- Professor, Medicine
- Professor, Biomedical Engineering
- Professor, Optical Sciences
Dr. Banerjee served as the Chief of the Division of Gastroenterology from November 2008 to November 2015. He obtained his medical degree from the University of London, UK, followed by postgraduate training in Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology at the University of Connecticut School of Medicine. Prior to joining the University of Arizona, Dr. Banerjee was in the Division of Gastroenterology at Washington University in Saint Louis for nine years, during which time he was promoted to Professor of Medicine. Dr. Banerjee's research interest is in the development of new optical techniques for the detection and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. His clinical interests include gastro esophageal reflux disease, Barrett’s esophagus, peptic ulcer disease, screening and surveillance of colon cancer, functional bowel disorders and diseases of the small intestine. Dr. Banerjee is the editor of a textbook on the nutritional management of digestive disorders. He is a Professor in the Department of Medicine (tenured) and a Professor of Optical Sciences and Biomedical Engineering. He is a member of the Arizona Cancer Center and the Graduate Inter- Disciplinary Program. Dr. Banerjee is Board Certified in Gastroenterology and Internal Medicine.
"My research interest is in bringing novel optical and engineering solutions to gastrointestinal disorders. I work closely with optical scientists, biomedical engineers, chemists and molecular biologists to develop novel methods of detecting cancer and other diseases before they can be seen by the naked eye. We are developing unique instruments that see in multiple directions at the same time as well as optical techniques that instantly reveal structural and functional changes in disease states that are invisible to the human eye. These methods will help detect disorders at an earlier and easily treatable stage, in real-time and at the point of care, without the use of dyes, stains or other chemicals (label-free imaging).”
- M.B.B.S. Medicine
- University of London, United Kingdom
- University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, Arizona (2015 - Ongoing)
- University of Arizona College of Optical Sciences (2011 - Ongoing)
- University of Arizona Biomedical Engineering (2008 - Ongoing)
- University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, Arizona (2008 - 2015)
- Washington University School of Medicine (2007 - 2008)
- St. Louis VA Medical Center (2004 - 2006)
- Barnes-Jewish Hospital (1999 - 2008)
- Washington University School of Medicine (1999 - 2007)
- St. Louis VA Medical Center (1999 - 2006)
- University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri (1995 - 1999)
- University of Missouri Hospitals and Clinics & Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans Hospital (1995 - 1999)
- Winthrop-University Hospital (1994 - 1995)
- University of Arkansas College of Medicine (1990 - 1994)
- University of Arkansas Medical Center & John L. McClellan VA Medical Center (1989 - 1994)
- University of Arkansas College of Medicine (1989 - 1990)
- Nominated for Harrington Prize in Innovation
- Summer 2018 (Award Nominee)
- Nominated for ACG Governor for Arizona
- Summer 2015 (Award Nominee)
- Fellow, American College of Gastroenterology
- American College of Gastroenterology, Summer 2009
- Spring 2009
- Spring 2007
- Fellow, American Gastroenterological Association
- American Gastroenterological Association, Summer 2006
Licensure & Certification
- Gastroenterology, American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) (1989)
- Internal Medicine, American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) (1987)
Development of biomedical optical devicesMulti- photon imaging Receptor-targeted imaging and therapySpectroscopy of tissues and cells
Education of fellows in gastroenterology. Clinical teaching of residents and medical students. Training of students outside of medicine, in multi-disciplinary approach to solving clinical challenges.
No activities entered.
- Banerjee, B. (2010). National Management of Digestive Disorders.
- Pham, T., Banerjee, B., Mehrevar S,, S., Cromey, B., Amirsolaimani, B., Skovan, B., Chen, H., & Kieu, K. (2020). Feasibility of multi-photon microscopy to facilitate surgical margin assessment in pancreatic cancer. Applied Optics, 59, 1-7.More infohttp://ao.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-59-22-G1
- Cromey, B., McDaniel, A., Matsunaga, T., Vagner, J., Kieu, K. Q., & Banerjee, B. (2018). Pancreatic cancer cell detection by targeted lipid microbubbles and multiphoton imaging. Journal of biomedical optics, 23(4), 1-8.More infoSurgical resection of pancreatic cancer represents the only chance of cure and long-term survival in this common disease. Unfortunately, determination of a cancer-free margin at surgery is based on one or two tiny frozen section biopsies, which is far from ideal. Not surprisingly, cancer is usually left behind and is responsible for metastatic disease. We demonstrate a method of receptor-targeted imaging using peptide ligands, lipid microbubbles, and multiphoton microscopy that could lead to a fast and accurate way of examining the entire cut surface during surgery. Using a plectin-targeted microbubble, we performed a blinded in-vitro study to demonstrate avid binding of targeted microbubbles to pancreatic cancer cells but not noncancerous cell lines. Further work should lead to a much-needed point-of-care diagnostic test for determining clean margins in oncologic surgery.
- Banerjee, B., Medda, B. K., Zhang, J., Tuchscherer, V., Babygirija, R., Kannampalli, P., Sengupta, J. N., & Shaker, R. (2016). Prolonged esophageal acid exposures induce synaptic downscaling of cortical membrane AMPA receptor subunits in rats. Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society, 28(9), 1356-69.More infoWe recently reported the involvement of AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptor subunit upregulation and phosphorylation in the rostral cingulate cortex (rCC) as the underlying mechanism of acute esophageal acid-induced cortical sensitization. Based on these findings, we proposed to investigate whether prolonged esophageal acid exposures in rats exhibit homeostatic synaptic scaling through downregulation of AMPA receptor expression in rCC neurons. We intended to study further whether this compensatory mechanism is impaired when rats are pre-exposed to repeated esophageal acid exposures neonatally during neuronal development.
- Banerjee, B., Shaheen, N. J., Martinez, J. A., Hsu, C., Trowers, E., Gibson, B. A., Della'Zanna, G., Richmond, E., & Chow, H. S. (2016). Clinical Study of Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Barrett's Esophagus Patients. Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.), 9(7), 528-33.More infoPrior research strongly implicates gastric acid and bile acids, two major components of the gastroesophageal refluxate, in the development of Barrett's esophagus and its pathogenesis. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a hydrophilic bile acid, has been shown to protect esophageal cells against oxidative stress induced by cytotoxic bile acids. We conducted a pilot clinical study to evaluate the clinical activity of UDCA in patients with Barrett's esophagus. Twenty-nine patients with Barrett's esophagus received UDCA treatment at a daily dose of 13 to 15 mg/kg/day for 6 months. The clinical activity of UDCA was assessed by evaluating changes in gastric bile acid composition and markers of oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine), cell proliferation (Ki67), and apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3) in Barrett's esophagus epithelium. The bile acid concentrations in gastric fluid were measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. At baseline, UDCA (sum of unchanged and glycine/taurine conjugates) accounted for 18.2% of total gastric bile acids. After UDCA intervention, UDCA increased significantly to account for 93.4% of total gastric bile acids (P < 0.0001). The expression of markers of oxidative DNA damage, cell proliferation, and apoptosis was assessed in the Barrett's esophagus biopsies by IHC. The selected tissue biomarkers were unchanged after 6 months of UDCA intervention. We conclude that high-dose UDCA supplementation for 6 months resulted in favorable changes in gastric bile acid composition but did not modulate selected markers of oxidative DNA damage, cell proliferation, and apoptosis in the Barrett's esophagus epithelium. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 528-33. ©2016 AACRSee related article by Brian J. Reid, p. 512.
- Harpel, K., Baker, R. D., Amirsolaimani, B., Mehravar, S., Vagner, J., Matsunaga, T. O., Banerjee, B., & Kieu, K. (2016). Imaging of targeted lipid microbubbles to detect cancer cells using third harmonic generation microscopy. Biomedical optics express, 7(7), 2849-60.More infoThe use of receptor-targeted lipid microbubbles imaged by ultrasound is an innovative method of detecting and localizing disease. However, since ultrasound requires a medium between the transducer and the object being imaged, it is impractical to apply to an exposed surface in a surgical setting where sterile fields need be maintained and ultrasound gel may cause the bubbles to collapse. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is an emerging tool for accurate, label-free imaging of tissues and cells with high resolution and contrast. We have recently determined a novel application of MPM to be used for detecting targeted microbubble adherence to the upregulated plectin-receptor on pancreatic tumor cells. Specifically, the third-harmonic generation response can be used to detect bound microbubbles to various cell types presenting MPM as an alternative and useful imaging method. This is an interesting technique that can potentially be translated as a diagnostic tool for the early detection of cancer and inflammatory disorders.
- Liu, Z., Gray, B. D., Barber, C., Bernas, M., Cai, M., Furenlid, L. R., Rouse, A., Patel, C., Banerjee, B., Liang, R., Gmitro, A. F., Witte, M. H., Pak, K. Y., & Woolfenden, J. M. (2016). Characterization of TCP-1 probes for molecular imaging of colon cancer. Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society.More infoMolecular probes capable of detecting colorectal cancer (CRC) are needed for early CRC diagnosis. The objective of this study was to characterize c[CTPSPFSHC]OH (TCP-1), a small peptide derived from phage display selection, for targeting human CRC xenografts using technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-labeled TCP-1 and fluorescent cyanine-7 (Cy7)-labeled form of the peptide (Cy7-TCP-1). (99m)Tc-TCP-1 was generated by modifying TCP-1 with succinimidyl-6-hydrazino-nicotinamide (S-HYNIC) followed by radiolabeling. In vitro saturation binding experiments were performed for (99m)Tc-TCP-1 in human HCT116 colon cancer cells. SCID mice with human HCT116 cancer xenografts were imaged with (99m)Tc-TCP-1 or control peptide using a small-animal SPECT imager: Group I (n=5) received no blockade; Group II (n=5) received a blocking dose of non-radiolabeled TCP-1. Group III (n=5) were imaged with (99m)Tc-labeled control peptide (inactive peptide). SCID mice with human PC3 prostate cancer xenografts (Group IV, n=5) were also imaged with (99m)Tc-TCP-1. Eight additional SCID mice bearing HCT116 xenografts in dorsal skinfold window chambers (DSWC) were imaged by direct positron imaging of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) and fluorescence microscopy of Cy7-TCP-1. In vitro(99m)Tc-HYNIC-TCP-1 binding assays on HCT 116 cells indicated a mean Kd of 3.04±0.52nM. In cancer xenografts, (99m)Tc-TCP-1 radioactivity (%ID/g) was 1.01±0.15 in the absence of blockade and was reduced to 0.26±0.04 (P
- Liu, Z., Gray, B. D., Barber, C., Cai, M., Bernas, M., Furenlid, L. R., Rouse, A. R., Patel, C., Banerjee, B., Liang, R., Gmitro, A. F., Witte, M. H., Pak, K. Y., & Woolfenden, J. M. (2016). Characterization of TCP-1 molecular imaging probes in mouse models with xenografted human colon cancer.. J Control Release, 239, 223-230.
- Mehravar, S., Banerjee, B., Chatrath, H., Amirsolaimani, B., Patel, K., Patel, C., Norwood, R. A., Peyghambarian, N., & Kieu, K. (2016). Label-free multi-photon imaging of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus. Biomedical optics express, 7(1), 148-57.More infoBarrett's esophagus (BE) is a metaplastic disorder where dysplastic and early cancerous changes are invisible to the naked eye and where the practice of blind biopsy is hampered by large sampling errors. Multi-photon microscopy (MPM) has emerged as an alternative solution for fast and label-free diagnostic capability for identifying the histological features with sub-micron accuracy. We developed a compact, inexpensive MPM system by using a handheld mode-locked fiber laser operating at 1560nm to study mucosal biopsies of BE. The combination of back-scattered THG, back-reflected forward THG and SHG signals generate images of cell nuclei and collagen, leading to label-free diagnosis in Barrett's.
- Tey, K. R., Kemmerly, T., & Banerjee, B. (2016). NSAID-induced pyloric stenosis leading to oesophageal intramucosal dissection. BMJ case reports, 2016.More infoWe describe a rare case of a 75-year-old woman with significant non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use who presented with haematemesis. Upper endoscopy revealed a large (9 cm) intramucosal dissection of the oesophagus without extension into the gastro-oesophageal junction and a severely narrowed pylorus. We postulate that she developed pyloric stenosis due to peptic ulcer disease from chronic NSAID use. This then led to gastro-oesophageal reflux. Undigested pills in the refluxate had contacted oesophageal mucosa, leading to pill-induced oesophageal injury. This, along with vomiting, is postulated to have led to the oesophageal intramucosal dissection. She improved with conservative medical management with a clear liquid diet and proton pump inhibitors, and a follow-up upper endoscopy 1 week later showed recovery of the previously seen intramucosal dissection.
- Banerjee, B. (2015). Compact dual-view endoscope without field obscuration. Journal of Biomedical Optics. 2015: 20(7): 076007,1-4.. Journal of Biomedical Optics.
- Katkam, R., Banerjee, B., Huang, C. Y., Zhu, X., Ocampo, L., Kincade, J., & Liang, R. (2015). Compact dual-view endoscope without field obscuration. Journal of biomedical optics, 20(7), 76007.More infoWe have developed a compact dual-view endoscopic probe without field obscuration to address the need of simultaneously observing forward and backward fields of view (FOVs) in the colon. The objective is compact with the forward-view and rear-view optical paths sharing the same optical elements. The compact objective is new in that no FOV is blocked. The illumination for forward-view imaging is provided by the cylindrical light guide and backward illumination is achieved with a reflector. We have designed, prototyped, and tested the endoscope by comparing it to a standard clinical colonoscope. We will discuss the system concept, objective design, fabrication of the freeform lens, and test results.
- Murakami, T., Banerjee, B., & Ozden, N. (2014). Novel use of a self-expanding metal stent for an esophageal stricture after radiofrequency ablation treatment of Barrett's esophagus. Endoscopy, 46 Suppl 1 UCTN, E269-70.
- Banerjee, B., Rial, N. S., Renkoski, T., Graves, L. R., Reid, S. A., Hu, C., Tsikitis, V. L., Nfonsom, V., Pugh, J., & Utzinger, U. (2013). Enhanced visibility of colonic neoplasms using formulaic ratio imaging of native fluorescence. Lasers in surgery and medicine, 45(9), 573-81.More infoColonoscopy is the preferred method for colon cancer screening, but can miss polyps and flat neoplasms with low color contrast. The objective was to develop a new autofluorescence method that improves image contrast of colonic neoplasms.
- Renkoski, T. E., Banerjee, B., Graves, L. R., Rial, N. S., Reid, S. A., Tsikitis, V. L., Nfonsam, V. N., Tiwari, P., Gavini, H., & Utzinger, U. (2013). Ratio images and ultraviolet C excitation in autofluorescence imaging of neoplasms of the human colon. Journal of biomedical optics, 18(1), 16005.More infoThe accepted screening technique for colon cancer is white light endoscopy. While most abnormal growths (lesions) are detected by this method, a significant number are missed during colonoscopy, potentially resulting in advanced disease. Missed lesions are often flat and inconspicuous in color. A prototype ultraviolet spectral imager measuring autofluorescence (AF) and reflectance has been developed and applied in a study of 21 fresh human colon surgical specimens. Six excitation wavelengths from 280 to 440 nm and formulaic ratio imaging were utilized to increase lesion contrast and cause neoplasms to appear bright compared to normal tissue. It was found that in the subset of lesions which were most difficult to visualize in standard color photographs [low contrast lesions, (LCLs)] a ratio image (F340/F440) of AF images excited at 340 and 440 nm produced extraordinary images and was effective in about 70% of these difficult cases. Contrast may be due to increased levels of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, increased hemoglobin absorption, and reduced signal from submucosal collagen. A second successful ratio image (R480/R555) combined two reflectance images to produce exceptional images especially in particular LCLs where F340/F440 was ineffective. The newly discovered ratio images can potentially improve detection rate in screening with a novel AF colonoscope.
- Banerjee, B., Renkoski, T., Graves, L. R., Rial, N. S., Tsikitis, V. L., Nfonsam, V., Pugh, J., Tiwari, P., Gavini, H., & Utzinger, U. (2012). Tryptophan autofluorescence imaging of neoplasms of the human colon. Journal of biomedical optics, 17(1), 016003.More infoDetection of flat neoplasia is a major challenge in colorectal cancer screening, as missed lesions can lead to the development of an unexpected 'incident' cancer prior to the subsequent endoscopy. The use of a tryptophan-related autofluorescence has been reported to be increased in murine intestinal dysplasia. The emission spectra of cells isolated from human adenocarcinoma and normal mucosa of the colon were studied and showed markedly greater emission intensity from cancerous cells compared to cells obtained from the surrounding normal mucosa. A proto-type multispectral imaging system optimized for ultraviolet macroscopic imaging of tissue was used to obtain autofluorescence images of surgical specimens of colonic neoplasms and normal mucosa after resection. Fluorescence images did not display the expected greater emission from the tumor as compared to the normal mucosa, most probably due to increased optical absorption and scattering in the tumors. Increased fluorescence intensity in neoplasms was observed however, once fluorescence images were corrected using reflectance images. Tryptophan fluorescence alone may be useful in differentiating normal and cancerous cells, while in tissues its autofluorescence image divided by green reflectance may be useful in displaying neoplasms.
- Matsunaga, T. O., Sheeran, P. S., Luois, S., Streeter, J. E., Mullin, L. B., Banerjee, B., & Dayton, P. A. (2012). Phase-change nanoparticles using highly volatile perfluorocarbons: toward a platform for extravascular ultrasound imaging. Theranostics, 2(12), 1185-98.More infoRecent efforts using perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanoparticles in conjunction with acoustic droplet vaporization has introduced the possibility of expanding the diagnostic and therapeutic capability of ultrasound contrast agents to beyond the vascular space. Our laboratories have developed phase-change nanoparticles (PCNs) from the highly volatile PFCs decafluorobutane (DFB, bp =-2 °C) and octafluoropropane (OFP, bp =-37 °C ) for acoustic droplet vaporization. Studies with commonly used clinical ultrasound scanners have demonstrated the ability to vaporize PCN emulsions with frequencies and mechanical indices that may significantly decrease tissue bioeffects. In addition, these contrast agents can be formulated to be stable at physiological temperatures and the perfluorocarbons can be mixed to modulate the balance between sensitivity to ultrasound and general stability. We herein discuss our recent efforts to develop finely-tuned diagnostic/molecular imaging agents for tissue interrogation. We discuss studies currently under investigation as well as potential diagnostic and therapeutic paradigms that may emerge as a result of formulating PCNs with low boiling point PFCs.
- Bernstein, C., Facista, A., Nguyen, H., Zaitlin, B., Hassounah, N., Loustaunau, C., Payne, C. M., Banerjee, B., Goldschmid, S., Tsikitis, V. L., Krouse, R., & Bernstein, H. (2010). Cancer and age related colonic crypt deficiencies in cytochrome c oxidase I. World journal of gastrointestinal oncology, 2(12), 429-42.More infoTo investigate whether deficiency of expression of cytochrome c oxidase I (CcOI) in colonic crypts is associated with colon cancer.
- Nguyen, H., Loustaunau, C., Facista, A., Ramsey, L., Hassounah, N., Taylor, H., Krouse, R., Payne, C. M., Tsikitis, V. L., Goldschmid, S., Banerjee, B., Perini, R. F., & Bernstein, C. (2010). Deficient Pms2, ERCC1, Ku86, CcOI in field defects during progression to colon cancer. Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE.More infoIn carcinogenesis, the "field defect" is recognized clinically because of the high propensity of survivors of certain cancers to develop other malignancies of the same tissue type, often in a nearby location. Such field defects have been indicated in colon cancer. The molecular abnormalities that are responsible for a field defect in the colon should be detectable at high frequency in the histologically normal tissue surrounding a colonic adenocarcinoma or surrounding an adenoma with advanced neoplasia (well on the way to a colon cancer), but at low frequency in the colonic mucosa from patients without colonic neoplasia. Using immunohistochemistry, entire crypts within 10 cm on each side of colonic adenocarcinomas or advanced colonic neoplasias were found to be frequently reduced or absent in expression for two DNA repair proteins, Pms2 and/or ERCC1. Pms2 is a dual role protein, active in DNA mismatch repair as well as needed in apoptosis of cells with excess DNA damage. ERCC1 is active in DNA nucleotide excision repair. The reduced or absent expression of both ERCC1 and Pms2 would create cells with both increased ability to survive (apoptosis resistance) and increased level of mutability. The reduced or absent expression of both ERCC1 and Pms2 is likely an early step in progression to colon cancer. DNA repair gene Ku86 (active in DNA non-homologous end joining) and Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I (involved in apoptosis) had each been reported to be decreased in expression in mucosal areas close to colon cancers. However, immunohistochemical evaluation of their levels of expression showed only low to modest frequencies of crypts to be deficient in their expression in a field defect surrounding colon cancer or surrounding advanced colonic neoplasia. We show, here, our method of evaluation of crypts for expression of ERCC1, Pms2, Ku86 and CcOI. We show that frequency of entire crypts deficient for Pms2 and ERCC1 is often as great as 70% to 95% in 20 cm long areas surrounding a colonic neoplasia, while frequency of crypts deficient in Ku86 has a median value of 2% and frequency of crypts deficient in CcOI has a median value of 16% in these areas. The entire colon is 150 cm long (about 5 feet) and has about 10 million crypts in its mucosal layer. The defect in Pms2 and ERCC1 surrounding a colon cancer thus may include 1 million crypts. It is from a defective crypt that colon cancer arises.
- Banerjee, B. (2018, May). Colon Cancer. GI Fellows Conference. UA College of Medicine.More infoReview of colon cancer, detection methods, imaging techniques for early lesions.
- Banerjee, B. (2017, August). Idea to Prototype: Success story. Biomedical Device Prototyping Workshop.More infoStrategies for successful prototyping of novel devices, with example.
- Banerjee, B. (2017, May). Optical and Engineering Solutions for Clinical Needs in Gastroenterology. Department of Medicine Research Conference.More infoReview of research into improved imaging contrast and field of view in colonoscopy for colon cancer screening.
- Banerjee, B. (2017, May). What your Gastroenterologist may not tell you.. Medicine Grand RoundsDepartment of Medicine.More infoColon cancer detection, shortcomings, and solutions.
- Banerjee, B. (2016, April). Imaging of targeted lipid microbubbles using third harmonic generation microscopy. Builders DayUniversity of Arizona.
- Banerjee, B. (2016, May). Multiphoton microscopy as an imaging modality for pancreatic cancer margin determination. Digestive Diseases Week. Chicago, IL.
- Mahendran, J., Banerjee, B., & Achyut, B. (2016, October). Duodenal villous blunting: hint for underlying malignancy. American College of Gastroenterology. Las Vegas: American College of Gastroenterology.More infoAMerican Journal of Gastroenterology, october 2016 issue volume 111, supplement 1: 2234
- Banerjee, B. (2019, January). Barrett's Esophagus. GI Conference. UA College of Medicine.More infoReview of Barrett's Esophagus with fellow including Board Review.
- Farshidpour, M., Kim, D., & Banerjee, B. (2020, October). Pathological and endoscopic significance of bowel wall thickening on abdominal computed tomography in patients with negative history of gastrointestinal disease. American College of Gastroenterology. Virtual - Annual conference: American College of Gastroenterology.
- Kim, D., Wycoff, J., Fotouhie, A., Nguyen, V., Kathi, P., Thompson, C., & Banerjee, B. (2020, May). Miniaturized multi-view imaging device to improve colon polyp detection. Digestive Diseases Week. DDW- Virtual: American Gastroenterological Association.
- Banerjee, B., Mahendran, J., & Bhattacharya, A. (2016, October). Duodenal Villous Blunting: Hint of underlying malignancy. American College of Gastroenterology. Las Vegas, NV: American College of Gastroenterology.More infoPoster and published abstract
- Mahendran, J., Banerjee, B., & Bhattacharya, A. (2016, October). Duodenal villous blunting: hint for underlying malignancy.. American College of Gastroenterology. Las Vegas: American College of Gastroenterology.