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- Shaw, W. W. (2015). PANGAS: An Interdisciplinary Ecosystem-Based Research Framework for Small-Scale Fisheries in the Northern Gulf of California. Journal of the Southwest, 57(2-3), 53.
- Munguia-Vega, A., Rodriguez-Estrella, R., Shaw, W. W., & Culver, M. (2013). Localized extinction of an arboreal desert lizard caused by habitat fragmentation. Biological Conservation, 157, 11-20.More infoAbstract: We adopted a species' perspective for predicting extinction risk in a small, endemic, and strictly scansorial lizard (Urosaurus nigricaudus), in an old (∼60. year) and highly fragmented (8% habitat remaining) agricultural landscape from the Sonoran Desert, Mexico. We genotyped 10. microsatellite loci in 280 individuals from 11 populations in fragmented and continuous habitat. Individual dispersal was restricted to less than 400. m, according to analyses of spatial autocorrelation and spatially explicit Bayesian assignment methods. Within this scale, continuous areas and narrow washes with native vegetation allowed high levels of gene flow over tens of kilometers. In the absence of the native vegetation, cleared areas and highways were identified as partial barriers. In contrast, outside the scale of dispersal, cleared areas behaved as complete barriers, and surveys corroborated the species went extinct after a few decades in all small (less than 45. ha), isolated habitat fragments. No evidence for significant loss of genetic diversity was found, but results suggested fragmentation increased the spatial scale of movements, relatedness, genetic structure, and potentially affected sex-biased dispersal. A plausible threshold of individual dispersal predicted only 23% of all fragments in the landscape were linked with migration from continuous habitat, while complete barriers isolated the majority of fragments. Our study suggested limited dispersal, coupled with an inability to use a homogeneous and hostile matrix without vegetation and shade, could result in frequent time-delayed extinctions of small ectotherms in highly fragmented desert landscapes, particularly considering an increase in the risk of overheating and a decrease in dispersal potential induced by global warming. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
- Moreno-Báez, M., Cudney-Bueno, R., Orr, B. J., Shaw, W. W., Pfister, T., Torre-Cosio, J., Loaiza, R., & Rojo, M. (2012). Integrating the spatial and temporal dimensions of fishing activities for management in the Northern Gulf of California, Mexico. Ocean and Coastal Management, 55, 111-127.More infoAbstract: Fishers' knowledge collected through a rapid appraisal process that involved semi-structured interviews in 17 fishing communities in the Northern Gulf of California, Mexico, was used to understand the spatial and temporal scales at which small-scale fisheries operate. This study identifies 43 main target species and group of species and the fishing gear preference(s) for the harvest of each. The reported spatial and temporal patterns associated with the target species were used to evaluate use of existing marine protected areas (MPAs), the distance traveled to reach fishing areas, and the timing and locations of fishing activities. MPAs were found to be important fishing areas for multiple communities with 79% of the total area within MPAs being actively utilized. Five communities stand out in their capacity to travel up to 200km to reach their fishing grounds. The results also show a clear a seasonal differentiation in species and areas targeted as well as fishing gear and methods used. A systematic incorporation of information related to spatial and temporal scales in fishing activities provides additional opportunities for the sustainable management of fisheries, both for the Mexican government and local interests. The incorporation of local knowledge helped building a source of information that can provide insights for regulatory agencies in the development of spatially explicit management measures in the Northern Gulf of California, Mexico. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
- Marcos-Iga, J., & Shaw, W. (2011). Current State of Environmental Education in Mexico: A Study on Practices, Audiences, Settings, and Topics. Applied Environmental Education and Communication, 10(4), 219-227.More infoAbstract: Environmental education in Mexico takes many forms and plays a wide variety of roles. Through an online survey, we addressed the need to present a wider picture on the current state of environmental education practices in Mexico: Who is engaging in environmental education practices, how important is it for their organization, who are they targeting, which methods and settings are they choosing and what environmental issues are they addressing? Representatives from 118 conservation and environmental education agencies and organizations responded to the survey. Results show that conservation Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are taking the lead in the field of environmental education in Mexico. Conservation education represents a big piece of the overall environmental education field in Mexico. Education appears to be an important tool used widely by environmental and conservation organizations. At the same time, there seems to be a serious lack of funding. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
- Cinti, A., Shaw, W., & Torre, J. (2010). Insights from the users to improve fisheries performance: Fishers' knowledge and attitudes on fisheries policies in Bahía de Kino, Gulf of California, Mexico. Marine Policy, 34(6), 1322-1334.More infoAbstract: This study investigated the interpretation and level of support of government regulations in Bahía de Kino, Sonora, one of the most important fishing communities in terms of diving extraction of benthic resources in the Northern Gulf of California. Research was conducted from April to August 2007, focusing on the small-scale fisheries sector of commercial divers. Information on fishers' awareness of current policies, fishers' attitudes concerning different aspects of fisheries regulation, and fishers' suggestions on how their fisheries should be managed, was gathered through structured interviews (including open and closed-ended questions), informal talks and participant observation. Results provide further evidence supporting the need for formally recognizing the fishers as key stakeholders in local fisheries, and for working cooperatively towards the design of management strategies and regulations that provide better stimulus for resource stewardship and discourage overfishing. Very importantly, this study suggests that there is strong support from resource users for implementing regulatory measures for local fisheries. Results could be used as a preliminary baseline to initiate the discussion among fishery stakeholders towards the development of species-specific management plans for the area, as required by the recently enacted fisheries act in Mexico, the "Ley General de Pesca y Acuacultura Sustentables". © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
- Cinti, A., Shaw, W., Cudney-Bueno, R., & Rojo, M. (2010). The unintended consequences of formal fisheries policies: Social disparities and resource overuse in a major fishing community in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Marine Policy, 34(2), 328-339.More infoAbstract: This study investigates the local social and fisheries impact of formal fisheries policies in Bahía de Kino, one of the most important fishing villages in terms of extraction of benthic resources in the Northern Gulf of California, Mexico. The paper focuses on cross-scale institutional interactions, describing how existing formal policies are functioning on the ground, how these policies interact with local arrangements, and how this interaction may affect the incentives of different actors towards sustainable fisheries. Besides providing lessons on how the performance of a local fishery could be improved, this paper addresses the question of whether the formal institutional structure of Mexican fishing regulations is effective in promoting responsible behavior by small-scale fishery stakeholders. It is argued that the design of the most widely used management tool to regulate access to marine resources throughout Mexico -the permit (licensing) system- provides the wrong incentives for sustainable-use. Granting secure rights to resources to those actively involved in the fishery is a necessary step for promoting sustainable fishing practices. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Moreno-Báez, M., Orr, B. J., Cudney-Bueno, R., & Shaw, W. W. (2010). Using fishers' local knowledge to aid management at regional scales: Spatial distribution of small-scale fisheries in the northern Gulf of California, Mexico. Bulletin of Marine Science, 86(2), 339-353.More infoAbstract: Understanding the spatial distribution of small-scale fisheries, a key step toward the formulation of sound management guidelines where these fisheries predominate, represents a challenge, as reliable data for small-scale fisheries is often limited. One way to cope with "data-poor" fisheries is to capitalize on the accumulated local knowledge of fishers as part of the research and management process. We introduce an approach to incorporating fishers' local knowledge at a large, regional scale. We focused on the spatial distribution of fishing activities from 17 communities in the northern Gulf of California, Mexico. Participatory interviews and mapping through rapid appraisal (n = 376 fishers) were used to identify fishing grounds and fishing seasons. A geographic information system was used to generate 769 map layers used for a preliminary analysis of rapid-appraisal spatial data. We organized postsurvey workshops with fishers to facilitate an internal validation of spatial information using geographic information system. These exercises generally resulted in agreement with the general distribution of fishing areas originally mapped but also led to the addition of new areas not registered during the rapid appraisal and important adjustments for some species, particularly in areas where depth contours are pronounced. In all, cross-checking during the validation workshops led to an aggregated increase in total fishing area of 1.08%. Our study provides an example of how key local knowledge can be incorporated into and corroborated during the data-collection process within large, regional scales with multiple fishing communities and highly diverse fishing activities. © 2010 Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science of the University of Miami.
- Soria, G., Tordecillas-Guillen, J., Cudney-Bueno, R., & Shaw, W. (2010). Spawning induction, Fecundity estimation, and Larval culture of spondylus calcifer (Carpenter, 1857) (Bivalvia: Spondylidae). Journal of Shellfish Research, 29(1), 143-149.More infoAbstract: In this study we describe spawning induction, fecundity estimation, and the early life history of the rock scallop Spondylus calcifer under laboratory conditions. We collected adults of S. calcifer from a natural stock in the Gulf of California, Mexico (28°37′N, 112°15′W). We induced spawning by means of thermal shocks (10°C magnitude) and estimated species fecundity as a function of size. We evaluated the effects on growth rate and final survival of larvae reared with 3 dietary treatments: (1) 30 cells/L, (2) 50 cells/L, and (3) 75 cells/L. We reared larvae in 15-L containers at a density of 3 larvae/mL at 30°C, and renewed 100% of the water culture every 48 h. The diet comprised a combination (1:1) of Isochrysis galbana (clone T-ISO) and Chaetoceros calcitrans (clone C-CAL). Both females and males responded positively to thermal shock induction. Mean size of oocytes was 56.0 ± 4.2 m (standard deviation; n = 30). Mean number of oocytes spawned was 48.9 × 106 ± 13.2 × 106 with the smallest female (shell height, 110.5 mm) spawning 28.95 × 106 oocytes and the largest (shell height, 180 mm), 71.76 × 106 oocytes. We observed the first group of throchophore and D-larvae at 7 h and 17 h after fertilization, respectively. At the beginning of the experiment, the mean shell height of D-larvae was 79.8 ± 8.54 m (n = 35). Two weeks after fertilization, larvae reached the pediveliger stage and we ended the experiment. We found that S. calcifer larval growth rates were significantly different between diet treatments (F2.2.703 = 24.65; P < 0.001), with larvae reared at 50 cells/L exhibiting the highest growth rate (12.42 m/day) of all treatments. At the end of the experiment, larvae fed at 50 cells/L attained a larger size (mean height, 234.01 ± 28.03 m; n =115) than larvae from the other 2 treatments (30 cells/L: mean height, 210.48 ± 30.81 μm; n = 107; 70 cells/L: mean height, 221.81 ± 29.81 μm; n = 104). We did not find significant differences in larval survival between diet treatments at the end of the experiment (F2.6 = 0.63; P = 0.56). Our findings suggest that the minimum period for larvae of S. calcifer to begin settlement is approximately 15 days after fertilization under the experimental conditions assessed. The first appearance and the extension of the planktonic stage represent the minimum extension that the larvae can be subject to dispersion by oceanographic currents. Whether S. calcifer can delay settlement if no suitable substrate is found was not addressed in this study. These results will be used as an input for the development of a coupled biologicaloceanographic model that can assist in management of the rock scallop fishery in the Gulf of California by predicting species larval dispersion patterns from known reproductive sources.
- Cudney-Bueno, R., Bourillón, L., Sáenz-Arroyo, A., Torre-Cosío, J., Turk-Boyer, P., & Shaw, W. W. (2009). Governance and effects of marine reserves in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Ocean and Coastal Management, 52(3-4), 207-218.More infoAbstract: We trace the evolution, governance, and effects of three marine reserve (no-take zones) initiatives in the Gulf of California, Mexico: Loreto Bay National Park, Puerto Peñasco, and San Pedro Mártir Island Biosphere Reserve. Preliminary monitoring results, although highly variable, are encouraging for conservation and fisheries management. However, open access situations and differing conceptions among local stakeholders and government concerning access rights to fishing grounds, coupled with limited support for surveillance and lags between local and government institutional arrangements and interests, are the main constraints for the success of these and future reserves in the region. We discuss the main social-ecological feedbacks at play and the implications of our findings within a regional context. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Cudney-Bueno, R., Lavín, M. F., Marinone, S. G., Raimondi, P. T., & Shaw, W. W. (2009). Rapid effects of marine reserves via larval dispersal. PLoS ONE, 4(1).More infoPMID: 19129910;PMCID: PMC2612740;Abstract: Marine reserves have been advocated worldwide as conservation and fishery management tools. It is argued that they can protect ecosystems and also benefit fisheries via density-dependent spillover of adults and enhanced larval dispersal into fishing areas. However, while evidence has shown that marine reserves can meet conservation targets, their effects on fisheries are less understood. In particular, the basic question of if and over what temporal and spatial scales reserves can benefit fished populations via larval dispersal remains unanswered. We tested predictions of a larval transport model for a marine reserve network in the Gulf of California, Mexico, via field oceanography and repeated density counts of recently settled juvenile commercial mollusks before and after reserve establishment. We show that local retention of larvae within a reserve network can take place with enhanced, but spatially-explicit, recruitment to local fisheries. Enhancement occurred rapidly (2 yrs), with up to a three-fold increase in density of juveniles found in fished areas at the downstream edge of the reserve network, but other fishing areas within the network were unaffected. These findings were consistent with our model predictions. Our findings underscore the potential benefits of protecting larval sources and show that enhancement in recruitment can be manifested rapidly. However, benefits can be markedly variable within a local seascape. Hence, effects of marine reserve networks, positive or negative, may be overlooked when only focusing on overall responses and not considering finer spatially-explicit responses within a reserve network and its adjacent fishing grounds. Our results therefore call for future research on marine reserves that addresses this variability in order to help frame appropriate scenarios for the spatial management scales of interest. © 2009 Cudney-Bueno et al.
- Shaw, W. W., McCaffrey, R., & Steidl, R. J. (2009). Integrating wildlife conservation into land-use plans for rapidly growing cities. The Planner's Guide to Natural Resource Conservation: The Science of Land Development Beyond the Metropolitan Fringe, 117-131.More infoAbstract: By definition, exurban development does not occur in isolation from other environments. Indeed, in many if not most situations, exurban is a categorization for a range of development types that occur somewhere between wild or rural lands and cities. Urban environments and the habitats found in cities and suburbs play important roles in the ecological health and biodiversity of adjacent and nearby exurban lands. In this chapter, we review the importance of wildlife and wildlife habitats in metropolitan areas and the influence of these urban habitats on adjacent exurban lands. We also describe how planning and science can work together to develop large-scale land-use plans that advance wildlife conservation goals. The Sonoran Desert Conservation Plan (SDCP), developed for Pima County, Arizona, serves as a case study for this type of conservation planning. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009.
- Shaw, W., Cudney-Bueno, R., Lavín, M. F., Marinone, S. G., Raimondi, P. T., & Shaw, W. W. (2009). Rapid effects of marine reserves via larval dispersal. PloS one, 4(1).More infoMarine reserves have been advocated worldwide as conservation and fishery management tools. It is argued that they can protect ecosystems and also benefit fisheries via density-dependent spillover of adults and enhanced larval dispersal into fishing areas. However, while evidence has shown that marine reserves can meet conservation targets, their effects on fisheries are less understood. In particular, the basic question of if and over what temporal and spatial scales reserves can benefit fished populations via larval dispersal remains unanswered. We tested predictions of a larval transport model for a marine reserve network in the Gulf of California, Mexico, via field oceanography and repeated density counts of recently settled juvenile commercial mollusks before and after reserve establishment. We show that local retention of larvae within a reserve network can take place with enhanced, but spatially-explicit, recruitment to local fisheries. Enhancement occurred rapidly (2 yrs), with up to a three-fold increase in density of juveniles found in fished areas at the downstream edge of the reserve network, but other fishing areas within the network were unaffected. These findings were consistent with our model predictions. Our findings underscore the potential benefits of protecting larval sources and show that enhancement in recruitment can be manifested rapidly. However, benefits can be markedly variable within a local seascape. Hence, effects of marine reserve networks, positive or negative, may be overlooked when only focusing on overall responses and not considering finer spatially-explicit responses within a reserve network and its adjacent fishing grounds. Our results therefore call for future research on marine reserves that addresses this variability in order to help frame appropriate scenarios for the spatial management scales of interest.
- Steidl, R. J., Shaw, W. W., & Fromer, P. (2009). A science-based approach to regional conservation planning. The Planner's Guide to Natural Resource Conservation: The Science of Land Development Beyond the Metropolitan Fringe, 217-233.More infoAbstract: Although single-species approaches have played an important role in conservation in the United States, the Endangered Species Act provides a mechanism for conservation at larger scales through Habitat Conservation Plans (HCPs). HCPs not only offer the potential for comprehensive conservation planning for a wide range of species across broader geographic scales but also provide assurances that eliminate risks related to endangered species concerns for nonfederal landowners, developers, and planners. Given their benefits, dozens of municipalities have adopted HCPs to address planning issues related to rare and vulnerable species. The challenge, however, is to develop conservation plans that reliably meet broader-scale conservation and planning objectives while not increasing risks posed to vulnerable species. Consequently, we designed a science-based framework from which to develop regional conservation plans, including HCPs. We designed a rigorous process that classifies areas based on their relative conservation value as part of a conservation strategy for more than 20,000 km2 of Sonoran desert in Pima County, Arizona. This chapter describes our approach including the fundamental planning elements selected, the process used to quantify the relative biological importance of each landscape unit, and how we assembled landscape elements into units that form the framework of the Sonoran Desert Conservation Plan. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009.
- Heydlauff, A. L., Krausman, P. R., Shaw, W. W., & Marsh, S. E. (2006). Perceptions regarding Elk in Northern Arizona. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 34(1), 27-35.More infoAbstract: Since 1970 controversy has surrounded the status and management of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) in northern Arizona. Concerns focused on effects of elk on private and public land, size of the elk population, interactions between elk and cattle, and interactions between elk and humans. Currently, there is no primary literature regarding human perceptions of elk-related damage on ranches in Arizona. In 2001 we surveyed to document perceptions of stakeholders regarding elk management in northern Arizona. A majority of non-rancher stakeholders did not experience conflicts with elk. The public knew little about elk management in Arizona but wanted more information. Ranchers incurred monetary losses due to elk damage and 30% viewed Rocky Mountain elk as an exotic species. We documented a few similarities between ranchers and agency biologists as to reported effects of elk on ranchers'property. This may provide a platform for resource agency managers to facilitate discussion and communication strategies to optimize elk management among ranchers and the general public.
- Hinojosa-Huerta, O., DeStefano, S., Carrillo-Guerrero, Y., Shaw, W. W., & Valdés-Casillas, C. (2004). Waterbird communities and associated wetlands of the Colorado River Delta, México. Studies in Avian Biology, 52-60.More infoAbstract: Despite extensive losses of wetlands caused by water diversions upstream, the Colorado River Delta in northwestern México remains an important wetland system in the Sonoran Desert. The purpose of our study was to describe waterbird communities across a variety of wetland habitat types and zones that exist in the Delta. We measured species richness and abundance of waterbirds from September 1999 to August 2000. We observed a total of 11,918 individuals of 71 species at sites within seven wetland areas. The waterbird communities differed with respect to guild composition and species abundances among the wetland zones. Wetlands along the eastern portion of the Delta (Ciénega and Indio), which are supported by agricultural drains and managed under conservation initiatives, exhibited the highest species richness in our summer and winter censuses, and highest abundance in summer. Shorebirds were the dominant guild in the summer period, while waterfowl were dominant during winter. Breeding marshbirds were also abundant, with the Yuma Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris yumanensis) being most notable. Wetlands along the western Delta (Hardy and Cucapá) were also supported by agricultural drains, but were not managed specifically for wildlife. The Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) and American Coot (Fulica americana) were dominant during winter, while long-legged waders (Ardeidae) were dominant in summer. The composition of waterbird communities along the mainstem of the Colorado River was similar to that of wetlands along the western portion of the Delta. The shallow and ephemeral Laguna Salada, along the western boundary of the Delta, exhibited the highest waterbird abundance among our winter censuses when it was flooded in 2000. The results of our study suggest that even minimal levels of instream flows would lead to habitat improvements for waterbirds in the Delta floodplain. A bi-national wetland management program for the Delta should consider the impacts of flood control measures and diversions for agricultural and urban uses to the health of wetland habitats on both sides of the international border.
- Livingston, M., Shaw, W. W., & Harris, L. K. (2003). A model for assessing wildlife habitats in urban landscapes of eastern Pima County, Arizona (USA). Landscape and Urban Planning, 64(3), 131-144.More infoAbstract: The loss of large natural areas due to development has increased interest for and use of vegetated areas in urban and suburban areas for wildlife habitats. The goal of this study was to quantify vegetation characteristics for each type of land cover found in the greater Tucson, Arizona area, thereby providing a predictive tool for wildlife management and other land management issues. This research was based on and is a continuation of a pilot study that developed a method associating land cover categories to aerial photographs in eastern Pima County, including the City of Tucson. Aggregation of land cover categories used by Tucson and Pima County and verifications of any uncertain classifications of land cover with field evaluations produced a consistent land cover classification system and database. Natural open space was the largest land cover category within our study area, comprising 52% of the total land cover. Riparian areas, low-density housing and natural open space areas had the highest percentage of native vegetation and escape cover. Golf and neighborhood parks ranked much lower than these land covers relative to native vegetation and escape cover (vegetation with foliage/stems at ground level). The most structurally diverse plant communities were associated with medium density residential areas and zoos that contain a relatively high number of exotic species. Results from the wildlife habitats index indicated riparian areas as the most valuable habitats in eastern Pima County (the county where Tucson is located), followed by low-density housing (≤1 residence/acre), natural open space, and federal/state parks and forests. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
- Rodriguez, M., Krausman, P. R., Ballard, W. B., Villalobos, C., & Shaw, W. W. (2003). Attitudes of Mexican citizens about wolf translocation in Mexico. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 31(4), 971-979.More infoAbstract: Questionnaires have not been used to determine the attitudes of Mexicans toward the Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) and its recovery in Mexico. We surveyed Mexican citizens from Chihuahua and Sonora, Mexico, and Mexican citizens attending the University of Arizona in Tucson. Questionnaires were distributed at a conference, by mail, and by personal contacts. Respondents were divided into groups based on state of residence and affiliation with the livestock industry or academia. Academics in Chihuahua presented the most positive attitude and highest knowledge scores. Most respondents (63%) were in favor of translocation. Fifty percent of respondents who were against translocation said they would change their minds if compensation for livestock lost to wolves were available. Respondents associated with livestock in Sonora had the highest number of respondents against translocation (36%). Respondents with higher knowledge scores and more positive attitudes toward wolves were more likely to be in favor of translocation. Respondents were concerned that translocated wolves would lead to more livestock losses - a concern that should be addressed prior to translocation. Additional surveys should be conducted in rural areas and administered to the general public to determine their attitudes toward wolves and wolf translocation.
- Hinojosa-Huerta, O., DeStefano, S., & Shaw, W. W. (2002). Evaluation of call-response surveys for monitoring breeding Yuma Clapper Rails (Rallus longirostris yumanensis). Journal of Field Ornithology, 73(2), 151-155.More infoAbstract: During March-June 2000 we evaluated the use of call-response surveys to monitor breeding Yuma Clapper Rails (Rallus longirostris yumanensis) at the Ciénega de Santa Clara, Colorado River Delta, Sonora, Mexico. We assessed the effect that time of day, stage of breeding season, and number of survey periods had on the average number of rails detected at a station. Conducting call-response surveys resulted in a significant increase in the number of detected rails and reduced the coefficient of variation of the average number or rails per station, which increases the statistical power to detect population trends. Using this technique also appears to reduce the variation of rates of responses by rails through the breeding season when compared to passive listening. There was no difference between the number of rails detected during morning and afternoon surveys. The established protocol developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for Yuma Clapper Rail surveys is adequate for monitoring, and it should continue to be implemented on a yearly basis at the Ciénega de Santa Clara and other wetlands of the Colorado River Delta in Mexico.
- Hinojosa-Huerta, O., DeStefano, S., & Shaw, W. W. (2001). Distribution and abundance of the Yuma clapper rail (Rallus longirostris yumanensis) in the Colorado River delta, México. Journal of Arid Environments, 49(1), 171-182.More infoAbstract: We estimated the abundance of Yuma clapper rails in the Ciénega de Santa Clara and determined the distribution of the subspecies in the Colorado River delta region in México. The maximum estimate of abundance was 6629 individuals (95% C.I. 4859-8399), assuming a response rate by rails to taped calls of 60%. Rails were widely distributed in the delta, occupying almost all marshlands dominated by cattail. As this is an endangered subspecies shared by México and the U.S., the conservation of the delta ecosystem should be the interest of both countries, especially when water management decisions upstream in the U.S. have an impact over natural areas downstream in México. © 2001 Academic Press.
- Shaw, W. W. (2000). Graduate education in wildlife management: Major trends and opportunities to serve international students. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 28(3), 514-517.More infoAbstract: Graduate programs in wildlife management are changing. Three trends in evidence are greater emphasis on multidisciplinary content, the development of nonthesis options that afford opportunities for more coursework, and the large and apparently growing numbers of international students seeking degrees from American and Canadian universities. This paper raises a number of questions about how North American universities can improve upon the educational experiences we provide for students from other countries.
- Harris, L. K., Shaw, W. W., & Schelhas, J. (1997). Urban Neighbors' wildlife-related attitudes and behaviours near federally protected areas in Tucson, Arizona, USA. Natural Areas Journal, 17(2), 144-148.More infoAbstract: As part of several studies on urban conservation issues being conducted at the University of Arizona, the authors conducted a mail survey of households within 1.6 km of large federal landholdings adjacent to Tuscon, Arizona (Pusch Ridge Wilderness, managed by the US Forest Service, and Saguaro National Park, managed by the US National Park Service). The sample size was 690. Over 80% of the households completed the survey, providing information about their interests in wildlife resources and about their attitudes and behaviours relating to the public natural areas adjacent to their homes. Issues covered by the survey included interactions with wildlife (57% of the households fed wild birds and 26% fed other wildlife), importance of living near protected areas (69% reported 'proximity to protected areas an important factor in choice of home location'), attitudes toward various kinds of development in the neighborhood, and problems caused by wildlife at people's homes. These and other findings were analyzed in terms of their implications for the managers of protected areas and for metropolitan planning.
- McClure, M. F., Smith, N. S., & Shaw, W. W. (1996). Densities of coyotes at the interface of saguaro national monument and Tucson, Arizona. Southwestern Naturalist, 41(1), 83-86.
- Harris, L. K., Gimblett, R. H., & Shaw, W. W. (1995). Multiple use management: using a GIS model to understand conflicts between recreationists and sensitive wildlife. Society & Natural Resources, 8(6), 559-572.More infoAbstract: This study develops a recreational use model using data from a traditional recreational survey and a mountain sheep habitat model within a GIS database. This study develops a method that provides the resource manager with a tool to make predictions about the locations where recreational users may be encroaching on mountain sheep. Findings of this study illustrate that frequent recreational use along two trails occurred within preferred sheep habitat. More than 45% of recreationists surveyed travel extensively off the designated trails into the wilderness areas and thereby further encroach upon sheep habitat. This study demonstrates the use of a GIS to identify critical habitat areas and model recreational behavior that may influence a sensitive wildlife species. -Authors
- Harris, L. K., Krausman, P. R., & Shaw, W. W. (1995). Human attitudes and mountain sheep in a wilderness setting. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 23(1), 66-72.
- McClure, M. F., Smith, N. S., & Shaw, W. W. (1995). Diets of coyotes near the boundary of Saguaro National Monument and Tucson, Arizona. Southwestern Naturalist, 40(1), 101-103.
- Bounds, D. L., & Shaw, W. W. (1994). Managing coyotes in US National Parks: Human-coyote interactions. Natural Areas Journal, 14(4), 280-284.
- Shaw, W. W., Mangun, W. R., & Lyons, J. R. (1985). Residential enjoyment of wildlife resources by Americans.. Leisure Sciences, 7(3), 361-375.More infoAbstract: Presents analyses of data from the 1980 National Survey of Hunting, Fishing and Wildlife-Associated Recreation concerning residential enjoyment of wildlife. It discusses characteristics of participants, the activities involved, and the implications for wildlife managers and others concerned with the management of natural resources to provide leisure services.-from Authors