Heidi E Brown
- Associate Professor, Public Health
- Associate Professor, Geography/Regional Devel
- Associate Professor, Entomology / Insect Science - GIDP
- Associate Professor, Remote Sensing / Spatial Analysis - GIDP
- Member of the Graduate Faculty
- M.Phil. Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases
- Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut
- Ph.D. Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases
- Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut
- Into the Environment of Mosquito-Borne Disease: Spatial Analysis of Vector Distribution Using Traditional and Remotely Sensed Methods
- MPH International Health Promotion
- George Washington University, Washington, D.C.
- Rabies in Fairfax County, VA, USA
- Fulbright-CAPES Award
- Fulbright Commission, the Council for International Exchange of Scholars (CIES), Summer 2019
- College Teaching Award
- UA, Spring 2018
- Chikungunya Challenge
- DARPA/Innocentive, Spring 2015
No activities entered.
Master's ReportEPID 909 (Fall 2021)
Intro to Mapping for Pub HlthHPS 401 (Summer I 2021)
Master's ReportEPID 909 (Summer I 2021)
Health Data Analy Comm MethodsBIOS 452 (Spring 2021)
Health Data Analy Comm MethodsEPID 452 (Spring 2021)
Independent StudyEPID 699 (Spring 2021)
Intro to EpidemiologyEPID 309 (Spring 2021)
Master's ReportEPID 909 (Spring 2021)
PreceptorshipEPID 491 (Spring 2021)
Spatial EpidemiologyEPID 676 (Spring 2021)
Honors ThesisEPID 498H (Fall 2020)
Intro to EpidemiologyEPID 309 (Fall 2020)
Master's ReportEPID 909 (Fall 2020)
Independent StudyEPID 699 (Summer I 2020)
Intro to EpidemiologyEPID 309 (Summer I 2020)
Master's ReportEPID 909 (Summer I 2020)
PreceptorshipEPID 491 (Summer I 2020)
ThesisEHS 910 (Summer I 2020)
Health Data Analy Comm MethodsBIOS 452 (Spring 2020)
Health Data Analy Comm MethodsEPID 452 (Spring 2020)
Honors ThesisEPID 498H (Spring 2020)
Honors ThesisPSIO 498H (Spring 2020)
Independent StudyEPID 699 (Spring 2020)
Intro to EpidemiologyEPID 309 (Spring 2020)
Master's ReportEPID 909 (Spring 2020)
PreceptorshipEPID 491 (Spring 2020)
ThesisEPID 910 (Spring 2020)
Honors Independent StudyEPID 399H (Fall 2019)
Honors ThesisEPID 498H (Fall 2019)
Honors ThesisPSIO 498H (Fall 2019)
Master's ReportEPID 909 (Fall 2019)
Master's ReportEPID 909 (Summer I 2019)
Independent StudyEPID 499 (Spring 2019)
Independent StudyEPID 599 (Spring 2019)
Independent StudyEPID 699 (Spring 2019)
Intro to EpidemiologyEPID 309 (Spring 2019)
PreceptorshipEPID 491 (Spring 2019)
Spatial EpidemiologyEPID 676 (Spring 2019)
Independent StudyEPID 599 (Fall 2018)
Intro to EpidemiologyEPID 309 (Fall 2018)
PreceptorshipEPID 491 (Fall 2018)
Intro to EpidemiologyEPID 309 (Spring 2018)
Master's ReportEPID 909 (Spring 2018)
PreceptorshipEPID 491 (Spring 2018)
Independent StudyEPID 699 (Fall 2017)
Master's ReportEPID 909 (Fall 2017)
Intro to EpidemiologyCPH 309 (Spring 2017)
Intro to EpidemiologyEPID 309 (Spring 2017)
Master's ReportCPH 909 (Spring 2017)
PreceptorshipCPH 491 (Spring 2017)
ThesisCPH 910 (Spring 2017)
Independent StudyCPH 499 (Fall 2016)
Master's ReportCPH 909 (Fall 2016)
ThesisCPH 910 (Fall 2016)
Master's ReportCPH 909 (Summer I 2016)
ThesisCPH 910 (Summer I 2016)
Honors ThesisCPH 498H (Spring 2016)
Independent StudyCPH 399 (Spring 2016)
Intro to EpidemiologyCPH 309 (Spring 2016)
Master's ReportCPH 909 (Spring 2016)
PreceptorshipCPH 491 (Spring 2016)
ThesisCPH 910 (Spring 2016)
- Udall, B. H., Middleton, B. R., McAfee, S., Margolis, H. G., Mantua, N. J., Maldonado, J. K., Huntly, N., Gunasekara, A., Elias, E. H., Brooks, K. M., Brown, H. E., Breshears, D. D., Garfin, G. M., & Gonzalez, P. (2018). Southwest. In Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume II(pp 1101–1184). Washington, DC: U.S. Global Change Research Program. doi:doi: 10.7930/NCA4.2018.CH25More infoChapter 25 in the Fourth National Climate Assessment
- Ernst, K. C., Morin, C., & Brown, H. E. (2015). Extreme Weather Events and Vector-borne Diseases. In Public Health in Natural Disasters: Nutrition, Food, Remediation and Preparation. Wageningen Academic Publishers.
- Brown, H. E., Comrie, A. C., Tamerius, J., Khan, M., Tabor, J. A., & Galgiani, J. N. (2014). Climate, wind storms, and the risk of valley fever (coccidioidomycosis). In The Influence of Global Environmental Change on Infectious Disease Dynamics(pp Chapter A12). Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.
- Brown, H. E., Comrie, A. C., Drechsler, D., Barker, C. M., Basu, R., Brown, T., Gershunov, A., Reisen, W. K., & Ruddell, D. (2013). Health Effects of Climate Change in the Southwest. In Assessment of Climate Change in the Southwest United States: a Technical Report Prepared for the U.S. National Climate Assessment.(pp 312-339). Southwest Climate Alliance.More infoReview Editor: English, P. Health Effects of Climate Change in the Southwest. Chapter 15, in: Assessment of Climate Change in the Southwest United States: a Technical Report Prepared for the U.S. National Climate Assessment. A report by the Southwest Climate Alliance [Garfin, G., Jardine, A., Merideth, R., Black, M., and Overpeck, J. (eds.)]. 2013, Tucson, AZ: Southwest Climate Alliance.
- Liverman, D., Moser, S. C., Weiland, P. S., Dilling, L., Boykoff, M. T., Brown, H. E., Gordon, E. S., Greene, C., Holthaus, E., Niemeier, D. A., & others, . (2013). Climate choices for a sustainable Southwest. In Assessment of Climate Change in the Southwest United States(pp 405--435). Island Press/Center for Resource Economics.
- Brown, H. E., & Cox, J. (2021). Brown and Cox Respond to "Epidemiologic Methods in Epidemiology Education". American journal of epidemiology, 190(2), 317.
- Brown, H. E., & Cox, J. (2021). Improving Undergraduate Epidemiology Education: An Example Using Instructional Teams. American journal of epidemiology, 190(2), 305-312.More infoEpidemiology is a core component of the undergraduate public health curriculum and a critical component of a healthy community and a comprehensive education. Evidence-based, collaborative instructional practices improve student success, reach diverse student populations, and improve learning outcomes. Here we describe the pedagogical approach of an instructional team with which we observed an 18% greater learning gain (95% confidence interval: 6.5, 29.5; t = -3.08; P = 0.002), based on pre-/posttesting in a large (approximately 120 students) undergraduate course, than with the prior course offering. There were no differences in DEW rates (defined as receiving a grade of D (scoring 60%-69%) or E (scoring
- Brown, H. E., Sedda, L., Sumner, C., Stefanakos, E., Ruberto, I., & Roach, M. (2021). Understanding Mosquito Surveillance Data for Analytic Efforts: A Case Study. Journal of medical entomology, 58(4), 1619-1625.More infoMosquito surveillance data can be used for predicting mosquito distribution and dynamics as they relate to human disease. Often these data are collected by independent agencies and aggregated to state and national level portals to characterize broad spatial and temporal dynamics. These larger repositories may also share the data for use in mosquito and/or disease prediction and forecasting models. Assumed, but not always confirmed, is consistency of data across agencies. Subtle differences in reporting may be important for development and the eventual interpretation of predictive models. Using mosquito vector surveillance data from Arizona as a case study, we found differences among agencies in how trapping practices were reported. Inconsistencies in reporting may interfere with quantitative comparisons if the user has only cursory familiarity with mosquito surveillance data. Some inconsistencies can be overcome if they are explicit in the metadata while others may yield biased estimates if they are not changed in how data are recorded. Sharing of metadata and collaboration between modelers and vector control agencies is necessary for improving the quality of the estimations. Efforts to improve sharing, displaying, and comparing vector data from multiple agencies are underway, but existing data must be used with caution.
- Bui, D. P., Chandran, S. S., Oren, E., Brown, H. E., Harris, R. B., Knight, G. M., & Grandjean, L. (2021). Community transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is associated with activity space overlap in Lima, Peru. BMC infectious diseases, 21(1), 275.More infoTransmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) requires spatial proximity between infectious cases and susceptible persons. We assess activity space overlap among MDRTB cases and community controls to identify potential areas of transmission.
- Shelly, E. M., Acuna-Soto, R., Ernst, K. C., Sterling, C. R., & Brown, H. E. (2021). A Critical Assessment of Officially Reported Chagas Disease Surveillance Data in Mexico. Public health reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974), 131(1), 59-66.More infoChagas disease, a disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, disproportionately affects poor people throughout Latin America. In Mexico, assessments of officially reported burden have not been previously reported. To evaluate discontinuity between surveillance data and data from other sources, we used data from the Mexican Ministry of Health to describe the distribution of reported Chagas disease over time in Mexico and compare it with estimates from the literature.
- Baum, C., Soliman, A. S., Brown, H. E., Seifeldin, I. A., Ramadan, M., Lott, B., Nguyen, A., El-Ghawalby, A., & Hablas, A. (2020). Regional Variation of Pancreatic Cancer Incidence in the Nile Delta Region of Egypt over a Twelve-Year Period. Journal of cancer epidemiology, 2020, 6031708.More infoPancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest forms of cancer, with incidence rates rising in many countries around the world. Geographic variation in pancreatic cancer incidence has not been studied extensively, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to characterize the distribution of pancreatic cancer incidence in the central Nile Delta region of Egypt and to examine differences by urban and rural patient residence using the nation's only population-based cancer registry.
- Brown, H. E., Roach, M., Keith, L., Owen, G., McMahan, B., Berisha, V., & Austhof, E. (2020). Engaging public health stakeholders in climate and health adaptation. Atmosphere, 11(3), 265. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11030265
- Cook, A., Harris, R., Brown, H. E., & Bedrick, E. (2020). Geospatial characteristics of non-motor vehicle and assault-related trauma events in greater Phoenix, Arizona. Injury epidemiology, 7(1), 34.More infoInjury-causing events are not randomly distributed across a landscape, but how they are associated with the features and characteristics of the places where they occur in Arizona (AZ) remains understudied. Clustering of trauma events and associations with areal sociodemographic characteristics in the greater Phoenix (PHX), AZ region can promote understanding and inform efforts to ameliorate a leading cause of death and disability for Arizonans. The outcomes of interest are trauma events unrelated to motor vehicle crashes (MVC) and the subgroup of trauma events due to interpersonal assaults.
- Lega, J. C., Brown, H. E., & Barrera, R. (2020). A 70 percent reduction in mosquito populations does not require removal of 70 percent of mosquitoes. Journal of Medical Entomology, 57(5), 1668-1670.
- Brown, H. E., Dennis, L. K., Lauro, P., Jain, P., Pelley, E., & Oren, E. (2019). Emerging Evidence for Infectious Causes of Cancer in the United States. Epidemiologic reviews, 41(1), 82-96.More infoWorldwide, infectious agents currently contribute to an estimated 15% of new cancer cases. Most of these (92%, or 2 million new cancer cases) are attributable to 4 infectious agents: Helicobacter pylori, human papillomavirus, and hepatitis B and C viruses. A better understanding of how infectious agents relate to the US cancer burden may assist new diagnostic and treatment efforts. We review US-specific crude mortality rates from infection-associated cancers and describe temporal and spatial trends since 1999. We review the US-specific evidence for infection-cancer associations by reporting available estimates for attributable fractions for the infection-cancer associations. Death due to cancers with established infectious associations varies geographically, but estimates for the US attributable fraction are limited to a few observational studies. To describe the burden of infection-associated cancer in the United States, additional observational studies are necessary to estimate the prevalence of infection nationally and within subpopulations. As infectious associations emerge to explain cancer etiologies, new opportunities and challenges to reducing the burden arise. Improved estimates for the United States would help target interventions to higher-risk subpopulations.
- Dennis, L. K., Brown, H. E., & Farland, L. V. (2019). DSM II Colormeter for measuring skin color: its usefulness and reliability of its measurement of melanin. J Dermatol Cosmet Treat, 1(1), 1-5.
- Florea, A., Brown, H. E., Harris, R. B., & Oren, E. (2019). Ethnic Disparities in Gastric Cancer Presentation and Screening Practice in the United States: Analysis of 1997-2010 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare Data. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 28(4), 659-665.More infoChronic infection with () is the strongest risk factor for distal gastric cancer. Although gastric cancer incidence has decreased, variation by race and ethnicity is observed. This study describes gastric cancer presentation and screening services among Medicare patients by race/ethnicity, place of birth, and history of gastric cancer-related conditions.
- Isoe, J., Koch, L. E., Isoe, Y. E., Rascón, A. A., Brown, H. E., Massani, B. B., & Miesfeld, R. L. (2019). Identification and characterization of a mosquito-specific eggshell organizing factor in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. PLoS Biology, 17(1), e3000068.More infoMosquito-borne diseases are responsible for several million human deaths annually around the world. One approach to controlling mosquito populations is to disrupt molecular processes or antagonize novel metabolic targets required for the production of viable eggs. To this end, we focused our efforts on identifying proteins required for completion of embryonic development that are mosquito selective and represent potential targets for vector control. We performed bioinformatic analyses to identify putative protein-coding sequences that are specific to mosquito genomes. Systematic RNA interference (RNAi) screening of 40 mosquito-specific genes was performed by injecting double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. This experimental approach led to the identification of eggshell organizing factor 1 (EOF1, AAEL012336), which plays an essential role in the formation and melanization of the eggshell. Eggs deposited by EOF1-deficient mosquitoes have nonmelanized fragile eggshells, and all embryos are nonviable. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis identified that exochorionic eggshell structures are strongly affected in EOF1-deficient mosquitoes. EOF1 is a potential novel target, to our knowledge, for exploring the identification and development of mosquito-selective and biosafe small-molecule inhibitors.
- Luz, P., Brown, H. E., & Struchiner, C. (2019). Disgust as an emotional driver of vaccine attitudes and uptake? A mediation analysis. Epidemiology and Infection, 147(e182), 1-8.
- Oren, E., Pelley, E., Purve, J., Lauro, P. L., Dennis, L. K., & Brown, H. E. (2019). Emerging evidence for infectious causes of cancer in the United States.. Epidemiologic Reviews.
- Thompson, C., Saxberg, K., Lega, J. C., Tong, D., & Brown, H. E. (2019). A new gravity model for spatial interaction. Journal of Transport Geography, 79.
- Bui, D. P., Oren, E., Roe, D. J., Brown, H. E., Harris, R. B., Knight, G. M., Gilman, R. H., & Grandjean, L. (2018). A case control study to identify community venues associated with genetically clustered multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis Disease in Lima, Peru. Clinical Infectious Diseases.More infoThe majority of tuberculosis transmission occurs in community settings. The primary aim of this study was to assess the association between exposure to community venues and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) disease. The secondary aim was to describe the social networks of MDR-TB cases and controls.
- Del Valle, S. Y., McMahon, B. H., Asher, J., Hatchett, R., Lega, J. C., Brown, H. E., Leany, M. E., Pantazis, Y., Roberts, D. J., Moore, S., Peterson, A. T., Escobar, L. E., Qiao, H., Hengartner, N. W., & Mukundan, H. (2018). Summary results of the 2014-2015 DARPA Chikungunya challenge. BMC infectious diseases, 18(1), 245.More infoEmerging pathogens such as Zika, chikungunya, Ebola, and dengue viruses are serious threats to national and global health security. Accurate forecasts of emerging epidemics and their severity are critical to minimizing subsequent mortality, morbidity, and economic loss. The recent introduction of chikungunya and Zika virus to the Americas underscores the need for better methods for disease surveillance and forecasting.
- Del Valle, S. Y., McMahon, B. H., Asher, J., Hatchett, R., Lega, J. C., Brown, H. E., Leany, M. E., Pantazis, Y., Roberts, D., Moore, S., Peterson, T., Escobar, L. E., Qiao, H., Hengartner, N. W., & Mukundan, H. (2018). Summary Results of the 2014-2015 DARPA Chikungunya Challenge. BMC Infectious Diseases, 18, 245. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3124-7
- Langston, M. E., Dennis, L. K., Lynch, C. F., Roe, D., & Brown, H. E. (2017). Temporal Trends in Satellite-Derived Erythemal UVB and Implications for Ambient Sun Exposure Assessment. Int J Environ Res Public Health.
- Brown, H. E., Barrera, R., Comrie, A. C., & Lega, J. (2017). Effect of temperature thresholds on modeled Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population dynamics. Journal of Medical Entomology, 54(4), 869-877.More infoDynamic simulation models provide vector abundance estimates using only meteorological data. However, model outcomes may heavily depend on the assumptions used to parameterize them. We conducted a sensitivity analysis for a model of Aedes aegypti (L.) abundance using weather data from two locations where this vector is established, La Margarita, Puerto Rico and Tucson, Arizona. We tested the effect of simplifying temperature-dependent development and mortality rates and of changing development and mortality thresholds as compared with baselines estimated using biophysical models. The simplified development and mortality rates had limited effect on abundance estimates in either location. However, in Tucson, where the vector is established but has not transmitted viruses, a difference of 5 °C resulted in populations either surviving or collapsing in the hot Arizona mid-summer, depending on the temperature thresholds. We find three important implications of the observed sensitivity to temperature thresholds. First, this analysis indicates the need for better estimates of the temperature tolerance thresholds to refine entomologic risk mapping for disease vectors. Second, our results highlight the importance of extreme temperatures on vector survival at the marginal areas of this vector's distribution. Finally, the model suggests that adaptation to warmer temperatures may shift regions of pathogen transmission.
- Brown, H. E., Cox, J., Comrie, A. C., & Barrera, R. (2017). Habitat and Density of Oviposition Opportunity Influences Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Flight Distance. Journal of medical entomology, 54(5), 1385-1389.More infoUnderstanding the dispersal of Aedes (aegypti (L.) Diptera: Culicidae) after consuming a potentially infectious bloodmeal is an important part of controlling the spread of the arboviruses it transmits. Because of the impact on abundance, removal of oviposition sites is a key component of vector control. However, source reduction around a case may encourage dispersal of potentially infected vectors. We compare the effect of oviposition site availability on Ae. aegypti dispersal behavior within 30-m linear cages in three model ecosystems at the University of Arizona's Biosphere 2 research facility. We found a significant interaction effect in which, when oviposition site density was sparse, dispersal was greater in the highly vegetated humid rainforest and limited in the low vegetation, arid desert model ecosystem. When oviposition site density was dense, no significant effect on dispersal was observed. These analyses support the idea that source reduction has an important influence on the distance that gravid, potentially infected, females will travel.
- Driscoll, L. J., Brown, H. E., Harris, R. B., & Oren, E. (2017). Population knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding Helicobacter pylori transmission and outcomes: A Literature Review. Frontiers in Public Health, 5, 144.More infoHelicobacter pylori infection is associated with the development of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Current clinical recommendations are that H. pylori test-and-treat should be individualized based on comorbidities and patient preferences among populations at increased risk for certain morbidities. However, knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding H. pylori among potential patient populations are largely unknown.
- Heidi E, B., Wangshu, M., Mohammed, K., Clarisse, T., Jian, L., & Daoqin, T. (2017). Spatial scale in environmental risk mapping: A Valley fever case study. Journal of Public Health Research, 6(2), 886.More infoValley fever is a fungal infection occurring in desert regions of the U.S. and Central and South America. Environmental risk mapping for this disease is hampered by challenges with detection, case reporting, and diagnostics as well as challenges common to spatial data handling.
- Lega, J., Brown, H. E., & Barrera, R. (2017). Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Abundance Model Improved With Relative Humidity and Precipitation-Driven Egg Hatching. Journal of medical entomology, 54(5), 1375-1384.More infoWe propose an improved Aedes aegypti (L.) abundance model that takes into account the effect of relative humidity (RH) on adult survival, as well as rainfall-triggered egg hatching. The model uses temperature-dependent development rates described in the literature as well as documented estimates for mosquito survival in environments with high RH, and for egg desiccation. We show that combining the two additional components leads to better agreement with surveillance trap data and with dengue incidence reports in various municipalities of Puerto Rico than incorporating either alone or neither. Capitalizing on the positive association between disease incidence and vector abundance, this improved model is therefore useful to estimate incidence of Ae. aegypti-borne diseases in locations where the vector is abundant year-round.
- Luz, P. M., Johnson, R. E., & Brown, H. E. (2017). Workplace availability, risk group and perceived barriers predictive of 2016-17 influenza vaccine uptake in the United States: A cross-sectional study. Vaccine, 35(43), 5890-5896.More infoSeasonal influenza, though mostly self-limited in the healthy adult, may lead to severe disease and/or complications in subpopulations. Annual influenza vaccination is available in many countries with coverage goals rarely being met. We conducted a cross-sectional study of influenza vaccine uptake and explored socio-demographic, economic, and psychological factors that explained vaccine uptake.
- Murakami, T. T., Scranton, R., Brown, H. E., Harris, R. B., Chen, Z., Musuku, S., & Oren, E. (2017). Management of Helicobacter Pylori in the United States: Results from a national survey of gastroenterology physicians. Preventive Medicine, 100, 216-222.More infoWe sought to determine current knowledge and practices among gastroenterology physicians and assess adherence to current guidelines for H. pylori management.
- Brown, H. E., Smith, C., & Lashway, S. (2016). Influence of the length of storage on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) egg viability. Journal of Medical Entomology.More infoAedes aegypti (L.) is one of the most important arboviral vectors worldwide. Vector control is targeted at immature and adult stages; however, eggs are resistant to desiccation and may repopulate treated areas long after treatment ceases. We investigated the effect of age on Ae. aegypti egg hatching rates using newly colonized populations (F2) from an arid region. We found a strongly negative association where older eggs had lower hatch rates. The capacity of eggs to survive for long periods of time has implications on mosquito control. In addition, the accumulation of eggs in containers should be accounted for in abundance modeling efforts where populations may grow rapidly early in the season.
- Bui, D., Brown, H. E., Harris, R. B., & Oren, E. (2016). Serologic Evidence for Fecal-Oral Transmission of Helicobacter pylori. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 94(1), 82-8.More infoHelicobacter pylori infection is among the most prevalent infections in the world and a key cause of gastric diseases; however, its route of transmission remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the potential for fecal-oral transmission of H. pylori by leveraging its association with a disease with known etiology. Utilizing serology data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999; N = 6,347), the association between H. pylori and hepatitis A virus (HAV), a sensitive indicator for fecal-oral exposure, was assessed. Survey-weighted kappa and multiple logistic regression were used to quantify the association between H. pylori and HAV after controlling for age, sex, race, poverty, birthplace, crowding, smoking, and alcohol use. Concordant serological results were found among 69.8% of participants (survey-weighted κ = 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.26, 0.35). The adjusted odds of H. pylori seropositivity were over two times higher after adjusting for confounders (odds ratio = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.79, 2.87). Results from this study suggest H. pylori and HAV infections are strongly associated. Since HAV is primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route, fecal-oral transmission may be an important pathway for H. pylori spread.
- Haenchen, S. D., Hayden, M. H., Dickinson, K. L., Walker, K., Jacobs, E. E., Brown, H. E., Gunn, J. K., Kohler, L. N., & Ernst, K. C. (2016). Mosquito Avoidance Practices and Knowledge of Arboviral Diseases in Cities with Differing Recent History of Disease. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 95(4), 945-953.More infoAs the range of dengue virus (DENV) transmission expands, an understanding of community uptake of prevention and control strategies is needed both in geographic areas where the virus has recently been circulating and in areas with the potential for DENV introduction. Personal protective behaviors such as the use of mosquito repellent to limit human-vector contact and the reduction of vector density through elimination of oviposition sites are the primary control methods for Aedes aegypti, the main vector of DENV. Here, we examined personal mosquito control measures taken by individuals in Key West, FL, in 2012, which had experienced a recent outbreak of DENV, and Tucson, AZ, which has a high potential for introduction but has not yet experienced autochthonous transmission. In both cities, there was a positive association between the numbers of mosquitoes noticed outdoors and the overall number of avoidance behaviors, use of repellent, and removal of standing water. Increased awareness and perceived risk of DENV were associated with increases in one of the most effective household prevention behaviors, removal of standing water, but only in Key West.
- Haenchen, S., Hayden, M., Dickinson, K., Walker, K. R., Jacobs, E. T., Brown, H. E., Gunn, J., Kohler, L., & Ernst, K. C. (2015). Mosquito avoidance practices and knowledge of arboviral diseases in cities with differing recent history of disease. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
- Hansen, V., Oren, E., Dennis, L. K., & Brown, H. E. (2016). Infectious Disease Mortality Trends in the United States, 1980-2014. JAMA, 316(20), 2149-2151.
- Lega, J. C., & Brown, H. E. (2016). Data-driven outbreak forecasting with a simple nonlinear growth model. Epidemics, 17, 19-26. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epidem.2016.10.002More infoRecent events have thrown the spotlight on infectious disease outbreak response. We developed a data-driven method, EpiGro, which can be applied to cumulative case reports to estimate the order of magnitude of the duration, peak and ultimate size of an ongoing outbreak. It is based on a surprisingly simple mathematical property of many epidemiological data sets, does not require knowledge or estimation of disease transmission parameters, is robust to noise and to small data sets, and runs quickly due to its mathematical simplicity. Using data from historic and ongoing epidemics, we present the model. We also provide modeling considerations that justify this approach and discuss its limitations. In the absence of other information or in conjunction with other models, EpiGro may be useful to public health responders.
- Shelly, E. M., Acuna-Soto, R., Ernst, K. C., Sterling, C. R., & Brown, H. E. (2016). A Critical Assessment of Officially Reported Chagas Disease Surveillance Data in Mexico.. Public Health Reports, 131.
- Brown, H. E., Young, A., Lega, J., Andreadis, T. G., Schurich, J., & Comrie, A. (2015). Projection of Climate Change Influences on U.S. West Nile Virus Vectors. Earth Interactions, 19.More infoWhile estimates of the impact of climate change on health are necessary for health care planners and climate change policy makers, models to produce quantitative estimates remain scarce. We describe a freely available dynamic simulation model parameterized for three West Nile virus vectors, which provides an effective tool for studying vector-borne disease risk due to climate change. The Dynamic Mosquito Simulation Model is parameterized with species specific temperature-dependent development and mortality rates. Using downscaled daily weather data, we estimate mosquito population dynamics under current and projected future climate scenarios for multiple locations across the country. Trends in mosquito abundance were variable by location, however, an extension of the vector activity periods, and by extension disease risk, was almost uniformly observed. Importantly, mid-summer decreases in abundance may be off-set by shorter extrinsic incubation periods resulting in a greater proportion of infective mosquitoes. Quantitative descriptions of the effect of temperature on the virus and mosquito are critical to developing models of future disease risk.
- Clark, R., Taylor, A., Garcia, F., Krone, T., & Brown, H. E. (2015). Recognizing the Role of Skunks in Human and Animal Rabies Exposures in the Southwest. Vector borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 15(8), 494-501.More infoRabies is arguably the most important viral zoonotic disease worldwide with an estimated 55,000 human deaths each year. Globally, dogs are the primary animals affected. In the United States, especially on the East Coast, raccoons and bats are the primary reservoir. However, in the southwestern United States, skunk and bat rabies play a large role. We describe the epidemiology and environmental risk factors associated with rabies in the US Southwest using exposure data for 2004-2012 from one Arizona county as a case study. Unlike other parts of the country, here bats and skunks are the most commonly collected positive animals (62% and 32%, respectively). Even though most of the positive animals were bats, human and domestic animal exposures were primarily a result of skunk interactions (58% and 50%, respectively). Consequently, the majority of exposures occur early in the year, January and February, when the majority of skunk pickups also occur. Using public health surveillance data, our study highlights the importance of recognizing the role of skunks in human and animal exposures in the southwestern United States. Consistent with a "One Health" approach, our data show how wildlife and domestic animal and human exposures are associated and informative to one another.
- Nsoesie, E. O., Ricketts, R. P., Brown, H. E., Fish, D., Durham, D. P., Ndeffo Mbah, M. L., Christian, T., Ahmed, S., Marcellin, C., Shelly, E., Owers, K., Wenzel, N., Galvani, A. P., & Brownstein, J. S. (2015). Spatial and temporal clustering of chikungunya virus transmission in Dominica. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 9(8), e0003977.More infoUsing geo-referenced case data, we present spatial and spatio-temporal cluster analyses of the early spread of the 2013-2015 chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in Dominica, an island in the Caribbean. Spatial coordinates of the locations of the first 417 reported cases observed between December 15th, 2013 and March 11th, 2014, were captured using the Global Positioning System (GPS). We observed a preponderance of female cases, which has been reported for CHIKV outbreaks in other regions. We also noted statistically significant spatial and spatio-temporal clusters in highly populated areas and observed major clusters prior to implementation of intensive vector control programs suggesting early vector control measures, and education had an impact on the spread of the CHIKV epidemic in Dominica. A dynamical identification of clusters can lead to local assessment of risk and provide opportunities for targeted control efforts for nations experiencing CHIKV outbreaks.
- Reyes-Castro, P. A., Harris, R. B., Brown, H. E., Christopherson, G. L., & Ernst, K. C. (2017). Spatio-temporal and neighborhood characteristics of two dengue outbreaks in two arid cities of Mexico. Acta Tropica, 167, 174-182.More infoLittle is currently known about the spatial-temporal dynamics of dengue epidemics in arid areas. This study assesses dengue outbreaks that occurred in two arid cities of Mexico, Hermosillo and Navojoa, located in northern state of Sonora. Laboratory confirmed dengue cases from Hermosillo (N=2730) and Navojoa (N=493) were geocoded by residence and assigned neighborhood-level characteristics from the 2010 Mexican census. Kernel density and Space-time cluster analysis was performed to detect high density areas and space-time clusters of dengue. Ordinary Least Square regression was used to assess the changing socioeconomic characteristics of cases over the course of the outbreaks. Both cities exhibited contiguous patterns of space-time clustering. Initial areas of dissemination were characterized in both cities by high population density, high percentage of occupied houses, and lack of healthcare. Future research and control efforts in these regions should consider these space-time and socioeconomic patterns.
- Sedda, L., Morley, D., & Brown, H. E. (2015). Characteristics of Wind-Infective Farms of the 2006 Bluetongue Serotype 8 Epidemic in Northern Europe. EcoHealth, 12(3), 461-7.More infoBluetongue is a Culicoides-borne viral disease of livestock. In 2006, northern Europe experienced a major outbreak of this disease with devastating effects on the livestock industry. The outbreak quickly spread over the region, primarily affecting cattle and sheep. A previous analysis of the role of vector flight and wind in the spread of this virus across northern Europe indicated that infection at 1,326 (65%) of the reported infected farms could be traced back to just 599 (29%) farms (wind-infective farms). Rather than focusing on presence or absence of vectors or difference between infected and non-infected farms, we investigate the zoological and environmental characteristics of these 599 wind-infective farms (which can be thought of as super-spreaders) in order to characterize what makes them distinct from non-infective farms. Differences in temperature, precipitation, and the density of sheep at individual farms were identified between these two groups. These environmental and zoological factors are known to affect vector abundance and may have promoted bluetongue virus transmission. Identifying such ecological differences can help in the description and quantification of relative risk in affected areas.
- Wang, D., Bowman, D. D., Brown, H. E., Harrington, L. C., Kaufman, P. E., McKay, T., Nelson, C. T., Sharp, J. L., & Lund, R. (2014). Factors influencing U.S. canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) prevalence. Parasites & Vectors, 7, 264.More infoThis paper examines the individual factors that influence prevalence rates of canine heartworm in the contiguous United States. A data set provided by the Companion Animal Parasite Council, which contains county-by-county results of over nine million heartworm tests conducted during 2011 and 2012, is analyzed for predictive structure. The goal is to identify the factors that are important in predicting high canine heartworm prevalence rates.
- Borchert, J. N., Eisen, R. J., Holmes, J. L., Atiku, L. A., Mpanga, J. T., Brown, H. E., Graham, C. B., Babi, N., Montenieri, J. A., Enscore, R. E., & others, . (2012). Evaluation and modification of off-host flea collection techniques used in northwest Uganda: laboratory and field studies. Journal of Medical Entomology, 49, 210--214.
- Brown, H. E., Harrington, L. C., Kaufman, P. E., McKay, T., Bowman, D. D., Nelson, C. T., Wang, D., & Lund, R. (2012). Key factors influencing canine heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, in the United States. Parasites & Vectors, 5.More infoAn examination of the Companion Animal Parasite Council's (CAPC) canine heartworm data to clarify the spatial prevalence of heartworm in the United States. Factors thought to influence the spatial risk of disease, as identified in a recent CAPC workshop, are discussed.
- Craciunescu, V., Brown, H., Comrie, A., Zelicoff, A., Ward, T., Ragain, R., Simpson, G., Stanhope10, W., Kass-Hout11, T., Scharl12, A., & others, . (2012). Information and decision support systems. Environmental Tracking for Public Health Surveillance, 11, 369.
- Sedda, L., Brown, H. E., Purse, B. V., Burgin, L., Gloster, J., & Rogers, D. J. (2012). A new algorithm quantifies the roles of wind and midge flight activity in the bluetongue epizootic in northwest Europe. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112555.
- Brown, H. E., Doyle, M. S., Cox, J., Eisen, R. J., & Nasci, R. S. (2011). The effect of spatial and temporal subsetting on Culex tarsalis abundance models-a design for sensible reduction of vector surveillance. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 27, 120--128.
- Brown, H. E., Levy, C. E., Enscore, R. E., Schriefer, M. E., DeLiberto, T. J., Gage, K. L., & Eisen, R. J. (2011). Annual seroprevalence of Yersinia pestis in coyotes as predictors of interannual variation in reports of human plague cases in Arizona, United States. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 11, 1439--1446.
- Brown, H. E., Yates, K. F., Dietrich, G., MacMillan, K., Graham, C. B., Reese, S. M., Helterbrand, W. S., Nicholson, W. L., Blount, K., Mead, P. S., & others, . (2011). An acarologic survey and Amblyomma americanum distribution map with implications for tularemia risk in Missouri. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 84, 411--419.
- Cox, J., Brown, H. E., & Rico-Hesse, R. (2011). Variation in vector competence for dengue viruses does not depend on mosquito midgut binding affinity. PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 5, e1172.
- Brown, H. E., Ettestad, P., Reynolds, P. J., Brown, T. L., Hatton, E. S., Holmes, J. L., Glass, G. E., Gage, K. L., & Eisen, R. J. (2010). Climatic predictors of the intra-and inter-annual distributions of plague cases in New Mexico based on 29 years of animal-based surveillance data. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 82, 95--102.
- Hartemink, N., Purse, B., Meiswinkel, R., Brown, H., De Koeijer, A., Elbers, A., Boender, G., Rogers, D., & Heesterbeek, J. (2009). Mapping the basic reproduction number (R 0) for vector-borne diseases: a case study on bluetongue virus. Epidemics, 1, 153--161.
- Brown, H. E., Childs, J. E., Diuk-Wasser, M. A., & Fish, D. (2008). Ecological factors associated with west nile virus transmission, northeastern United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14(10), 1539-1545.
- Brown, H. E., Diuk-Wasser, M. A., Guan, Y., Caskey, S., & Fish, D. (2008). Comparison of three satellite sensors at three spatial scales to predict larval mosquito presence in Connecticut wetlands. Remote Sensing of Environment, 112(5), 2301-2308.
- Brown, H. E., Paladini, M., Cook, R. A., Kline, D., Barnard, D., & Fish, D. (2008). Effectiveness of mosquito traps in measuring species abundance and composition. Journal of Medical Entomology, 45(3), 517-521.
- Brown, H., Duik-Wasser, M., Andreadis, T., & Fish, D. (2008). Remotely-sensed vegetation indices identify mosquito clusters of West Nile virus vectors in an urban landscape in the northeastern United States. Vector-borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 8(2), 197-206.More infoHeterogeneity in urban landscapes can influence the effectiveness of mosquito-borne disease control. We used remotely sensed vegetation indices to discriminate among mosquito habitats within a densely populated urban environment in New Haven, CT. ASTER derived vegetation indices were identified for 16 sites where adult mosquitoes were trapped over the summer of 2004. Canonical correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between the environmental variables (normalized difference vegetation index, disease/water stress index and distance to water) and four local West Nile virus competent vectors (Cx. pipiens, Cx. restuans, Cx. salinarius, and Ae. vexans) (0.93, P = 0.03) explaining 86% of the variance in the environmental and mosquito measures. Sites were clustered based on these remotely sensed environmental variables. Three clusters were identified which provide insight into the distribution of West Nile virus vectors in an urban area. Identification of habitat differences of mosquitoes within the urban landscape has important implications for understanding West Nile virus transmission and for control of vector-competent mosquito species.
- Purse, B. V., Brown, H. E., Harrup, L., Mertens, P., & Rogers, D. J. (2008). Invasion of bluetongue and other orbivirus infections into Europe: the role of biological and climatic processes. Revue Scientifique et Technique-Office International des Epizooties, 27(2), 427-442.
- Diuk-Wasser, M. A., Brown, H. E., Andreadis, T. G., & Fish, D. (2006). Modeling the spatial distribution of mosquito vectors for West Nile virus in Connecticut, USA. Vector-borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 6(3), 283-295.
- Eden, G. F., Joseph, J. E., Brown, H. E., Brown, C. P., & Zeffiro, T. A. (1999). Utilizing hemodynamic delay and dispersion to detect fMRI signal change without auditory interference: The behavior interleaved gradients technique. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 41(1), 13-20.
- Helmbrecht, G. D., Farhat, M. Y., Lochbaum, L., Brown, H. E., Yadgarova, K. T., Eglinton, G. S., & Ramwell, P. W. (1996). L-Arginine reverses the adverse pregnancy changes induced by nitric oxide synthase inhibition in the rat. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 175(4), 800-805.
- Beamer, P., O'Rourke, M. K., Guerra, S., Brown, H. E., Lopez-Galvez, N., & Lothrop, N. (2018, August). Escape to America: Adapting European Study for Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) Methods to the Desert Southwestern US. Joint meeting of the International Society of Exposure Science and the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology.
- Beamer, P., O'Rourke, M. K., Guerra, S., Furlong, M., Brown, H. E., Bell, M. L., & Lothrop, N. (2017, Fall). Modeling Historic Air Pollution Concentrations with Land Use Regression in Tucson, AZ. International Society of Exposure Science Conference. Research Triangle Park, NC.
- Lega, J. C., & Brown, H. E. (2015, May). Modeling the Spread of Chikungunya in the Caribbean and Central America. DARPA Chikungunya Challenge Finale. DARPA: DARPA.
- Lega, J. C., & Brown, H. E. (2015, October). Modeling the Spread of Chikungunya in the Caribbean and Central America. UA Microlunch SeriesUniversity of Arizona.
- Murakami, T., Scranton, R., Brown, H. E., Harris, R. B., Zhao, C., Musuku, S., & Oren, E. (2014, October). A Survey of Screening and Treatment Practices for Helicobacter pylori in the United States. American College of Gastroenterology.. Philadelphia, PA.More infoMurakami T, Scranton R, Brown H, Harris RB, Chen Z, Musuku S, Oren E. A Survey of Screening and Treatment Practices for Helicobacter pylori in the United States. Poster presentation at the American College of Gastroenterology 79th Annual Scientific Meeting, Philadelphia, PA, October 2014.
- Tabor, J., Schweers, N., Rabby, Q., Lega, J. C., Hondula, D., Clark, R., Brown, H. E., & Roach, M. (2017. Projections of Climate Impacts on Vector-Borne Diseases and Valley Fever in Arizona(p. 20).