Patricia L Haynes
- Associate Professor, Public Health
- Associate Professor, Psychology
- Associate Professor, Psychiatry
- Member of the Graduate Faculty
- Ph.D. Clinical Psychology
- Univ of San Diego/San Diego State Univ Joint Doctoral Pgm in Clinical Psychology, San Diego, California, United States
- Circadian Impact of Psychosocial Factors in Depression
- M.S. Clinical Psychology
- San Diego State University, San Diego, California, United States
- The Development of Mood Disorders within a Social Context: An Exploratory Interdisciplinary Analysis
- B.A. Psychology
- University of Missouri, Columbia, Columbia, Missouri, United States
- Data Blitz Winner
- Society for Behavioral Sleep Medicine, Summer 2016
Licensure & Certification
- Licensed Clinical Psychologist, Arizona Board of Psychologist Examiners (2006)
- Diplomate in Behavioral Sleep Medicine, Society of Behavioral Sleep Medicine (2019)
- Certification in Behavioral Sleep Medicine, American Academy of Sleep Medicine (2008)
Research Design, Health Promotions, Health Behavior Change, Behavioral Clinical Trials, Mental Health
Behavioral Sleep Medicine, Occupational Health, Mental health, Health promotions, Health Psychology, Obesity, Intervention Development, Program Evaluation, Behavioral Clinical Trials, Psychiatric Comorbidities: Depression, Post-Traumatic, Stress Disorder, Social Rhythm Model, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Public Safety
Adv. Research Methods in HPS IHPS 620A (Fall 2022)
DissertationHPS 920 (Fall 2022)
Honors ThesisPSIO 498H (Fall 2022)
Honors ThesisPSY 498H (Fall 2022)
Independent StudyPSYI 499 (Fall 2022)
DissertationHPS 920 (Spring 2022)
Honors Directed ResearchPSYS 392H (Spring 2022)
Honors ThesisPSIO 498H (Spring 2022)
Honors ThesisPSY 498H (Spring 2022)
Independent StudyHPS 699 (Spring 2022)
Adv. Research Methods in HPS IHPS 620A (Fall 2021)
DissertationHPS 920 (Fall 2021)
Honors ThesisPSIO 498H (Fall 2021)
Independent StudyHPS 699 (Fall 2021)
DissertationHPS 920 (Spring 2021)
Honors Independent StudyPSIO 399H (Spring 2021)
Independent StudyHPS 699 (Spring 2021)
Master's ReportHPS 909 (Spring 2021)
Adv. Research Methods in HPS IHPS 620A (Fall 2020)
DissertationHPS 920 (Fall 2020)
Honors ThesisHPS 498H (Fall 2020)
Independent StudyPSY 399 (Fall 2020)
Master's ReportHPS 909 (Fall 2020)
ThesisHPS 910 (Fall 2020)
Master's ReportHPS 909 (Summer I 2020)
Directed ResearchHPS 492 (Spring 2020)
Directed ResearchPSYS 392 (Spring 2020)
Directed ResearchPSYS 492 (Spring 2020)
DissertationHPS 920 (Spring 2020)
Honors Independent StudyNSCS 399H (Spring 2020)
Honors ThesisHPS 498H (Spring 2020)
Honors ThesisPSY 498H (Spring 2020)
Independent StudyPSY 399 (Spring 2020)
Master's ReportHPS 909 (Spring 2020)
Adv. Research Methods in HPS IHPS 620A (Fall 2019)
Directed ResearchPSYS 392 (Fall 2019)
Directed ResearchPSYS 492 (Fall 2019)
DissertationHPS 920 (Fall 2019)
Honors Independent StudyNSCS 499H (Fall 2019)
Honors ThesisPSY 498H (Fall 2019)
Independent StudyHPS 399 (Fall 2019)
Independent StudyPSIO 499 (Fall 2019)
Independent StudyPSY 399 (Fall 2019)
Master's ReportHPS 909 (Fall 2019)
Directed ResearchPSYS 392 (Summer I 2019)
Master's ReportHPS 909 (Summer I 2019)
Adv Res Method HPS IIHPS 620B (Spring 2019)
Directed ResearchPSYS 492 (Spring 2019)
Honors Independent StudyNSCS 199H (Spring 2019)
Honors Independent StudyPSY 399H (Spring 2019)
Independent StudyPSIO 499 (Spring 2019)
Independent StudyPSY 499 (Spring 2019)
Master's ReportHPS 909 (Spring 2019)
Adv. Research Methods in HPS IHPS 620A (Fall 2018)
Honors Independent StudyPSIO 399H (Fall 2018)
Honors Independent StudyPSY 399H (Fall 2018)
Independent StudyHPS 499 (Fall 2018)
Independent StudyPSIO 399 (Fall 2018)
Independent StudyPSIO 499 (Fall 2018)
Independent StudyPSY 399 (Fall 2018)
Independent StudyPSY 499 (Fall 2018)
Master's ReportHPS 909 (Fall 2018)
Directed ResearchPSYS 392 (Summer I 2018)
Independent StudyPSY 499 (Summer I 2018)
Master's ReportHPS 909 (Summer I 2018)
Adv Res Method HPS IIHPS 620B (Spring 2018)
Directed ResearchPSIO 492 (Spring 2018)
DissertationPSY 920 (Spring 2018)
Honors Independent StudyPSIO 399H (Spring 2018)
Honors Independent StudyPSIO 499H (Spring 2018)
Honors ThesisNSC 498H (Spring 2018)
Independent StudyHPS 599 (Spring 2018)
Independent StudyPSIO 399 (Spring 2018)
Independent StudyPSIO 499 (Spring 2018)
Independent StudyPSY 499 (Spring 2018)
Master's ReportHPS 909 (Spring 2018)
Senior CapstonePSY 498 (Spring 2018)
Adv. Research Methods in HPS IHPS 620A (Fall 2017)
DissertationPSY 920 (Fall 2017)
Honors Independent StudyPSIO 399H (Fall 2017)
Honors Independent StudyPSIO 499H (Fall 2017)
Honors ThesisNSC 498H (Fall 2017)
Honors ThesisPSIO 498H (Fall 2017)
Independent StudyPSY 399 (Fall 2017)
Independent StudyPSY 499 (Fall 2017)
Master's ReportHPS 909 (Fall 2017)
Directed ResearchCPH 492 (Spring 2017)
DissertationPSY 920 (Spring 2017)
Independent StudyCPH 499 (Spring 2017)
Independent StudyCPH 699 (Spring 2017)
Independent StudyPSIO 499 (Spring 2017)
Independent StudyPSY 499 (Spring 2017)
Master's ReportCPH 909 (Spring 2017)
Tops:Hlth Behavior & PromotionCPH 619 (Spring 2017)
Independent StudyCPH 399 (Fall 2016)
Independent StudyPSIO 399 (Fall 2016)
Tops:Hlth Behavior & PromotionCPH 619 (Fall 2016)
Independent StudyPSIO 399 (Summer I 2016)
Directed ResearchCPH 492 (Spring 2016)
Independent StudyPSY 499 (Spring 2016)
- Batool-Anwar, S., Mayer, C., Haynes, P. L., Liu, Y., Thomson, C. A., & Quan, S. F. (2021). Impact of Recent Job Loss on Sleep, Energy Consumption and Diet. Southwest journal of pulmonary & critical care, 23(5), 129-137.More infoTo examine how sleep quality and sleep duration affect caloric intake among those experiencing involuntary job loss.
- Garcia, O., Slavish, D. C., Dietch, J. R., Messman, B. A., Contractor, A. A., Haynes, P. L., Pruiksma, K. E., Kelly, K., Ruggero, C. J., & Taylor, D. J. (2021). What goes around comes around: Nightmares and daily stress are bidirectionally associated in nurses.. Stress and health : journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress. doi:10.1002/smi.3048More infoNurses may experience frequent nightmares due to stressful work environments. Nightmares may also exacerbate stress among nurses, although this has yet to be tested empirically. We examined daily bidirectional associations between stress severity and nightmares, and moderation by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. 392 nurses (92% female; 78% White) completed 14 days of sleep diaries to assess previous-day stress severity and nightmare occurrence and severity. PTSD symptoms were assessed at baseline. Multilevel models were used to examine bidirectional, within-person associations between daily stress and nightmares, and cross-level moderation by baseline PTSD symptoms. 47.2% of nurses reported at least one nightmare across the two weeks. Days with greater stress were associated with higher odds of experiencing a nightmare (OR = 1.22, p = 0.001), as well as greater nightmare severity (b = 0.09, p = 0.033). Nightmare occurrence was associated with greater next-day stress severity (b = 0.15, p < 0.001). Daily stress and nightmare associations were similar for those with and without PTSD symptoms. Nightmares and stress may occur in a bidirectional fashion. Nurses face intense occupational demands and frequent exposure to potentially traumatic events. Studies should explore whether targeting nightmares and stress may improve nurses' health and well-being.
- Haynes, P. L., Apolinar, G. R., Mayer, C., Kobayashi, U., Silva, G. E., Glickenstein, D. A., Thomson, C. A., & Quan, S. F. (2021). Inconsistent social rhythms are associated with abdominal adiposity after involuntary job loss: An observational study.. Obesity science & practice, 7(2), 208-216. doi:10.1002/osp4.479More infoUnemployment is an established risk factor for obesity. However, few studies have examined obesity-related health behavior after involuntary job loss specifically. Job loss confers a disruption in daily time structure that could lead to negative metabolic and psychological outcomes through chronobiological mechanisms. This study examines whether individuals with unstable social rhythms after involuntary job loss present with higher abdominal adiposity than individuals with more consistent social rhythms and whether this relationship varies as a function of depressive symptoms..Cross-sectional baseline data (n = 191) from the ongoing Assessing Daily Activity Patterns in occupational Transitions (ADAPT) study were analyzed using linear regression techniques. Participants completed the Social Rhythm Metric-17 (SRM) daily over 2 weeks. They also completed the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and participated in standardized waist circumference measurements (cm)..A significant interaction emerged between SRM and BDI-II demonstrating that less consistent social rhythms were associated with larger waist circumference at lower levels of depressive symptoms. Additional exploratory analyses demonstrated a positive association between the number of daily activities performed alone and waist circumference when controlling for symptoms of depression..These findings are the first to demonstrate a relationship between social rhythm stability and abdominal adiposity in adults who have recently, involuntarily lost their jobs. Results highlight the moderating role of depressive symptoms on daily routine in studies of metabolic health. Future prospective analysis is necessary to examine causal pathways.
- Haynes, P. L., Skobic, I., Epstein, D. R., Emert, S., Parthasarathy, S., Perkins, S., & Wilcox, J. (2020). Cognitive Processing Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Is Associated with Negligible Change in Subjective and Objective Sleep. Behavioral sleep medicine, 18(6), 809-819.More info: Patients receiving Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT), an evidence based therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), report improved sleep quality. However, the majority of studies have examined residual sleep disturbance via self-report surveys or separate items on PTSD measures. This study examined whether CPT delivered to veterans in a VA setting improved sleep indices using state-of-the-art objective and subjective insomnia measures. : Participants were war veterans with a current PTSD diagnosis scheduled to begin outpatient individual or group CPT at two Veteran's Affairs (VA) locations (n = 37). : Sleep symptom severity was assessed using the recommended research consensus insomnia assessment, the consensus daily sleep diary and actigraphy. PTSD symptomatology pre- and post-treatment were assessed using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale. : A small to moderate benefit was observed for the change in PTSD symptoms across treatment (ES = .43). Effect sizes for changes on daily sleep diary and actigraphy variables after CPT were found to be negligible (Range ES = - .16 to .17). Sleep indices remained at symptomatic clinical levels post-treatment. : These findings support previous research demonstrating a need for independent clinical attention to address insomnia either before, during, or after PTSD treatment.
- Haynes, P. L., Wolf, R. L., Howe, G. W., & Kelly, M. R. (2021). Unemployed Individuals Reporting Hindrance Work Stress at Previous Job Have Increased Likelihood of Insomnia Disorder.. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 28(1), 39-47. doi:10.1007/s12529-020-09874-9More infoWorkplace stress and unemployment are each associated with disturbances in sleep. However, a substantial gap exists in what we know about the type of workplace stress preceding job loss and the lasting effect workplace stressors may have on long-term health outcomes. We hypothesized that a specific type of workplace stress, hindrance stress, would be a stronger predictor of current insomnia disorder, compared to challenge stress. Cross-sectional data were analyzed from 191 recently unemployed individuals participating in the ongoing Assessing Daily Patterns through occupational Transitions (ADAPT) study. Participants were administered the Cavanaugh et al. (J Appl Psychol. 85(1):65, 2000) self-reported work stress scale regarding their previous job and the Duke Sleep Interview (DSI-SD), a semi-structured interview assessing ICSD-3 insomnia disorder (chronic and acute). Results from logistic regression analyses indicated that hindrance work stress was associated with an increased likelihood of current overall, chronic, and acute insomnia disorder, when controlling for challenge stress and significant demographic factors. Challenge stress was associated with an increased likelihood of chronic insomnia disorder when controlling for hindrance stress and covariates. The association between challenge stress and acute insomnia differed as a function of sex. Hindrance work stressors were associated with increased odds of current insomnia disorder, even after employment ended. Across each of the tested models, hindrance stress had stronger effects on insomnia than challenge stress. These findings support and extend both the challenge-hindrance framework of work-related stress and the 3 P model of insomnia.
- Kelly, M. R., A Hillier, E., Aria, F., Gulotta, J., & Haynes, P. L. (2021). Recovery Sleep versus Emotion Regulation in Predicting Fire Service Shift Workers Stress, Fatigue and Irritability. Behavioral sleep medicine, 19(1), 26-37.More info: Fire service shift workers are at risk of developing mental health difficulties related to sleep loss and emotion dysregulation. We aimed to clarify the relationship between off-shift recovery sleep and emotion regulation on stress, fatigue and irritability. : A total of 61 fire service shift workers (e.g. firefighter, captain, engineer, paramedic) on a "5/6" shift. : Following five 24-hour shifts, participants reported on emotion regulation as well as daily sleep, stress, fatigue and irritability during six consecutive off-shift recovery days. Mediation analyses examined (1) emotion regulation as a predictor and sleep as a mediator of stress, fatigue and irritability outcomes; and (2) sleep as a predictor and emotion regulation as a mediator of stress, fatigue and irritability outcomes. : Greater self-reported total sleep time predicted lower recovery stress, fatigue, and irritability. Greater subjective sleep efficiency predicted lower recovery stress and fatigue, but not irritability. No significant relationships emerged for objective sleep or emotion regulation variables predicting stress, fatigue or irritability. There were no significant findings with either emotion regulation or sleep variables included as mediators. : These findings suggest that stress management programs for fire service shift workers may be most effective when targeting sleep efficiency and quantity rather than emotion regulation strategies in the off-shift recovery period.
- Nunez, A., Rhee, J. U., Haynes, P. L., Chakravorty, S., Patterson, F., Killgore, W. D., Gallagher, R. A., Hale, L., Branas, C. C., Carrazco, N., Alfonso-miller, P., Gehrels, J. A., & Grandner, M. A. (2021). Smoke at night and sleep worse? The associations between cigarette smoking with insomnia severity and sleep duration.. Sleep health, 7(2), 177-182. doi:10.1016/j.sleh.2020.10.006More infoInsomnia is a clinically verified nicotine withdrawal symptom. As nicotine is a stimulant, it is plausible that smoking at night could disturb sleep more than smoking at earlier times of the day, but this remains empirically unclear. This study examined smoking status and its associations with insomnia severity and sleep duration while considering the potential role of smoking time..Data were derived from the Sleep and Healthy Activity Diet Environment and Socialization study, a community-based study of 1007 adults (nnonsmokers = 818; nsmokers = 189) aged 22-60 from the Philadelphia area. Smoking status and time of smoking were self-reported. Insomnia was assessed with the Insomnia Severity Index and categorized as none, mild, and moderate-to-severe. Sleep duration was assessed with one item from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and categorized as very short, short, normal, and long. Ordinal and multinomial logistic regressions were used to determine the association of smoking status including smoking time with insomnia severity and sleep duration controlling for sociodemographic covariates..Compared to nonsmoking, smoking was associated with experiencing increased insomnia (odds ratio = 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9, 3.4, P < .001) as well as very short (relative risk ratio = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1, 3.3) and short (relative risk ratio = 1.5, 95% CI 1.0, 2.3) sleep (vs normal sleep duration). Night-time smoking was significantly associated with greater insomnia and shorter sleep duration..Findings provide evidence that smoking is associated with increased insomnia severity and shorter sleep duration, particularly nightly smoking. Sleep health should be considered in smoking cessation efforts.
- Silva, G. E., Quan, S. F., Mcmorrow, T. E., Bautista, R., Bell, M. L., & Haynes, P. L. (2021). Association between obstructive sleep apnea and multiple involuntary job loss history among recently unemployed adults.. Sleep health, 7(1), 118-122. doi:10.1016/j.sleh.2020.08.002More infoObstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with negative occupational outcomes including absenteeism and poor work productivity. This analysis explored whether the severity of OSA was associated with multiple involuntary job loss history among recently unemployed adults..This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from the screening visit of the Assessing Daily Activity Patterns Through Occupational Transitions study. Information was collected from 261 participants who recently involuntarily lost their jobs. Data included demographics, employment, medical history, and results from a limited channel home sleep apnea test. The respiratory event index was categorized as
- Silva, G. E., Rojo-Wissar, D. M., Quan, S. F., & Haynes, P. L. (2021). Predictive ability of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders-3 in identifying risk of obstructive sleep apnea among recently unemployed adults. Sleep & breathing, 25(3), 1325-1334. doi:doi: 10.1007/s11325-020-02210-1More infoThe International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD)-3 was developed to aid in the identification of these disorders. The core criterion A (ICSD-3A) to identify obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) requires the presentence of specific signs and symptoms. This study explores the predictive ability of the ICSD-3A for OSA as compared with objective measures of respiratory event index (REI).
- Skobic, I., Apolinar, G. R., Quan, S. F., & Haynes, P. L. (2021). Marijuana versus evidence-based treatments for sleep and relaxation: A cross-sectional study of use and dose modification following involuntary job loss.. Sleep health, 7(1), 113-117. doi:10.1016/j.sleh.2020.06.008More infoSleep disruption and relaxation are commonly cited reasons for marijuana use. Job loss is a significant stressor associated with high risk for sleep disruption. Little is known about marijuana use in relation to other intervention choices for sleep/relaxation in individuals who have experienced recent, involuntary job loss..This study compared self-reported use of marijuana to evidence-based treatments (EBT) for sleep/relaxation using data from the ongoing Assessing Daily Activity Patterns through Occupational Transitions (ADAPT) study. Participants were 1639 completers of the ADAPT phone screen interview. EBT was defined as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I), non-benzodiazepine sedatives/hypnotics, and benzodiazepines..Marijuana was the most common treatment for sleep/relaxation. Two-sample tests of proportions revealed that prevalence of use of marijuana was comparable to the entire class of EBTs (~5%). Only 2 (0.1%) participants reported receiving CBT-I, the first-line treatment for insomnia disorder, as per the American College of Physicians Clinical Practice Guidelines. Rates of dose increase following job-loss were comparable between users of marijuana and EBTs (Z = 0.56, p = .58). Multiple logistic regression models demonstrated that male sex (OR = 0.28, 95%CI = 0.14-0.57) and substance abuse (OR = 7.68, 95%CI = 2.89-20.43) were significantly associated with increased likelihood of marijuana use..Individuals who have recently experienced involuntary job loss may be more likely to use marijuana than any one EBT for sleep/relaxation and as likely to increase their treatment dose. Dissemination of evidence-based sleep health interventions is needed in unemployed populations to prevent habitual patterns resulting in the long-term use of marijuana for sleep/relaxation.
- Ghani, S. B., Delgadillo, M. E., Granados, K., Okuagu, A. C., Alfonso-Miller, P., Buxton, O. M., Patel, S. R., Ruiz, J., Parthasarathy, S., Haynes, P. L., Molina, P., Seixas, A., Williams, N., Jean-Louis, G., & Grandner, M. A. (2020). Acculturation Associated with Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality, and Sleep Disorders at the US-Mexico Border. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(19).More infoSleep disparities exist among Hispanics/Latinos, although little work has characterized individuals at the United States (US)-Mexico border, particularly as it relates to acculturation. This study examined the association of Anglo and Mexican acculturation to various facets of sleep health among those of Mexican descent at the US-Mexico border. Data were collected from = 100 adults of Mexican descent in the city of Nogales, Arizona (AZ). Surveys were presented in English or Spanish. Acculturation was assessed with the Acculturation Scale for Mexican-Americans (ARSMA-II). Insomnia was assessed with the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), sleepiness was assessed with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), sleep apnea risk was assessed with the Multivariable Apnea Prediction (MAP) index, weekday and weekend sleep duration and efficiency were assessed with the Sleep Timing Questionnaire, sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and sleep duration and sleep medication use were assessed with PSQI items. No associations were found between Mexican acculturation and any sleep outcomes in adjusted analyses. Anglo acculturation was associated with less weekend sleep duration and efficiency, worse insomnia severity and sleep quality, and more sleep apnea risk and sleep medication use. These results support the idea that sleep disparities may depend on the degree of acculturation, which should be considered in risk screening and interventions.
- Haynes, P. L., Burger, S. B., Kelly, M., Emert, S., Perkins, S., & Shea, M. T. (2020). Cognitive behavioral social rhythm group therapy versus present centered group therapy for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder: A randomized controlled pilot trial. Journal of affective disorders, 277, 800-809.More infoCognitive Behavioral Social Rhythm Group Therapy (CBSRT) is a chronobiologically-informed group therapy designed to stabilize social rhythms in veterans with comorbid combat-related PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD). This randomized controlled pilot trial is the first to examine feasibility and preliminary efficacy of group CBSRT as compared to group Present Centered Therapy (PCT), a well-characterized active attention, psychotherapy condition.
- Haynes, P. L., Wolf, R. L., Howe, G. W., & Kelly, M. R. (2020). Unemployed Individuals Reporting Hindrance Work Stress at Previous Job Have Increased Likelihood of Insomnia Disorder. International journal of behavioral medicine.More infoWorkplace stress and unemployment are each associated with disturbances in sleep. However, a substantial gap exists in what we know about the type of workplace stress preceding job loss and the lasting effect workplace stressors may have on long-term health outcomes. We hypothesized that a specific type of workplace stress, hindrance stress, would be a stronger predictor of current insomnia disorder, compared to challenge stress.
- Rojo-Wissar, D. M., McQuaid, J. R., Ancoli-Israel, S., Gengler, D. N., & Haynes, P. L. (2020). Maternal Bonding Predicts Actigraphy-Measured Sleep Parameters in Depressed and Nondepressed Adults. The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 208(1), 33-37.More infoAssociations between subjective maternal bonding recalled from the first 16 years of life and current sleep indices were investigated in a clinical sample of 34 adults with major depressive disorder and 36 normal controls (n = 70) using the self-report parental bonding instrument and wrist actigraphy. Results of multiple linear regression analyses indicated that reports of maternal bonding indices were associated with several sleep indices in adulthood independent of depression status. Higher levels of maternal care were associated with greater time in bed and total sleep time. Higher levels of maternal overprotection were associated with fewer awakenings. Findings indicate that reported maternal bonding characteristics in childhood are related to objectively measured sleep characteristics in adulthood, independent of mood state.
- Silva, G. E., Quan, S. F., McMorrow, T., Bautista, R., Bell, M. L., & Haynes, P. L. (2020). Association between obstructive sleep apnea and multiple involuntary job loss history among recently unemployed adults. Sleep health.More infoObstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with negative occupational outcomes including absenteeism and poor work productivity. This analysis explored whether the severity of OSA was associated with multiple involuntary job loss history among recently unemployed adults.
- Boland, E. M., Goldschmied, J. R., Kelly, M. R., Perkins, S., Gehrman, P. R., & Haynes, P. L. (2019). Social rhythm regularity moderates the relationship between sleep disruption and depressive symptoms in veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder. Chronobiology international, 36(10), 1429-1438.More infoApproximately 50% to 80% of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) also meet criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD). Sleep disturbance is a major concern in both PTSD and MDD, and is associated with poor treatment response, poor functional outcome and increased suicide risk. Social rhythm regularity, or the consistency of daily habitual behaviors, is theoretically linked to circadian rhythms and may be disturbed in both PTSD and MDD. The present study examined the relationship between social rhythm regularity, sleep disruption and MDD and PTSD symptoms in a sample of veterans with comorbid PTSD and MDD. Baseline data were obtained from 56 male veterans who met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD and MDD. Veterans completed the Social Rhythm Metric (SRM), a self-report questionnaire that assesses the regularity of routines by determining how regularly individuals completed 17 different types of activities. In a linear regression model, increased minutes awake after sleep onset (WASO) was a significant predictor of increased depression scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression ( < .05). SRM scores did not significantly predict depressive symptoms, however the interaction of WASO and SRM significantly predicted depressive symptoms ( =
- Haynes, P. L., Nair, U. S., Haynes, P. L., & Collins, B. N. (2019). Baseline sleep quality is a significant predictor of quit-day smoking self-efficacy among low-income treatment-seeking smokers.. Journal of health psychology, 24(11), 1484-1493. doi:10.1177/1359105317740619More infoCompared to non-smokers, smokers have an increased risk for poor sleep quality, which could undermine confidence to quit. This study examined whether baseline sleep quality was associated with quit-day smoking self-efficacy among smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation trial. Treatment-seeking low-income smokers were randomized to either a low-intensity physical activity integrated with standard smoking cessation intervention or standard care cessation only. Poor sleep quality was significantly associated with lower quit-day (week 4) smoking self-efficacy (β = -0.61; standard error = 8.1; p = .03). Over half the samples (53%) reported poor sleep quality, thus addressing baseline sleep quality is an important consideration in smoking cessation programs.
- Rojo-Wissar, D. M., Davidson, R. D., Beck, C. J., Kobayashi, U. S., VanBlargan, A. C., & Haynes, P. L. (2019). Sleep quality and perceived health in college undergraduates with adverse childhood experiences. Sleep health, 5(2), 187-192.More infoResearch demonstrates that poor sleep quality is a predictor of chronic mental and physical health problems. The link between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and poor health outcomes is also well established; however, few studies have examined the relationships between ACEs, sleep quality, and physical and mental health.
- Haynes, P. L., Emert, S. E., Epstein, D., Perkins, S., Parthasarathy, S., & Wilcox, J. (2017). The Effect of Sleep Disorders, Sedating Medications, and Depression on Cognitive Processing Therapy Outcomes: A Fuzzy Set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. Journal of traumatic stress, 30(6), 635-645.More infoCognitive processing therapy (CPT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an effortful process requiring engagement in cognitive restructuring. Sleep disorders may lead to avoidance of effortful tasks and cognitive performance deficits. We explored whether sleep disorders, as assessed by polysomnography, were consistently associated with treatment response in combination with other factors. This study included 32 U.S. veterans who were examined both before and after CPT for combat-related PTSD. We employed a novel, case-comparative technique, fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), to identify combinations of fuzzy and crisp factors (recipes) that achieve a clinically significant outcome. Approximately one-quarter of cases experiencing clinically significant change were either (a) Vietnam era veterans without sedating medications, moderate sleep disordered breathing, and severe depression; or (b) non-Vietnam era veterans with sedating medications and without severe periodic limb movements (or significant periodic limb movement arousals). Recipes involving the absence of the relevant sleep disorder were associated with the highest coverage values. These results using fsQCA (a) provide valuable information about the heterogeneity of CPT response and (b) suggest that sleep disorders are important factors to consider in theoretical discussions of who responds to CPT for PTSD.
- Haynes, P. L., Silva, G. E., Howe, G. W., Thomson, C. A., Butler, E. A., Quan, S. F., Sherrill, D., Scanlon, M., Rojo-Wissar, D. M., Gengler, D. N., & Glickenstein, D. A. (2017). Longitudinal assessment of daily activity patterns on weight change after involuntary job loss: the ADAPT study protocol. BMC public health, 17(1), 793.More infoThe World Health Organization has identified obesity as one of the most visible and neglected public health problems worldwide. Meta-analytic studies suggest that insufficient sleep increases the risk of developing obesity and related serious medical conditions. Unfortunately, the nationwide average sleep duration has steadily declined over the last two decades with 25% of U.S. adults reporting insufficient sleep. Stress is also an important indirect factor in obesity, and chronic stress and laboratory-induced stress negatively impact sleep. Despite what we know from basic sciences about (a) stress and sleep and (b) sleep and obesity, we know very little about how these factors actually manifest in a natural environment. The Assessing Daily Activity Patterns Through Occupational Transitions (ADAPT) study tests whether sleep disruption plays a key role in the development of obesity for individuals exposed to involuntary job loss, a life event that is often stressful and disrupting to an individual's daily routine.
- Nair, U. S., Haynes, P., & Collins, B. N. (2017). Baseline sleep quality is a significant predictor of quit-day smoking self-efficacy among low-income treatment-seeking smokers. Journal of health psychology, 1359105317740619.More infoCompared to non-smokers, smokers have an increased risk for poor sleep quality, which could undermine confidence to quit. This study examined whether baseline sleep quality was associated with quit-day smoking self-efficacy among smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation trial. Treatment-seeking low-income smokers were randomized to either a low-intensity physical activity integrated with standard smoking cessation intervention or standard care cessation only. Poor sleep quality was significantly associated with lower quit-day (week 4) smoking self-efficacy ( β = -0.61; standard error = 8.1; p = .03). Over half the samples (53%) reported poor sleep quality, thus addressing baseline sleep quality is an important consideration in smoking cessation programs.
- Haynes, P. L., Gengler, D., & Kelly, M. (2016). Social Rhythm Therapies for Mood Disorders: an Update. Current psychiatry reports, 18(8), 75.More infoSocial rhythms are patterns of habitual daily behaviors that may impact the timing of the circadian system directly or indirectly through light exposure. According to the social rhythm hypothesis of depression, depressed individuals possess a vulnerability in the circadian timing system that inhibits natural recovery after disrupting life events. Social rhythm therapies (SRTs) support the implementation of regular, daily patterns of activity in order to facilitate recovery of circadian biological processes and also to improve mood. The majority of SRT research has examined interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) for bipolar disorder. Recent studies have examined IPSRT in inpatient settings, using alternative modes of delivery (group, combined individual and group, internet-based applications) and with brief timeframes. New forms of SRTs are developing that target mood in individuals who have experienced specific types of stressful life events. This manuscript reviews the theoretical and biological bases of SRTs and current literature on SRT outcomes.
- Haynes, P. L., Kelly, M., Warner, L., Quan, S. F., Krakow, B., & Bootzin, R. R. (2016). Cognitive Behavioral Social Rhythm Group Therapy for Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and sleep disturbance: Results from an open trial. Journal of affective disorders, 192, 234-43.More infoCognitive Behavioral Social Rhythm Therapy (CBSRT) is a group psychotherapy tailored for Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and sleep disturbances. The aims of this study were to introduce and present initial outcomes of Cognitive Behavioral Social Rhythm Therapy (CBSRT), a 12-week skills group therapy designed to improve sleep and mood by reducing chaotic or isolated lifestyles in Veterans with PTSD.
- Killgore, W. D., Haynes, P. L., Killgore, W. D., Kelly, M. R., & Haynes, P. L. (2016). Understanding Recent Insights in Sleep and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder from a Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) Framework. Current Sleep Medicine Reports, 2(4), 223-232. doi:10.1007/s40675-016-0056-xMore infoPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with sleep disturbances, including insomnia, nightmares, sleep-disordered breathing, and REM abnormalities. Recent studies have expanded our knowledge of the neurobiology of trauma and sleep. In addition, intervention research has provided valuable information about how sleep treatments affect PTSD symptoms and how PTSD treatments affect sleep symptoms. This review of recent literature aims to move away from the categorical approach that currently dominates our conceptualization of trauma response and sleep disorders. Possible mechanisms of both trauma and sleep disturbance are posed within the framework put forth by the National Institute of Mental Health’s (NIMH) Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project. By examining domains of dysfunction that cut across disorders, RDoC may guide future research and treatment of the maladaptive neurobiological and behavioral correlates of both trauma and sleep disturbances.
- Haynes, P. (2015). Application of Cognitive Behavioral Therapies for Comorbid Insomnia and Depression. Sleep medicine clinics, 10(1), 77-84.More infoThis article provides an overview of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia and depression. Included is a discussion of how CBT for insomnia affects depression symptoms and how CBT for depression affects insomnia symptoms. The extant literature is reviewed on ways that depression/insomnia comorbidity moderates CBT response. The article concludes with an introduction to cognitive behavioral social rhythm therapy, a group therapy that integrates tenets of CBT for both disorders.
- Haynes, P., & Sbarra, D. (2015). Obituary: Richard R. Bootzin (1940-2014). Behavioral sleep medicine, 13(2), 89-91.
- Moss, T. G., Carney, C. E., Haynes, P., & Harris, A. L. (2015). Is daily routine important for sleep? An investigation of social rhythms in a clinical insomnia population. Chronobiology international, 32(1), 92-102.More infoSocial rhythms, also known as daily routines (e.g. exercise, of school or work, recreation, social activities), have been identified as potential time cues to help to regulate the biological clock. Past research has shown links between regularity and healthy sleep. This study examined the regularity and frequency of daytime activities in a clinical insomnia population and a good sleeper comparison group. Participants (N = 69) prospectively monitored their sleep and daily activities for a 2-week period. Although participants with insomnia and good sleepers had similar levels of activity, relative to good sleepers, those with insomnia were less regular in their activities. Findings from this study add to the growing number of studies that highlight the relative importance of the regularity of daytime activities on sleep. Accordingly, future research should test treatment components that focus on regulating daytime activities, which would likely improve treatment outcomes.
- Haynes, P. (2013). The link between OSA and depression: another reason for integrative sleep medicine teams. Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 9(5), 425-6.
- Parthasarathy, S., Wendel, C., Haynes, P. L., Atwood, C., & Kuna, S. (2013). A pilot study of CPAP adherence promotion by peer buddies with sleep apnea. Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 9(6), 543-50.More infoTo evaluate patient ratings of the acceptability of a peer buddy system (PBS). To promote continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy adherence in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). To obtain preliminary data on the effectiveness of PBS on sleep-specific health-related quality of life and CPAP adherence.
- Britton, W. B., Haynes, P. L., Fridel, K. W., & Bootzin, R. R. (2012). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy improves polysomnographic and subjective sleep profiles in antidepressant users with sleep complaints. Psychotherapy and psychosomatics, 81(5), 296-304.More infoMany antidepressant medications (ADM) are associated with disruptions in sleep continuity that can compromise medication adherence and impede successful treatment. The present study investigated whether mindfulness meditation (MM) training could improve self-reported and objectively measured polysomnographic (PSG) sleep profiles in depressed individuals who had achieved at least partial remission with ADM, but still had residual sleep complaints.
- Epstein, D. R., Babcock-Parziale, J. L., Haynes, P. L., & Herb, C. A. (2012). Insomnia treatment acceptability and preferences of male Iraq and Afghanistan combat veterans and their healthcare providers. Journal of rehabilitation research and development, 49(6), 867-78.More infoSleep difficulty is a prevalent problem among returning Veterans. Although there is strong evidence for the efficacy and durability of cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) in the general population, the interventions require motivation, attention, and adherence from patients to achieve successful outcomes. Given the unique characteristics of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) Veterans who have experienced blast-related injuries and other trauma, CBT-I for these patients may require modification, including alternative delivery methods, to ensure effective implementation and positive outcomes. We interviewed 18 OIF/OEF Veterans who screened positive for mild traumatic brain injury and 19 healthcare providers to determine the acceptability of insomnia treatments and preferences for the interventions and treatment delivery. Veterans and providers had distinct preferences for insomnia treatment and its delivery. The treatments the Veterans found most acceptable were also the ones they preferred: relaxation treatment and pharmacotherapy. The providers identified relaxation therapy as the most acceptable treatment. Veterans preferred the individual treatment format as well as electronic methods of treatment delivery. Despite some differences between patients and providers, a compromise through modification of empirically supported behavioral treatments is feasible, and implications for preference-based insomnia intervention development and testing are discussed.
- Haynes, P. L., Ancoli-israel, S., Walter, C. M., Walter, C. M., Mcquaid, J. R., Haynes, P. L., & Ancoli-israel, S. (2012). Preliminary Evidence for a Relationship Between Sleep Disturbance and Global Attributional Style in Depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 36(2), 140-148. doi:10.1007/s10608-011-9416-5More infoWe hypothesized that a negative, stable, and global attributional style would mediate the relationship between sleep continuity and depression. Twenty-three currently depressed and 31 never-depressed participants completed the Attributional Styles Questionnaire and wore an actigraph during the course of 1 week. Linear and logistic regression techniques were used to calculate path coefficients to test the mediating relationship. Results indicated that a global attributional style mediated the relationship between poor sleep continuity (frequency of awakenings), delayed morning waketime, increased total time spent in bed, and depression. Reverse mediation analyses indicated that these relationships may be bidirectional. No effects were found for stable or internal attributions. These results suggest that global attributions may, in part, mediate the relationship between sleep disturbances and depression. They also provide data consistent with the hypothesis that disrupted sleep is associated with learned helplessness. Prospective studies are necessary to test the directionality of these relationships.
- Manber, R., Carney, C., Edinger, J., Epstein, D., Friedman, L., Haynes, P. L., Karlin, B. E., Pigeon, W., Siebern, A. T., & Trockel, M. (2012). Dissemination of CBTI to the non-sleep specialist: protocol development and training issues. Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 8(2), 209-18.More infoStrong evidence supports the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI). A significant barrier to wide dissemination of CBTI is the lack of qualified practitioners. We describe challenges and decisions made when developing a CBTI dissemination program in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The program targets mental health clinicians from different disciplines (psychiatry, psychology, social work, and nursing) with varying familiarity and experience with general principles of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT). We explain the scope of training (how much to teach about the science of sleep, comorbid sleep disorders, other medical and mental health comorbidities, and hypnotic-dependent insomnia), discuss adaptation of CBTI to address the unique challenges posed by comorbid insomnia, and describe decisions made about the strategy of training (principles, structure and materials developed/recommended). Among these decisions is the question of how to balance the structure and flexibility of the treatment protocol. We developed a case conceptualization-driven approach and provide a general session-by-session outline. Training licensed therapists who already have many professional obligations required that the training be completed in a relatively short time with minimal disruptions to training participants' routine work responsibilities. These "real-life" constraints shaped the development of this competency-based, yet pragmatic training program. We conclude with a description of preliminary lessons learned from the initial wave of training and propose future directions for research and dissemination.
- Haynes, P. L., Parthasarathy, S., Bootzin, R. R., Parthasarathy, S., Kersh, B., Haynes, P. L., & Bootzin, R. R. (2011). Examination of insomnia and insomnia treatment in psychiatric inpatients.. International journal of mental health nursing, 20(2), 130-6. doi:10.1111/j.1447-0349.2010.00711.xMore infoDespite the high comorbidity of insomnia with psychiatric illness, few studies have examined insomnia or insomnia treatments in psychiatric inpatients. The present study had two overall goals. First, we sought to describe insomnia symptoms in 76 US veterans hospitalized for a wide-range of psychiatric illnesses. Next, we sought to examine whether participation in one session of group therapy for insomnia was associated with improvement in Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) scores for a subset of these inpatients (n = 19). Data were extracted from the clinical charts of 140 inpatients admitted into the 26-bed psychiatric ward at the New Mexico VA Healthcare System. The majority of the veterans had clinical insomnia in the moderate-to-severe range, and only 18% of the sample reported no clinically-significant insomnia. There was a significant reduction in ISI scores approximately 1 week after attendance at the group therapy session, which appears to be unrelated to the length of hospitalization, but might be related to psychiatric stabilization. This is the first study to examine insomnia symptoms in a mixed, psychiatric inpatient population. Group therapy for insomnia might be a particularly useful treatment option given polypharmacy and substance dependency issues often arising in this population.
- Haynes, P. L., & Epstein, D. R. (2010). The ambivalent sleeper.. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 6(5), 511-512. doi:10.5664/jcsm.27943More infoA 27-year-old, fit male Veteran who had received a prescription for Ambien was seen in sleep clinic, saying “I just can't sleep.” He reported wanting more sleep and also feeling uncomfortable “needing a medication to sleep.” The Veteran initially experienced sleep difficulties in Iraq, when he was prescribed Ambien to facilitate sleep during irregular work schedules. He received another prescription for Ambien when returning stateside one year before his clinic visit. Since that time, he attempted to discontinue use of the medication several times, but he has been unsuccessful. Within the last year, he has been diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which is controlled by medications. He has no other medical diagnoses.
- Haynes, P. L., Bootzin, R. R., Haynes, P. L., & Bootzin, R. R. (2010). Insomnia treatments: moving from efficacy to effectiveness.. Journal of clinical psychology, 66(11), 1131-6. doi:10.1002/jclp.20735More infoThis issue of the Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session focuses on the treatment of insomnia and sleep disturbances in a variety of populations. Over the past decade, there has been an increased recognition of the importance of sleep to health and well-being. Despite this recognition, there continues to be a shortage of practitioners with experience in insomnia therapies. In this article, the authors identify and refute commonly held myths that might hinder the treatment of sleep problems. They conclude by introducing the seven articles that constitute this special issue.
- Haynes, P. L., Bootzin, R. R., Haynes, P. L., Fridel, K. W., Britton, W. B., & Bootzin, R. R. (2010). Polysomnographic and subjective profiles of sleep continuity before and after mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in partially remitted depression.. Psychosomatic medicine, 72(6), 539-48. doi:10.1097/psy.0b013e3181dc1badMore infoTo examine whether mindfulness meditation (MM) was associated with changes in objectively measured polysomnographic (PSG) sleep profiles and to relate changes in PSG sleep to subjectively reported changes in sleep and depression within the context of a randomized controlled trial. Previous studies have indicated that mindfulness and other forms of meditation training are associated with improvements in sleep quality. However, none of these studies used objective PSG sleep recordings within longitudinal randomized controlled trials of naïve subjects..Twenty-six individuals with partially remitted depression were randomized into an 8-week Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) course or a waitlist control condition. Pre-post measurements included PSG sleep studies and subjectively reported sleep and depression symptoms..According to PSG sleep, MM practice was associated with several indices of increased cortical arousal, including more awakenings and stage 1 sleep and less slow-wave sleep relative to controls, in proportion to amount of MM practice. According to sleep diaries, subjectively reported sleep improved post MBCT but not above and beyond controls. Beck Depression Inventory scores decreased more in the MBCT group than controls. Improvements in depression were associated with increased subjective sleep continuity and increased PSG arousal..MM is associated with increases in objectively measured arousal during sleep with simultaneous improvements in subjectively reported sleep quality and mood disturbance. This pattern is similar to the profiles of positive responders to common antidepressant medications.
- Romero, E., Krakow, B., Ulibarri, V. A., & Haynes, P. L. (2010). Nocturia and snoring: predictive symptoms for obstructive sleep apnea.. Sleep & breathing = Schlaf & Atmung, 14(4), 337-43. doi:10.1007/s11325-009-0310-2More infoCurrent screening for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) emphasizes self-reported snoring and other breathing symptoms. Nocturia, a symptom with a precise pathophysiological link to sleep apnea, has not been assessed as a screening tool for this common disorder of sleep respiration. In a large sample of adults presenting to area sleep centers, we aimed to determine the predictive power of nocturia for OSA and compare findings with other markers of OSA commonly used to screen for this disease..This was a retrospective chart review. A consecutive sample of 1,007 adult patients seeking treatment at two sleep centers in New Mexico completed detailed medical and sleep history questionnaires and completed diagnostic polysomnography testing. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of nocturia, snoring, high body mass index, sex, and age for OSA were determined. Hierarchical linear regression determined unique variance contribution to the apnea-hypopnea index, the objective measure of sleep apnea severity..The results are as follows: sensitivities--snoring, 82.6% and nocturia, 84.8%; specificities--snoring, 43.0% and nocturia, 22.4%; PPVs--snoring, 84.7% and nocturia, 80.6%; and NPVs--snoring, 39.6% and nocturia, 27.9%. With hierarchical linear regression, patient-reported nocturia frequency predicted apnea-hypopnea index (OSA severity) above and beyond body mass index, sex, age, and self-reported snoring (P
- Haynes, P. L. (2009). Is CBT-I Effective for Pain?. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 5(4), 363-364. doi:10.5664/jcsm.27548More infoIn 2006, the American Academy of Sleep Medicine Standards of Practice Committee1 issued a call for more research studies on the behavioral treatment of insomnia to examine whether sleep intervention leads to an improvement in insomnia comorbid with other medical or psychiatric conditions. The study by Vitiello and colleagues is a significant contribution to this effort by demonstrating the sustained effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) for sleep in patients with osteoarthritis. Vitiello et al.2 found medium effects for changes in sleep-onset and sleep-continuity measures 1 year after the conclusion of CBT-I. This is one of the longest follow-up time periods employed in a study using state-of-the-art sleep assessments to examine the effect of CBT-I in patients with pain and insomnia.
- Krakow, B., Melendrez, D., Kikta, S., Togami, L., Ulibarri, V. A., & Haynes, P. L. (2008). A Daytime, Abbreviated Cardio-Respiratory Sleep Study (CPT 95807–52) To Acclimate Insomnia Patients with Sleep Disordered Breathing to Positive Airway Pressure (PAP-NAP). Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 4(3), 212-222. doi:10.5664/jcsm.27183More infoResearch on adherence to positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy machines (e.g. CPAP, bilevel) for the treatment of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) consistently demonstrates “more is better.”1 More hands-on or group education,2–4 clinical follow-up,5 sleep technologist/technician coaching,6 telephone calls,7 objective data monitoring,8 and repeat polysomnography (PSG)1 all serve useful purposes in engaging sleep disordered breathing patients to maintain regular use of PAP therapy devices. According to Haynes,6 these encounters are delivered with the greatest efficacy by behavioral sleep medicine (BSM) specialists, generally a group of physicians and psychologists with specialized training in cognitive-behavioral therapies directed at sleep problems. In addition, many sleep technologists (registered) and technicians (nonregistered) routinely provide services to patients during PSG tests or in “CPAP clinics.” These clinics are supervised usually by a physician or psychologist (nurses, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants may also participate),9 and sleep techs coach patients through a series of adjustments to find more comfortable masks to tolerate PAP, and to sort out complaints arising from this unusual form of physiological treatment.6 Unfortunately, BSM specialists are in short supply, and no Evaluation & Management CPT codes exist to reimburse sleep centers or sleep labs for the time spent by sleep techs to coach patients at CPAP clinics.10 In our discussions with other sleep medicine colleagues, we sense two important issues affect CPAP clinics: (1) many sleep centers or labs operate CPAP clinics without receiving any reimbursement; (2) resource use in these clinics varies based on the need to balance available time to enhance patient care with the lack of reimbursement. In our patient population at Maimonides Sleep Arts & Sciences, Ltd. and in our collaboration with the Los Alamos Medical Center Sleep Laboratory, we specialize in the treatment of patients with the combination of mental health disorders, comorbid insomnia, and SDB.11 Although the literature on barriers to PAP therapy use among more complex SDB patients shows mixed findings,6,12–17 we note that these patients require extensive encounters to learn to tolerate PAP therapy devices. In particular, comorbid conditions such as insomnia, nightmares, anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic attacks, and claustrophobia may interfere with the adaptation process and prevent long-term adherence to PAP therapy.6,14–18 In 2004, we expressed concerns about these complex patients to regional Medicare officials in order to develop more efficient treatment strategies. As these patients require repeated clinical encounters and extensive sleep tech coaching time, we raised questions about how such encounters might be more efficiently organized as a reimbursable procedure. The resulting discussions led us to develop a daytime procedure, combining hands-on coaching (delivered by sleep techs under the supervision of a physician) with the physiological experience of positive airway pressure therapy, which we call the PAP-NAP. The current report describes the PAP-NAP, which utilizes existing CPT codes (CPT 95807–52; the modifier indicating a shorter study period) for reimbursement. The CPT 95807 procedure has previously been described as a tool to enhance PAP therapy compliance.19 The PAP-NAP was developed during a 6-month period and tested another 18 months in conjunction with discussions with Medicare staff and medical directors. This report describes the first 39 patients completing PAP-NAPs, all of whom suffered from insomnia, psychiatric disorders or symptoms, and SDB, who also manifested resistance to PAP therapy. We compared their results with a group of historical controls, who showed similar characteristics to our treated sample and who were drawn from our pool of patients from both centers prior to the inception of the PAP-NAP procedure. We hypothesized the procedure would produce 5 outcomes: The vast majority of those completing the PAP-NAP compared to the historical control group would gain sufficient confidence to complete a subsequent titration study. Between the two groups, a larger proportion of PAP-NAP participants than controls would agree to fill their prescription for PAP therapy and attempt home use of the device. The PAP-NAP group would demonstrate a much larger proportion of patients than controls regularly using PAP therapy. Adherence (as defined per standards in the field1,20–22) to PAP therapy would equal or exceed 50% of those tested in the PAP-NAP group, compared with a much lower proportion of patients in the control group. The PAP-NAP, utilizing CPT code 95807–52 as an abbreviated study, would be a reimbursable procedure.
- Bootzin, R. R., Haynes, P. L., Stevens, S. J., Ruiz, B. S., Haynes, P. L., Cousins, J. C., & Bootzin, R. R. (2007). Parental involvement, psychological distress, and sleep: a preliminary examination in sleep-disturbed adolescents with a history of substance abuse.. Journal of family psychology : JFP : journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43), 21(1), 104-13. doi:10.1037/0893-318.104.22.168More infoThe relationships between family environment and psychological distress and between psychological distress and sleep disturbance in adolescents are well established. However, less is known about the influence of family environment on sleep disturbance. The authors' goal is to examine the effects of parental involvement on psychological distress and sleep disturbance in 34 adolescents with a history of substance abuse. Linear regression techniques and confidence intervals were used to test the significance of mediation analyses. Lower levels of parental involvement were associated with higher levels of psychological distress, and higher levels of psychological distress were associated with lower sleep efficiency and more time spent in bed. Follow-up analyses found that higher levels of parental involvement were associated with earlier morning arising times, when controlling for psychological distress. These data indicate that psychological distress is important to consider when examining the relationship between parental involvement and sleep in adolescents.
- Haynes, P. L., Bootzin, R. R., Stevens, S. J., Ruiz, B. S., Haynes, P. L., & Bootzin, R. R. (2007). Effects of a behavioral sleep medicine intervention on trauma symptoms in adolescents recently treated for substance abuse.. Substance abuse, 28(2), 21-31. doi:10.1300/j465v28n02_04More infoThis study tested whether improvement in sleep by an integrative, behavioral sleep intervention was associated with improvement in traumatic stress (TS) symptoms in a sample of 20 adolescents who were recently treated for substance abuse. Sleep was measured throughout the intervention via daily sleep diaries, and traumatic stress symptoms were assessed by the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN) at baseline, post-intervention, 3-months post-intervention, and 12-months post-intervention. Individuals with more time in bed and more total sleep time at the beginning of the intervention had more improvement in TS symptom trajectories across the intervention and at the 12-month follow-up assessment. Interaction trends also emerged indicating that adolescents who, throughout the sleep intervention, went to bed later and fell asleep faster had greater improvements in TS symptoms over time. Overall, these results indicate that stimulus control, a therapy that encourages patients to attempt sleep only when they are sleepy, may be particularly helpful for adolescents with TS symptoms, sleep disturbances, and substance abuse histories.
- Haynes, P. L., Ancoli-israel, S., Mcquaid, J. R., Martin, J. L., Haynes, P. L., & Ancoli-israel, S. (2006). Disrupting life events and the sleep-wake cycle in depression.. Psychological medicine, 36(10), 1363-73. doi:10.1017/s0033291706008208More infoSocial rhythm disruption life events are significant predictors of mood relapse in bipolar patients. However, no research has examined the relationship between these events and their hypothesized mechanism of action: disrupted sleep-wake patterns. The goal of this study was to test whether participants with major depressive disorder have a greater disruption of daily sleep and motor activity following disrupting life events when compared to normal controls..Over the course of 2 weeks, 39 normal controls and 39 individuals with major depressive disorder completed life events interviews and wore actigraphs to obtain estimates of sleep/wake activity..Statistically significant interactions indicated that the presence of at least one disrupting life event in the previous 4 months correlated with elevations in the amount of time spent awake after sleep onset [beta=0.45, deltaF(1,73)=4.80, p
- Haynes, P. L., Bootzin, R. R., Stevens, S. J., Smith, L. J., Haynes, P. L., Cousins, J., Cameron, M., & Bootzin, R. R. (2006). Sleep and aggression in substance-abusing adolescents: results from an integrative behavioral sleep-treatment pilot program.. Sleep, 29(4), 512-520. doi:10.1093/sleep/29.4.512More infoSTUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine whether change in total sleep time during an integrative, behavioral sleep intervention is associated with aggression. Specifically, we tested whether adolescents who reported experiencing aggressive thoughts or actions after treatment had worse treatment trajectories (e.g., less total sleep time across treatment) than adolescents with no aggressive thoughts or actions after treatment. DESIGN: Nonpharmacologic open trial with 9 weeks of weekly assessment. SETTING: University of Arizona Sleep Research Laboratory PATIENTS OR PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three adolescents recently treated for substance abuse in outpatient community centers. INTERVENTIONS: Six-week integrative, behavioral sleep intervention. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Weekly sleep-summary indexes were calculated from daily sleep diaries and entered as dependent variables in a series of growth-curve analyses. Statistically significant Session x Post-treatment Aggressive Ideation interactions emerged when predicting changes in total sleep time, gamma13 = 9.76 (SE = 4.12), p Language: en
- Parthasarathy, S., Haynes, P. L., Habib, M. P., Quan, S. F., Parthasarathy, S., Haynes, P. L., Habib, M. P., & Budhiraja, R. (2006). A National Survey of the Effect of Sleep Medicine Specialists and American Academy of Sleep Medicine Accreditation on Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 2(2), 133-142. doi:10.5664/jcsm.26506More infoSTUDY OBJECTIVES To study the effect of American Academy of Sleep Medicine accreditation of sleep centers and sleep-medicine certification of physicians on the management of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING National web-based survey. PATIENTS Six hundred thirty-two patients with OSA. INTERVENTIONS None. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS Self-reported data on details of whether patients with OSA were using positive airway pressure (PAP) devices, timeliness of the initiation of PAP therapy, and overall satisfaction of care received from physicians and centers. After adjusting for covariates, lack of accreditation or certification status of providers was independently associated with discontinuation of PAP therapy (odds ratio [OR] 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-3.2; p = .03). Patient education leading to perception of risk associated with OSA (OR 0.5, 95% CI, 0.2-0.9) and medications for nasal congestion (OR 0.3, 95% CI, 0.1-0.8) "protected" against discontinuation of PAP therapy, whereas nasal congestion (OR 1.6, 95% Cl, 1.0-2.4) increased the likelihood for discontinuation of PAP therapy. Certified physicians and accredited centers were more likely to educate their patients and received greater satisfaction ratings than non-certified physicians and nonaccredited centers (p < .05). Time delays in instituting PAP therapy were not influenced by accreditation or certification status, but such delays diminished patient satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS In this web-based survey, accreditation or certification status of sleep centers and physicians was associated with better indexes of clinical management in patients with OSA. Better patient education that fostered risk perception may have been partly responsible for such an association. Prospective studies designed to collect objective data regarding the effect of accreditation or certification status on outcomes in patients with OSA are still needed.
- Haynes, P. L. (2005). The role of behavioral sleep medicine in the assessment and treatment of sleep disordered breathing.. Clinical psychology review, 25(5), 673-705. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2005.04.009More infoWith the dramatic rise in obesity in the United States, comorbid medical issues, such as sleep apnea and other forms of sleep disordered breathing (SDB), are becoming increasingly prevalent. Individuals with SDB have impairments in social, cognitive, and emotional functioning and an overall reduction in quality of life. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the first-line treatment for SDB. CPAP use is associated with improvements in psychosocial functioning when individuals use the machine regularly. Unfortunately, CPAP adherence rates are often low. Patients sometimes discontinue CPAP therapy due to undesirable side effects, such as anxiety, insomnia, and nasal discomfort, or inconvenience. The goal of this review is to highlight the growing role of behavioral sleep medicine in the assessment and treatment of SDB and psychosocial impairments comorbid with SDB. More than any other health specialty, psychologists with behavioral sleep medicine experience are in the best position to treat psychiatric symptoms exacerbated by SDB-related sleep disturbances. Behavioral sleep medicine specialists also possess the expertise to address psychological obstacles to CPAP use. The assimilation of behavioral sleep medicine specialists into sleep clinics is likely to improve the overall quality of care for patients with SDB.
- Haynes, P. L. (2005). Understanding Sleeplessness: Perspectives on Insomnia. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 01(03), 313-314. doi:10.5664/jcsm.26350
- Haynes, P. L., Ancoli-israel, S., Mcquaid, J. R., Haynes, P. L., & Ancoli-israel, S. (2005). Illuminating the impact of habitual behaviors in depression.. Chronobiology international, 22(2), 279-97. doi:10.1081/cbi-200053546More infoResearchers have hypothesized that habitual behaviors are zeitgebers for the circadian clock. However, few studies have examined the relationship between habitual behaviors and light, the strongest zeitgeber. Depression is an ideal model in which to explore this relationship because depression is a disorder associated with disruptions in circadian biological activity, sleep, and social rhythms (or patterns of habitual behaviors). We hypothesized that individuals with fewer habitual behaviors have less average exposure to light from morning rise time to evening bedtime and that a reduction in light exposure increases the likelihood of depression. Thirty-nine depressed and 39 never-depressed participants wore an ambulatory light monitor and completed the Social Rhythm Metric over the course of 2 weeks. Linear and logistic regression techniques were used to calculate regression coefficients, and confidence limits based on the distribution of the product of two normal random variables were computed to test the significance of the mediation effect. Infrequent habitual behaviors were associated with a decrease in average levels of light exposure, and low levels of light increased the likelihood of depression. This mediation effect was partial; the overall number of habitual behaviors had a direct relationship with depression above and beyond the association with light exposure. Longitudinal studies are needed to empirically demonstrate the direction of relationships between each of the variables tested.
- Haynes, P. L. (2004). Insomnia: A Clinical Guide to Assessment and Treatment. Sleep, 27(2), 343-343. doi:10.1093/sleep/27.2.343
- Haynes, P. L., Kelsoe, J. R., Rapaport, M. H., Mcquaid, J. R., Kelsoe, J. R., Haynes, P. L., & Gillin, J. C. (2004). Affective state and EEG sleep profile in response to rapid tryptophan depletion in recently recovered nonmedicated depressed individuals.. Journal of affective disorders, 83(2-3), 253-62. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2004.05.010More infoThe current study examines whether a tryptophan-free amino acid drink (TFD) causes a transient mood relapse in unmedicated patients recently recovered from major depression. TFD is thought to reduce cerebral serotonin, a neurotransmitter implicated in depression. Some studies report that TFD reverses the antidepressant and REM-suppression effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)..Following an average of 10 weeks of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), 13 recovered patients who achieved 50% or greater reduction on the initial Hamilton Rating Scale of Depression (HRSD) underwent a double-blind challenge with the TFD and a control drink. In order to demonstrate the central physiological effects of the TFD on REM sleep in these patients, all night polygraphic sleep recordings were obtained before and after the TFD and control drink..Relative to the control drink, TFD decreased REM latency and plasma concentrations of tryptophan but had no statistically significant effect on mood symptoms as measured by the HRSD, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Profile of Mood States (POMS)..High participant attrition, a physiologically active control drink, physical side effects in response to both drinks, and low statistical power may be methodological considerations that limit interpretation of findings..The failure to find a transient mood relapse after the TFD may suggest that: (a) nonpharmacological recovery from depression does not occur via serotonergic mechanisms, (b) participant variables may be operating, or (c) CBT alters psychological responses to unfavorable biological states.
- Krakow, B., Haynes, P. L., Warner, T. D., Melendrez, D., Johnston, L., Hollifield, M., Sisley, B. N., Shafer, L., Santana, E. M., & Koss, M. P. (2004). Nightmares, insomnia, and sleep-disordered breathing in fire evacuees seeking treatment for posttraumatic sleep disturbance.. Journal of traumatic stress, 17(3), 257-68. doi:10.1023/b:jots.0000029269.29098.67More infoEight months after the Cerro Grande Fire, 78 evacuees seeking treatment for posttraumatic sleep disturbances were assessed for chronic nightmares, psychophysiological insomnia, and sleep-disordered breathing symptoms. Within this sample, 50% of participants were tested objectively for sleep-disordered breathing; 95% of those tested screened positive for sleep-disordered breathing. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that these three sleep disorders accounted for 37% of the variance in posttraumatic stress symptoms, and each sleep disorder was significantly and independently associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms severity. The only systematic variable associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms of avoidance was sleep-disordered breathing. The findings suggest that three common sleep disorders relate to posttraumatic stress symptoms in a more complex manner than explained by the prevailing psychiatric paradigm, which conceptualizes sleep disturbances in PTSD merely as secondary symptoms of psychiatric distress.
- Krakow, B., Melendrez, D., & Haynes, P. L. (2003). Integrating psychosocial and biomedical CPAP adherence models. A commentary on: "Improving CPAP use by patients with the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS)" (HM Engleman & MR Wild).. Sleep medicine reviews, 7(5), 441-4. doi:10.1053/smrv.2002.0288
- Parry, B. L., Haynes, P. L., Parry, B. L., & Haynes, P. L. (1998). Mood disorders and the reproductive cycle: affective disorders during the menopause and premenstrual dysphoric disorder.. Psychopharmacology bulletin, 34(3), 313-8.
- Callovini, L., Gubka, G., Mayer, C., Rojo-wissar, D. M., Glickenstein, D., Thomson, C. A., Quan, S. F., Silva, G. E., & Haynes, P. L. (2021). 086 Sleep midpoint after job loss predicts breakfast skipping patterns. In Sleep, 44.
- Garcia, O., Slavish, D. C., Dietch, J. R., Messman, B., Contractor, A. A., Haynes, P. L., Pruiksma, K. E., Kelly, K., Ruggero, C. J., & Taylor, D. J. (2021). 729 Daily stress and nightmares are bidirectionally associated among nurses. In Sleep, 44.
- Ghani, S., Delgadillo, M., Granados, K., Okuagu, A., Wills, C., Alfonso-miller, P., Buxton, O. M., Patel, S. R., Parthasarathy, S., Haynes, P. L., Molina, P., Seixas, A., Knowlden, A. P., Jean-louis, G., & Grandner, M. A. (2021). 213 Eating Patterns Associated with Sleep Duration, Insomnia, Daytime Sleepiness and Overall Sleep Quality at the US-Mexico Border. In Sleep, 44.
- Haynes, P. L., Apolinar, G., Thomson, C. A., Quan, S. F., Silva, G. E., Kobayashi, U., & Glickenstein, D. A. (2020, June). Social rhythm instability is associated with abdominal adiposity after involuntary job loss.. In Sleep, 43, A397-398.
- Mayer, C. M., Liu, Y., Thomson, C. A., Glickenstein, D. A., & Haynes, P. L. (2020, June). Sleep fragmentation an sleep restriction are associated with increased energy intake among individuals who have involuntarily lost their jobs. In Sleep, 43, A398-399.
- Skobic, I., Howe, G., & Haynes, P. L. (2020, Summer). Insomnia Disorder Predicts Stressful Life Events in Individuals who have Recently Experienced Involuntary Job Loss. In Sleep, 43 (Abstract Supplement), A212.
- Bautista, J. R., Mcmorrow, T. E., Silva, G. E., Haynes, P. L., Bell, M. L., & Quan, S. F. (2019). 0484 Individuals with Obstructive Sleep Apnea have Higher Likelihood of Multiple Involuntary, Job Losses. In Sleep, 42, A194-A194.
- Haynes, P. L., Rojo-Wissar, D. M., Thomson, C. A., Mayer, C., Silva Torres, G. E., Glickenstein, D. A., & Skulas-Ray, A. C. (2019, June). Longer Sleep Duration Precedes Greater Water Intake at Breakfast. In Sleep, 42, A72.
- Skobic, I., Apolinar, G. R., Quan, S. F., Welty, C. W., & Haynes, P. L. (2019, Spring). Prevalence of Marijuana Use Versus Evidence Based Treatments for Sleep and Relaxation. In Sleep, 42, A144.
- Perkins, S., Wakschal, E., Gehrman, P. R., Kelly, M. R., Haynes, P. L., & Boland, E. M. (2018). 0934 Social Rhythm Regularity Mediates The Relationship Between Depression And Nightmares In Individuals With Post-traumatic Stress Disorder And Major Depression. In Sleep, 41, A346-A347.
- Wakschal, E., Boland, E., Gehrman, P., & Haynes, P. L. (2018, June). The Role of PTSD and Major Depressive Symptoms in Nightmare Frequency and Distress. In Sleep, 41, A347.
- Dawson, S. C., Hafezi, A., Goldstein, M. R., Haynes, P. L., & Allen, J. J. (2017, June). Memory for nocturnal awakening: time course and autonomic arousal. In Sleep.More infoDawson, S. C., Hafezi, A. N., Goldstein, M. R., Haynes, P. L., & Allen, J. (2017, June). Memory for Nocturnal Awakenings: Time Course and Autonomic Arousal. Sleep, 40 (Abstract Supplement), A295.
- Gengler, D., Rojo-Wissar, D., Havens, C., Valente, E., & Haynes, P. L. (2017, June). Weekly MET Minutes Spent Exercising is Associated with Reduced Sleep Onset in Individuals who are Involuntarily Unemployed. In Sleep, 40, A71.
- Grandner, M., Ruiz, J., Patel, S., Buxton, O., Ingram, M., Haynes, P. L., & Parthasarathy, S. (2017, June). Acculturation Associated with Sleep Duration, Insomnia, and Sleep Quality at the US-Mexico Border. In Sleep, 40, A310.More infoSubmitted version authors: Granados, K., Okuagu, A., Buxton, O., Patel, S., Ruiz, J., Parthasarathy, S., Haynes, P., Alfonso-Miller, P.., Molina, P., Seixas, A., Williams, N., Jean-Louis, G., Gehrels, J., Grandner, M. A.
- Haynes, P. L., Brookshier, A., Kelly, M., & Howe, G. (2017, June). Unemployed Individuals Reporting Hindrance-Related Work Stress at Previous Job Have Increased Likelihood of Insomnia Disorder. In Sleep, 40, A153.
- Okuagu, A., Granados, K., Alfonso-Miller, P., Buxton, O., Patel, S., Ruiz, J., Parthasarathy, S., Haynes, P. L., Molina, P., Seixas, A., Williams, N., Girardin, J. L., Gehrels, J., & Grandner, M. (2017, June). Born in the USA or Born in Mexico? Implications for Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality, Sleep Disorders Symptoms at the US-Mexico Border. In Sleep, 40, A309.
- Rojo-Wissar, D., Moore, V. K., & Haynes, P. L. (2017, June). Reports of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Parasomnia Related Events and Behaviors in Involuntarily Unemployed Adults. In Sleep, 40, A272.
- Silva Torres, G. E., Rojo-Wissar, D., Quan, S. F., & Haynes, P. L. (2017, June). Sensitivity and Specificity of the Duke Structured Interview for Sleep Disorders to Assess Sleep Disordered Breathing. In Sleep, 40, A180.
- Sullivan, A. W., Rojo-Wissar, D., Davidson, R., Beck, C. J., & Haynes, P. L. (2017, June). Adverse Childhood Experiences Predict Poor Sleep Diary Measured Outcomes in College Undergraduates. In Sleep, 40, A67.
- Dawson, S., Goldstein, M. R., Hafezi, A., Haynes, P. L., & Allen, J. J. (2016, June). Memory, arousal, and perception of sleep. In Sleep, 39, A180.
- Gengler, D., Scheller, V., Rojo-Wissar, D., & Haynes, P. L. (2016, June). An examination of relationship quality and sleep in veterans with PTSD and their bed partners. In Sleep, 39, A285.
- Hafezi, A., Dawson, S., Goldstein, M. R., Haynes, P. L., & Allen, J. J. (2016, June). Sleep reactivity predicts parasympathetic tone during return sleep after mid-night awakening. In Sleep, 39, A183.
- Haynes, P. L., Epstein, D., Parthasarathy, S., Emert, S., Kelly, M., Perkins, S., & Wilcox, J. (2016, June). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is Associated with Negligible Change in Daily Sleep Diary Variables. In Sleep, 39.
- Haynes, P. L., Medici, K., Grandner, M., & Burgess, J. L. (2016, June). Ambient Light Exposure is Positively Associated with Calmness in Mental Health Care Providers. In Sleep, 39, A53.
- Kelly, M., Haynes, P. L., Parthasarathy, S., Bootzin, R. R., & Perkins, S. (2016, June). Negative Mood Regulation Expectancies and Trauma Symptoms Following a Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Social Rhythm Group Therapy for Male Veterans with PTSD, Major Depressive Disorder, and Sleep Problems. In Sleep, 39, A299.
- Rojo-Wissar, D. M., Davidson, R. D., Kobayashi, U. S., VanBlargan, A., Beck, C. J., & Haynes, P. L. (2015, Winter). Sleep Quality Partially Mediates the Relationship between ACEs and Perceived Health in College Freshman. In Sleep, 39, A74.
- Rojo-Wissar, D. M., Davidson, R. D., Kobayashi, U. S., VanBlargan, A., Beck, C. J., & Haynes, P. L. (2016, Spring). Sleep Quality Partially Mediates the Relationship between ACEs and Perceived Health in College Freshman. In Sleep, 39, A74.
- Unbin Rhee, J., Haynes, P. L., Chakravorty, S., Patterson, F., Killgore, W. D., Gallagher, R. A., Carrazco, N., Alfonso-Miller, P., Gehrels, J., & Grandner, M. (2015, Winter). Susceptibility to smoking during the day and its relationship with insomnia and sleep duration. In Sleep.
- Unbin Rhee, J., Haynes, P. L., Chakravorty, S., Patterson, F., Killgore, W. D., Gallagher, R. A., Carrazco, N., Alfonso-Miller, P., Gehrels, J., & Grandner, M. (2016, June). Susceptibility to smoking during the day and its relationship with insomnia and sleep duration. In Sleep, 39, A189.
- Haynes, P. L., Epstein, D., Emert, S., Parthasarathy, S., & Wilcox, J. (2015, June). Determinants of Positive Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Examining Sleep Disordered Breathing and Other Patient and Clinical Characteristics.. In Sleep, 38 (Abstract Supplement), A335.
- Kelly, M. R., Emert, S., Epstein, D., Parthasarathy, S., Wilcox, J., & Haynes, P. L. (2015, June). Sleep Onset Latency as a Proxy of Insomnia Severity in the Characterization of Veteran’s Positive PTSD Psychotherapy Outcomes.. In Sleep, 38 (Abstract Supplement), A336.
- Rojo-Wissar, D. M., Beck, C. J., Kaplan, T. F., Bootzin, R. R., & Haynes, P. L. (2015, June). Higher Retrospectively Reported Maternal Care is Associated with Better Sleep Quality and Less Anxiety in Young Adults.. In Sleep, 38 (Abstract Supplement), A18.
- Rojo-Wissar, D. M., Beck, C. J., Kaplan, T. F., Bootzin, R. R., & Haynes, P. L. (2016, June). Depression mediates the relationship between parental bonding and sleep disturbance in college freshman.. In Sleep.
- Haynes, P. L. (2019, Spring). Assessing Daily Activity Patterns through Occupation Transitions (ADAPT): Preliminary Findings. Turbeville Speaker Series, Frances McClelland Institute, University of Arizona. University of Arizona: Frances McClelland Institute.
- Haynes, P. L. (2019, Spring). Why Sleep is Important: Understanding the Stress-Sleep Relationship. Winter Institute, Center for Applied Behavioral Health Policy, Arizona State University. Phoenix, AZ: Arizona State University.
- Haynes, P. L., & Gulotta, J. (2019, Spring). Peer Operational Support Team: An Alternative Model. Winter Institute, Center for Applied Behavioral Health Policy, Arizona State University. Phoenix, AZ: Arizona State University.
- Haynes, P. L., Thomson, C. A., Quan, S. F., Silva Torres, G. E., Glickenstein, D. A., & Butler, E. A. (2019, Spring). Inconsistent Social Rhythms are Associated with Higher Waist Circumference Following Job Loss. Society of Behavioral Medicine annual meeting. Washington D.C.: Society of Behavioral Medicine.
- Crane, T. E., & Haynes, P. L. (2016, April). Sleep in Women with Ovarian Cancer: An introduction to behavioral sleep medicine.. Cancer Prevention and Control Seminar, University of Arizona Cancer Center. Tucson, AZ.
- Haynes, P. L. (2016, January). Chronic Pain and Sleep Disorders. American Academy of Disability Evaluating Physicians annual meeting. Tucson, AZ.
- Haynes, P. L. (2015, January). Recipes for Success: Is Insomnia a Key Ingredient in PTSD Psychotherapy Response?. Grand Rounds. Tucson, AZ: Department of Psychiatry, University of Arizona.
- Haynes, P. L. (2015, March). Psychotherapy for PTSD: Understanding the Evidence. The 2015 Update on Psychiatry: Continuing a Proud 23 Year Tradition Conference. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.
- Haynes, P. L., Hillier, E., Hoang, M., & Welty, C. (2021, November). The relationship between call volume and daily changes in negative emotions in 911 telecommunicators. Work, Stress, & Health conference. virtual: APA, NIOSH.
- Anbar, J., Cutshaw, C. A., Haynes, P. L., Barnett, M. A., Glider, P., Schalewski, L., & Pettygrove, S. D. (2021, May). Use and Intention to Use Mental Health Services Among College Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder.. International Society for Autism Research annual meeting. virtual.
- Skobic, I., Haynes, P. L., Yuan, N. P., Gates, M., & Carvajal, S. C. (2019, November). Stigma and willingness to seek mental health treatment among college students: Exploring potential moderators of a complex association. American Public Health Association 2019 Annual Meeting & Expo. Philadelphia, PA.
- Boland, E. M., Kelly, M., Perkins, S., Goldschmeid, J., Gehrman, P., & Haynes, P. L. (2018, September). Social Rhythm Regularity Moderates the Relationship Between Sleep Disruption and Depressive Symptoms in Individuals with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depression.. 24th Congress of the European Sleep Research Society. Basel, Switzerland: Boland, E. M., Kelly, M., Perkins, S., Goldschmeid, J., Gehrman, P., & Haynes, P. (2018)..
- Nair, U. S., Haynes, P. L., & Collins, B. N. (2017, March). Baseline sleep quality is a significant predictor of quit-day smoking self-efficacy among low-income treatment-seeking smokers. Society of Behavioral Medicine annual meeting. San Diego.
- Quan, S. F., Haynes, P. L., Sherrill, D. L., Silva Torres, G. E., Gengler, D., Glickenstein, D. A., Rojo-Wissar, D., Oliver, R., Nair, U. S., Nair, U. S., Oliver, R., Rojo-Wissar, D., Gengler, D., Glickenstein, D. A., Silva Torres, G. E., Sherrill, D. L., Haynes, P. L., & Quan, S. F. (2017, March). High prevalence of over the counter sleep aid use among individuals who have experienced involuntary job loss. Society of Behavioral Medicine. San Diego, CA.
- Haynes, P. L., Beck, C. J., VanBlargan, A., Kobayashi, U. S., Davidson, R. D., Rojo-Wissar, D. M., Haynes, P. L., Beck, C. J., VanBlargan, A., Kobayashi, U. S., Davidson, R. D., & Rojo-Wissar, D. M. (2015, June). Sleep quality partially mediates the relationship between ACEs and perceived health in college freshman.. Annual Meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies. Denver, Colorado.: Professional Sleep Societies.
- Haynes, P. L., Gehrman, P., Manber, R., & Batdorf, W. (2017, March). Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) in Veterans: A Companion Guide. Washington D.C.: Department of Veteran's Affairs.More infoNote that this is a therapy manual that will be published on the VA sharepoint drive nationally for all VA mental health providers. It will be copy-edited to facilitate printing like a book.