Paul R Langlais
- Associate Professor, Medicine
- Associate Professor, Physiological Sciences - GIDP
- Ph.D. Biochemistry
- University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States
- Characterization of the Insulin Receptor-Associated Protein Grb10
The role of insulin is to lower blood glucose levels by stimulating glucose uptake into muscle and adipose tissue. Resistance to insulin, a phenomenon directly involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, remains to be understood. Basic research has yet to fully discover how insulin action is elicited. Research in the laboratory of Paul R. Langlais, Ph.D., focuses on the identification and characterization of proteins involved in insulin signal transduction and also tests whether the dysfunction of these proteins is involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.Dr. Langlais specializes in the use of mass spectrometry to perform proteomics, a technique that allows for large-scale quantitative analysis of protein abundances between different treatments. This approach led him to the discovery that CLIP-associating protein 2 (CLASP2) is responsive to insulin stimulation, and his now-published findings support the involvement of CLASP2 in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Current research is aimed at discovering the role of CLASP2 in insulin action, in addition to identifying new proteins previously unknown to function in this system.Dr. Langlais leads the University of Arizona College of Medicine Proteomics Laboratory, a collaborative environment for investigators at the University of Arizona and their colleagues to perform proteomic studies in their respective projects.
No activities entered.
- Kruse, R., Krantz, J., Barker, N., Coletta, R., Rafikov, R., Luo, M., Hoejlund, K., Mandarino, L. J., & Langlais, P. R. (2017). The CLASP2 Protein Interaction Network in Adipocytes Links CLIP2 to AGAP3, CLASP2 to G2L1, MARK2, and SOGA1, and Identifies SOGA1 as a Microtubule-Associated Protein. Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP.More infoCLASP2 is a microtubule-associated protein that undergoes insulin-stimulated phosphorylation and co-localization with reorganized actin and GLUT4 at the plasma membrane. To gain insight to the role of CLASP2 in this system, we developed and successfully executed a streamlined interactome approach and built a CLASP2 protein network in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Using two different commercially available antibodies for CLASP2 and an antibody for epitope-tagged, overexpressed CLASP2, we performed multiple affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (AP-MS) experiments in combination with label-free quantitative proteomics and analyzed the data with the bioinformatics tool Significance Analysis of Interactome (SAINT). We discovered that CLASP2 co-immunoprecipitates (co-IPs) the novel protein SOGA1, the microtubule-associated protein kinase MARK2, and the microtubule/actin-regulating protein G2L1. The GTPase-activating proteins AGAP1 and AGAP3 were also enriched in the CLASP2 interactome, although subsequent AGAP3 and CLIP2 interactome analysis suggests a preference of AGAP3 for CLIP2. Follow-up MARK2 interactome analysis confirmed reciprocal co-IP of CLASP2 and also revealed MARK2 can co-IP SOGA1, glycogen synthase, and glycogenin. Investigating the SOGA1 interactome confirmed SOGA1 can reciprocal co-IP both CLASP2 and MARK2 as well as glycogen synthase and glycogenin. SOGA1 was confirmed to colocalize with CLASP2 and also with tubulin, which identifies SOGA1 as a new microtubule-associated protein. These results introduce the metabolic function of these proposed novel protein networks and their relationship with microtubules as new fields of cytoskeleton-associated protein biology.
- Campbell, L. E., Langlais, P. R., Day, S. E., Coletta, R. L., Benjamin, T. R., De Filippis, E. A., Madura, J. A., Mandarino, L. J., Roust, L. R., & Coletta, D. K. (2016). Identification of Novel Changes in Human Skeletal Muscle Proteome After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery. Diabetes, 65(9), 2724-31.More infoThe mechanisms of metabolic improvements after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery are not entirely clear. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the role of obesity and RYGB on the human skeletal muscle proteome. Basal muscle biopsies were obtained from seven obese (BMI >40 kg/m(2)) female subjects (45.1 ± 3.6 years) pre- and 3 months post-RYGB, and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps were used to assess insulin sensitivity. Four age-matched (48.5 ± 4.7 years) lean (BMI
- Campbell, L. E., Langlais, P. R., Day, S. E., Coletta, R. L., Benjamin, T. R., De, F., Madura, J., Mandarino, L. J., Roust, L. R., & Coletta, D. K. (2016). Identification of Novel Changes in Human Skeletal Muscle Proteome After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery. DIABETES, 65(9), 2724-2731.
- Kras, K. A., Willis, W. T., Barker, N., Czyzyk, T., Langlais, P. R., & Katsanos, C. S. (2016). Subsarcolemmal mitochondria isolated with the proteolytic enzyme nagarse exhibit greater protein specific activities and functional coupling. Biochemistry and biophysics reports, 6, 101-107.More infoSkeletal muscle mitochondria are arranged as a reticulum. Insight into the functional characteristics of such structure is achieved by viewing the network as consisting of "subsarcolemmal" (SS) and "intermyofibrillar" (IMF) regions. During the decades, most, but not all, published studies have reported higher (sometimes over 2-fold) enzyme and enzyme-pathway protein-specific activities in IMF compared to SS mitochondria. We tested the hypothesis that non-mitochondrial protein contamination might account for much of the apparently lower specific activities of isolated SS mitochondria. Mouse gastrocnemii (n = 6) were suspended in isolation medium, minced, and homogenized according to procedures typically used to isolate SS mitochondria. However, the supernatant fraction, collected after the first slow-speed (800×g) centrifugation, was divided equally: one sample was exposed to nagarse (MITO+), while the other was not (MITO-). Nagarse treatment reduced total protein yield by 25%, while it increased protein-specific respiration rates (nmol O2 min(-1) mg(-1)), by 38% under "resting" (state 4) and by 84% under maximal (state 3) conditions. Nagarse therefore increased the respiratory control ratio (state 3/state 4) by 30%. In addition, the ADP/O ratio was increased by 9% and the activity of citrate synthase (U/mg) was 49% higher. Mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the MITO+ preparation contained less contamination from non-mitochondrial proteins. We conclude that nagarse treatment of SS mitochondria removes not only non-mitochondrial proteins but also the protein of damaged mitochondria, improves indices of functional integrity, and the resulting protein-specific activities.
- Xie, X., Yi, Z., Sinha, S., Madan, M., Bowen, B. P., Langlais, P., Ma, D., Mandarino, L., & Meyer, C. (2016). Proteomics analyses of subcutaneous adipocytes reveal novel abnormalities in human insulin resistance. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), 24(7), 1506-14.More infoTo provide a more global view of adipocyte changes in human insulin resistance by proteomics analyses.
- Xu, Q., Hou, Y., Langlais, P., Erickson, P., Zhu, J., Shi, C., Luo, M., Zhu, Y., Xu, Y. e., Mandarino, L. J., Stewart, K., & Chang, X. (2016). Expression of the cereblon binding protein argonaute 2 plays an important role for multiple myeloma cell growth and survival. BMC CANCER, 16.
- Xu, Q., Hou, Y., Langlais, P., Erickson, P., Zhu, J., Shi, C., Luo, M., Zhu, Y., Xu, Y., Mandarino, L. J., Stewart, K., & Chang, X. (2016). Expression of the cereblon binding protein argonaute 2 plays an important role for multiple myeloma cell growth and survival. BMC cancer, 16, 297.More infoImmunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), such as lenalidomide, are therapeutically active compounds that bind and modulate the E3 ubiquitin ligase substrate recruiter cereblon, thereby affect steady-state levels of cereblon and cereblon binding partners, such as ikaros and aiolos, and induce many cellular responses, including cytotoxicity to multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Nevertheless, it takes many days for MM cells to die after IMiD induced depletion of ikaros and aiolos and thus we searched for other cereblon binding partners that participate in IMiD cytotoxicity.
- McLean, C. S., Mielke, C., Cordova, J. M., Langlais, P. R., Bowen, B., Miranda, D., Coletta, D. K., & Mandarino, L. J. (2015). Gene and MicroRNA Expression Responses to Exercise; Relationship with Insulin Sensitivity. PLOS ONE, 10(5).
- McLean, C. S., Mielke, C., Cordova, J. M., Langlais, P. R., Bowen, B., Miranda, D., Coletta, D. K., & Mandarino, L. J. (2015). Gene and MicroRNA Expression Responses to Exercise; Relationship with Insulin Sensitivity. PloS one, 10(5), e0127089.More infoHealthy individuals on the lower end of the insulin sensitivity spectrum also have a reduced gene expression response to exercise for specific genes. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between insulin sensitivity and exercise-induced gene expression in an unbiased, global manner.
- Aqel, B., Langlais, P., Vargas, H. E., Carey, E. J., Leonard, M., & Mandarino, L. J. (2014). Prospective Assessment of the Abundance of Drug Metabolizing Enzymes in the P450 Pathway in Patients with Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). HEPATOLOGY, 60, 759A-759A.
- Mielke, C., Lefort, N., McLean, C. G., Cordova, J. M., Langlais, P. R., Bordner, A. J., Te, J. A., Ozkan, S. B., Willis, W. T., & Mandarino, L. J. (2014). Adenine Nucleotide Translocase Is Acetylated in Vivo in Human Muscle: Modeling Predicts a Decreased ADP Affinity and Altered Control of Oxidative Phosphorylation. BIOCHEMISTRY, 53(23), 3817-3829.
- Mielke, C., Lefort, N., McLean, C. G., Cordova, J. M., Langlais, P. R., Bordner, A. J., Te, J. A., Ozkan, S. B., Willis, W. T., & Mandarino, L. J. (2014). Adenine nucleotide translocase is acetylated in vivo in human muscle: Modeling predicts a decreased ADP affinity and altered control of oxidative phosphorylation. Biochemistry, 53(23), 3817-29.More infoProteomics techniques have revealed that lysine acetylation is abundant in mitochondrial proteins. This study was undertaken (1) to determine the relationship between mitochondrial protein acetylation and insulin sensitivity in human skeletal muscle, identifying key acetylated proteins, and (2) to use molecular modeling techniques to understand the functional consequences of acetylation of adenine nucleotide translocase 1 (ANT1), which we found to be abundantly acetylated. Eight lean and eight obese nondiabetic subjects had euglycemic clamps and muscle biopsies for isolation of mitochondrial proteins and proteomics analysis. A number of acetylated mitochondrial proteins were identified in muscle biopsies. Overall, acetylation of mitochondrial proteins was correlated with insulin action (r = 0.60; P < 0.05). Of the acetylated proteins, ANT1, which catalyzes ADP-ATP exchange across the inner mitochondrial membrane, was acetylated at lysines 10, 23, and 92. The extent of acetylation of lysine 23 decreased following exercise, depending on insulin sensitivity. Molecular dynamics modeling and ensemble docking simulations predicted the ADP binding site of ANT1 to be a pocket of positively charged residues, including lysine 23. Calculated ADP-ANT1 binding affinities were physiologically relevant and predicted substantial reductions in affinity upon acetylation of lysine 23. Insertion of these derived binding affinities as parameters into a complete mathematical description of ANT1 kinetics predicted marked reductions in adenine nucleotide flux resulting from acetylation of lysine 23. Therefore, acetylation of ANT1 could have dramatic physiological effects on ADP-ATP exchange. Dysregulation of acetylation of mitochondrial proteins such as ANT1 therefore could be related to changes in mitochondrial function that are associated with insulin resistance.
- Xie, X., Langlais, P., Zhang, X., Heckmann, B. L., Saarinen, A. M., Mandarino, L. J., & Liu, J. (2014). Identification of a novel phosphorylation site in adipose triglyceride lipase as a regulator of lipid droplet localization. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM, 306(12), E1449-E1459.
- Xie, X., Langlais, P., Zhang, X., Heckmann, B. L., Saarinen, A. M., Mandarino, L. J., & Liu, J. (2014). Identification of a novel phosphorylation site in adipose triglyceride lipase as a regulator of lipid droplet localization. American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism, 306(12), E1449-59.More infoAdipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the rate-limiting enzyme for triacylglycerol (TG) hydrolysis, has long been known to be a phosphoprotein. However, the potential phosphorylation events that are involved in the regulation of ATGL function remain incompletely defined. Here, using a combinatorial proteomics approach, we obtained evidence that at least eight different sites of ATGL can be phosphorylated in adipocytes. Among them, Thr³⁷² resides within the hydrophobic region known to mediate lipid droplet (LD) targeting. Although it had no impact on the TG hydrolase activity, substitution of phosphorylation-mimic Asp for Thr³⁷² eliminated LD localization and LD-degrading capacity of ATGL expressed in HeLa cells. In contrast, mutation of Thr³⁷² to Ala gave a protein that bound LDs and functioned the same as the wild-type protein. In nonstimulated adipocytes, the Asp mutation led to decreased LD association and basal lipolytic activity of ATGL, whereas the Ala mutation produced opposite effects. Moreover, the LD translocation of ATGL upon β-adrenergic stimulation was also compromised by the Asp mutation. In accord with these findings, the Ala mutation promoted and the Asp mutation attenuated the capacity of ATGL to mediate lipolysis in adipocytes under both basal and stimulated conditions. Collectively, these studies identified Thr³⁷² as a novel phosphorylation site that may play a critical role in determining subcellular distribution as well as lipolytic action of ATGL.
- Zhu, Y. X., Braggio, E., Shi, C., Kortuem, K. M., Bruins, L. A., Schmidt, J. E., Chang, X., Langlais, P., Luo, M., Jedlowski, P., LaPlant, B., Laumann, K., Fonseca, R., Bergsagel, P. L., Mikhael, J., Lacy, M., Champion, M. D., & Stewart, A. K. (2014). Identification of cereblon-binding proteins and relationship with response and survival after IMiDs in multiple myeloma. BLOOD, 124(4), 536-545.
- Zhu, Y. X., Braggio, E., Shi, C., Kortuem, K. M., Bruins, L. A., Schmidt, J. E., Chang, X., Langlais, P., Luo, M., Jedlowski, P., LaPlant, B., Laumann, K., Fonseca, R., Bergsagel, P. L., Mikhael, J., Lacy, M., Champion, M. D., & Stewart, A. K. (2014). Identification of cereblon-binding proteins and relationship with response and survival after IMiDs in multiple myeloma. Blood, 124(4), 536-45.More infoCereblon (CRBN) mediates immunomodulatory drug (IMiD) action in multiple myeloma (MM). Using 2 different methodologies, we identified 244 CRBN binding proteins and established relevance to MM biology by changes in their abundance after exposure to lenalidomide. Proteins most reproducibly binding CRBN (>fourfold vs controls) included DDB1, CUL4A, IKZF1, KPNA2, LTF, PFKL, PRKAR2A, RANGAP1, and SHMT2. After lenalidomide treatment, the abundance of 46 CRBN binding proteins decreased. We focused attention on 2 of these-IKZF1 and IKZF3. IZKF expression is similar across all MM stages or subtypes; however, IKZF1 is substantially lower in 3 of 5 IMiD-resistant MM cell lines. The cell line (FR4) with the lowest IKZF1 levels also harbors a damaging mutation and a translocation that upregulates IRF4, an IKZF target. Clinical relevance of CRBN-binding proteins was demonstrated in 44 refractory MM patients treated with pomalidomide and dexamethasone therapy in whom low IKZF1 gene expression predicted lack of response (0/11 responses in the lowest expression quartile). CRBN, IKZF1, and KPNA2 levels also correlate with significant differences in overall survival. Our study identifies CRBN-binding proteins and demonstrates that in addition to CRBN, IKZF1, and KPNA2, expression can predict survival outcomes.
- Chao, A., Zhang, X., Ma, D., Langlais, P., Luo, M., Mandarino, L. J., Zingsheim, M., Pham, K., Dillon, J., & Yi, Z. (2012). Site-specific phosphorylation of protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12A stimulated or suppressed by insulin. JOURNAL OF PROTEOMICS, 75(11), 3342-3350.
- Chao, A., Zhang, X., Ma, D., Langlais, P., Luo, M., Mandarino, L. J., Zingsheim, M., Pham, K., Dillon, J., & Yi, Z. (2012). Site-specific phosphorylation of protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12A stimulated or suppressed by insulin. Journal of proteomics, 75(11), 3342-50.More infoProtein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is one of the major phosphatases responsible for protein dephosphorylation in eukaryotes. So far, only few specific phosphorylation sites of PP1 regulatory subunit 12A (PPP1R12A) have been shown to regulate the PP1 activity. The effect of insulin on PPP1R12A phosphorylation is largely unknown. Utilizing a mass spectrometry based phosphorylation identification and quantification approach, we identified 21 PPP1R12A phosphorylation sites (7 novel sites, including Ser20, Thr22, Thr453, Ser478, Thr671, Ser678, and Ser680) and quantified 16 of them under basal and insulin stimulated conditions in hamster ovary cells overexpressing the insulin receptor (CHO/IR), an insulin sensitive cell model. Insulin stimulated the phosphorylation of PPP1R12A significantly at Ser477, Ser478, Ser507, Ser668, and Ser695, while simultaneously suppressing the phosphorylation of PPP1R12A at Ser509 (more than 2-fold increase or decrease compared to basal). Our data demonstrate that PPP1R12A undergoes insulin stimulated/suppressed phosphorylation, suggesting that PPP1R12A phosphorylation may play a role in insulin signal transduction. The novel PPP1R12A phosphorylation sites as well as the new insulin-responsive phosphorylation sites of PPP1R12A in CHO/IR cells provide targets for investigation of the regulation of PPP1R12A and the PPP1R12A-PP1cδ complex in insulin action and other signaling pathways in other cell models, animal models, and humans.
- Geetha, T., Langlais, P., Caruso, M., & Yi, Z. (2012). Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12A and catalytic subunit delta, new members in the phosphatidylinositide 3 kinase insulin-signaling pathway. JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY, 214(3), 437-443.
- Geetha, T., Langlais, P., Caruso, M., & Yi, Z. (2012). Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12A and catalytic subunit δ, new members in the phosphatidylinositide 3 kinase insulin-signaling pathway. The Journal of endocrinology, 214(3), 437-43.More infoSkeletal muscle insulin resistance is an early abnormality in individuals with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) plays a key role in insulin signaling, the function of which is regulated by both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of tyrosine and serine/threonine residues. Numerous studies have focused on kinases in IRS1 phosphorylation and insulin resistance; however, the mechanism for serine/threonine phosphatase action in insulin signaling is largely unknown. Recently, we identified protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) regulatory subunit 12A (PPP1R12A) as a novel endogenous insulin-stimulated interaction partner of IRS1 in L6 myotubes. The current study was undertaken to better understand PPP1R12A's role in insulin signaling. Insulin stimulation promoted an interaction between the IRS1/p85 complex and PPP1R12A; however, p85 and PPP1R12A did not interact independent of IRS1. Moreover, kinase inhibition experiments indicated that insulin-induced interaction between IRS1 and PPP1R12A was reduced by treatment with inhibitors of phosphatidylinositide 3 kinase, PDK1, Akt, and mTOR/raptor but not MAPK. Furthermore, a novel insulin-stimulated IRS1 interaction partner, PP1 catalytic subunit (PP1cδ), was identified, and its interaction with IRS1 was also disrupted by inhibitors of Akt and mTOR/raptor. These results indicate that PPP1R12A and PP1cδ are new members of the insulin-stimulated IRS1 signaling complex, and the interaction of PPP1R12A and PP1cδ with IRS1 is dependent on Akt and mTOR/raptor activation. These findings provide evidence for the involvement of a particular PP1 complex, PPP1R12A/PP1cδ, in insulin signaling and may lead to a better understanding of dysregulated IRS1 phosphorylation in insulin resistance and T2D.
- Langlais, P., Dillon, J. L., Mengos, A., Baluch, D. P., Ardebili, R., Miranda, D. N., Xie, X., Heckmann, B. L., Liu, J., & Mandarino, L. J. (2012). Identification of a Role for CLASP2 in Insulin Action. JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, 287(46), 39245-39253.
- Langlais, P., Dillon, J. L., Mengos, A., Baluch, D. P., Ardebili, R., Miranda, D. N., Xie, X., Heckmann, B. L., Liu, J., & Mandarino, L. J. (2012). Identification of a role for CLASP2 in insulin action. The Journal of biological chemistry, 287(46), 39245-53.More infoInsulin stimulates the mobilization of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) storage vesicles to the plasma membrane, resulting in an influx of glucose into target tissues such as muscle and fat. We present evidence that CLIP-associating protein 2 (CLASP2), a protein previously unassociated with insulin action, is responsive to insulin stimulation. Using mass spectrometry-based protein identification combined with phosphoantibody immunoprecipitation in L6 myotubes, we detected a 4.8-fold increase of CLASP2 in the anti-phosphoserine immunoprecipitates upon insulin stimulation. Western blotting of CLASP2 immunoprecipitates with the phosphoantibody confirmed the finding that CLASP2 undergoes insulin-stimulated phosphorylation, and a number of novel phosphorylation sites were identified. Confocal imaging of L6 myotubes revealed that CLASP2 colocalizes with GLUT4 at the plasma membrane within areas of insulin-mediated cortical actin remodeling. CLASP2 is responsible for directing the distal end of microtubules to the cell cortex, and it has been shown that GLUT4 travels along microtubule tracks. In support of the concept that CLASP2 plays a role in the trafficking of GLUT4 at the cell periphery, CLASP2 knockdown by siRNA in L6 myotubes interfered with insulin-stimulated GLUT4 localization to the plasma membrane. Furthermore, siRNA mediated knockdown of CLASP2 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose transport. We therefore propose a new model for CLASP2 in insulin action, where CLASP2 directs the delivery of GLUT4 to cell cortex landing zones important for insulin action.
- Liu, M., Zhou, L., Wei, L. i., Villarreal, R., Yang, X., Hu, D., Riojas, R. A., Holmes, B. M., Langlais, P. R., Lee, H., & Dong, L. Q. (2012). Phosphorylation of Adaptor Protein Containing Pleckstrin Homology Domain, Phosphotyrosine Binding Domain, and Leucine Zipper Motif 1 (APPL1) at Ser(430) Mediates Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress-induced Insulin Resistance in Hepatocytes. JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, 287(31), 26087-26093.
- Liu, M., Zhou, L., Wei, L., Villarreal, R., Yang, X., Hu, D., Riojas, R. A., Holmes, B. M., Langlais, P. R., Lee, H., & Dong, L. Q. (2012). Phosphorylation of adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain, and leucine zipper motif 1 (APPL1) at Ser430 mediates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced insulin resistance in hepatocytes. The Journal of biological chemistry, 287(31), 26087-93.More infoAPPL1 is an adaptor protein that plays a critical role in regulating adiponectin and insulin signaling. However, how APPL1 is regulated under normal and pathological conditions remains largely unknown. In this study, we show that APPL1 undergoes phosphorylation at Ser(430) and that this phosphorylation is enhanced in the liver of obese mice displaying insulin resistance. In cultured mouse hepatocytes, APPL1 phosphorylation at Ser(430) is stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, an activator of classic PKC isoforms, and by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer, thapsigargin. Overexpression of wild-type but not dominant negative PKCα increases APPL1 phosphorylation at Ser(430) in mouse hepatocytes. In addition, suppressing PKCα expression by shRNA in hepatocytes reduces ER stress-induced APPL1 phosphorylation at Ser(430) as well as the inhibitory effect of ER stress on insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. Consistent with a negative regulatory role of APPL1 phosphorylation at Ser(430) in insulin signaling, overexpression of APPL1(S430D) but not APPL1(S430A) impairs the potentiating effect of APPL1 on insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation at Thr(308). Taken together, our results identify APPL1 as a novel target in ER stress-induced insulin resistance and PKCα as the kinase mediating ER stress-induced phosphorylation of APPL1 at Ser(430).
- Pham, K., Langlais, P., Zhang, X., Chao, A., Zingsheim, M., & Yi, Z. (2012). Insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12B revealed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. PROTEOME SCIENCE, 10.
- Pham, K., Langlais, P., Zhang, X., Chao, A., Zingsheim, M., & Yi, Z. (2012). Insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12B revealed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Proteome science, 10(1), 52.
- Everman, S., Yi, Z., Langlais, P., Mandarino, L. J., Luo, M., Roberts, C., & Katsanos, C. S. (2011). Reproducibility of an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS Method for the Measurement of Stable-Isotope Enrichment of in Vivo-Labeled Muscle ATP Synthase Beta Subunit. PLOS ONE, 6(10).
- Everman, S., Yi, Z., Langlais, P., Mandarino, L. J., Luo, M., Roberts, C., & Katsanos, C. S. (2011). Reproducibility of an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for the measurement of stable-isotope enrichment of in vivo-labeled muscle ATP synthase beta subunit. PloS one, 6(10), e26171.More infoWe sought to evaluate the reproducibility of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based approach to measure the stable-isotope enrichment of in vivo-labeled muscle ATP synthase β subunit (β-F1-ATPase), a protein most directly involved in ATP production, and whose abundance is reduced under a variety of circumstances. Muscle was obtained from a rat infused with stable-isotope-labeled leucine. The muscle was homogenized, β-F1-ATPase immunoprecipitated, and the protein was resolved using 1D-SDS PAGE. Following trypsin digestion of the isolated protein, the resultant peptide mixtures were subjected to analysis by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS, which resulted in the detection of multiple β-F1-ATPase peptides. There were three β-F1-ATPase unique peptides with a leucine residue in the amino acid sequence, and which were detected with high intensity relative to other peptides and assigned with >95% probability to β-F1-ATPase. These peptides were specifically targeted for fragmentation to access their stable-isotope enrichment based on MS/MS peak areas calculated from extracted ion chromatographs for selected labeled and unlabeled fragment ions. Results showed best linearity (R(2) = 0.99) in the detection of MS/MS peak areas for both labeled and unlabeled fragment ions, over a wide range of amounts of injected protein, specifically for the β-F1-ATPase(134-143) peptide. Measured stable-isotope enrichment was highly reproducible for the β-F1-ATPase(134-143) peptide (CV = 2.9%). Further, using mixtures of synthetic labeled and unlabeled peptides we determined that there is an excellent linear relationship (R(2) = 0.99) between measured and predicted enrichment for percent enrichments ranging between 0.009% and 8.185% for the β-F1-ATPase(134-143) peptide. The described approach provides a reliable approach to measure the stable-isotope enrichment of in-vivo-labeled muscle β-F1-ATPase based on the determination of the enrichment of the β-F1-ATPase(134-143) peptide.
- Geetha, T., Langlais, P., Luo, M., Mapes, R., Lefort, N., Chen, S., Mandarino, L. J., & Yi, Z. (2011). Label-Free Proteomic Identification of Endogenous, Insulin-Stimulated Interaction Partners of Insulin Receptor Substrate-1. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR MASS SPECTROMETRY, 22(3), 457-466.
- Geetha, T., Langlais, P., Luo, M., Mapes, R., Lefort, N., Chen, S., Mandarino, L. J., & Yi, Z. (2011). Label-free proteomic identification of endogenous, insulin-stimulated interaction partners of insulin receptor substrate-1. Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 22(3), 457-66.More infoProtein-protein interactions are key to most cellular processes. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)-based proteomics combined with co-immunoprecipitation (CO-IP) has emerged as a powerful approach for studying protein complexes. However, a majority of systematic proteomics studies on protein-protein interactions involve the use of protein overexpression and/or epitope-tagged bait proteins, which might affect binding stoichiometry and lead to higher false positives. Here, we report an application of a straightforward, label-free CO-IP-MS/MS method, without the use of protein overexpression or protein tags, to the investigation of changes in the abundance of endogenous proteins associated with a bait protein, which is in this case insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), under basal and insulin stimulated conditions. IRS-1 plays a central role in the insulin signaling cascade. Defects in the protein-protein interactions involving IRS-1 may lead to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses identified eleven novel endogenous insulin-stimulated IRS-1 interaction partners in L6 myotubes reproducibly, including proteins play an important role in protein dephosphorylation [protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12A, (PPP1R12A)], muscle contraction and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and protein folding, as well as protein synthesis. This novel application of label-free CO-IP-MS/MS quantification to assess endogenous interaction partners of a specific protein will prove useful for understanding how various cell stimuli regulate insulin signal transduction.
- Langlais, P., Yi, Z., & Mandarino, L. J. (2011). The Identification of Raptor as a Substrate for p44/42 MAPK. ENDOCRINOLOGY, 152(4), 1264-1273.
- Langlais, P., Yi, Z., & Mandarino, L. J. (2011). The identification of raptor as a substrate for p44/42 MAPK. Endocrinology, 152(4), 1264-73.More infoThe adaptor protein raptor is the functional identifier for mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1), acting to target mTOR to specific substrates for phosphorylation and regulation. Using HPLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, we confirmed the phosphorylation of raptor at Ser696, Thr706, Ser721, Ser722, Ser855, Ser859, Ser863, Thr865, Ser877, Ser881, Ser883, and Ser884 and identified Tyr692, Ser699, Thr700, Ser704, Ser854, Ser857, Ser882, Ser886, Ser887, and Thr889 as new, previously unidentified raptor phosphorylation sites. Treatment of cells with insulin increased the phosphorylation of raptor at Ser696, Ser855, Ser863, and Thr865 and suppressed the phosphorylation of Ser722. Ser696 phosphorylation was insensitive to mTOR inhibition with rapamycin, whereas treatment of cells with the MAPK inhibitor PD98059 inhibited the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of raptor at Ser696. In vitro incubation of raptor with p42 MAPK significantly increased raptor phosphorylation (P < 0.01), whereas phosphorylation of a Ser696Ala mutant was decreased (P < 0.05), suggesting MAPK is capable of directly phosphorylating raptor at Ser696. Mutation of Ser696 to alanine interfered with insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the mTOR downstream substrate p70S6 kinase. Incubation of cells with the MAPK inhibitor PD98059 and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin decreased the insulin stimulated phosphorylation of raptor, suggesting that the MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways may merge at mTORC1.
- Langlais, P., Mandarino, L. J., & Yi, Z. (2010). Label-free Relative Quantification of Co-eluting Isobaric Phosphopeptides of Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR MASS SPECTROMETRY, 21(9), 1490-1499.
- Langlais, P., Mandarino, L. J., & Yi, Z. (2010). Label-free relative quantification of co-eluting isobaric phosphopeptides of insulin receptor substrate-1 by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 21(9), 1490-9.More infoIntracellular signal transduction is often regulated by transient protein phosphorylation in response to external stimuli. Insulin signaling is dependent on specific protein phosphorylation events, and analysis of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation reveals a complex interplay between tyrosine, serine, and threonine phosphorylation. The phospho-specific antibody-based quantification approach for analyzing changes in site-specific phosphorylation of IRS-1 is difficult due to the dearth of phospho-antibodies compared with the large number of known IRS-1 phosphorylation sites. We previously published a method detailing a peak area-based mass spectrometry approach, using precursor ions for peptides, to quantify the relative abundance of site-specific phosphorylation in the absence or presence of insulin. We now present an improvement wherein site-specific phosphorylation is quantified by determining the peak area of fragment ions respective to the phospho-site of interest. This provides the advantage of being able to quantify co-eluting isobaric phosphopeptides (differentially phosphorylated versions of the same peptide), allowing for a more comprehensive analysis of protein phosphorylation. Quantifying human IRS-1 phosphorylation sites at Ser303, Ser323, Ser330, Ser348, Ser527, and Ser531 shows that this method is linear (n = 3; r(2) = 0.85 +/- 0.05, 0.96 +/- 0.01, 0.96 +/- 0.02, 0.86 +/- 0.07, 0.90 +/- 0.03, 0.91 +/- 0.04, respectively) over an approximate 10-fold range of concentrations and reproducible (n = 4; coefficient of variation = 0.12, 0.14, 0.29, 0.30, 0.12, 0.06, respectively). This application of label-free, fragment ion-based quantification to assess relative phosphorylation changes of specific proteins will prove useful for understanding how various cell stimuli regulate protein function by phosphorylation.
- Hojlund, K., Bowen, B. P., Hwang, H., Flynn, C. R., Madireddy, L., Geetha, T., Langlais, P., Meyer, C., Mandarino, L. J., & Yi, Z. (2009). In vivo Phosphoproteome of Human Skeletal Muscle Revealed by Phosphopeptide Enrichment and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. JOURNAL OF PROTEOME RESEARCH, 8(11), 4954-4965.
- Højlund, K., Bowen, B. P., Hwang, H., Flynn, C. R., Madireddy, L., Geetha, T., Langlais, P., Meyer, C., Mandarino, L. J., & Yi, Z. (2009). In vivo phosphoproteome of human skeletal muscle revealed by phosphopeptide enrichment and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Journal of proteome research, 8(11), 4954-65.More infoProtein phosphorylation plays an essential role in signal transduction pathways that regulate substrate and energy metabolism, contractile function, and muscle mass in human skeletal muscle. Abnormal phosphorylation of signaling enzymes has been identified in insulin-resistant muscle using phosphoepitope-specific antibodies, but its role in other skeletal muscle disorders remains largely unknown. This may be in part due to insufficient knowledge of relevant targets. Here, we therefore present the first large-scale in vivo phosphoproteomic study of human skeletal muscle from 3 lean, healthy volunteers. Trypsin digestion of 3-5 mg human skeletal muscle protein was followed by phosphopeptide enrichment using SCX and TiO(2). The resulting phosphopeptides were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Using this unbiased approach, we identified 306 distinct in vivo phosphorylation sites in 127 proteins, including 240 phosphoserines, 53 phosphothreonines, and 13 phosphotyrosines in at least 2 out of 3 subjects. In addition, 61 ambiguous phosphorylation sites were identified in at least 2 out of 3 subjects. The majority of phosphoproteins detected are involved in sarcomeric function, excitation-contraction coupling (the Ca(2+)-cycle), glycolysis, and glycogen metabolism. Of particular interest, we identified multiple novel phosphorylation sites on several sarcomeric Z-disk proteins known to be involved in signaling and muscle disorders. These results provide numerous new targets for the investigation of human skeletal muscle phosphoproteins in health and disease and demonstrate feasibility of phosphoproteomics research of human skeletal muscle in vivo.
- Hojlund, K., Yi, Z., Hwang, H., Bowen, B., Lefort, N., Flynn, C. R., Langlais, P., Weintraub, S. T., & Mandarino, L. J. (2008). Characterization of the human skeletal muscle proteome by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. MOLECULAR & CELLULAR PROTEOMICS, 7(2), 257-267.
- Hojlund, K., Yi, Z., Lefort, N., Langlais, P., Bowen, B., Levin, K., Beck-Nielsen, H., & Mandarino, L. J. (2008). Identification of multiple phosphorylation sites on ATP synthase beta subunit in human muscle. Increased phosphorylation at Thr213 and Tyr361 in obesity and type 2 diabetes. DIABETES, 57, A19-A19.
- Højlund, K., Yi, Z., Hwang, H., Bowen, B., Lefort, N., Flynn, C. R., Langlais, P., Weintraub, S. T., & Mandarino, L. J. (2008). Characterization of the human skeletal muscle proteome by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP, 7(2), 257-67.More infoChanges in protein abundance in skeletal muscle are central to a large number of metabolic and other disorders, including, and perhaps most commonly, insulin resistance. Proteomics analysis of human muscle is an important approach for gaining insight into the biochemical basis for normal and pathophysiological conditions. However, to date, the number of proteins identified by this approach has been limited, with 107 different proteins being the maximum reported so far. Using a combination of one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, we identified 954 different proteins in human vastus lateralis muscle obtained from three healthy, nonobese subjects. In addition to a large number of isoforms of contractile proteins, we detected all proteins involved in the major pathways of glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial proteins accounted for 22% of all proteins identified, including 55 subunits of the respiratory complexes I-V. Moreover, a number of enzymes involved in endocrine and metabolic signaling pathways as well as calcium homeostasis were identified. These results provide the most comprehensive characterization of the human skeletal muscle proteome to date. These data hold promise for future global assessment of quantitative changes in the muscle proteome of patients affected by disorders involving skeletal muscle.
- Luo, M., Langlais, P., Yi, Z., Lefort, N., De Filippis, E. A., Hwang, H., Christ-Roberts, C. Y., & Mandarino, L. J. (2007). Phosphorylation of human insulin receptor substrate-1 at Serine 629 plays a positive role in insulin signaling. Endocrinology, 148(10), 4895-905.More infoThe function of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) is regulated by both tyrosine and serine/threonine phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of some serine/threonine residues in IRS-1 dampens insulin signaling, whereas phosphorylation of other serine/threonine residues enhances insulin signaling. Phosphorylation of human IRS-1 at Ser(629) was increased by insulin in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the insulin receptor (1.26 +/- 0.09-fold; P < 0.05) and L6 cells (1.35 +/- 0.29-fold; P < 0.05) expressing human IRS-1. Sequence analysis surrounding Ser(629) revealed conformity to the consensus phosphorylation sequence recognized by Akt. Phosphorylation of IRS-1 at Ser(629) in cells was decreased upon treatment with either an Akt inhibitor or by coexpression with kinase dead Akt, whereas Ser(629) phosphorylation was increased by coexpression with constitutively active Akt. In addition, Ser(629) of IRS-1 is directly phosphorylated by Akt in vitro. In cells, preventing phosphorylation of Ser(629) by a Ser(629)Ala mutation resulted in increased phosphorylation of Ser(636), a known negative regulator of IRS-1, without affecting phosphorylation of Tyr(632) or Ser(616). Cells expressing the Ser(629)Ala mutation, along with increased Ser(636) phosphorylation, had decreased insulin-stimulated association of the p85 regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase with IRS-1 and decreased phosphorylation of Akt at Ser(473). Finally, in vitro phosphorylation of a Ser(629)-containing IRS-1 fragment with Akt reduces the subsequent ability of ERK to phosphorylate Ser(636/639). These results suggest that a feed-forward mechanism may exist whereby insulin activation of Akt leads to phosphorylation of IRS-1 at Ser(629), resulting in decreased phosphorylation of IRS-1 at Ser(636) and enhanced downstream signaling. Understanding the complex phosphorylation patterns of IRS-1 is crucial to elucidating the factors contributing to insulin resistance and, ultimately, the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.
- Luo, M., Langlais, P., Yi, Z., Lefort, N., De, F., Hwang, H., Christ-Roberts, C. Y., & Mandarino, L. J. (2007). Phosphorylation of human insulin receptor substrate-1 at serine 629 plays a positive role in insulin signaling. ENDOCRINOLOGY, 148(10), 4895-4905.
- Mapes, R., Yi, Z., Langlais, P., Riojas, R., Liu, F., Dong, L. Q., & Mandarino, L. J. (2007). APPL1, an adiponectin receptor binding partner, is phosphorylated at ser(401) in human skeletal muscle in vivo. DIABETES, 56, A508-A508.
- Yi, Z., Flynn, C. R., Langlais, P., Mandarino, L. J., & Hojlund, K. (2007). Comprehensive characterization of the human skeletal muscle proteome by LC-MS/MS. DIABETES, 56, A397-A397.
- Yi, Z., Langlais, P., De Filippis, E. A., Luo, M., Flynn, C. R., Schroeder, S., Weintraub, S. T., Mapes, R., & Mandarino, L. J. (2007). Global assessment of regulation of phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 by insulin in vivo in human muscle. Diabetes, 56(6), 1508-16.More infoResearch has focused on insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 as a locus for insulin resistance. Tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 initiates insulin signaling, whereas serine/threonine phosphorylation alters the ability of IRS-1 to transduce the insulin signal. Of 1,242 amino acids in IRS-1, 242 are serine/threonine. Serine/threonine phosphorylation of IRS-1 is affected by many factors, including insulin. The purpose of this study was to perform global assessment of phosphorylation of serine/threonine residues in IRS-1 in vivo in humans.
- Yi, Z., Langlais, P., De, F., Luo, M., Flynn, C. R., Schroeder, S., Weintraub, S. T., Mapes, R., & Mandarino, L. J. (2007). Global assessment of regulation of phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 by insulin in vivo in human muscle. DIABETES, 56(6), 1508-1516.
- Mao, X., Kikani, C. K., Riojas, R. A., Langlais, P., Wang, L., Ramos, F. J., Fang, Q., Christ-Roberts, C. Y., Hong, J. Y., Kim, R., Liu, F., & Dong, L. Q. (2006). APPL1 binds to adiponectin receptors and mediates adiponectin signalling and function. Nature cell biology, 8(5), 516-23.More infoAdiponectin, also known as Acrp30, is an adipose tissue-derived hormone with anti-atherogenic, anti-diabetic and insulin sensitizing properties. Two seven-transmembrane domain-containing proteins, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, have recently been identified as adiponectin receptors, yet signalling events downstream of these receptors remain poorly defined. By using the cytoplasmic domain of AdipoR1 as bait, we screened a yeast two-hybrid cDNA library derived from human fetal brain. This screening led to the identification of a phosphotyrosine binding domain and a pleckstrin homology domain-containing adaptor protein, APPL1 (adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain and leucine zipper motif). APPL1 interacts with adiponectin receptors in mammalian cells and the interaction is stimulated by adiponectin. Overexpression of APPL1 increases, and suppression of APPL1 level reduces, adiponectin signalling and adiponectin-mediated downstream events (such as lipid oxidation, glucose uptake and the membrane translocation of glucose transport 4 (GLUT4)). Adiponectin stimulates the interaction between APPL1 and Rab5 (a small GTPase) interaction, leading to increased GLUT4 membrane translocation. APPL1 also acts as a critical regulator of the crosstalk between adiponectin signalling and insulin signalling pathways. These results demonstrate a key function for APPL1 in adiponectin signalling and provide a molecular mechanism for the insulin sensitizing function of adiponectin.
- Ramos, F. J., Langlais, P. R., Hu, D., Dong, L. Q., & Liu, F. (2006). Grb10 mediates insulin-stimulated degradation of the insulin receptor: a mechanism of negative regulation. American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism, 290(6), E1262-6.More infoGrowth factor receptor-bound protein 10 (Grb10) is an adapter protein that interacts with a number of tyrosine-phosphorylated growth factor receptors, including the insulin receptor (IR). To investigate the role of Grb10 in insulin signaling, we generated cell lines in which the expression levels of Grb10 are either overexpressed by stable transfection or suppressed by RNA interference. We found that suppressing endogenous Grb10 expression led to increased IR protein levels, whereas overexpression of Grb10 led to reduced IR protein levels. Altering Grb10 expression levels had no effect on the mRNA levels of IR, suggesting that the modulation occurs at the protein level. Reduced IR levels were also observed in cells with prolonged insulin treatment, and this reduction was inhibited in Grb10-deficient cells. The insulin-induced IR reduction was greatly reversed by MG-132, a proteasomal inhibitor, but not by chloroquine, a lysosomal inhibitor. IR underwent insulin-stimulated ubiquitination in cells, and this ubiquitination was inhibited in the Grb10-suppressed cell line. Together, our results suggest that, in addition to inhibiting IR kinase activity by directly binding to the IR, Grb10 also negatively regulates insulin signaling by mediating insulin-stimulated degradation of the receptor.
- Riojas, R. A., Kikani, C. K., Wang, C., Mao, X., Zhou, L., Langlais, P. R., Hu, D., Roberts, J. L., Dong, L. Q., & Liu, F. (2006). Fine tuning PDK1 activity by phosphorylation at Ser(163). JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, 281(31), 21588-21593.
- Riojas, R. A., Kikani, C. K., Wang, C., Mao, X., Zhou, L., Langlais, P. R., Hu, D., Roberts, J. L., Dong, L. Q., & Liu, F. (2006). Fine tuning PDK1 activity by phosphorylation at Ser163. The Journal of biological chemistry, 281(31), 21588-93.More info3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) mediates phosphorylation and activation of members of the AGC protein kinase family and plays an essential role in insulin signaling and action. However, whether and how PDK1 activity is regulated in cells remains largely uncharacterized. In the present study, we show that PDK1 undergoes insulin-stimulated and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent phosphorylation at Ser244 in the activation loop and at a novel site: Ser163 in the hinge region between the two lobes of the kinase domain. Sequence alignment studies revealed that the residue corresponding to Ser163 of PDK1 in all other AGC kinases is glutamate, suggesting that a negative charge at this site may be important for PDK1 function. Replacing Ser163 with a negatively charged residue, glutamate, led to a 2-fold increase in PDK1 activity. Molecular modeling studies suggested that phosphorylated Ser163 may form additional hydrogen bonds with Tyr149 and Gln223. In support of this, mutation of Tyr149 to Ala is sufficient to reduce PDK1 activity. Taken together, our results suggest that PDK1 phosphorylation of Ser163 may provide a mechanism to fine-tune PDK1 activity and function in cells.
- Yi, Z., Luo, M., Reyna, S. M., Weintraub, S. T., Langlais, P., & Mandarino, L. J. (2006). Quantification of serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. DIABETES, 55, A305-A305.
- Langlais, P., Wang, C., Dong, L. Q., Carroll, C. A., Weintraub, S. T., & Liu, F. (2005). Phosphorylation of Grb10 by mitogen-activated protein kinase: identification of Ser150 and Ser476 of human Grb10zeta as major phosphorylation sites. Biochemistry, 44(24), 8890-7.More infoGrb10 is a Src-homology 2 (SH2) and Pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain-containing protein that binds to several autophosphorylated receptor tyrosine kinases including the insulin receptor (IR). Our previous studies showed that Grb10 underwent insulin-stimulated serine phosphorylation, yet the kinase(s) responsible for phosphorylation and the sites of the phosphorylation remain unknown. In this report, we show that Grb10 is a direct substrate of the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In addition, we found that inhibition of the MAPK signaling pathway reduced Grb10 phosphorylation in cells. Using site-directed mutagenesis, phosphopeptide mapping, and capillary HPLC-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, we identified Ser(150), Ser(418), and Ser(476) of human Grb10zeta as MAPK-mediated in vitro phosphorylation sites. In vivo labeling and two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping studies revealed that Ser(150) and Ser(476) of human Grb10zeta are phosphorylated in intact cells. Replacing Ser(150) and Ser(476) with alanines reduced the inhibitory effect of human Grb10zeta on insulin-stimulated IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Taken together, our findings suggest that phosphorylation of the adaptor protein may provide a feedback inhibitory mechanism by which Grb10 regulates insulin signaling.
- Luo, M., Reyna, S., Wang, L., Yi, Z., Carroll, C., Dong, L. Q., Langlais, P., Weintraub, S. T., & Mandarino, L. J. (2005). Identification of insulin receptor substrate 1 serine/threonine phosphorylation sites using mass spectrometry analysis: regulatory role of serine 1223. Endocrinology, 146(10), 4410-6.More infoInsulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), an intracellular substrate of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase, also is heavily phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues, and several serine phosphorylation sites alter the function of IRS-1. Because of the large number of serine/threonine residues, position-by-position analysis of these potential phosphorylation sites by mutagenesis is difficult. To circumvent this, we have employed matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and HPLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry techniques to scan for serine and threonine residues that are phosphorylated in full-length human IRS-1 ectopically expressed in cells using an adenoviral vector. This approach revealed 12 phosphorylation sites on serine or threonine residues, 10 of which were novel sites. Seven of these sites were in proline-directed motifs, whereas five were in arginine-directed sites. Sequence inspection suggested that phosphorylation of Ser1223 might alter the interaction of IRS-1 with the protein tyrosine phosphatase Src homology domain 2 (SH2)-containing phosphatase-2 (SHP-2). Mutation of Ser1223 to alanine to prevent phosphorylation resulted in increased association of SHP-2 with IRS-1, decreased insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 in CHO/IR cells, and decreased insulin-stimulated association of the p85 regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase with IRS-1. This mutation had no effect on association of IRS-1 with the insulin receptor. Sequence analysis showed the Ser1223 region to be widely conserved evolutionarily. These data suggest that phosphorylation of Ser1223 dampens association of IRS-1 with SHP-2, thereby increasing net insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation.
- Langlais, P., Dong, L. Q., Ramos, F. J., Hu, D., Li, Y., Quon, M. J., & Liu, F. (2004). Negative regulation of insulin-stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling by Grb10. Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.), 18(2), 350-8.More infoGrb10 is a Pleckstrin homology and Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing protein that binds to the tyrosine-phosphorylated insulin receptor in response to insulin stimulation. Loss of Grb10 function in mice results in fetal and placental overgrowth; however, the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In the present study, we show that overexpression of Grb10 in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the insulin receptor or in 3T3-L1 adipocytes reduced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of MAPK. Overexpression of Grb10 in rat primary adipocytes also inhibited insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the MAPK downstream substrate Elk1. To determine the mechanism by which Grb10 inhibited insulin-stimulated MAPK signaling, we examined whether Grb10 affects the phosphorylation of MAPK upstream signaling components. We found that overexpression of Grb10 inhibited the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Shc, a positive regulator of the MAPK signaling pathway. The inhibitory effect was diminished when the SH2 domain of Grb10 was deleted. The negative role of Grb10 in insulin signaling was established by suppression of endogenous Grb10 by RNA interference in HeLa cells overexpressing the insulin receptor, which enhanced insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of MAPK, Shc, and Akt. Taken together, our findings suggest that Grb10 functions as a negative regulator in the insulin-stimulated MAPK signaling pathway. In addition, the inhibitory effect of Grb10 on the MAPK pathway is most likely due to a direct block of insulin-stimulated Shc tyrosine phosphorylation.
- Li, Y., Langlais, P., Gamper, N., Liu, F., & Shapiro, M. S. (2004). Dual phosphorylations underlie modulation of unitary KCNQ K(+) channels by Src tyrosine kinase. The Journal of biological chemistry, 279(44), 45399-407.More infoSrc tyrosine kinase suppresses KCNQ (M-type) K(+) channels in a subunit-specific manner representing a mode of modulation distinct from that involving G protein-coupled receptors. We probed the molecular and biophysical mechanisms of this modulation using mutagenesis, biochemistry, and both whole-cell and single channel modes of patch clamp recording. Immunoprecipitation assays showed that Src associates with KCNQ2-5 subunits but phosphorylates only KCNQ3-5. Using KCNQ3 as a background, we found that mutation of a tyrosine in the amino terminus (Tyr-67) or one in the carboxyl terminus (Tyr-349) abolished Src-dependent modulation of heterologously expressed KCNQ2/3 heteromultimers. The tyrosine phosphorylation was much weaker for either the KCNQ3-Y67F or KCNQ3-Y349F mutants and wholly absent in the KCNQ3-Y67F/Y349F double mutant. Biotinylation assays showed that Src activity does not alter the membrane abundance of channels in the plasma membrane. In recordings from cell-attached patches containing a single KCNQ2/3 channel, we found that Src inhibits the open probability of the channels. Kinetic analysis was consistent with the channels having two discrete open times and three closed times. Src activity reduced the durations of the longest open time and lengthened the longest closed time of the channels. The implications for the mechanisms of channel regulation by the dual phosphorylations on both channel termini are discussed.
- McClung, J. P., Roneker, C. A., Mu, W., Lisk, D. J., Langlais, P., Liu, F., & Lei, X. G. (2004). Development of insulin resistance and obesity in mice overexpressing cellular glutathione peroxidase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(24), 8852-7.More infoInsulin resistance, a hallmark of type 2 diabetes, is associated with oxidative stress. However, the role of reactive oxygen species or specific antioxidant enzymes in its development has not been tested under physiological conditions. The objective of our study was to investigate the impact of overexpression of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1), an intracellular selenoprotein that reduces hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in vivo, on glucose metabolism and insulin function. The GPX1-overexpressing (OE) and WT male mice (n = 80) were fed a selenium-adequate diet (0.4 mg/kg) from 8 to 24 weeks of age. Compared with the WT, the OE mice developed (P < 0.05) hyperglycemia (117 vs. 149 mg/dl), hyperinsulinemia (419 vs. 1,350 pg/ml), and elevated plasma leptin (5 vs. 16 ng/ml) at 24 weeks of age. Meanwhile, these mice were heavier (37 vs. 27 g, P < 0.001) and fatter (37% vs. 17% fat, P < 0.01) than the WT mice. At 30-60 min after an insulin challenge, the OE mice had 25% less (P < 0.05) of a decrease in blood glucose than the WT mice. Their insulin resistance was associated with a 30-70% reduction (P < 0.05) in the insulin-stimulated phosphorylations of insulin receptor (beta-subunit) in liver and Akt (Ser(473) and Thr(308)) in liver and soleus muscle. Here we report the development of insulin resistance in mammals with elevated expression of an antioxidant enzyme and suggest that increased GPX1 activity may interfere with insulin function by overquenching intracellular reactive oxygen species required for insulin sensitizing.
- Wick, K. R., Werner, E. D., Langlais, P., Ramos, F. J., Dong, L. Q., Shoelson, S. E., & Liu, F. (2003). Grb10 inhibits insulin-stimulated insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway by disrupting the association of IRS-1/IRS-2 with the insulin receptor. The Journal of biological chemistry, 278(10), 8460-7.More infoGrb10 has been proposed to inhibit or activate insulin signaling, depending on cellular context. We have investigated the mechanism by which full-length hGrb10gamma inhibits signaling through the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins. Overexpression of hGrb10gamma in CHO/IR cells and in differentiated adipocytes significantly reduced insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and IRS-2. Inhibition occurred rapidly and was sustained for 60 min during insulin stimulation. In agreement with inhibited signaling through the IRS/PI 3-kinase pathway, we found hGrb10gamma to both delay and reduce phosphorylation of Akt at Thr(308) and Ser(473) in response to insulin stimulation. Decreased phosphorylation of IRS-1/2 may arise from impaired catalytic activity of the receptor, since hGrb10gamma directly associates with the IR kinase regulatory loop. However, yeast tri-hybrid studies indicated that full-length Grb10 blocks association between IRS proteins and IR, and that this requires the SH2 domain of Grb10. In cells, hGrb10gamma inhibited insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, but did not affect IR catalytic activity toward Tyr(972) in the juxtamembrane region and Tyr(1158/1162/1163) in the regulatory domain. We conclude that binding of hGrb10gamma to IR decreases signaling through the IRS/PI 3-kinase/AKT pathway by physically blocking IRS access to IR.
- Wick, M. J., Dong, L. Q., Hu, D., Langlais, P., & Liu, F. (2001). Insulin receptor-mediated p62dok tyrosine phosphorylation at residues 362 and 398 plays distinct roles for binding GTPase-activating protein and Nck and is essential for inhibiting insulin-stimulated activation of Ras and Akt. The Journal of biological chemistry, 276(46), 42843-50.More infoA GTPase-activating protein (GAP)-associated 60-kDa protein has been found to undergo rapid tyrosine phosphorylation in response to insulin stimulation. However, whether this protein is a direct in vivo substrate for the insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase and whether the tyrosine phosphorylation plays a role in insulin signaling remain to be established. Here we show that the insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the GAP-associated protein, now identified as p62(dok), is inhibited by Grb10, an adaptor protein that binds directly to the kinase domain of the IR, both in vitro and in cells. Replacing Tyr(362) and Tyr(398) with phenylalanine greatly decreased the IR-catalyzed p62(dok) tyrosine phosphorylation in vitro, suggesting that these two residues are the major IR-mediated phosphorylation sites. However, mutations at Tyr(362) and Tyr(398) only partially blocked insulin-stimulated p62(dok) tyrosine phosphorylation in cells, indicating that p62(dok) is also a target for other cellular tyrosine kinase(s) in addition to the IR. Replacing Tyr(362) with phenylalanine abolished the interaction between p62(dok) and Nck. Mutations at Tyr(362/398) of p62(dok) disrupted the interaction between p62(dok) and GAP and decreased the inhibitory effect of p62(dok) on the insulin-stimulated activation of Ras and Akt, but not mitogen-activated protein kinase. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of p62(dok) on Akt phosphorylation could be blocked by coexpression of a constitutively active Ras. Taken together, our findings indicate that p62(dok) is a direct substrate for the IR tyrosine kinase and that phosphorylation at Tyr(362) and Tyr(398) plays an essential role for p62(dok) to interact with its effectors and negatively regulate the insulin signaling pathway.
- Langlais, P., Dong, L. Q., Hu, D., & Liu, F. (2000). Identification of Grb10 as a direct substrate for members of the Src tyrosine kinase family. Oncogene, 19(25), 2895-903.More infoTreatment of cells with insulin and protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors such as vanadate and pervanadate resulted in the tyrosine phosphorylation of Grb10, a Src homology 2 (SH2) and pleckstrin homology domain-containing adaptor protein which binds to a number of receptor tyrosine kinases including the insulin receptor (IR). Although Grb10 binds directly to the kinase domain of the IR, our data show that Grb10 is not a direct substrate for the IR tyrosine kinase. Consistent with this finding, Grb10 tyrosine phosphorylation in cells was inhibited by herbimycin A, a relatively specific inhibitor for members of the Src tyrosine kinase family, and by the expression of dominant negative Src or Fyn. In addition, Grb10 tyrosine phosphorylation was stimulated by expression of constitutively active Src or Fyn in cells and by incubation with purified Src or Fyn in vitro. The insulin stimulated or Src/Fyn-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation in vivo was significantly reduced when Grb10 tyrosine 67 was changed to glycine. This mutant form of Grb10 bound with higher affinity to the IR in cells than that of the wild-type protein, suggesting that tyrosine phosphorylation of Grb10 may normally negatively regulate its binding to the IR. Our data show that Grb10 is a new substrate for members of the Src tyrosine kinase family and that the tyrosine phosphorylation of the protein may play a potential role in cell signaling processes mediated by these kinases. Oncogene (2000).
- Dong, L. Q., Zhang, R. B., Langlais, P., He, H., Clark, M., Zhu, L., & Liu, F. (1999). Primary structure, tissue distribution, and expression of mouse phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1, a protein kinase that phosphorylates and activates protein kinase Czeta. The Journal of biological chemistry, 274(12), 8117-22.More infoPhosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) is a recently identified serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates and activates Akt and p70(S6K), two downstream kinases of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. To further study the potential role of PDK1, we have screened a mouse liver cDNA library and identified a cDNA encoding the enzyme. The predicted mouse PDK1 (mPDK1) protein contained 559 amino acids and a COOH-terminal pleckstrin homology domain. A 7-kilobase mPDK1 mRNA was broadly expressed in mouse tissues and in embryonic cells. In the testis, a high level expression of a tissue-specific 2-kilobase transcript was also detected. Anti-mPDK1 antibody recognized multiple proteins in mouse tissues with molecular masses ranging from 60 to 180 kDa. mPDK1 phosphorylated the conserved threonine residue (Thr402) in the activation loop of protein kinase C-zeta and activated the enzyme in vitro and in cells. Our findings suggest that there may be different isoforms of mPDK1 and that the protein is an upstream kinase that activates divergent pathways downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.