558 (Spring 2018)
DissertationABE 920 (Fall 2017)
InternshipABE 393 (Fall 2017)
Sci, Techn+EnvironmentABE 170A2 (Fall 2017)
InternshipABE 393 (Summer I 2017)
Master's ReportABE 909 (Summer I 2017)
Biosystems Analysis+DsgnABE 423 (Spring 2017)
Biosystems Analysis+DsgnABE 523 (Spring 2017)
DissertationABE 920 (Spring 2017)
Engr Anlytc Cmptr SkillsABE 205 (Spring 2017)
Independent StudyABE 599 (Spring 2017)
InternshipABE 393 (Spring 2017)
InternshipABE 693 (Spring 2017)
Sci, Techn+EnvironmentABE 170A2 (Spring 2017)
Sci, Techn+EnvironmentABE 170A2 (Winter 2016)
DissertationABE 920 (Fall 2016)
InternshipABE 393 (Fall 2016)
InternshipABE 693 (Fall 2016)
Sci, Techn+EnvironmentABE 170A2 (Fall 2016)
Biosystems Analysis+DsgnABE 423 (Spring 2016)
Biosystems Analysis+DsgnABE 523 (Spring 2016)
DissertationABE 920 (Spring 2016)
Engr Anlytc Cmptr SkillsABE 205 (Spring 2016)
Sci, Techn+EnvironmentABE 170A2 (Spring 2016)
- Kim, O., Waller, P. M., & coauthors, 7. o. (2019). Regional Algal Feedstock Testbed (RAFT) Final Report. DOE-UAZ-0006269.
- Waller, P. M., & Yitayew, M. (2016). Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. http://www.springer.com/us/book/9783319056982: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-05699-9More infoThis textbook focuses on the combined topics of irrigation and drainageengineering. It emphasizes both basic concepts and practical applications of the latest technologies available. The design of irrigation, pumping, and drainage systems using Excel and Visual Basic for Applications programs are explained for both graduate and undergraduate students and practicing engineers. The book emphasizes environmental protection, economics, and engineering design processes. It includes detailed chapters on irrigation economics, soils, reference evapotranspiration, crop evapotranspiration, pipe flow, pumps, open-channel flow, groundwater, center pivots, turf and landscape, drip, orchards, wheel lines, hand lines, surfaces, greenhouse hydroponics, soil water movement, drainage systems design, drainage and wetlands contaminant fate and transport. It contains summaries, homework problems, and color photos. The book drawsfrom the fields of fluid mechanics, soil physics, hydrology, soil chemistry, economics, and plant sciences to present a broad interdisciplinary view of the fundamental concepts in irrigation and drainage systems design.
- Attalah, S., Waller, P., Steichen, S., Brown, C. C., Mehdipour, Y., Ogden, K., & Brown, J. K. (2019). Cost minimization of deoxygenation for control of Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus in Chlorella sorokiniana cultures. ALGAL RESEARCH-BIOMASS BIOFUELS AND BIOPRODUCTS, 42.
- Attalah, S., Waller, P., Steichen, S., Gao, S., Brown, C. C., Ogden, K., & Brown, J. K. (2019). Application of deoxygenation-aeration cycling to control the predatory bacterium Vampirovibrio chlorellavorus in Chlorella sorokiniana cultures. ALGAL RESEARCH-BIOMASS BIOFUELS AND BIOPRODUCTS, 39.
- Khawam, G., Waller, P., Gao, S., Edmundson, S., Huesemann, M., Attalah, S., & Ogden, K. L. (2019). Simulation of shading and algal growth in experimental raceways. ALGAL RESEARCH-BIOMASS BIOFUELS AND BIOPRODUCTS, 41.
- Khawam, G., Waller, P., Gao, S., Edmundson, S., Wigmosta, M. S., & Ogden, K. (2019). Model of temperature, evaporation, and productivity in elevated experimental algae raceways and comparison with commercial raceways. ALGAL RESEARCH-BIOMASS BIOFUELS AND BIOPRODUCTS, 39.
- Gao, S., Waller, P., Khawam, G., Attalah, S., Huesemann, M., & Ogden, K. (2018). Incorporation of salinity, nitrogen, and shading stress factors into the Huesemann Algae Biomass Growth model. ALGAL RESEARCH-BIOMASS BIOFUELS AND BIOPRODUCTS, 35, 462-470.
- Ogden, K. L., Huesemann, M., Attalah, S., Khawam, G., Waller, P. M., & Gao, S. (2018). Incorporation of salinity stress, nitrogen stress, and shading into the HABG algae growth model.. Algal Research, 35, 462-470. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2018.09.021.
- 10 other co authors, ., Olivares, J., Waller, P. M., Ogden, K. L., & Lammers, P. (2017). Review of the cultivation program within the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts. Algal Research. Algal Research, 22, 166-186. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2016.11.021
- Waller, P. M. (2016). Review of the cultivation program within the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts. Algal Research, 1-21. doi:10.1016/j.algal.2016.11.021More infoThe was a review of the large NAABB program, 6/26 figures were based on models that I contributed to or the ARID raceway.
- Waller, P. M., Huesemann, M., Crowe, B., Chavis, A., Hobbs, S., Scott, S., & Wigmosta, M. (2016). A validated model to predict microalgae growth in outdoor pond cultures subjected to fluctuating light intensities and water temperatures.. Algal Research, 13, 195-206.
- Attalah, S., Waller, P. M., Khawam, G., Ryan, R., & Huesemann, M. (2015). Energy Productivity of the High Velocity Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID-HV).. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 31(3), 365-375.More infoThe original Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID) raceway was an effective method to increase algae culture temperature in open raceways. However, the energy input was high and flow mixing was poor. Thus, the High Velocity Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID-HV) raceway was developed to reduce energy input requirements and improve flow mixing in a serpentine flow path. A prototype ARID-HV system was installed in Tucson, Arizona. Based on algae growth simulation and hydraulic analysis, an optimal ARID-HV raceway was designed, and the electrical energy input requirement (kWh ha-1 d-1) was calculated. An algae growth model was used to compare the productivity of ARID-HV and conventional raceways. The model uses a pond surface energy balance to calculate water temperature as a function of environmental parameters. Algae growth and biomass loss are calculated based on rate constants during day and night, respectively. A 10 year simulation of DOE strain 1412 (Chlorella sorokiniana) showed that the ARID-HV raceway had significantly higher production than a conventional raceway for all months of the year in Tucson, Arizona. It should be noted that this difference is species and climate specific and is not observed in other climates and with other algae species. The algae growth model results and electrical energy input evaluation were used to compare the energy productivity (algae production rate/energy input) of the ARID-HV and conventional raceways for Chlorella sorokiniana in Tucson, Arizona. The energy productivity of the ARID-HV raceway was significantly greater than the energy productivity of a conventional raceway for all months of the year.
- Huesemann, M., Crow, B., Waller, P. M., Chavis, A., Hobbs, S., Edmunson, S., & Wigmosta, M. (2016). A validated model to predict microalgae growth in outdoor pond cultures subjected to fluctuating light intensities and water temperatures.. Algal Research, 13, 195-206.More infoThis paper is the foundational description of our work in algae modeling.
- Hunsaker, D., French, A., Waller, P. M., Bautista, E., Thorp, K., Bronson, K., & Andrade-Sanchez, P. (2015). Comparison of traditional and ET-based irrigation scheduling of surface-irrigated cotton in the arid southwestern USA. Agricultural Water Management, 159, 209-224. doi:doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2015.06.016More infoET-based and traditional and irrigation scheduling methods were evaluated for cotton grown with surface irrigation. ET-based irrigation scheduling methods utilized remote sensing and other ancillary measurements, but these methods did not improve lint yields compared to traditional irrigation scheduling method that was not dependent on field data. Higher irrigation application of the traditional method increased measured ET but also increased lint yield while achieving higher irrigation water productivity than normally achieved in the region.
- Xu, B., Li, P., Waller, P. M., & Huesemann, M. (2015). Evaluation of flow mixing in an ARID-HV algal raceway using statistics of temporal and spatial distribution of fluid particles. Algal Research, 9, 27-39. doi:doi:10.1016/j.algal.2015.02.027More infoThis paper analyzes and evaluates the flow mixing in an open channel algal raceway for biofuel production. The flow mixing governs the frequency of how algae cells are exposed to sunlight, due to the fluid movement between the surface and the bottom of the algal raceway, thereby affecting algal growth rate. In this work, we investigated the flow mixing performance in a table-sized model of the High Velocity Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID-HV). Various geometries of the raceway channels and dams were considered in both the CFD analysis and experimental flow visualization. In the CFD simulation, the pathlines of fluid particles were analyzed to obtain the distribution of the number of times that particles passed across a critical water depth, Dc, defined as a cycle count. In addition, the distribution of the time period fraction that the fluid particles stayed in the zones above and below Dc was recorded. Such information was used to evaluate the flow mixing in the raceway. The CFD evaluation of the flow mixing was validated using experimental flow visualization, which showed a good qualitative agreement with the numerical results. In conclusion, this CFD-based evaluation methodology is recommended for flow field optimization for open channel algal raceways, as well as for other engineering applications in which flow mixing is an important concern.
- Ben, X., Peiwen, L. i., Waller, P., Ben, X., Peiwen, L. i., & Waller, P. (2014). Study of the flow mixing in a novel ARID raceway for algae production. Renewable Energy, 62, 249-257.More infoAbstract: A novel flow field for algae raceways has been proposed, which is fundamentally different from traditional paddlewheel-driven raceways. To reduce freezing and heat loss in the raceway during cold time, the water is drained to a deep storage canal. The ground bed of the new raceway has a low slope so that water, lifted by propeller pump, can flow down in laterally-laid serpentine channels, relying on gravitational force. The flow rate of water is controlled so that it can overflow the lateral channel walls and mix with the main flow in the next lower channel, which thus creates a better mixing. In order to optimize the design parameters of the new flow field, methods including flow visualization, local point velocity measurement, and CFD analysis were employed to investigate the flow mixing features. Different combinations of channel geometries and water velocities were evaluated. An optimized flow field design and details of flow mixing are presented. The study offers an innovative design for large scale algae growth raceways which is of significance to the algae and biofuel industry. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
- Waller, P. M., Khawam, G., Attalah, S., & Ryan, R. (2014). ARID Raceway Temperature Model Evaluation. Transactions of the ASABE, 57(1), 1-8.
- Waller, P. M., Li, P., & Xu, B. (2014). Study of the flow mixing in a novel open-channel raceway for algae production.. Renewable Energy, 62, 249-257.
- Xu, B., Li, P., & Waller, P. M. (2014). Study of the flow mixing in a novel ARID raceway for algae production. Renewable Energy, 62, 249-257.More infoA novel flow field for algae raceways has been proposed, which is fundamentally different from traditional paddlewheel-driven raceways. To reduce freezing and heat loss in the raceway during cold time, the water is drained to a deep storage canal. The ground bed of the new raceway has a low slope so that water, lifted by propeller pump, can flow down in laterally-laid serpentine channels, relying on gravitational force. The flow rate of water is controlled so that it can overflow the lateral channel walls and mix with the main flow in the next lower channel, which thus creates a better mixing. In order to optimize the design parameters of the new flow field, methods including flow visualization, local point velocity measurement, and CFD analysis were employed to investigate the flow mixing features. Different combinations of channel geometries and water velocities were evaluated. An optimized flow field design and details of flow mixing are presented. The study offers an innovative design for large scale algae growth raceways which is of significance to the algae and biofuel industry
- Attalah, S., Waller, P., Khawam, G., & Ryan, R. (2012). Energy evaluation in the High Velocity Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID-HV). American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2012, 4, 2887-2901.More infoAbstract: The ARID raceway is an effective method to maintain temperature in the optimal growing range. However, the energy input is excessive. Thus, the ARID-HV raceway was developed in order to reduce energy input requirements. This was accomplished by improving pumping efficiency and using a serpentine flow pattern in which the water flows through channels instead of over barriers. A prototype ARID-HV raceway was installed in Tucson, Arizona in order to evaluate the flow and energy requirements of the raceway. Preliminary results show continued high energy usage, but this paper explores the possible energy reductions with the new ARID-HV design with efficient propeller pumps and properly engineered channel lengths. Channel lengths are evaluated with Manning's equation in order to determine the maximum channel length that could be implemented with the current pumping configuration.
- Crowe, B., Attalah, S., Agrawal, S., Waller, P., Ryan, R., Van, W. J., Chavis, A., Kyndt, J., Kacira, M., Ogden, K., & Huesemann, M. (2012). A comparison of Nannochloropsis salina growth performance in two outdoor pond designs: conventional raceways versus the ARID pond with superior temperature management. International Journal of Chemical Engineering.
- Hunsaker, D., French, A., Waller, P., Bautista, E., Royer, P., Thorp, K., Andrade-Sanchez, P., & Heun, J. (2012). Irrigation scheduling decision support for field-scale, surface irrigation using remote sensing and ground-based data. IAHS-AISH Publication, 352, 414-418.More infoAbstract: A spatial soil water balance modelling approach that utilized remote sensing and ground-based data was developed to guide surface irrigation scheduling of farm-size cotton borders in a field experiment in Arizona, USA. The objective was to evaluate spatial estimates of daily crop evapotranspiration (ETc) calculated for small, 4 × 8 m cells within 12 × 168 m cotton borders. Estimated ETc rates during the season compared favourably with ETc data based on soil water content measurements, though underestimating field-based ETc by an average of 0.25-0.46 mm/d. Results suggest that the spatial modelling approach could be a useful decision-making tool for improving irrigation scheduling of surface-irrigated fields. Copyright © 2012 IAHS Press.
- Khawam, G., Waller, P., Attalah, S., & Ryan, R. (2012). ARID raceway temperature management. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2012, 2, 997-1011.More infoAbstract: One of the biggest causes of decreased algae production in open ponds is diurnal and seasonal temperature variation. The ARID (Algae Raceway Integrated Design) system maintains temperature in the optimal range by controlling the surface area of the system. A finite difference temperature model of the ARID raceway was developed in Visual Basic for Applications. The atmospheric boundary layer model uses hourly meteorological data from agricultural weather station networks. The latent heat of vaporization is calculated with the weather station reported values of evapotranspiration, which are calculated with the ASCE standardized Penman equation. The energy balance includes four terms: solar radiation, sensible heat flux, latent heat of vaporization, and long wave radiation. This research focused on calibrating the model for a one month experiment that was run during winter 2011. The results show a very good match between the simulated and the experimental temperature. The model was run in order to simulate the temperature and algae growth in ARID and conventional raceways in Tucson and Yuma, Arizona during the 12 months of 2011.
- Waller, P. M., WallerP, ., Ryan, R., Kacira, M., & Li, P. (2012). The Algae Raceway Integrated Design for optimal temperature management. Journal of Biomass and Bioenergy, 46, 702-709.
- Haberland, J. A., Colaizzi, P. D., Kostrzewski, M. A., Waller, P. M., Choi, C. Y., Eaton, F. E., Barnes, E. M., & Clarke, T. R. (2010). AgIIS, Agricultural Irrigation Imaging System. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 26(2), 247-253.More infoAbstract: AgIIS (Agricultural Irrigation Imaging System, pronounced Ag Eyes), a ground-based remote sensing system, served as a research tool that generated data for research on remotely sensed canopy level water and nitrogen status indices. A rail was mounted on a 100-m long linear move irrigation machine, and a cart with a remote sensing unit ran back and forth on the rail. As the cart traveled along the rail and the linear move traveled through the field, the sensing unit collected one square meter area reflectance measurements every meter along the rail. Because the system was automated, the remotely sensed data was acquired with low labor cost compared to traditional handheld radiometers, and provided high temporal and spatial resolution. The system monitored a 0.5-ha research area with 16 research plots. The rail, made of steel tubing, was constructed of three parallel tubes in a triangular frame. The rail had almost no vertical deflection due to cart weight, and slip joints between sections were elastic enough to absorb the deformation of the linear move when loaded with water. The sensor package included four reflectance bands filtered to narrow wavelength intervals (10 nm) in the red (670 nm), green (555 nm), red-edge (720 nm), and near infrared (NIR) (790 nm) portions of the spectrum, and an infrared thermometer. The crop spectral signals were post-processed in order to construct georeferenced field maps of vegetation, nutrient, and water status indices. Analysis of the data showed that the rail and cart provided a platform for collection of consistent and reliable remote sensing data, and it served as a valuable tool for refinement of water and nitrogen status indices. The AgIIS design effectively and reliably collected remote sensing data from a constant elevation, at near nadir orientation, and at 1-m intervals. © 2010 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.
- Hunsaker, D. J., French, A. N., Bautista, E. M., Thorp, K. R., Waller, P. M., Royer, P. D., Andrade-Sanchez, P., & Heun, J. (2010). Spatial estimation of crop evapotranspiration, soil properties, and infiltrated water for scheduling cotton surface irrigations. ASABE - 5th National Decennial Irrigation Conference 2010, Held in Conjunction with Irrigation Show 2010, 2, 748-760.More infoAbstract: Estimates of spatially distributed crop evapotranspiration (ETc) over large fields could be particularly valuable for aiding irrigation management decisions in arid regions where surface irrigation systems are predominant. The objectives are to evaluate an irrigation scheduling approach that combines remote sensing inputs with field data to provide fine-scale, spatial monitoring of crop water use and soil water status within surface-irrigated fields. Remote sensing observations of vegetation index were used to spatially estimate basal crop coefficients within 4-m x 8-m zones within borders of a 4.9-ha cotton field. These data were used to compute ETc within zones using FAO-56 procedures. Spatial inputs of soil properties were estimated from a ground-based apparent soil electrical conductivity survey. Spatial distribution of infiltrated water along the furrow was estimated using hydraulic field measurements and irrigation simulation software. An existing daily time-step, soil water balance computer program was modified to incorporate the spatial information and provide simultaneous monitoring of crop and soil conditions in zones. Irrigation scheduling using the spatial monitoring approach compared favorably in yield to traditional cotton irrigation scheduling used in the area, but reduced water use by 7 to 9%, whereas it attained as much as 19% higher yield compared to scheduling based on assuming a uniform crop coefficient for all zones. Managing water for large surface-irrigated fields aided by decision support tools and approaches that allow spatial monitoring of crop water use and soil conditions could improve precision and timing of irrigation water scheduling.
- El-Shikha, D., Hunsaker, D. J., French, A., Waller, P., & Clarke, T. (2009). Sensitivity of canopy chlorophyll concentration index (CCCI) for water stress. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2009, 3, 1427-1452.More infoAbstract: A variety of remote sensing indices have been used to infer crop nitrogen (N) status for field-scale nutrient management. However, such indices may indicate incorrect N status if there is a decrease in crop canopy density influenced by other growth retardation factors, such as water stress. The Canopy Chlorophyll Content Index (CCCI) is a two-dimensional remote sensing index that has been proposed for inferring cotton N status. The CCCI uses reflectances in the near-infrared (NIR) and red spectral regions to account for seasonal changes in canopy density, while reflectances in the NIR and far-red regions are used to detect relative changes in canopy chlorophyll, a surrogate for N content. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the CCCI for detecting the N status for cotton, broccoli and wheat during the growing season without being affected by water stress. Remote sensing data were collected during cotton (1998 and 1999), broccoli (2001), and wheat (2004 and 2005) experiments. Experiments included treatments of optimal and low levels of N and water. They were carried out at The University of Arizona's Maricopa Agricultural Center (MAC) located approximately 40 km south of Phoenix, AZ, USA. The primary results indicated that the CCCI is significantly correlated with the measured parameters of nitrogen status, including petiole NO3-N, SPAD chlorophyll, and leaf total nitrogen. The CCCI was found to be highly sensitive to nitrogen, but mostly insensitive to water stress, especially at full cover. The CCCI can be used as a successful management tool for differentiating between the effects of nitrogen and water stress in wheat. However, CCCI was not very reliable with wheat or broccoli at times of severe water stress.
- El-Shikha, D. M., Barnes, E. M., Clarke, T. R., Hunsaker, D. J., Haberland, J. A., Pinter Jr., P. J., Waller, P. M., & Thompson, T. L. (2008). Remote sensing of cotton nitrogen status using the Canopy Chlorophyll Content Index (CCCI). Transactions of the ASABE, 51(1), 73-82.More infoAbstract: Various remote sensing indices have been used to infer crop nitrogen (N) status for field-scale nutrient management. However, such indices may indicate erroneous N status if there is a decrease in crop canopy density influenced by other factors, such as water stress. The Canopy Chlorophyll Content Index (CCCI) is a two-dimensional remote sensing index that has been proposed for inferring cotton N status. The CCCI uses reflectances in the near-infrared (NIR) and red spectral regions to account for seasonal changes in canopy density, while reflectances in the NIR and far-red regions are used to detect relative changes in canopy chlorophyll, a surrogate for N content. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the CCCI and several other remote sensing indices for detecting the N status for cotton during the growing season. A secondary objective was to evaluate the ability of the indices to appropriately detect N in the presence of variable water status. Remote sensing data were collected during the 1998 (day of year [DOY] 114 to 310) and 1999 (DOY 106 to 316) cotton seasons in Arizona, in which treatments of optimal and low levels of N and water were imposed. In the 1998 season, water treatments were not imposed until late in the season (DOY 261), well after full cover. Following an early season N application in 1998 for the optimal (DOY 154) but not the low N treatment, the CCCI detected significant differences in crop N status between the N treatments starting on DOY 173, when canopy cover was about 30%. A common vegetation index, the ratio of NIR to red (RVI), also detected significant separation between N treatments, but RVI detection occurred 16 days after the CCCI response. After an equal amount of N was applied to both optimal and low N treatments on DOY 190 in 1998, the CCCI indicated comparable N status for the N treatments on DOY 198, a trend not detected by RVI. In the 1999 season, both N and water treatments were imposed early and frequently during the season. The N status was poorly described by both the CCCI and RVI under partial canopy conditions when water status differed among treatments. However, once full canopy was obtained in 1999, the CCCI provided reliable N status information regardless of water status. At full cotton cover, the CCCI was significantly correlated with measured parameters of N status, including petiole NO 3-N (r = 0.74), SPAD chlorophyll (r = 0.65), and total leaf N contents (r = 0.86). For well-watered cotton, the CCCI shows promise as a useful indicator of cotton N status after the canopy reaches about 30% cover. However, further study is needed to develop the CCCI as a robust N detection tool independent of water stress.
- Lopez, J. C., Waller, P., Giacomelli, G., & Tuller, M. (2008). Physical characterization of greenhouse substrates for automated irrigation management. Acta Horticulturae, 797, 333-338.More infoAbstract: Over the last decade, the greenhouse industry experienced a significant increase in production capacity in response to enhanced demand of high-quality crops. To optimize yield and quality of greenhouse crops, substrates with optimal balance of aeration and water holding properties are essential. A wide variety of root zone media such as perlite, rockwool, coco coir, foamed glass or mixtures of these substrates have been successfully used in greenhouse agriculture. There is mounting empirical evidence that dual porosity (i.e., aggregated) media that contain small intra-aggregate pores for water storage and larger inter-aggregate pores for aeration create an improved rhizosphere environment for many crops. To investigate the suitability of these substrates and various mixtures thereof for cultivation of tomatoes, we conducted a comprehensive measurement campaign to characterize water retention properties. The measured substrate water retention curves exhibit various unimodal (e.g., coco coir and rockwool) and bimodal shapes (e.g., foamed class and perlite) with differing air entry potentials, providing valuable information for irrigation scheduling to balance water storage and aeration for optimum growth conditions. Furthermore, the obtained curves can be used to parameterize numerical simulation models for optimization of irrigation strategies and other controllable environmental variables.
- El-Shikha, D., Waller, P., Hunsaker, D., Clarke, T., & Barnes, E. (2007). Ground-based remote sensing for assessing water and nitrogen status of broccoli. Agricultural Water Management, 92(3), 183-193.More infoAbstract: Remote sensing (RS) can facilitate the management of water and nutrients in irrigated cropping systems. Our objective for this study was to evaluate the ability of several RS indices to discriminate between limited water and limited nitrogen induced stress for broccoli. The Agricultural Irrigation Imaging System (AgIIS) was used over a 1-ha broccoli field in central Arizona to measure green (550 nm), red (670 nm), far red (720 nm), and near infrared (NIR-790 nm) reflectances, and thermal infrared radiation. Measurements were taken at a 1 m × 1 m resolution, every several days during the season. The following indices were calculated: ratio vegetation index (RVI), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized difference based on NIR and green reflectance (NDNG), canopy chlorophyll concentration index (CCCI), and the water deficit index (WDI). The experimental design was a two-factor, nitrogen × water, Latin square with four treatments (optimal and low water and optimal and low nitrogen) and four replicates. In addition to RS measurements, the following in-situ measurements were taken: SPAD chlorophyll (closely related to nitrogen status), plant petiole nitrate-nitrogen concentrations, soil water content, and plant height, width, and leaf area index (LAI). Fresh marketable broccoli yield was harvested from plots 130 days after planting. Seasonal water application (irrigation plus rainfall) was 14% greater for optimal than low water treatments, whereas total nitrogen application was 35% greater for optimal than low N treatments. Although both nitrogen and water treatments affected broccoli growth and yield, nitrogen effects were much more pronounced. Compared to the optimal water and nitrogen treatment, broccoli yield was 20% lower for low water but optimal nitrogen, whereas yield was 42% lower for optimal water but low nitrogen. The RVI, NDVI, and NDNG indices detected treatment induced growth retardation but were unable to distinguish between the water and nitrogen effects. The CCCI, which was developed as an index to infer differences in nitrogen status, was found to be highly sensitive to nitrogen, but insensitive to water stress. The WDI provided appropriate information on treatment water status regardless of canopy cover conditions and effectively detected differences in water status following several irrigation events when water was withheld from low but not optimal water treatments. Using a RS ground-based monitoring system to simultaneously measure vegetation, nitrogen, and water stress indices at high spatial and temporal resolution could provide a successful management tool for differentiating between the effects of nitrogen and water stress in broccoli. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- Evans, R. G., & Waller, P. M. (2007). 8. Application of chemical materials. Developments in Agricultural Engineering, 13, 285-327.
- Colaizzi, P. D., Barnes, E. M., Clarke, T. R., Choi, C. Y., & Waller, P. M. (2003). Estimating soil moisture under low frequency surface irrigation using crop water stress index. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 129(1), 27-35.More infoAbstract: The present study investigated the relationship between the crop water stress index (CWSI) and soil moisture for surface irrigated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, Delta Pine 90b) at Maricopa, Arizona during the 1998 season. The CWSI was linked to soil moisture through the water stress coefficient Ks that accounts for reduced crop evapotranspiration when there is a shortage of soil water. A stress recovery coefficient Krec was introduced to account for reduced crop evapotranspiration as the crop recovered from water stress after irrigation events. A soil water stress index (SWSI) was derived in terms of Ks and Krec. The SWSI compared reasonably well to the CWSI, but atmospheric stability correction for the CWSI did not improve comparisons. When the CWSI was substituted into the SWSI formulation, it gave good prediction of soil moisture depletion (fDEP; when to irrigate) and depth of root zone depletion (Dr; how much to irrigate). Disagreement was greatest for fDEP
- Colaizzi, P. D., Barnes, E. M., Clarke, T. R., Choi, C. Y., Waller, P. M., Haberland, J., & Kostrzewski, M. (2003). Water stress detection under high frequency sprinkler irrigation with water deficit index. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 129(1), 36-43.More infoAbstract: A remote sensing package called the agricultural irrigation imaging system (AgIIS) aboard a linear move irrigation system was developed to simultaneously monitor water status, nitrogen status, and canopy density at one-meter spatial resolution. The present study investigated the relationship between water status detected by AgIIS and soil moisture for the 1999 cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, Delta Pine 90b) season in Maricopa, Ariz. Water status was quantified by the water deficit index (WDI), an expansion of the crop water stress index where the influence of soil temperature is accounted for through a linear mixing model of soil and vegetation temperature. The WDI was best correlated to soil moisture through the FAO 56 water stress coefficient Ks model; stability correction of aerodynamic resistance did not improve correlation. The AgIIS did provide field images of the WDI that might aid irrigation scheduling and increase water use efficiency.
- Kostrzewski, M., Waller, P., Guertin, P., Haberland, J., Colaizzi, P., Barnes, E., Thompson, T., Clarke, T., Riley, E., & Choi, C. (2003). Ground-based remote sensing of water and nitrogen stress. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 46(1), 29-38.More infoAbstract: A ground-based remote sensing system (Agricultural Irrigation Imaging System, or AgIIS) was attached to a linear-move irrigation system. The system was used to develop images of a 1-ha field at 1 X 1 m resolution to address issues of spatial scale and to test the ability of a ground-based remote sensing system to separate water and nitrogen stress using the coefficient of variation (CV) for water and nitrogen stress indices. A 2 X 2 Latin square water and nitrogen experiment with four replicates was conducted on cotton for this purpose. Treatments included optimal and low nitrogen with optimal and low water. ANOVA was not an adequate method to assess the statistical variation between treatments due to the large number of data points. In general, the coefficient of variation of water and nitrogen stress indices increased with water and nitrogen stress. In fact, the coefficient of variation of stress indices was a more reliable measurement of water and nitrogen status than the mean value of the indices. Differences in coefficient of variation of stress indices between treatments were detectable at 3 m grid resolution and finer for water stress and at 7 m grid resolution and finer for nitrogen stress.
- Wedwick, S., Lakhani, B., Stone, J., Waller, P., & Artiola, J. (2001). Development and sensitivity analysis of the GLEAMS-IR model. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 44(5), 1095-1104.More infoAbstract: In response to the need for improved agricultural best management practices in irrigated lands, the GLEAMS (Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems) model was modified to include a component that models furrow, basin, and border irrigation practices. The irrigation component of the new model, GLEAMS-IR, was validated with results from SRFR, a full hydrodynamic irrigation model. Sensitivity of nutrient and irrigation output parameters to model input parameters was assessed with a single-variable method and a stochastic method, Monte Carlo. Means and distributions of soil parameters for a surface-irrigated cotton field in Marana, Arizona, were used for sensitivity analysis. For both single-variable and Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses, output parameters were most sensitive to infiltrated depth after 120 min, permanent wilting point, and field capacity. A study of sludge application on the same field (1x and 3x sludge application, nitrogen fertilizer application, and control with no nitrogen) was used to evaluate the GLEAMS-IR model results for different management scenarios and to compare GLEAMS-IR results with nutrient concentrations at different locations along the furrow. The variability of measured nitrate concentrations along the furrow indicated the need to account for variable infiltration along the furrow in GLEAMS-IR.
- Colaizzi, P. D., Choi, C. Y., Waller, P. M., Barnes, E. M., & Clarke, T. R. (2000). Determining irrigation management zones in precision agriculture using the water deficit index at high spatial resolutions. 2000 ASAE Annual Intenational Meeting, Technical Papers: Engineering Solutions for a New Century, 1, 2635-2656.More infoAbstract: A method using the Water Deficit Index (WDI) as a guide to determining irrigation management zones and reducing soil samples needed to characterize plant available water is proposed. The WDI is an expansion of the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) where soil background under partial canopy cover is accounted for. WDI maps did not appear similar to a map of plant available water; thus, it had limitations in defining irrigation management zones. A WDI map generated four days after an irrigation did provide a suitable guide for soil sampling locations. Point locations where soil plant available water was known could be selectively reduced by 75% using the WDI map with only an average error of 0.08 cm, and error was within 10% for 98% of the field area.
- Yuan, Z., Choi, C. Y., Waller, P. M., & Colaizzi, P. (2000). Effects of liquid temperature and viscosity on Venturi injectors. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 43(6), 1441-1447.More infoAbstract: The effect of chemical temperature change on the injection flow rate of a Venturi injector was evaluated. The percent change in flow rate corresponding with changes in temperature should be quantified because Venturi injectors are connected to chemical tanks at various temperatures due to radiative and convective heat transfer. Water, CAN17 (calcium ammonium nitrate), UAN32 (urea ammonium nitrate), soybean oil, and Orchex® were injected from a thermal reservoir into a PVC pipeline with a Venturi injector. Both CAN17 and UAN32 are soluble in water, while soybean oil and Orchex oil are insoluble. The injection flow rate for the four chemicals and water was measured over a range of pressure differentials between the upstream and downstream side of the Venturi, and over a range of chemical temperatures. The viscosity of water was less than 1.5 mPa·s. The viscosity of the other four chemicals ranged from 3.1 mPa·s to 121 mPa·s. The injection flow for water, with low viscosity, did not change significantly with temperature. However, the injection rate for the four chemicals was correlated with temperature and viscosity. If the chemical tank temperature variation is 20°C during the day, then the injection flow rate variation would be in the range of 50% for soybean oil, 30% for Orchex®, 10% for UAN32, and 5% for CAN17. Insoluble chemicals had much higher injection rates than soluble chemicals at the same viscosity. Because the injection rate for Venturi injectors is temperature dependent, and flow increases as chemical temperature increases, the increased cost of chemicals, environmental contamination, and crop loss might be greater than capital and maintenance savings.
- Marouelli, W. A., & Waller, P. M. (1999). Foil drop generator for foliar chemigation: Field evaluation. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 42(6), 1599-1607.More infoAbstract: Chemigation field experiments were conducted with a new drop generator for oil-based foliar chemicals. The drop generator was adjusted to generate two drop-size distributions with d(max) of 980 μm and 98 μm. Soybean oil concentration in sprinkler sprays was measured along the 379-m-long center pivot irrigation pipeline; uniformity coefficients along the center pivot pipeline were 73% and 98%, respectively. An experiment with a conventional straight tube injector was also conducted, and calculated d(max) was 1850 μm; oil discharge uniformity coefficient along the pipeline was 61%. The calculated drop-size distributions for the three experiments were input into a dispersed phase pipeline transport model; the model calculates oil discharge concentration versus distance along the pipeline. The root mean square deviation error between experimental and simulated concentration curves were 40%, 28%, and 3% for the straight tube, 980 μm, and 98 μm experiments, respectively. The models were used to develop graphs for discharge concentration uniformity as a function of d(max) and relative density of oil and water in the pipeline. The model simulations and experiments showed that the drop generator and two-phase transport model provide the ability to control oil discharge concentration uniformity along a center pivot pipeline.
- Marouelli, W. A., & Waller, P. M. (1999). Oil drop generator for foliar chemigation: Theory and laboratory evaluation. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 42(5), 1289-1301.More infoAbstract: Precise control of oil drop size optimizes oil retention on plants and oil discharge uniformity along the pipeline for foliar chemigation. However, control of oil drop size with existing chemigation injection systems is difficult. A new system was developed that injects oil drops of known size distribution into a center pivot irrigation pipeline. The system removes water from the irrigation pipeline, increases water pressure with a pump, injects oil into the water stream, increases dispersion velocity in small diameter tubes in order to break up oil drops, and finally injects the water-oil dispersion back into the irrigation pipeline. In order to calculate the maximum drop size (d(max)) of viscous oil drops in the drop generator, a correction term with effective viscosity, effective density, and dispersed phase volume fraction was added to the Hinze (1955) equation for d(max) in turbulent two-phase pipe flow. The new equation calculates d(max) as a function of water flow rate, oil and water viscosity, oil volume fraction, and other measurable parameters. The average relative error and root mean square deviation between d(max) and literature data was 3 and 17%, respectively. The tubing in the drop generator is coiled in order to reduce the length of the system; thus, the coiled tubing friction factor must be used in the d(max) equation. Two equations (the Ito and Srinivasen equations)for friction factor in helical coiled tubing were evaluated in laboratory experiments with the drop generator. The Ito equation performed best; average root mean square deviation between calculated friction factor and experimental data was 2%. Three equations for the effective viscosity of oil-water dispersions (the Einstein, Taylor, and Richardson equations) were evaluated with literature and experimental data. The Richardson equation performed best; average root mean square deviation between calculated viscosity and experimental and literature data was 7%.
- Yuan, Z., Waller, P. M., & Choi, C. Y. (1998). Effects of organic acids on salt precipitation in drip emitters and soil. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 41(6), 1689-1696.More infoAbstract: Three organic acid compounds were evaluated for preventing precipitation of salts and/or removing salts in drip irrigation systems and soils. Three experiments were conducted to measure drip emitter clogging, ponded infiltration and soil salinity change. All acid compounds included maleic acid, a form of dicarboxylic acid. The first organic acid was composed of polymaleic acid, maleic acid, surfactant blend, and inert ingredients. The second was an anionic polymer with maleic acid as the organic acid. The third included a soap and was a 1:1 stoichiometric equivalent of an organic carboxylic acid and an amine base. The first and third organic acid significantly reduced drip emitter clogging compared to a water-only treatment. The third organic acid was significantly better than the first for reducing clogging. The third organic acid and water-only treatments significantly reduced soil sodicity below the drip irrigation laterals during the study. Ponded infiltration tests with organic acid in water were also conducted. All three organic acid treatments produced significantly lower infiltration rates than the water-only treatment. This may have occurred because salt precipitates in the soil were removed and pores were clogged.
- Choi, C. Y., & Waller, P. M. (1997). Momentum transport mechanism for water flow over porous media. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 123(8), 792-799.More infoAbstract: The momentum transport phenomena at the interface of the porous medium and fluid have been numerically investigated. The single domain approach is used with matching boundary conditions; that is, the Brinkman-Forchheimer-extended Darcy equation is used for the present study. Five typical porous media found in natural and engineered systems are selected in order to cover a wide range of the Darcy number (6.25 × 10-4 ≤ Da ≤ 5.90 × 10-11). In addition, six different Reynolds numbers (10 ≤ R ≤ 1,000) are tested for each case. When Da > 10-7, the results showed the importance of viscous shear in the channel fluid. The viscous shear propagates across the interface into the porous medium and forms a transition region of disturbed flow in the porous medium. The depth of penetration is only dependent on the Darcy number of the porous medium rather than the Reynolds number and the shape of velocity profile. In the vicinity of the interface, it is clear that Darcy's law is inappropriate to describe flow in a permeable wall fracture or flow over porous media. ©ASCE.
- Choi, C. Y., Waller, P. M., & Dennehy, T. M. (1997). Insect control with carbon dioxide foam. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 40(5), 1475-1480.More infoAbstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate a safer pest control method for both urban and agricultural applications. In this method, carbon dioxide gas and air were applied within a non-toxic aqueous foam. The CO2 foam was designed to spread over crops or substrate and to persist until insects suffocate in the anoxic foam after a sufficient length of exposure. The surfactants that were mixed with water to create the foam are harmless to the environment, as well aS inexpensive. The foam would be removed by a spray of water or would simply disintegrate. Laboratory toxicity studies on common urban and agricultural pests were conducted. For German cockroaches in particular, mortality for CO2 foam was significantly higher than mortality for air foam. The results indicated that CO2 foam could effectively control some urban and agricultural pests without the coincident use of pesticides.
- Colaizzi, P. D., Jordan, K. A., & Waller, P. M. (1997). Overwatering controller for landscape irrigation systems. Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 2.More infoAbstract: Water conservation in metropolitan areas of Arizona is critical if limited water resources are to meet current and future demands. Timer controlled landscape irrigation systems contribute to a large portion of municipal water use, and there is a great potential for water savings if deficit irrigation is practiced. The overwatering controller used in this research senses soil water and prevents irrigation if sufficient water is in the soil. The controller was evaluated at 50 sites in Tucson, Arizona. An average of 35% water savings was observed and 30% of irrigation cycles were skipped.
- Hla, A. K., Tipton, J. L., & Waller, P. M. (1997). Sap flow gauge measurement of transpiration for acacia and mesquite trees. Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 2.More infoAbstract: Transpiration was measured with sap flow gauges on two landscape plant species (Acacia and Mesquite). The trees were subjected to three watering treatments: 1, 4, and 8 eight drip emitters. All treatments received equal amounts of water based on seasonal transpiration rates. The seasonal sap flow patterns on an hourly and daily basis were plotted. Transpiration measurements indicated that the threshold temperature limits were not experienced. Transpiration for the acacia and the mesquite as a function of canopy area were 0.4 and 0.65 of the reference ET, respectively, during summer.
- Marouelli, W. A., & Waller, P. M. (1997). Field evaluation of new foliar chemigation system. Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 2.More infoAbstract: Center pivot field experiments for oil-based pesticide application were conducted using a new turbulent dispersion chemigation injector and a straight tube injector for oil-pesticide application through irrigation pipelines. For the straight tube injector system, oil uniformity coefficient along the lateral was 61%. The turbulent dispersion injector was set to deliver 2 oil-pesticide dispersions to the irrigation pipeline with dmax of 980 μm and 98 μm, and uniformity coefficients along the center pivot pipeline were 73% and 98%, respectively. Injector drop-size models were used to calculate an oil drop size distribution for the straight tube and turbulent injector trials. The drop-size distributions and other parameters were input into a pipeline transport model for nonsoluble chemicals in irrigation pipelines, and the model calculated oil concentration vs. distance curves for each trial. The root mean square deviation error between experimental and simulated concentration curves were 40%, 28%, and 3% for the straight tube, 980 μm, and 98 μm experiments, respectively.
- Marouelli, W. A., & Waller, P. M. (1997). New chemigation droplet generator for foliar pesticide application. Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 2.More infoAbstract: A new droplet generation system for chemigation of foliar pesticides removes water from the irrigation pipeline, increases water pressure with a pump, injects oil-pesticide into the water stream, increases dispersion velocity in small tubes with high velocity in order to break up oil-pesticide droplets, and finally injects the water-oil dispersion back into the irrigation pipeline. Droplet breakup research was reviewed, and a model was developed to predict oil-pesticide maximum droplet size. Two equations were required: one for droplets in the inertial subrange scale, and one for droplets at the large eddy scale. The model was evaluated against 5 data sets in the literature and compared to 3 existing models. For the new model, maximum relative error and average root mean square deviation for maximum droplet size were 40- and 17-%, respectively.
- Wedwick, S. J., & Waller, P. M. (1997). Modified GLEAMS assessment of sludge application on irrigated desert agriculture. Paper - American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 2.More infoAbstract: In response to the need for improved agricultural management practices, the GLEAMS model was modified to include a component that models irrigation practices. This component models furrow, basin, and border irrigation. Other irrigation practices, such as sprinkler or drip, can be modeled if the performance parameters are given. After completing the modifications, a partial validation was performed using soil nitrate data from a municipal sludge experiment performed on a cotton farm in Marana, Arizona. The predicted results from the model (GLEAMS-IR) were within the EPA's recommended factor of 3.0 for each of the sludge treatments evaluated. Sensitivity analyses were performed using a standard, or deterministic, method and a stochastic, Monte Carlo method. The results of the standard sensitivity analysis were distinguished as no sensitivity, low sensitivity, moderate sensitivity, high sensitivity, and very high sensitivity. The Monte Carlo results were ranked by significance (F value.).
- Waller, P. M., & Hills, D. J. (1995). Chemigation pipeline transport model for nonsoluble pesticide. I. Theory. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 38(6), 1699-1709.More infoAbstract: A mathematical model of dispersed phase transport of a nonsoluble pesticide in an irrigation pipeline is derived. Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches are used at high and low turbulence intensities, respectively. An equation is derived by equating pesticide surface tension and viscous forces to irrigation water drag force at the injection nozzle in order to estimate mean dispersed-phase chemical drop size within the irrigation pipeline.
- Waller, P. M., Hills, D. J., & Giles, D. K. (1995). Chemigation pipeline transport model for nonsoluble pesticide. II. Numerical and field validation. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 38(6), 1711-1718.More infoAbstract: A computer model describing the injection and transport of a nonsoluble pesticide in a linear move irrigation lateral is developed and validated. Inputs to the model are both intensive and extensive properties of irrigation water and pesticide, and the model outputs chemical concentration in water for each sprinkler along the linear move irrigation lateral. Numerical studies are performed that compare Eulerian and Lagrangian methods and provide the transition between the two methods. The transport model and a model for evaluating drop diameter are used to calculate sprinkler discharge concentration as a function of distance along the pipeline, and the model is compared with field data for a single port injector. The model is also evaluated for multiorifice and multiport injection systems. A technique for optimizing placement of injectors for the multiport system is described and evaluated.
- Waller, P. M., & Wallender, W. W. (1993). Changes in cracking, water content, and bulk density of salinized swelling clay field soils. Soil Science, 156(6), 414-423.More infoAbstract: Shrinkage and cracking characteristics at two sites under border strip irrigation were examined. At one site, irrigation water salinity was varied. Image analysis of soil surface photographs was used to quantify surface ped geometry. There was no spatial dependence for water content and bulk density at the scale of several centimeters or between peds. Larger, more polygonal peds were observed in higher salinity treatments, wheel traffic rows, and after repeated irrigations. Surface shrinkage increased with salinity. Dry bulk density was higher on the high salinity treatment both on the surface and with depth. Perimeters of the 9000 ppm treatment peds were less than perimeters for other treatments. Surface percent crack area followed percent change in bulk density. -from Authors
- Waller, P. M., & Wallender, W. W. (1991). Infiltration in surface irrigated swelling soils. Irrigation and Drainage Systems, 5(3), 249-266.More infoAbstract: Infiltration characteristics for border strip irrigation at two sites with swelling clay soils were examined. Volume infiltrated was calculated from flow onto the field monitored with flow meters; depth of water in the soil estimated from soil samples taken before and after irrigation; and the advance profile which was used to calculate the volume infiltrated with time. Volume infiltrated was compared with volume of cracks before irrigation. Linear advance and observed crack closing supported the hypothesis that infiltration approached zero after about 10 min. Volume of cracks was less than 20% of the volume infiltrated. Wetting front was 3-10 times greater than depth of observed surface cracks. There was no significant correlation between intake opportunity time and depth of infiltration, but elevation irregularities were related to infiltration. © 1991 Kluwer Academic Publishers.
- Hills, D. J., & Waller, P. M. (1989). Lateral move chemigation of Lorsban-4E on field corn. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 5(4), 534-538.More infoAbstract: A 150 m (500 ft) lateral move machine was equipped to apply Lorsban-4E (chlorpyrifos) at a rate of 2.2 L/ha (0.24 gal/acre) while transversing a corn field at a speed of 2 m/min (6.6 ft/min). Four formulations, utilizing additions of either water, soybean oil, light grade petroleum oil or a nonionic surfactant, were evaluated. Leaf and soil samples obtained throughout the field were analyzed in a GLC for Lorsban concentration. Of the four formulations, soybean oil was the most effective in securing Lorsban-4E to the foilage and minimizing the amount washed down to the soil surface. Supreme oil and the nonionic surfactant were the next most effective in sticking Lorsban to the foliage, whereas water was least effective. Foliage samples taken from transects across the field indicated that application was fairly uniform over the first three quarters of the lateral's length but decreased 20-40% in the last quarter. Time samples indicated a rapid decline in Lorsban concentration over the first 24 h following application and a gradual decline thereafter to near zero concentration after the seventh day.
- Hills, D. J., Nawar, F. M., & Waller, P. M. (1989). Effects of chemical clogging on drip-tape irrigation uniformity. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 32(4), 1202-1206.More infoAbstract: The following four management schemes were evaluated for lessening the chemical clogging effects of high calcium content water in drip-tape: 1) above ground day-time water application, 2) above ground night-time water application, 3) subsurface placement of drip-tape, and 4) lowering the pH of the irrigation water. Calcium, magnesium and bicarbonate ions were injected into the water source to evaluate water qualities with electrical conductivities of 0.59, 1.12, and 2.02 dS/m. Irrigation duration for each management scheme was four hours daily over the 100-day investigation. Volumetric flow rate and emission uniformity were monitored. Partial and full clogging due to chemical precipitation occurred in all management schemes for the water with the highest salt content. By the end of the study, daily flow values in the laterals had decreased between 20 and 40% for this water. Corresponding flow reductions for the lowest salt content water varied between 3 and 15%. Of the management modes evaluated, reduction of water pH from 7.6 to 6.8, by sulfuric acid injection, provided the least clogging for all three water qualities.
- El-Shikha, D., Waller, P. M., & coauthors, 8. o. (2019, Summer). Direct seeded guayule grown in Arizona under furrow and subsurface drip irrigation. In 2019 ASABE Annual Meeting.
- Waller, P. M., Xu, B., & Li, P. (2013, Summer). Optimization of the Flow Field of a Novel ARID Raceway (ARID-HV) for Algal Production. In ASME 2013 7th International Conference on Energy Sustainability collocated with the ASME 2013 Heat Transfer Summer Conference and the ASME 2013 11th International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology, V001T13A001, 10.More infoThis paper addresses issues of flow field optimization for a water raceway which is used to grow algae for biofuels. An open channel raceway is the typical facility to grow algae in medium to large scales. The algae growth rate in a raceway is affected by conditions of temperature, nutrients, and sunlight intensity etc. These conditions are essentially associated with the fluid mixing in the flow field. Good flow mixing at low consumption of pumping power for the water flow is desirable for an economic algal growth facility. A novel design of an open channel raceway for medium- and large-scale algae growth field has been proposed by the authors previously, which is called High Velocity Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID-HV). Optimization analysis using CFD and experimental visualization has been applied to a table-sized ARID-HV test model with various geometries of dams and their spacing in the system. CFD results and flow visualization allow us to understand the flow mixing in the entire raceway. Data is also processed to show the statistics of the locations of ‘fluid particles’ at different height and time period during one flow path. Different flow field designs were thus compared quantitatively based on this statistics according to the understanding that the “tumbling times” of fluid particles at bottom/top of the water is tightly related to the growth rate of algae.
- Waller, P. M., Hunsaker, D., French, A., Bautista, E., Thorp, K., WallerP, ., RoyerP, ., Hunsaker, D., French, A., Bautista, E., Thorp, K., Waller, P., & RoyerP, . (2010, Fall). Spatial Estimation of Crop Evapotranspiration, Soil Properties, and Infiltrated Water for Scheduling Cotton Surface Irrigations. In ASABE Conference Presentation.
- El-Shikha, D., Waller, P. M., & coauthors, 7. o. (2019, September). Growing direct-seeded guayule with furrow and subsurface drip irrigation in Arizona. Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops Annual Meeting. Tucson, Arizona: Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops.
- Hoare, D., Katterman, M., & Waller, P. M. (2019, September). Development of a remote sensing crop condition sensing system utilizing Internet of Things. Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops Annual Meeting. Tucson, Arizona: Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops.
- Maqsood, H., Angadi, S., Waller, P. M., & collaborators, 4. o. (2019, September). Evaluating crop water status for guar using WINDS model. Association for Advancement of Industrial Crops Annual Meeting. Tucson, Arizona: Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops.
- Waller, P. M., Maqsood, H., & coauthors, 6. o. (2019, September). Assessment of Irrigation Requirement for guayule using WINDS model. Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops Annual Meeting. Tucson, Arizona: Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops.
- Johnson, M., Richardson, J., Ryan, R., & Waller, P. M. (2013, Summer). A Comparison of Two Cultivation Systems: Open Pond and Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID). Algae Biomass Summit. Orlando, Florida: ABO.
- Khawam, G. M., Waller, P., & Huesemann, M. (2013, Summer). Climate Effects on Algae production in the ARID-HV raceway. ASABE 2013 International meeting. Kansas City, Missouri: ASABE.More infoThe ARID (Aquaculture Raceway Integrated Design) system controls the diurnal and seasonal temperature fluctuation by controlling the surface area of the system. A finite difference model of the ARID raceway water temperature was developed in Visual Basic for Application. The input of this model is hourly meteorological data from an agricultural weather station networks. The ARID temperature model was integrated with a growth model for DOE species 1412. This research focused on optimizing the operation schedule and the geometry of the ARID system. The integrated AIRD model with the DOE species 1412 growth model was run in order to simulate the algae growth in the ARID and the conventional systems in different climates.
- Waller, P. M., Murat, K., Ryan, R., Choi, C., Li, P., Ogden, K., & Kyndt, J. (2012, November). Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of ARID Raceway. NAABB conference. Phoenix, AZ.
- Waller, P. M., Murat, K., Ryan, R., Choi, C., Li, P., Ogden, K., & Kyndt, J. (2012, November). New High Velocity ARID (HV-ARID) Raceway. NAABB conference. Phoenix, AZ.
- Waller, P. M., Murat, K., Ryan, R., Choi, C., Li, P., Ogden, K., & Kyndt, J. (2011, November). Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of ARID Raceway. NAABB conference. Phoenix, AZ.
- Waller, P. M., Murat, K., Ryan, R., Choi, C., Li, P., Ogden, K., & Kyndt, J. (2011, November). New High Velocity ARID (HV-ARID) Raceway. NAABB conference. Phoenix, AZ.
- Waller, P. M., Pepper, I., Quanrud, D., Gerba, C., Newman, D., & Saez, E. (2011, August). Fate of endocrine disruptors following Long-Term Application of Class B Biosolids and Risks to Public Health. 3rd International Conference on Occurrence, Fate, Effects, and Analysis of Emerging Contamnants in the Environment. Copenhagen, Denmark.