Gregory J Woodhead
- Assistant Professor, Medical Imaging
- Member of the Graduate Faculty
As an Interventional and Thoracic radiologist, I strive for: (1) Excellence in patient care via development of superior procedural skills and clinical imaging, (2) Excellence in teaching for medical student, resident, and fellow education, and (3) Excellence in translational research, in order to drive innovation and implement novel technologies/therapies into clinical practice. Prior to radiology residency and fellowship training, I completed the dual degree M.D., Ph.D. Medical Scientist Training Program at Northwestern University School of Medicine. My Ph.D. research focused on the role of β-catenin signaling in the regulation of cell proliferation during development and tumorigenesis. In collaboration with the Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Arizona, we are working on the development of novel nanoparticle based therapeutics to facilitate targeted tissue thermal ablation and intracellular delivery of chemotherapy. I endeavor to combine my interests in Interventional Radiology, Biomedical Engineering, and Molecular Imaging. In particular, I strive to play an active role in developing novel treatment strategies and potential therapeutics in the field of Interventional Oncology.
- M.D. Sections of Vascular & Interventional Radiology, Thoracic Imaging, and Nuclear Medicine
- UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA COLLEGE OF MEDICINE, DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL IMAGING
- B.A. Elected to Phi Beta Kappa
- STANFORD UNIVERSITY
- Ph.D. Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) M.D., Ph.D.
- PhD Thesis: “β-Catenin-Mediated Signaling & Adhesion Regulate Cortical Progenitor Development.”Awarded NIH Pre-doctoral NRSA Fellowship: “β-Catenin/TCF Signaling in Neural Cell Production & Fate.”
- UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA COLLEGE OF MEDICINE (2016 - Ongoing)
- UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA COLLEGE OF MEDICINE (2016 - Ongoing)
- UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA COLLEGE OF MEDICINE (2016 - Ongoing)
- UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA COLLEGE OF MEDICINE (2016 - Ongoing)
- Best ‘Ethics in Society’ Undergraduate Honors Thesis,” Stanford University
- Summer 1998
- Resident Teaching Award”
- University of Arizona Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Summer 2015
- University of Arizona College of Medicine GME “2014 Resident Excellence and Leadership Scholarship
- University of Arizona College of Medicine GME “2014 Resident Excellence and Leadership Scholarship, Spring 2015
- Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) Introduction to Academic Radiology Program
- RSNA, Summer 2014
- Resident Teaching Award
- Summer 2014
- Morton Heller Award for Exemplary Research” by Northwestern University MSTP
- Summer 2009
- Student Research Highlight” nomination by The Graduate School of Northwestern University
- Spring 2007
- Best Poster Presentation” Northwestern University MSTP Annual Retreat
- Summer 2006
- The Katten Muchin Rosenman Travel Scholarship” Northwestern Center for Genetic Medicine
- Summer 2006
- Best Scientific Presentation” Northwestern University MSTP Annual Retreat
- Fall 2004
Licensure & Certification
- Controlled Substance Certificate (2016)
- Cross Discipline Therapy In- Service (2016)
- Medical License Indiana (1998)
- Arizona State Medical License (2016)
- PLA (2016)
- ACLS Certification (2016)
Novel ablation techniques in Interventional Radiology; Interventions for Thoracic Malignancy; MRI Tissue Characterization following Percutaneous Ablation of Tumors
Real-Time Optical Biopsy for Improved Lung Cancer Diagnosis; Development of a Novel Nano-particle Agents to achieve Micro-anatomical Ablation and Intracellular Delivery of Chemotherapy; Development of Novel High-Payload Tissue Biopsy Device; MRI Tissue Characterization following Percutaneous Ablation of Tumors
Vascular Interventional RadiRADI 850R (Spring 2022)
Vascular Interventional RadiRADI 850R (Fall 2021)
Diagnostic RadiologyRADI 850A (Spring 2021)
Vascular Interventional RadiRADI 850R (Spring 2021)
- Woodhead, G. J. (2019). Tubes, Lines, & Drains” Pocketbook of Clinical IR. A Concise Guide to Interventional Radiology 1st Edition, Thieme
- Karime, C., Wang, J., Woodhead, G., Mody, K., Hennemeyer, C. T., Borad, M. J., Mahadevan, D., Chandana, S. R., & Babiker, H. (2021). Tilsotolimod: an investigational synthetic toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist for the treatment of refractory solid tumors and melanoma. Expert opinion on investigational drugs, 1-13.More infoCancer immunotherapy has seen tremendous strides in the past 15 years, with the introduction of several novel immunotherapeutic agents. Nevertheless, as clinical practice has shown, significant challenges remain with a considerable number of patients responding sub-optimally to available therapeutic options. Research has demonstrated the important immunoregulatory role of the tumor microenvironment (TME), with the potential to either hinder or promote an effective anti-tumor immune response. As such, scientific efforts have focused on investigating novel candidate immunomodulatory agents with the potential to alter the TME toward a more immunopotentiating composition.
- Larson, M., Gmitro, A. F., Utzinger, U., Rouse, A. R., Woodhead, G. J., Carlson, Q., Hennemeyer, C. T., & Barton, J. K. (2021). Using FDA-approved drugs as off-label fluorescent dyes for optical biopsies: from in silico design to ex vivo proof-of-concept. Methods and Applications in Fluorescence.More infoAbstractOptical biopsies bring the microscope to the patient rather than the tissue to the microscope, and may complement or replace the tissue-harvesting component of the traditional biopsy process with its associated risks. In general, optical biopsies are limited by the lack of endogenous tissue contrast and the small number of clinically approved in vivo dyes. This study tests multiple FDA-approved drugs that have structural similarity to research dyes as off-label in situ fluorescent alternatives to standard ex vivo hematoxylin & eosin tissue stain. Numerous drug-dye combinations shown here may facilitate relatively safe and fast in situ or possibly in vivo staining of tissue, enabling real-time optical biopsies and other advanced microscopy technologies, which have implications for the speed and performance of tissue- and cellular-level diagnostics.
- LeComte, M., Woodhead, G., Palacio, D., Khan, A., Avery, R., McGregor, H., & Hennemeyer, C. (2021). Cardiac MRI for Evaluation of Right Heart Function before and after Catheter-directed Therapy in Submassive Pulmonary Embolism: A Prospective Study of Feasibility and Potential Utility. Radiology. Cardiothoracic imaging, 3(6), e210217.More infoCardiac MRI is clinically feasible in the setting of submassive pulmonary embolism and is able to demonstrate measurable differences of right heart function before and after catheter-directed therapy.
- McGregor, H., Brunson, C., Woodhead, G., Khan, A., Hennemeyer, C., & Patel, M. (2021). Quantitative Assessment of the Hemodynamic Effects of Intra-Arterial Nitroglycerin on Hepatocellular Carcinoma using Two-Dimensional Perfusion Angiography. Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR, 32(2), 198-203.More infoTo determine the hemodynamic effects of intra-arterial nitroglycerin on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using 2-dimensional (2D) perfusion angiography.
- McNiel, D., Hennemeyer, C., Woodhead, G., & McGregor, H. (2021). The Reply. The American journal of medicine, 134(11), e566.
- Struycken, L., Patel, M., Kuo, P., Hennemeyer, C., Woodhead, G., & McGregor, H. (2021). Clinical and Dosimetric Implications of Calculating Lung Shunt Fraction for Hepatic Yttrium-90 Radioembolization Using SPECT/CT Versus Planar Scintigraphy. AJR. American journal of roentgenology.More infoAccurate assessment of hepatopulmonary shunting, typically performed by planar scintigraphy, is critical in planning yttrium-90 radioembolization. High lung shunt fractions (LSFs) may alter treatment. To compare LSFs calculated from planar scintigraphy versus SPECT/CT in patients with high planar LSFs (>15%) and to describe potential clinical and dosimetric implications of SPECT/CT LSF calculations. This retrospective study included 36 patients (29 male, 7 female; mean age 62.4±9.8 years) who underwent technetium-99m labeled macroaggregated albumin planar scintigraphy for planning hepatic radioembolization, with planar LSF >15% and concurrent SPECT/CT. Clinically reported planar LSFs were recorded. SPECT/CT LSFs were retrospectively calculated using automatically generated volumetric ROIs around the lungs and liver with subsequent manual adjustments. Total lung and perfused liver doses were calculated using a medical internal radiation dose model. Values derived from planar and SPECT/CT data were compared with Mann-Whitney U tests. Multivariable regression analysis was performed of factors associated with LSF discrepancy between techniques. Mean planar LSF was 25.1%±11.6%; mean SPECT/CT LSF was 16.0%±9.3% (p
- Yu, H., Sonntag, P. D., Bream, P. R., Lazarowicz, M. P., Nowakowski, F. S., Woodhead, G. J., Hennemeyer, C. T., Muller, R. D., Navuluri, R., Caoili, E. M., Eifler, A. C., Tominna, B. S., & Stavas, J. M. (2021). Safety and Feasibility of a Novel Percutaneous Locoregional Injection Technique of Renal Cellular Therapy for Chronic Kidney Disease of Diabetes. Kidney international reports, 6(9), 2486-2490.
- McGregor, H., Brunson, C., Woodhead, G., Patel, M. V., & Hennemeyer, C. (2020). Caudal Migration and Endovascular Retrieval of Two VIATORR CX Stent Grafts during Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Placement. Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR, 31(3), 512-515.
- McGregor, H., Hennemeyer, C., Harms, C., Woodhead, G., & Patel, M. (2020). Stent Graft Reconstruction of the Lymphovenous Junction after Complete Transection of the Cervical Thoracic Duct. Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR, 31(11), 1918-1921.e1.
- McGregor, H., Hill, M., Kuo, P., Woodhead, G., & Patel, M. (2020). Same-Day Repeat Hepatopulmonary Shunt Measurement during Planning Angiography for Hepatic Radioembolization. Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR, 31(7), 1069-1073.More infoThis report describes a technique for measuring lung shunt fraction (LSF) twice in a single session during planning arteriography for radioembolization using low and standard dose technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin (Tc-MAA). A patient with a 16.0 cm hepatocellular carcinoma and LSF of 70% was treated with lenvatinib for 4 weeks. Planning arteriography with administration of 0.5 millicuries of Tc-MAA was then performed. Arterial access was maintained while the LSF was calculated, which was persistently elevated at 54%. Embolization of arteriovenous shunts was performed during the same session and 5.0 millicuries of Tc-MAA were administered. The repeat LSF was 29%. Successful radioembolization was subsequently performed.
- McGregor, H., Woodhead, G., Hennemeyer, C., & Patel, M. (2020). Percutaneous Translumbar Inferior Vena Cava Filter Retrieval. Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR, 31(4), 690-692.
- McGregor, H., Woodhead, G., Patel, M., & Hennemeyer, C. (2020). Thoracic duct stent-graft decompression with 3-month patency: Revisiting a historical treatment option for portal hypertension. Lymphology, 53(2), 81-87.More infoThis report introduces the rationale for thoracic duct stent-graft decompression in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension and provides a case example with 3-month stentgraft patency. Thoracic duct flow and pressure are elevated in cirrhosis. Historically, complications of portal hypertension have been successfully treated with external drainage of the thoracic duct or surgical lymphovenous bypass. A 45-year-old woman with cirrhosis, chronic portosplenomesenteric thrombosis, and acute variceal hemorrhage underwent percutaneous thoracic duct stent-graft placement across the lymphovenous junction. The hemorrhage subsequently resolved and follow up endoscopy demonstrated decompression of the bleeding varices. Venography 40 days later demonstrated a partially patent stent-graft with fibrin sheath formation distally. The stent-graft was extended distally to the right atrium and was fully patent on venography 3 months later. The patient had no further episodes of hemorrhage.
- McGregor, H., Woodhead, G., Patel, M., Khan, A., Hannallah, J., Ruiz, D., Conrad, M., Tang, A., & Hennemeyer, C. (2020). Gallbladder Cryoablation for Chronic Cholecystitis in High-Risk Surgical Patients: 1-Year Clinical Experience with Imaging Follow-up. Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR, 31(5), 801-807.More infoTo assess the short-term safety and efficacy of gallbladder cryoablation in high-risk patients.
- McNiel, D., Hennemeyer, C., Woodhead, G., & McGregor, H. (2020). Gallbladder Cryoablation: A Novel Option for High-Risk Patients with Gallbladder Disease. The American journal of medicine.More infoManagement of high-risk surgical patients with cholecystitis poses a significant clinical problem. These patients are often left with the options of permanent cholecystostomy tube drainage or high-risk surgery. Numerous attempts have been made over the past 4 decades to fulfill the need for a minimally invasive, definitive treatment option for such gallbladder disease. These attempts have largely focused on endoluminal ablation with a variety of sclerosants and have been unable to reliably achieve permanent gallbladder devitalization. The advent of modern percutaneous devices and techniques have provided further opportunity to develop minimally invasive treatment options for high-risk patients. Cryoablation, a thermal ablation modality that induces cell death through tissue freezing, has recently emerged as a promising potential option to treat gallbladder disease. Early studies have demonstrated good technical and clinical success, and a prospective trial is ongoing. This manuscript explains the clinical need for gallbladder cryoablation, briefly revisits historical minimally invasive treatments, describes cryoablation technology and why it is well suited for the gallbladder, and reviews the preclinical and clinical studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of gallbladder cryoablation.
- Oats, S., Hennemeyer, C., Woodhead, G., & McGregor, H. (2020). Pulmonary Aspergilloma Removal Using a Large-Bore Suction Catheter System. Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR, 31(12), 2156-2159.
- Caskey, J. S., Kay, M. D., McMillan, N. A., Kuo, P. H., & Woodhead, G. J. (2019). Miscalculated Lung Shunt Fraction for Planning of Hepatic Radioembolization. Journal of nuclear medicine technology.More infoYttrium-90 radioembolization is a safe and efficacious treatment option for many patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Potential candidates for radioembolization, based on clinical criteria, undergo technetium-99m labeled macroaggregated albumin imaging to determine the extent of hepatopulmonary shunting. Dose selection is based on results from shunt imaging and can exclude patients from radioembolization therapy. We present a case of miscalculated lung shunt fraction and the circumstances that led to the critical error.
- Hennemeyer, C., Khan, A., McGregor, H., Moffett, C., & Woodhead, G. (2019). Outcomes of Catheter-Directed Therapy Plus Anticoagulation Versus Anticoagulation Alone for Submassive and Massive Pulmonary Embolism. The American journal of medicine, 132(2), 240-246.More infoCatheter-directed therapy (CDT) offers an alternative treatment to systemic thrombolysis for patients with massive and submassive pulmonary embolism.
- McGregor, H., Woodhead, G., Conrad, M., Tang, A., Ruiz, D., Khan, A., & Hennemeyer, C. (2019). First in-Human Gallbladder Cryoablation in a Patient with Acute Calculous Cholecystitis Initially Treated with a Cholecystostomy Tube. Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR, 30(8), 1229-1232.More infoA 71-year-old poor surgical candidate with acute calculous cholecystitis was initially managed with cholecystostomy tube drainage for 28 days. He subsequently underwent gallbladder cryoablation under moderate sedation with 3 cryoprobes and 2 separate 10-8-10 freeze-thaw cycles targeting the gallbladder neck/body and fundus followed by cholecystostomy tube removal. He was discharged 1 day after ablation. Magnetic resonance and hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid scan 1 month postablation demonstrated a thick-walled, distended gallbladder and no filling of the cystic duct. Magnetic resonance 3 months postablation demonstrated retraction of the gallbladder wall with luminal collapse. The patient denied any pain after discharge and is asymptomatic 3 months after ablation.
- Palmer, J., Hennemeyer, C. T., Woodhead, G. J., Patel, M. V., Ruiz, D., & McGregor, H. C. (2019). Intravascular Deployment of an Angio-Seal Device with Successful Endovascular Snare Retrieval. Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR, 30(10), 1703-1706.
- Woodhead, G. J., Avery, R. J., & Kuo, P. H. (2017). Atlas of Extraosseous Findings Detected by 18F-NaF PET/CT Bone Scan. Clinical nuclear medicine, 42(12), 930-938.More infoF-NaF PET/CT is an evolving technique that provides high sensitivity for detection of osseous metastases. In addition to detecting pathological osseous lesions, F uptake is occasionally detected in extraosseous lesions. However, reporting of extraosseous uptake in the literature is limited, and the increasing use of F-NaF PET/CT dictates that interpreting physicians learn to recognize extraosseous findings. An atlas of extraosseous findings detected by F-NaF PET/CT is presented, which includes cases under 2 broad categories: nonneoplastic and neoplastic.
- Woodhead, G., Devis, P., Jindal, R., Kalb, B., & Hennemeyer, C. (2014). Systematic MRI Characterization of Tissue Outcomes Following Irreversible Electroporation of Hepatic Tumors. Society of Interventional Radiology.
- Zhang, J., Woodhead, G. J., Swaminathan, S. K., Noles, S. R., McQuinn, E. R., Pisarek, A. J., Stocker, A. M., Mutch, C. A., Funatsu, N., & Chenn, A. (2010). Cortical neural precursors inhibit their own differentiation via N-cadherin maintenance of beta-catenin signaling. Developmental cell, 18(3), 472-9.More infoLittle is known about the architecture of cellular microenvironments that support stem and precursor cells during tissue development. Although adult stem cell niches are organized by specialized supporting cells, in the developing cerebral cortex, neural stem/precursor cells reside in a neurogenic niche lacking distinct supporting cells. Here, we find that neural precursors themselves comprise the niche and regulate their own development. Precursor-precursor contact regulates beta-catenin signaling and cell fate. In vivo knockdown of N-cadherin reduces beta-catenin signaling, migration from the niche, and neuronal differentiation in vivo. N-cadherin engagement activates beta-catenin signaling via Akt, suggesting a mechanism through which cells in tissues can regulate their development. These results suggest that neural precursor cell interactions can generate a self-supportive niche to regulate their own number.
- Woodhead, G. J., Mutch, C. A., Olson, E. C., & Chenn, A. (2006). Cell-autonomous beta-catenin signaling regulates cortical precursor proliferation. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 26(48), 12620-30.More infoOverexpression of beta-catenin, a protein that functions in both cell adhesion and signaling, causes expansion of the cerebral cortical precursor population and cortical surface area enlargement. Here, we find that focal elimination of beta-catenin from cortical neural precursors in vivo causes premature neuronal differentiation. Precursors within the cerebral cortical ventricular zone exhibit robust beta-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation, which is downregulated as cells exit the ventricular zone. Targeted inhibition of beta-catenin signaling during embryonic development causes cortical precursor cells to prematurely exit the cell cycle, differentiate into neurons, and migrate to the cortical plate. These results show that beta-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation functions in the decision of cortical ventricular zone precursors to proliferate or differentiate during development, and suggest that the cell-autonomous signaling activity of beta-catenin can control the production of cortical neurons and thus regulate cerebral cortical size.
- Woodhead, G. (2015, Summer). Systematic MRI Characterization of Outcomes Following IRE of Hepatic Tumors. Society of Interventional Radiology.
- Woodhead, G. (2014, Summer). How We Do It: MRI Analysis of Tissue Imaging Outcomes Following Percutaneous Ablation of Hepatic Tumors. Radiological Society of North America. Chicago, IL.
- Woodhead, G. (2014, Spring). Systematic MRI Characterization of Outcomes Following IRE of Hepatic Tumors. Society of Interventional Radiology. San Diego, CA.
- Woodhead, G. (2013, Spring). Extraosseous Findings and Mechanisms of Uptake in NaF-18 PET/CT. American Roentgen Ray Society. Washington, DC.
- Woodhead, G., Costello, J., & Unger, E. (2016, Summer). Reversal of Tumor Hypoxia following Intravenous Delivery of Nano-Droplet DDFP, a Novel Oxygen-Transport Agent: Fiber-Optic Oxygen Probe Measurement and MRI Characterization.
- Costello, J., Sharma, P., Kalb, B., Arif Tiwari, H., Petkovska, I., Czeyda-Pommersheim, F., & Woodhead, G. (2015, Spring). Magnetic Resonance Angiography of the Lower Extremity Arterial Vasculature.”.
- Woodhead, G., Kalb, B., Devis, P., Jindal, R., & Hennemeyer, c. (2015, Summer). Systematic MRI Characterization of Tissue Outcomes Following Irreversible Electroporation of Hepatic Tumors.