George B Frisvold
- Specialist, Agricultural-Resource Economics
- Professor, Agricultural-Resource Economics
- Professor, Global Change - GIDP
- Chair, Bartley P Cardon - Agribusiness Economics and Policy
- Member of the Graduate Faculty
- Ph.D. Agricultural & Resource Economics
- University of California, Berkeley, California
- B.S. Political Economy of Natural Resources
- University of California, Berkeley, California
Biotechnology, Water, Climate, Natural Resource Management, Regional Economics
Agricultural Policy, Production Economics, Resource Economics, Environmental Economics
Econ of Policy AnalysisAREC 464 (Fall 2023)
Independent StudyAREC 599 (Spring 2023)
ThesisAREC 910 (Spring 2023)
Econ of Policy AnalysisAREC 464 (Fall 2022)
Production EconomicsAREC 504 (Fall 2022)
Production EconomicsECON 504 (Fall 2022)
ThesisAREC 910 (Fall 2022)
Econ of Policy AnalysisAREC 464 (Fall 2021)
ThesisAREC 910 (Fall 2021)
Consm Econ + Price AnlsAREC 513 (Spring 2021)
Independent StudyAREC 599 (Spring 2021)
ThesisAREC 910 (Spring 2021)
Econ of Policy AnalysisAREC 464 (Fall 2020)
Independent StudyAREC 599 (Fall 2020)
ThesisAREC 910 (Fall 2020)
ThesisAREC 910 (Summer I 2019)
Independent StudyAREC 699 (Spring 2019)
ThesisAREC 910 (Spring 2019)
Econ of Policy AnalysisAREC 464 (Fall 2018)
Independent StudyAREC 699 (Fall 2018)
ThesisAREC 910 (Fall 2018)
Independent StudyAREC 699 (Spring 2018)
ThesisAREC 910 (Spring 2018)
Econ of Policy AnalysisAREC 464 (Fall 2017)
Independent StudyAREC 599 (Fall 2017)
ThesisAREC 910 (Fall 2017)
ThesisAREC 910 (Summer I 2017)
Independent StudyAREC 599 (Spring 2017)
ThesisAREC 910 (Spring 2017)
Econ of Policy AnalysisAREC 464 (Fall 2016)
Independent StudyAREC 599 (Fall 2016)
ThesisAREC 910 (Fall 2016)
Independent StudyAREC 599 (Spring 2016)
ThesisAREC 910 (Spring 2016)
- Colby, B., & Frisvold, G. (2011). Adaptation and Resilience: The Economics of Climate-Water-Energy Challenges in the Arid Southwest. Washington D.C.: Resources for the Future Press.
- Ellsworth, P. C., Frisvold, G. B., & Naranjo, S. E. (2019). Economic Value of Arthropod Biological Control. In The Economics of Integrated Pest Management of Insects(pp 49-85 of 232 pp.). CABI. doi:30 Oct 2019More infoMany biological studies on insect management do not consider economics or fundamental economic principles. This book brings together economists and entomologists to explain the principles, successes, and challenges of effective insect management. It highlights the importance of economic analyses for decision making and the feasibility of such approaches, and examines integrated pest management (IPM) practices from around the world with an emphasis on agriculture and public health. The book begins by establishing an economic framework upon which to apply the principles of IPM. It continues to examine the entomological applications of economics, specifically, economic analyses concerning chemical, biological, and genetic control tactics as well as host plant resistance and the cost of sampling and is illustrated with case studies of economic-based IPM programs from around the world.
- Bickel, A. K., Duval, D. F., & Frisvold, G. B. (2021). The Nature-Based Restorative Economy in Santa Cruz County, Arizona. University of Arizona Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics.
- Frisvold, G. B., Bickel, A. K., & Duval, D. F. (2019). FARM-TO-SCHOOL PROGRAMS IN SOUTHERN ARIZONA: A CASE STUDY ON THE ECONOMICS OF LOCAL FOODS. University of Arizona Eller School of Management MAP (Making Action Possible) Dashboards.More infohttps://mapazdashboard.arizona.edu/article/farm-school-programs-southern-arizona-case-study-economics-local-foods
- Frisvold, G. B., Duval, D. F., & Bickel, A. K. (2018). Effects of Depredation and Mexican Gray Wolf Presence on Ranch Returns: Case Study of a Representative Ranch in Arizona. University of Arizona.
- Frisvold, G. B., Duval, D. F., & Bickel, A. K. (2020). Agriculture in Graham and Greenlee Counties. University of Arizona Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics.
- Frisvold, G. B., Duval, D. F., & Bickel, A. K. (2020). Arizona County Agricultural Economy Profiles. University of Arizona Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics.
- Frisvold, G. B., Duval, D. F., & Bickel, A. K. (2020). The Economic Value of Trails in Arizona- A Travel Cost Method Study. University of Arizona Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics.
- Brown, P. W., Megdal, S. B., Gollehon, N., Sanchez, C. A., & Frisvold, G. B. (2018). Evaluating Gravity-Flow Irrigation with Lessons from Yuma, Arizona. Sustainability, 10(5), 27. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051548More infoFrisvold, G., Sanchez, C., Gollehon, N., Megdal, S.B., and Brown, P., (2018) Evaluating Gravity-Flow Irrigation with Lessons from Yuma, Arizona, Sustainability 10(5), 1548; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051548
- Frisvold, G. B., Bickel, A. K., & Duval, D. F. (2018). Farm to school programs’ local foods activity in Southern Arizona: Local foods toolkit applications and lessons. Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development, 8(Supplement 3), 20. doi:https://doi.org/10.5304/jafscd.2018.08C.001
- Frisvold, G. B., Bickel, A. K., & Duval, D. F. (2018). Mexican Fresh Tomatoes: Agribusiness Value Chain Contributions to the U.S. Economy. University of Arizona Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics.More infoThis study provides an estimate of the economiccontribution of the forward supply chain linkagesto the U.S. economy supported by importsof Mexican fresh tomatoes, both those tomatoesdestined for consumption in the United States, aswell as those shipped by truck across the countryto Canada. Using these estimates of the directeffect of forward supply chain linkages on theeconomy, the study also estimates the indirecteffects and induced effects of this economicactivity to the U.S. economy, generally referred toas multiplier effects.
- Frisvold, G. B., Bickel, A. K., & Duval, D. F. (2018). Potential Economic Impact of Cold Inspection Facility Upgrade at Mariposa Port of Entry, Nogales, AZ. University of Arizona.
- Frisvold, G. B., Duval, D. F., & Bickel, A. K. (2018). Contribution of On-Farm Agriculture and Agribusiness to the Pinal County Economy. AREC website.
- Frisvold, G. B., Frisvold, G. B., Bickel, A. K., Bickel, A. K., Duval, D. F., & Duval, D. F. (2018). Economic Contribution of Agriculture to the Maricopa County and Gila River Indian Community Economies. University of Arizona Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics.More infoStrategies to promote local and regional foods systems benefit from a baseline understanding of existing agricultural activity and its role within the regional economy. To encourage growth or changes in regional food systems, it is important to understand what is being produced, where and how it is being sold, and the potential economic impacts of shifting production and marketing channels. This study provides an estimate of the economic contribution of on-farm agriculture to the Maricopa County economy, as well as an estimate of the regional economic contribution of agricultural activity taking place within the Gila River Indian Community. It includes an overview of commodities produced, their direct sales effects, and an estimate of multiplier effects within the regional economy. Additionally, information on farm attributes, food versus non-food agricultural production, and existing data on local foods activity is provided within the larger context of agriculture as a whole in the region.
- Bickel, A. K., Duval, D. F., & Frisvold, G. B. (2017). Arizona Leafy Greens: Economic Contributions of the Industry Cluster. University of Arizona Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics.More infoLeafy greens, a broad term used to describe vegetable crops with edible leaves, are an important crop group in Arizona. Arizona plays a key role in the country’s production of leafy greens, particularly lettuce varieties and spinach. Together, Arizona and California account for nearly 90% of all leafy greens produced (by weight) in the United States. In winter months, leafy greens are sourced almost exclusively from Arizona and California counties straddling the Colorado River. Considering the state’s role in national production, leafy greens are also an important part of Arizona’s agricultural economy. Since 2010, the state’s major leafy green commodities (lettuce, spinach, and cabbage) have accounted for approximately one-fifth of all agricultural sales (crops and livestock) in Arizona and have represented a large majority of vegetable and melon sales.Sales of leafy greens contribute to the state economy, providing incomes and jobs for people working on Arizona farms. These contributions to the state economy, however, are not limited to on-farm activities. They extend to an entire cluster of industries that are involved in essential post-harvest activities that ensure the quality and shelf life of leafy greens products. The leafy greens industry cluster, therefore, includes farms producing leafy greens as well as post-harvest industries such as refrigerated warehousing, transportation, and wholesale services. Using estimates for 2015 and the IMPLAN software, the total economic contribution (including indirect and induced multiplier effects) of the leafy greens industry cluster to the state economy was estimated. . Results reported include sales (output), value added (synonymous with Gross State Product [GSP]), incomes, and state and local tax revenues. With limited data, we also estimate employment supported by Arizona’s leafy greens industry cluster.
- Bickel, A. K., Duval, D. F., & Frisvold, G. B. (2017). Arizona's Agribusiness System: Contributions to the State Economy. University of Arizona Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics.More infoThe contribution of Arizona agriculture to the state economy extends beyond the commodities produced on farms and ranches across the state. On-farm production is just one part of an entire system of industries involved in and connected with agriculture in Arizona. Estimating the full contribution of agriculture to the state economy warrants an examination of the entire agribusiness system in Arizona. This study conducts an economic contribution analysis for the 2014 calendar year and estimates the direct, indirect, and induced effects of Arizona's agribusiness system to the state economy. Economic conributions are reported in terms of sales, value added (contribution to gross state product [GSP]), incomes, and number of full- and part-time jobs.
- Davis, A., & Frisvold, G. B. (2017). Are herbicides a once in a century method of weed control?. Davis, A & G Frisvold (2017). Pest Management Science 73(11),, 73(11), 2209-2220..More infoAbstractThe efficacy of any pesticide is an exhaustible resource that can be depleted over time. For decades, the dominant paradigm – that weed mobility is low relative to insect pests and pathogens, that there is an ample stream of new weed control technologies in the commercial pipeline, and that technology suppliers have sufficient economic incentives and market power to delay resistance – supported a laissez faire approach to herbicide resistance management. Earlier market data bolstered the belief that private incentives and voluntary actions were sufficient to manage resistance. Yet, there has been a steady growth in resistant weeds, while no new commercial herbicide modes of action (MOAs) have been discovered in 30 years. Industry has introduced new herbicide tolerant crops to increase the applicability of older MOAs. Yet, many weed species are already resistant to these compounds. Recent trends suggest a paradigm shift whereby herbicide resistance may impose greater costs to farmers, the environment, and taxpayers than earlier believed. In developed countries, herbicides have been the dominant method of weed control for half a century. Over the next half-century, will widespread resistance to multiple MOAs render herbicides obsolete for many major cropping systems? We suggest it would be prudent to consider the implications of such a low-probability, but high-cost development.
- Frisvold, G. B., Kerna, A., & Duval, D. F. (2017). The Contribution of Small Grains Production to Arizona’s Economy. N/A.
- Duval, D. F., Frisvold, G. B., Kerna, A., & Umeda, K. (2016). Contribution of the Golf Industry to the Arizona Economy in 2014. N/A.
- Kerna, A., Duval, D. F., & Frisvold, G. B. (2016). Yuma Visitor Survey: Characteristics and Economic Impacts of Hotel Visitors. N/A.
- Kerna, A., Frisvold, G. B., Houtkooper, L. K., Misner, S. L., Farrell, V., & Jacobs, L. (2014). The Economic Contribution of the University of Arizona Cooperative Extension Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) Spending to the State of Arizona. College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 4.More infohttps://extension.arizona.edu/pubs/economic-contribution-university-arizona-cooperative-extension-supplemental-nutrition
- Kerna, A., Frisvold, G. B., Houtkooper, L. K., Misner, S. L., Jacobs, L., & Farrell, V. (2015). Application of Implan to Extension Programs: Economic Impacts of the University of Arizona Cooperative Extension SNAP-Ed Spending. Journal of Extension, 53(6).More infohttp://www.joe.org/joe/2015december/tt4.php/www.joe.org/joe/2015december/tt4.php
- Frisvold, G. B., & Deva, S. (2013). Climate and choice of irrigation technology: Implications for climate adaptation. Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, 5(2-3), 107-127.More infoAbstract: Because studies of irrigation technology adoption often concentrate on small geographic areas with the same climate, few have estimated effects of climate on irrigation technology choice. This study examines the choice of sprinkler versus gravity-flow irrigation across 17 western states. Analysis considers long-term seasonal temperatures and growing season length. An erosion index captures effects of rainfall, field slope, and soil water-holding capacity. Sprinkler adoption increases with reliance on groundwater, pumping costs, farm wage growth, and erosion. Sprinkler adoption was significantly lower for smaller farms. In colder climates, climate warming may lengthen the growing season, but increase susceptibility to frost during the expanded growth period, which may encourage sprinkler adoption. In warmer areas, there is less scope to adapt to warming by switching from gravity to sprinkler technology. Sprinkler adoption declines monotonically in Spring/Summer temperature and growing-season-adjusted Fall/Winter temperature. A drier climate would reduce sprinkler adoption, while climates with more rainfall and more intense rain events would see greater adoption. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
- Frisvold, G. B., & Murugesan, A. (2013). Use of weather information for agricultural decision making. Weather, Climate, and Society, 5(1), 55-69.More infoAbstract: This study uses data from a special subsample of the National Agricultural, Food, and Public Policy Preference Survey to assess use of weather data for agricultural decision making. Responses from 284 Arizona farmers and ranchers were used to examine (i) the importance producers placed on different types of weather data for production and marketing decisions; (ii) which producer characteristics accounted for differences in the importance they placed on weather data; (iii) producer use of weather data for specific production and marketing decisions; and (iv) which factors distinguish weather data users from nonusers.Amodel of demand for weather information was developed and used to specify count data and discrete choice multivariate regression models. The intensity of weather data use was greater among producers with diversified agricultural production. Diversified producers were more likely to use data for timing of planting, cultivation, and harvest. Weather data use was lower among producers with greater reliance on off-farm income. Producers who rated government risk-management programs as important also found more weather data types important and used weather data for more decisions. Access to satellite TV increased data use but access to the Internet did not. © 2013 American Meteorological Society.
- Frisvold, G. B., & Deva, S. (2012). Farm size, irrigation practices, and conservation program participation in the US southwest. Irrigation and Drainage, 61(5), 569-582.More infoAbstract: The US Department of Agriculture's Farm and Ranch Irrigation Survey collects the most detailed and comprehensive data on US irrigation practices. Yet, because the data are only easily available in cross-tab form, data are rarely used for statistical analysis of irrigator behavior. Using data from Arizona and New Mexico, this study illustrates how statistical measures of association can be used test hypotheses about how farm size (measured by sales class) affects (i) use of water management information, (ii) investment in irrigation improvements, and (iii) participation in conservation programs. Parametric (Cochran-Armitage trend test) and nonparametric (Goodman-Kruskall gamma) methods yielded similar results. Reliance on low-cost, general information was common among all size classes, while larger operations relied more on private, tailored information. Larger operations were more likely to use directly provided data (e.g. media and Internet reports) than smaller operators, who relied more on information provided by intermediaries. Smaller farms were less likely to investigate irrigation improvements, use management-intensive methods for irrigation scheduling, or participate in cost-share programs to encourage adoption of improved irrigation practices. Adoption of scientific irrigation scheduling methods was low for all groups, but especially low for small-scale irrigators. There appear to be significant barriers to information acquisition, use of management-intensive irrigation practices, and participation in conservation programs among smaller-scale irrigators. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Frisvold, G. B., & Konyar, K. (2012). Less water: How will agriculture in Southern Mountain states adapt?. Water Resources Research, 48(5).More infoAbstract: This study examined how agriculture in six southwestern states might adapt to large reductions in water supplies, using the U.S. Agricultural Resource Model (USARM), a multiregion, multicommodity agricultural sector model. In the simulation, irrigation water supplies were reduced 25% in five Southern Mountain (SM) states and by 5% in California. USARM results were compared to those from a "rationing" model, which assumes no input substitution or changes in water use intensity, relying on land fallowing as the only means of adapting to water scarcity. The rationing model also ignores changes in output prices. Results quantify the importance of economic adjustment mechanisms and changes in output prices. Under the rationing model, SM irrigators lose $65 in net income. Compared to this price exogenous, "land-fallowing only" response, allowing irrigators to change cropping patterns, practice deficit irrigation, and adjust use of other inputs reduced irrigator costs of water shortages to $22 million. Allowing irrigators to pass on price increases to purchasers reduced income losses further, to $15 million. Higher crop prices from reduced production imposed direct losses of $130 million on first purchasers of crops, which include livestock and dairy producers, and cotton gins. SM agriculture, as a whole, was resilient to the water supply shock, with production of high value specialty crops along the Lower Colorado River little affected. Particular crops were vulnerable however. Cotton production and net returns fell substantially, while reductions in water devoted to alfalfa accounted for 57% of regional water reduction. © 2012. American Geophysical Union.
- Frisvold, G., & Deva, S. (2012). FARM SIZE, IRRIGATION PRACTICES, AND CONSERVATION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION IN THE US SOUTHWES. Irrig. and Drain, 61, 569-582.
- Frisvold, G., & Konyar, K. (2012). Less water: How will agriculture in Southern Mountain states adapt?. Water Resources Research, 48.
- Frisvold, G., Jackson, L., Pritchett, J., Ritten, J., Garfin, G., Jardine, A., Merideth, R., Black, M., & Overpeck, J. (2012). Assessment of Climate Change in the Southwest United States: a Technical Report Prepared for the U.S. National Climate Assessment. Agriculture and Ranching.More infoTucson, AZ: Southwest Climate Alliance.
- Norsworthy, J. K., Ward, S. M., Shaw, D. R., Llewellyn, R. S., Nichols, R. L., Webster, T. M., Bradley, K. W., Frisvold, G., Powles, S. B., Burgos, N. R., Witt, W. W., & Barrett, M. (2012). Reducing the risks of herbicide resistance: Best management practices and recommendations. Weed Science, 60(SPEC. ISSUE 1), 31-62.More infoAbstract: Herbicides are the foundation of weed control in commercial crop-production systems. However, herbicide-resistant (HR) weed populations are evolving rapidly as a natural response to selection pressure imposed by modern agricultural management activities. Mitigating the evolution of herbicide resistance depends on reducing selection through diversification of weed control techniques, minimizing the spread of resistance genes and genotypes via pollen or propagule dispersal, and eliminating additions of weed seed to the soil seedbank. Effective deployment of such a multifaceted approach will require shifting from the current concept of basing weed management on single-year economic thresholds. Programs for herbicide-resistance management must consider use of all cultural, mechanical, and herbicidal options available for effective weed control in each situation and employ the following best management practices (BMPs): 1. Understand the biology of the weeds present. 2. Use a diversified approach toward weed management focused on preventing weed seed production and reducing the number of weed seed in the soil seedbank.
- Norsworthy, J., Ward, S., Shaw, D., Llewellyn, R., Nichols, R., Webster, T., Bradley, K., Frisvold, G., Powles, S., Burgos, N., Witt, W., & Barrett, M. (2012). Reducing the Risks of Herbicide Resistance: Best Management Practices and Recommendations. Weed Science, 60(31-62).
- Buyuktahtakin, I., Feng, Z., Frisvold, G., Szidarovzky, F., & Olsson, A. (2011). A Dynamic Model of Controlling Invasive Species. computers & Mathematics with Applications, 62, 3326-3333.
- Büyüktahtakn, I. E., Feng, Z., Frisvold, G., Szidarovszky, F., & Olsson, A. (2011). A dynamic model of controlling invasive species. Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 62(9), 3326-3333.More infoAbstract: A dynamic model of controlling invasive weeds is first developed which is a large scale, nonlinear 0-1 integer programming problem. This model is then applied for the case of control of the invasive grass, Pennisetum ciliare (buffelgrass), in the Arizona desert. The large size of the problem makes the application of direct optimization methods impossible, instead the most frequently suggested strategies were analyzed and their consequences compared. The model is more advanced and complex than those examined in earlier studies. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Frisvold, G. B., & Reeves, J. M. (2010). Resistance management and sustainable use of agricultural biotechnology. AgBioForum, 13(4), 343-359.More infoAbstract: While crop biotechnologies deployed worldwide with herbicideresistant (HR) or insect-resistant (IR) traits have provided significant economic and environmental benefits, these benefits are threatened by the evolution of insect and weed resistance. This article examines why field-level resistance has not posed a problem for IR crops but has become a growing problem for HR crops. Key factors include compatibility of the technologies with integrated pest and weed management and the regulatory and institutional setting in which they were deployed. Transgenic crops will be more sustainably deployed if they are embedded in integrated pest and weed management with strong, outward extension linkages to farmers and backward linkages to research institutions. Public and private plant breeding can play a critical role in developing stacked traits that reduce overreliance on single chemical compounds or toxins. Extension can serve two important functions along with its traditional role of information provision: (a) facilitating farmer collective action for area-wide resistance management and (b) providing government agencies with information needed to increase the flexibility and cost-effectiveness of resistance management regulations. The article concludes by discussing some implications for resistance management in developing countries. © 2010 AgBioForum.
- Frisvold, G., & JM, . (2010). Resistance Management and Sustainable Use of Agricultural Biotechnology. AgBioForum, 13, 343-359.
- Beghin, J., Carter, C., Frisvold, G., Pick, D., & Vukina, T. (2009). RIP RAE: A last note from the editors and former editors. Review of Agricultural Economics, 31(4), 667-.
- Frisvold, G. B., Boor, A., & Reeves, J. M. (2009). Simultaneous Diffusion of Herbicide Resistant Cotton and Conservation Tillage. AgBioForum, 12(3-4), 249-257.More infoAbstract: This study used state-level data from 1997-2002 to econometrically estimate factors explaining the diffusion of two technologies by US cotton producers: herbicide-resistant (HR) cotton seed varieties and conservation tillage. A simultaneous equation model is estimated to examine complementarities between the two technologies. Based on results from a three-stage least squares model, the null hypothesis that diffusion of one technology is independent of diffusion of the other is rejected. Elasticities calculated at sample means indicate that a 1% increase in a state's adoption rate for HR cotton increases the state's adoption rate for conservation tillage by 0.48%. A 1% increase in the adoption rate of conservation tillage increases the adoption rate of HR cotton by 0.16%. ©2009 AgBioForum.
- Frisvold, G. B., Hurley, T. M., & Mitchell, P. D. (2009). Adoption of best management practices to control weed resistance by corn, cotton, and soybean growers. AgBioForum, 12(3-4), 370-381.More infoAbstract: This study examined adoption of 10 best management practices (BMPs) to control weed resistance to herbicides using data from a survey of more than 1,000 US corn, cotton, and soybean growers. Count-data models were estimated to explain the total number of BMPs frequently practiced. Ordered-probit regressions were used to explain the frequency of individual BMP adoption. Growers practicing a greater number of BMPs frequently had more education, but less farming experience; grew cotton; expected higher yields relative to the county average; and farmed in counties with a lower coefficient of variation (CV) for yield of their primary crop. Yield expectations and variability were significant predictors of adoption of individual BMPs. Most growers frequently adopted the same seven BMPs. Extension efforts may be more effective if they targeted the three practices with low adoption rates. Counties with a high-yield CV would be areas to look for low BMP adoption. ©2009 AgBioForum.
- Frisvold, G. B., Hurley, T. M., & Mitchell, P. D. (2009). Overview: Herbicide resistant crops-diffusion, benefits, pricing, and resistance management. AgBioForum, 12(3-4), 244-248.
- Hurley, T. M., Mitchell, P. D., & Frisvold, G. B. (2009). Characteristics of herbicides and weed-management programs most important to corn, cotton, and soybean growers. AgBioForum, 12(3-4), 269-280.More infoAbstract: The introduction and rapid adoption of herbicide-tolerant crops has renewed interest in better understanding the characteristics of herbicides and weed-management programs that are important to growers besides profitability. This study explores the importance of 13 characteristics, including characteristics that influence profitability, using data from a telephone survey of 1,205 corn, cotton, and soybean growers. We estimate a multivariate probit model to explore how the importance of these 13 characteristics varies with observable grower and farm-operation differences. Factor analysis based on the multivariate probit error correlations is conducted to gain further insight into the types of distinctions growers make between these 13 characteristics. Results show that growers rate characteristics such as consistency of control, crop safety, and family and employee health as very important more often than herbicide cost. The factor analysis suggests that health and environmental concerns, yield concerns, and herbicide-application concerns capture important unobservable preferences that influence grower decisions. These results imply that attempts to decompose the benefits of herbicide-tolerant crops by assigning unique values to specific characteristics that influence grower decisions can be confounded due to the difficulty in developing unique indirect measures of directly unobservable grower preferences. ©2009 AgBioForum.
- Hurley, T. M., Mitchell, P. D., & Frisvold, G. B. (2009). Effects of weed-resistance concerns and resistance-management practices on the value of roundup ready® crops. AgBioForum, 12(3-4), 291-302.More infoAbstract: This study estimates grower benefits of Roundup-Ready® (RR) weed management programs and how weed-resistance concerns and resistance-management practices affect those benefits. Direct survey methods were used to elicit grower valuation of pecuniary and non-pecuniary benefits. We illustrate a hedonic strategy combined with principal component analysis to address part-whole bias present in previous assessments of non-pecuniary benefits of RR crops. Based on a national telephone survey of 1,205 growers, the mean reported benefit of RR relative to conventional seed varieties was more than $20 per acre for corn and soybean growers and about $50 per acre for cotton growers. Growers concerned about weed resistance reported lower benefits, but this effect was statistically significant only for cotton growers, reducing their perceived benefits by about 20% ($10 per acre). Use of a residual herbicide and annual rotation of herbicides are two practices to reduce the risk of weed resistance. Corn growers using residual herbicides perceived lower, though still positive, benefits. Soybean growers rotating herbicides perceived benefits to be higher. Growers more concerned about herbicide application costs and crop safety report lower benefits, while those more concerned about the flexibility of timing herbicide applications report higher RR benefits. ©2009 AgBioForum.
- Hurley, T. M., Mitchell, P. D., & Frisvold, G. B. (2009). Weed management costs, weed best management practices, and the roundup ready® weed management program. AgBioForum, 12(3-4), 281-290.More infoAbstract: Roundup Ready® (RR) crops have been widely adopted because they provide significant benefits to growers, but glyphosate-resistant weeds threaten the sustainability of these benefits. Weed best-management practices (BMPs) help manage resistance, but could increase weed-control costs, limiting their adoption. We use survey results to explore how adoption of BMPs affects weed-management costs in corn, cotton, and soybeans, controlling for farmer and regional characteristics. More experienced growers had lower weed-control costs. Cleaning equipment, using herbicides with different modes of action, and using supplemental tillage are BMPs associated with increased costs for some crops, which may explain why they are less widely adopted than other BMPs. However, growers commonly use other weed BMPs that also increase costs. Regression results suggest adoption of RR crops reduces weed-control costs and that weed scouting reduces costs for cotton and soybean growers. Use of residual herbicides was associated with higher costs for cotton growers, but not for corn or soybean growers. Rotating RR and non-RR crops on the same acreage was associated with higher costs for soybeans, but not for corn or cotton growers. ©2009 AgBioForum.
- Beghin, J., Carter, C., Frisvold, G., & Fulton, J. (2008). A note from the editors. Review of Agricultural Economics, 30(1), 1-2.
- Beghin, J., Frisvold, G., & Fulton, J. (2008). A note from the editors. Review of Agricultural Economics, 30(2), 191-192.
- Frisvold, G. B., & Reeves, J. M. (2008). The costs and benefits of refuge requirements: The case of Bt cotton. Ecological Economics, 65(1), 87-97.More infoAbstract: Refuge requirements have been the primary regulatory tool to delay pest resistance to Bt crops. This paper presents a simple method to estimate the annual cost of refuges to producers, applying it to Bt cotton. It also examines broader welfare impacts, estimating how Bt cotton acreage restrictions affect producer surplus, consumer surplus, seed supplier profits, and commodity program outlays. The implications of grower adoption behavior - partial adoption, aggregate adoption, and refuge choice - for regulatory costs are examined. Empirical examples illustrate how providing multiple refuge options significantly reduces regulatory costs. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- Pick, D., Carter, C., Frisvold, G., & Fulton, J. (2007). A note from the editors. Review of Agricultural Economics, 29(1), 1-2.
- Frisvold, G., Carter, C., Pick, D., & Fulton, J. (2006). A note from the editors. Review of Agricultural Economics, 28(2), 165-166.
- Pick, D., Carter, C., Frisvold, G., & Fulton, J. (2006). A note from the editors. Review of Agricultural Economics, 28(1), 1-2.
- Pick, D., Carter, C., Frisvold, G., & Fulton, J. (2006). A note from the editors. Review of Agricultural Economics, 28(3), 293-294.
- Carter, C., Frisvold, G., Fulton, J., & Pick, D. (2005). A note from the editors. Review of Agricultural Economics, 27(3), 297-298.
- Pick, D., Carter, C., Frisvold, G., & Fulton, J. (2005). A note from the editors. Review of Agricultural Economics, 27(1), 1-2.
- Pick, D., Carter, C., Frisvold, G., & Fulton, J. (2005). A note from the editors. Review of Agricultural Economics, 27(2), 161-162.
- Pick, D., Frisvold, G., Carter, C., & Fulton, J. (2005). A note from the editors. Review of Agricultural Economics, 27(4), 505-506.
- Frisvold, G. B. (2004). How federal farm programs affect water use, quality, and allocation among sectors. Water Resources Research, 40(12), 1-15.More infoAbstract: This article examines the effects of U.S. federal farm programs on agricultural water use, water quality, and the allocation of water between agriculture and other sectors of the economy. Agriculture is central to policy debates over how to allocate water between competing uses and how to control water pollution. Agriculture accounts for 80% of U.S. consumptive use of freshwater and has been identified as the largest contributor to nonpoint source water pollution. Over the last 20 years, agricultural policy reforms have greatly reduced, though not eliminated, incentives to overuse water and chemical inputs and have improved targeting of conservation programs to achieve environmental benefits. Recent changes provide greater incentives for voluntary reallocation of water from agriculture to other uses. The 2002 farm bill reverses some reforms, increasing some distortionary subsidies, while shifting conservation program priorities from environmental to income transfer objectives.
- Frisvold, G. B., Sullivan, J., & Raneses, A. (2003). Genetic improvements in major US crops: The size and distribution of benefits. Agricultural Economics, 28(2), 109-119.More infoAbstract: The distribution of welfare gains of genetic improvements in major US crops is estimated using a world agricultural trade model. Multi-market welfare estimates were 75% larger than estimates based on the price-exogenous 'change in revenue' method frequently used by plant breeders. Annual benefits of these genetic improvements range from US$ 400-600 million depending on the supply shift specification. Of this, 44-60% accrues to the US, 24-34% accrues to other developed countries. Developing and transitional economies capture 16-22% of the welfare gain. The global benefits of a one-time permanent increase in US yields are US$ 8.1 billion (discounted at 10%) and US$ 15.4 billion (discounted at 5%). Gains to consumers in developing and transitional economies range from US$ 6.1 billion (10% discount rate) to US$ 11.6 billion (5% discount rate). © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
- Day-Rubenstein, K., & Frisvold, G. B. (2001). Genetic prospecting and biodiversity development agreements. Land Use Policy, 18(3), 205-219.More infoAbstract: Biodiversity loss continues, in part, because local benefits from wildland preservation are limited. Biodiversity development agreements (BDAs) intend, through bioprospecting efforts, to distribute benefits of biodiversity to those who bear preservation costs. Analysis of two case studies suggests that monetary returns from bioprospecting could be substantial, though realization of returns is uncertain and likely to take time. Considerable non-monetary benefits from BDAs have included training and increased infrastructure and institutional capacity. BDAs probably will not finance desired land preservation, nor is it certain they can influence land use. Nonetheless, carefully structured BDAs can be useful components of biodiversity conservation programs. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
- Frisvold, G. B., Fernicola, K., & Langworthy, M. (2001). Market returns, infrastructure and the supply and demand for extension services. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 83(3), 758-763.More infoAbstract: Increasingly, countries are experimenting with privatization of extension activities and extension commercialization-the use of cost-recovery mechanisms, such as user fees by public extension agencies (Dancey; Dinar 1996; Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development; Rivera and Gustafson; Umali and Schwartz). Concurrently, economists have begun to assess extension in a market supply-demand framework (Dinar 1989, 1996, Ortmann et al.). Yet, how do markets for extension services behave? What factors drive the supply and demand for extension services? What public investments complement or substitute for extension services? This study uses historical data from Arizona to estimate determinants of extension requests and service provision. Following Dinar (1989), we treat extension requests and provision as endogenous, simultaneously determined variables. The study examines the importance of demand-pull effects as well as transportation and communications infrastructure on commodity-specific extension requests and service provision.
- Agnew, G. K., Baker, P. B., & Frisvold, G. B. (2000). Arizona cotton pesticide use data: Opportunities and pitfalls. 2000 Proceedings Cotton Conferences Volume 2, 1239-1246.More infoAbstract: Pesticide use reporting systems are becoming more widespread. The data gathered by these systems has enormous potential for a wide range of applied research. Arizona's pesticide use reporting system illustrates both the opportunities and pitfalls that will arise with the increased use of reporting systems. The data available provides a detailed and extensive picture of pesticide use in major Arizona crops like cotton. With improvements it could be the cornerstone of research that benefits producers and the environment. As it stands, however, the Arizona pesticide reporting system lacks fundamental information essential to make it a useful data source. Summaries illustrate both the strengths and weaknesses of the Arizona reporting system. Preliminary research results provide an example of the potential power of the dataset.
- Agnew, G. K., Frisvold, G. B., & Baker, P. (2000). Adoption of insect growth regulators in Arizona cotton: Determinants and economic implications. 2000 Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences, 361-364.More infoAbstract: In 1996, two Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs), pyriproxyfen (Knack(®)) and buprofezin (Applaud(®)) became available to Arizona cotton growers for control of whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii under a Section 18 EPA exemption. This study makes use of a section-level database to examine (a) factors explaining IGR adoption and (b) how adopters of IGRs altered their overall insecticide use to control whiteflies. IGR adoption can be explained to a large extent by location effects. Adoption was more likely on sections where an index of whitefly susceptibility to synergized pyrethroids was low and on sections with higher whitefly control costs in the previous year. Adoption was inversely related to local population density. On sections where growers adopted IGRs, expenditures on synergized pyrethroid and other tank mix applications fell by $62.52 per acre. On sections with no IGR adoption, tank mix expenditures fell less, by $44.37 per acre. On adopting sections, net costs of controlling whiteflies fell by $29.62 per acre, or by over $11,000 per farm.
- Erda, L., Cerri, C. C., Frisvold, G., Minami, K., Doering, O., Sampson, N., Waggoner, P., Plucknet, D., Neue, H. U., Makarim, K., Hubbard, K., Jiusheng, L., Yu'e, L., Ruttan, V., & Baethgen, W. (2000). Agricultural sector. Methodological and Technological Issues in Technology Transfer, 269-289.More infoAbstract: Agriculture is a worldwide critical strategic resource expected to double its production in 30 years to feed the world. Yet, agriculture is most directly affected by climate change through increased variability as well as temperature and moisture changes. Agriculture's adaptation to climate change will require new genetic stocks, improved irrigation efficiency, improved nutrient use efficiency, and improved risk management and production management techniques. The effectiveness of technology transfer in the agricultural sector in the context of climate change response strategies would depend to a great extent on the suitability of transferred technologies to the socio-economic and cultural context of the recipients, considering development, equity, and sustainability issues.
- Frisvold, G. B., & Caswell, M. F. (2000). Transboundary water management game-theoretic lessons for projects on the US-Mexico border. Agricultural Economics, 24(1), 101-111.More infoAbstract: Of the twelve million people who live within 100 km of the US-Mexico border, 90 percent are clustered in transboundary sister cities that share common water sources and pollution problems. New institutions created to address environmental concerns over NAFTA offer the promise of greater financial and technical assistance for water management in border cities. This paper reviews US-Mexico border water issues and institutions. Using insights from game theory, it draws policy lessons for institutions funding border water projects. We examine how the design of assistance programs, technical support, and pre-existing water rights and regulations affect project outcomes. The diversity and geographic dispersion of water conflicts suggests potential for applying the interconnected game approach to US-Mexico water negotiations. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.
- Frisvold, G., Sullivan, J., & Raneses, A. (1999). Who gains from genetic improvements in U.S. crops?. AgBioForum, 2(3-4), 237-246.More infoAbstract: The distribution of gains of plant breeding and plant genetic resource exchange has been the source of heated North-South debates in meetings of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (UN FAO) and the UN Convention on Biological Diversity. We report results of a study using a world agricultural trade model to estimate the size and distribution of economic gains from yield increases in major United States (U.S.) crops attributable to genetic improvements. The net global economic benefits of a onetime, permanent increase in U.S. yields are about $8.1 billion (discounted at 10%) and $15.4 billion (discounted at 5%). The United States captures 50-60% of these net gains. Gains to consumers in developing and transitional economies range from 6.1 billion (10% discount rate) to $11.6 billion (5% discount rate).
- Frisvold, G. B., & Condon, P. T. (1998). The convention on biological diversity and agriculture: implications and unresolved debates. World Development, 26(4), 551-570.More infoAbstract: The Convention on Biological Diversity addresses two controversies that surround plant genetic resources (PGRs). One debate has been over property rights governing PGRs and the distribution of benefits from their use. The second has been over the adequacy of measures to maintain crop genetic diversity. This paper examines how these two debates are linked and reviews previous multilateral attempts to address them. The Convention signals wider international acceptance of stricter property rights over PGRs and the need for multilateral assistance for PGR conservation. However, current proposals to implement the Convention appear too limited in scope to achieve their stated conservation objectives, while several areas of controversy remain. These include debates over: (i) intellectual property protection for biological inventions; (ii) control over PGRs in international gene banks; (iii) the international biosafety protocol regulating biotechnology; (iv) mechanisms to finance PGR conservation; and (v) the allocation of funds between in situ and ex situ conservation.
- Winters, P., Murgai, R., Sadoulet, E., Janvry, A. D., & Frisvold, G. (1998). Economic and welfare impacts of climate change on developing countries. Environmental and Resource Economics, 12(1), 1-24.More infoAbstract: The impact of global climate change on developing countries is analyzed using CGE-multimarket models for three archetype economies representing the poor cereal importing nations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The objective is to compare the effects of climate change on the macroeconomic performance, sectoral resource allocation, and household welfare across continents. Simulations help identify those underlying structural features of economies which are the primary determinants of differential impacts; these are suggestive of policy instruments to countervail undesirable effects. Results show that all these countries will potentially suffer income and production losses. However, Africa, with its low substitution possibilities between imported and domestic foods, fares worst in terms of income losses and the drop in consumption of low income households. Countervailing policies to mitigate negative effects should focus on integration in the international market and the production of food crops in Africa, and on the production of export crops in Latin America and Asia.
- Day, K. A., & Frisvold, G. B. (1996). Cooperative research bolsters war on cancer. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, 11(3), 60-64.
- Larson, B. A., & Frisvold, G. B. (1996). Fertilizers to support agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa: what is needed and why. Food Policy, 21(6), 509-525.More infoAbstract: Substantial growth in inorganic fertilizer use is a prerequisite for sustained agricultural growth in sub-Saharan Africa. Increased fertilizer use can lead to modest but immediate and important increases in yields, while the profitability of other technologies will be stifled without adequate plant nutrients. Average fertilizer application rates in sub-Saharan Africa need to increase from 10 kg/ha to 50 kg/ha within 10 yr to prevent mining of soil nutrients. That implies an 18% annual growth rate. While over-use of fertilizers can create environmental problems, this is not a widespread problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Rather, near-term environmental concerns in agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa will stem from the lack of intensification. Farmer demand for fertilizers and the physical capacity to make fertilizers available are the two key issues that determine whether a 50-kg/ha goal will be attained. However, demand-side incentives cannot be separated from fertilizer supply possibilities.
- Larson, B. A., & Frisvold, G. B. (1996). Uncertainty over future environmental taxes: Impact on current investment in resource conservation. Environmental and Resource Economics, 8(4), 461-471.More infoAbstract: Besides static efficiency properties, environmental policies should be evaluated in terms of their longer-run impacts on investment and technological change to reduce pollution and degradation of natural resources. Using a stochastic dynamic programming approach, this paper analyzes how uncertainty about a future environmental tax on a polluting input alters investment in resource conservation and how such investment affects future demand for the polluting input. The impact on investment depends crucially on price elasticities of demand and on the manner in which investment shifts and rotates the demand schedule for the polluting input in the future. The expectation of a higher tax does not necessarily create stronger incentives for investment in resource conservation. More uncertainty about future policies does encourage investment if it makes a firm more responsive to future price changes and discourages investment if it makes a firm less responsive to price changes.
- Frisvold, G. B., & Condon, P. (1995). The convention on biological diversity: Implications for agriculture. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 50(1), 41-54.More infoAbstract: Among other goals, the Convention on Biological Diversity addresses two controversies surrounding the international system of exchange of crop genetic resources (CGRs). One debate has been over the definition of property rights over CGRs and the distribution of benefits from their use. The second has been over the adequacy of incentives for conserving CGRs both in situ and ex situ. This paper examines how these two debates are linked and reviews previous multilateral attempts to resolve disputes over genetic resources. The scope for Convention provisions and proposed implementation strategies to resolve disputes and achieve stated goals are assessed. The Convention signals wider international acceptance of both intellectual property rights (IPRs) over biological inventions and the need for multilateral assistance for CGR preservation. There remains disagreement over how strict future IPRs should become, however, and current proposals to implement the Convention appear inadequate to achieve their stated objectives. Future controversies remain over four broad issues: (1) the breadth of IPR protection, including the future of research and farmer exemptions to patents, (2) control over operation of international seed banks, (3) the need for an international biosafety protocol regulating biotechnology testing and trade, and (4) how biodiversity conservation funds will be raised and allocated. © 1995.
- Frisvold, G., & Ingram, K. (1995). Sources of agricultural productivity growth and stagnation in sub-Saharan Africa. Agricultural Economics, 13(1), 51-61.More infoAbstract: This paper examines sources of agricultural growth in sub-Saharan Africa. Growth in the stock of traditional inputs (land, labor, livestock) remains the dominant source of output growth. Growth in modern input use was of secondary importance, but still accounted for a 0.2-0.4% annual growth rate in three of four sub-regions. Econometric results support earlier studies that suggest that land abundance may be a constraint on land productivity growth. Growth in agricultural exports and historic calorie availability had positive impacts on productivity. These latter results suggest that positive feedback effects exist between export performance and food security on one hand and agricultural productivity on the other. © 1995.
- Frisvold, G. B. (1994). Does supervision matter? Some hypothesis tests using Indian farm-level data. Journal of Development Economics, 43(2), 217-238.More infoAbstract: A model is developed and estimated to test for heterogeneity of family and hired labor in agricultural production and to estimate the impact of employer supervision on the productivity of hired labor. Plot-level data are used from a rice-growing village in semi-arid tropical India. The hypothesis that family and hired labor are homogeneous inputs was rejected. Results indicate that family member supervision is required to increase hired labor productivity. Output loss attributable to operating at reduced supervision intensity was greater than 10% on over 40% of the plots. © 1994.
- Westenbarger, D. A., & Frisvold, G. B. (1994). Agricultural exposure to ozone and acid precipitation. Atmospheric Environment, 28(18), 2895-2907.More infoAbstract: The incompatibility of environmental and socioeconomic data has limited direct empirical analysis of the impacts of air pollution on farm-level productivity. The kriging procedure was used to create state- and county-level indexes for ozone, NO3 and SO4 for the northeastern United States for 1980 and 1990. This paper (a) presents county-level air-quality indexes (AQIs) to measure crop exposure to air pollutants and (b) combines environmental and economic data to identify geographic areas where air pollution is likely to impose the greatest economic costs to agriculture. It is hoped that this information, combined with the AQIs will be useful for future statistical analysis of the effects of air pollution on farm- and county-level measures of agricultural performance. Air quality in 1990 was much improved over 1980 in most counties. However, some areas of New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Vermont and Virginia still experience relatively high levels of acidic depositions. Portions of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina and Pennsylvania were identified as areas of high potential economic vulnerability to ozone pollution.
- Day, K. A., & Frisvold, G. B. (1993). What happened to natural resources and environmental research in the United States?. EVOL.TRENDS PLANTS, 1, 1-4.
- Duval, D. F., Kerna, A., & Frisvold, G. B. (2016, November 2016). Using Enterprise Software Data to Analyze the Economic Contributions and Impacts of University Programs With the IMPLAN Model. In Mid‐Continent Regional Science Association .
- Frisvold, G. (2011, Fall). Implications of climate change legislation for U.S. cotton growers. In Beltwide Cotton Conferences, 408-416.
- Kerna, A., & Frisvold, G. B. (2015, August). Long-Term Outcomes, Evaluations and How to Measure Impacts. UA Cooperative Extension Conference.More infoKey-note speakers for Extension conference.
- Bickel, A. K., Duval, D. F., & Frisvold, G. B. (2017, Spring). Economic Contribution and Interdependence of Arizona's Vegetable and Melon and Small Grains Industry Clusters. CALS Poster Forum.
- Duval, D. F., Bickel, A. K., & Frisvold, G. B. (2017, Spring). Contribution of the Golf Industry to the Arizona Economy in 2014. CALS Poster Forum.
- Jacobs, L. E., Frisvold, G. B., Misner, S. L., Kerna, A., & Farrell, V. (2015, June). Economic Impacts of the UA Cooperative Extension SNAP-Ed Program: An Application of IMPLAN. Childhood Obesity Conference. San Diego: California Department of Public Health, California Department of Education, Nutrition Policy Institute UC Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, The California Endowment, and Kaiser Permanente.
- Kerna, A., Duval, D. F., & Frisvold, G. B. (2015, October). Economic Impacts Generated by UA School of Natural Resources and the Environment (SNRE) Federal Research & Extension Grants. CALS Poster Forum. Tucson.
- Kerna, A., Frisvold, G. B., Houtkooper, L. K., Misner, S. L., Farrell, V. A., & Jacobs, L. (2015, October). The Economic Contributions of the University of Arizona Cooperative Extension SNAP-Ed Program: An Application of IMPLAN. CALS Poster Forum. Tucson.
- Amaya, G., Norman, L., & Frisvold, G. (2011, March). Mesauring the Impacts of Natural Amenities and US Mexico Border, on Housing Values in the Santa Cruz Watershed, using Spatially-Weighted Hedonic Modeling. Santa Cruz River Researchers' Day. Tucson, AZ.
- Corral, A., Barnhart, A., Moravec, B., Frisvold, G., Haws, M., Black, K., & Ela, W. (2011, December). Decentralized, Autonomous Water Treatment in the Navajo Nation. New Mexico, Water REsources REsearch Institute 56th Annual New Mexico Water Conference. Alamogordo, NM.
- Corral, A., Barnhart, A., Moravec, B., Frisvold, G., Haws, M., Black, K., & Ela, W. (2011, December). Decentralized, Autonomous Water Treatment in the Navajo Nation. Water REsources REsearch Institute 56th Annual New Mexico Water Conference. Alamogordo, NM.
- Kerna, A., & Frisvold, G. B. (2014, October). Agriculture in Arizona's Economy: An Economic Contribution Analysis. http://cals.arizona.edu/arec/pubs/aginazeconomy.html
- Tronstad, R. E., Kerna, A., Frisvold, G. B., & Teegerstrom, T. (2014, May). The Contribution of the Beef Industry to the Arizona Economy. http://ag.arizona.edu/arec/pubs/beefindustryeconcontrib.html
- Frisvold, G. B. (2010, Fall). Navajo Nation Solar Desalination Research Pilot Demonstration Project. U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.